Gene Summary

Gene:CSK; CSK, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase CSK
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • AKT1
  • Western Blotting
  • siRNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transfection
  • Cell Line
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • RNA Interference
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src)
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Down-Regulation
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Protein Binding
  • Chromosome 15
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Xenograft Models
  • Cell Movement
  • Phosphorylation
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Apoptosis
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Up-Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CSK (cancer-related)

Tomar T, de Jong S, Alkema NG, et al.
Genome-wide methylation profiling of ovarian cancer patient-derived xenografts treated with the demethylating agent decitabine identifies novel epigenetically regulated genes and pathways.
Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), intrinsic and/or acquired resistance against platinum-containing chemotherapy is a major obstacle for successful treatment. A low frequency of somatic mutations but frequent epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation in HGSOC tumors, presents the cancer epigenome as a relevant target for innovative therapy. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) supposedly are good preclinical models for identifying novel drug targets. However, the representativeness of global methylation status of HGSOC PDXs compared to their original tumors has not been evaluated so far. Aims of this study were to explore how representative HGSOC PDXs are of their corresponding patient tumor methylome and to evaluate the effect of epigenetic therapy and cisplatin on putative epigenetically regulated genes and their related pathways in PDXs.
METHODS: Genome-wide analysis of the DNA methylome of HGSOC patients with their corresponding PDXs, from different generations, was performed using Infinium 450 K methylation arrays. Furthermore, we analyzed global methylome changes after treatment of HGSOC PDXs with the FDA approved demethylating agent decitabine and cisplatin. Findings were validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing with subsequent pathway analysis. Publicly available datasets comprising HGSOC patients were used to analyze the prognostic value of the identified genes.
RESULTS: Only 0.6-1.0 % of all analyzed CpGs (388,696 CpGs) changed significantly (p < 0.01) during propagation, showing that HGSOC PDXs were epigenetically stable. Treatment of F3 PDXs with decitabine caused a significant reduction in methylation in 10.6 % of CpG sites in comparison to untreated PDXs (p < 0.01, false discovery rate <10 %). Cisplatin treatment had a marginal effect on the PDX methylome. Pathway analysis of decitabine-treated PDX tumors revealed several putative epigenetically regulated pathways (e.g., the Src family kinase pathway). In particular, the C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) gene was successfully validated for epigenetic regulation in different PDX models and ovarian cancer cell lines. Low CSK methylation and high CSK expression were both significantly associated (p < 0.05) with improved progression-free survival and overall survival in HGSOC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: HGSOC PDXs resemble the global epigenome of patients over many generations and can be modulated by epigenetic drugs. Novel epigenetically regulated genes such as CSK and related pathways were identified in HGSOC. Our observations encourage future application of PDXs for cancer epigenome studies.

Xu L, Tong X, Zhang S, et al.
ASPP2 suppresses stem cell-like characteristics and chemoresistance by inhibiting the Src/FAK/Snail axis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13669-13677 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of death in cancer patients worldwide. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of HCC recurrence and chemoresistance is key to improving patients' prognosis. In this study, we report that downregulation of ASPP2, a member of the ankyrin-repeat-containing, SH3-domain-containing, and proline-rich-region-containing protein (ASPP) family, bestowed HCC cells with stem-like properties and resistance to chemotherapy, including the expansion of side population fractions, formation of hepatospheroids, expression of stem cell-associated genes, loss of chemosensitivity, and increased tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice. An expression profiling assay revealed that ASPP2 specifically repressed focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. ASPP2 does this by physically interacting with C-terminal Src kinase (CSK) and stimulating its kinase activity, which eventually leads to activator protein 1 (AP1)-mediated downregulation of Snail expression. In addition, pharmacologic inhibition of Src attenuated the effects of ASPP2 deficiency. Our findings present functional and mechanistic insight into the critical role of ASPP2 in the inhibition of HCC stemness and drug resistance and may provide a new strategy for therapeutic combinations to treat HCC.

Kumbrink J, de la Cueva A, Soni S, et al.
A truncated phosphorylated p130Cas substrate domain is sufficient to drive breast cancer growth and metastasis formation in vivo.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10665-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) levels are found in aggressive breast tumors and are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to standard therapeutics in patients. p130Cas signals majorly through its phosphorylated substrate domain (SD) that contains 15 tyrosine motifs (YxxP) which recruit effector molecules. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas is important for mediating migration, invasion, tumor promotion, and metastasis. We previously developed a Src*/SD fusion molecule approach, where the SD is constitutively phosphorylated. In a polyoma middle T-antigen (PyMT)/Src*/SD double-transgenic mouse model, Src*/SD accelerates PyMT-induced tumor growth and promotes a more aggressive phenotype. To test whether Src*/SD also drives metastasis and which of the YxxP motifs are involved in this process, full-length and truncated SD molecules fused to Src* were expressed in breast cancer cells. The functionality of the Src*/SD fragments was analyzed in vitro, and the active proteins were tested in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model. Breast cancer cells expressing the full-length SD and the functional smaller SD fragment (spanning SD motifs 6-10) were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice. The tumor progression was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and caliper measurements. Compared with control animals, the complete SD promoted primary tumor growth and an earlier onset of metastases. Importantly, both the complete and truncated SD significantly increased the occurrence of metastases to multiple organs. These studies provide strong evidence that the phosphorylated p130Cas SD motifs 6-10 (Y236, Y249, Y267, Y287, and Y306) are important for driving mammary carcinoma progression.

Lee JO, Kim N, Lee HJ, et al.
Resistin, a fat-derived secretory factor, promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through ERM activation.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18923 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted factor, is known to be elevated in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which resistin acts is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistin could stimulate invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Here, we report that resistin stimulated invasion and migration of breast cancer cells as well as phosphorylation of c-Src. Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Resistin increased intracellular calcium concentration, and chelation of intracellular calcium blocked resistin-mediated activation of Src. Resistin also induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-mediated PP2A phosphorylation. In addition, resistin increased phosphorylation of PKCα. Inhibition of PP2A enhanced resistin-induced PKCα phosphorylation, demonstrating that PP2A activity is critical for PKCα phosphorylation. Resistin also increased phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM). Additionally, ezrin interacted with PKCα, and resistin promoted co-localization of ezrin and PKCα. Either inhibition of c-Src and PKCα or knock-down of ezrin blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cells invasion. Moreover, resistin increased expression of vimentin, a key molecule for cancer cell invasion. Knock-down of ezrin abrogated resistin-induced vimentin expression. These results suggest that resistin play as a critical regulator of breast cancer metastasis.

Lewandowski KC, Lewiński A, Dąbrowska K, et al.
Familial partial lipodystrophy as differential diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Endokrynol Pol. 2015; 66(6):550-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: According to current diagnostic criteria, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is effective as a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old woman with a history of oligomenorrhoea and hirsutism, who, despite a "muscular" appearance and a normal body mass index (22.27 kg/m2), was found to have an extreme insulin resistance and diabetes accompanied by hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. An autoimmune screen for possible latent autoimmune diabetes in adults was negative. She was subsequently found to have familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2, OMIM #151660) caused by an R482Q mutation in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A/C. This mutation results in arginine to glutamine substitution at the protein level, while phenotypically this condition presents with a loss of body fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and other features mimicking PCOS. Interestingly her mother, with a history of myocardial infarction and diabetes at the age of 46 but no oligomenorrhoea, was also found to harbour the same mutation (LMNA R482Q).
CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the importance of assessment of adipose tissue distribution, as well as a significance of assessment of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in the differential diagnosis of PCOS. Furthermore, patients with atypical adipose tissue distribution should be referred for formal genetic testing.

Kim C, Kim JH, Oh EY, et al.
Blockage of STAT3 Signaling Pathway by Morusin Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Invasion in Human Pancreatic Tumor Cells.
Pancreas. 2016; 45(3):409-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor implicated in carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of morusin, the major prenylflavonoid, isolated from Chinese herbal medicine in abrogating the constitutive STAT3 activation in human pancreatic tumor cells.
METHODS: The effect of morusin on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, STAT3-regulated gene products, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis was examined.
RESULTS: Morusin specifically inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation both at tyrosine residue 705 and serine residue 727 in 4 pancreatic tumor cells. The inhibition of STAT3 was mediated through the suppression of activation of upstream JAK1, JAK2, and c-Src kinases. Morusin led to the accumulation of the cells in different phases of the cell cycle and caused induction of apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Morusin downregulated the expression of various STAT3-regulated gene products; this correlated with induction of caspase-3 activation and anti-invasive effects. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate reversed the morusin-induced downregulation of STAT3, thereby suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase.
CONCLUSIONS: Morusin is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation and thus may have potential in negative regulation of growth and metastasis of pancreatic tumor cells.

Tao J, Zhi X, Zhang X, et al.
miR-27b-3p suppresses cell proliferation through targeting receptor tyrosine kinase like orphan receptor 1 in gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptors (ROR) family contains the atypical member ROR1, which plays an oncogenic role in several malignant tumors. However, the clinical potentials and underlying mechanisms of ROR1 in gastric cancer progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we validated the microRNA-mediated gene repression mechanism involved in the role of ROR1.
METHODS: Bioinformatic prediction, luciferase reporter assay, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were used to reveal the regulatory relationship between miR-27b-3p and ROR1. The expression patterns of miR-27b-3p and ROR1 in human gastric cancer (GC) specimens and cell lines were determined by microRNA RT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation, colony formation assay in soft agar in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo were performed to observe the effects of downregulation and upregulation miR-27b-3p expression on GC cell phenotypes.
RESULTS: miR-27b-3p suppressed ROR1 expression by binding to the 3'UTR of ROR1 mRNA in GC cells. miR-27b-3p was significantly downregulated and reversely correlated with ROR1 protein levels in clinical samples. Analysis of the clinicopathological significance showed that miR-27b-3p and ROR1 were closely correlated with GC characteristics. Ectopic miR-27b-3p expression suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar, xenograft tumors of GC cells. By contrast, miR-27b-3p knockdown enhanced these malignant behaviors. Our studies further revealed that the c-Src/STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in miR-27b-3p-ROR1-mediated cell proliferation regulation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that miR-27b-3p suppresses ROR1 expression through the binding site in the 3'UTR inhibiting the cell proliferation. These findings indicate that miR-27b-3p exerts tumor-suppressive effects in GC through the suppression of oncogene ROR1 expression and suggest a therapeutic application of miR-27b-3p in GC.

Kim HIe, Lee HS, Kim TH, et al.
Growth-stimulatory activity of TIMP-2 is mediated through c-Src activation followed by activation of FAK, PI3-kinase/AKT, and ERK1/2 independent of MMP inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(40):42905-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) control extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis by inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are associated with ECM turnover. Recent studies have revealed that TIMPs are implicated in tumorigenesis in both MMP-dependent and MMP-independent manners. We examined a mechanism by which TIMP-2 stimulated lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, independent of MMP inhibition. The stimulation of growth by TIMP-2 in A549 cells required c-Src kinase activation. c-Src kinase activity, induced by TIMP-2, concomitantly increased FAK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/AKT, and ERK1/2 activation. Selective knockdown of integrin α3β1, known as a TIMP-2 receptor, did not significantly change TIMP-2 growth promoting activity. Furthermore, we showed that high TIMP-2 expression in lung adenocarcinomas is associated with a worse prognosis from multiple cohorts, especially for stage I lung adenocarcinoma. Through integrated analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data, TIMP-2 expression was significantly associated with the alteration of driving genes, c-Src activation, and PI3-kinase/AKT pathway activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TIMP-2 stimulates lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through c-Src, FAK, PI3-kinase/AKT, and ERK1/2 pathway activation in an MMP-independent manner.

Guo B, Zhang Y, Hui Q, et al.
Naringin suppresses the metabolism of A375 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of c-Src.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(3):3841-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevation of glycolysis, increase in lactic acid production, and enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis are all the changes of energy metabolism of melanoma cells. Melanoma cells' metabolism and energy production networks play an important role in cancer proliferation, survival, motility, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Since the Warburg theory was put forward in the 1930s, more researchers focus on finding new ways for effectively eliminating cancer cells by targeting their energy metabolism. In this study, we found naringin has the inhibitory effects on the glucose metabolism of A375 cells, a melanoma cell line, in a concentration-dependent manner. We also found that naringin could significantly reduce the phosphorylation of c-Src. In summary, we demonstrated that naringin inhibits the malignant phenotype of A375 cells by suppressing c-Src and its downstream signaling pathway. More importantly, we provide the novel mechanism that, as a natural inhibitor of c-Src, naringin could be an effective candidate for the treatment of melanoma.

Matsuyama R, Okuzaki D, Okada M, Oneyama C
MicroRNA-27b suppresses tumor progression by regulating ARFGEF1 and focal adhesion signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(1):28-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src is frequently activated during progression of colon cancers. In this study, we found that among the c-Src-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-27b is also repressed by activation of K-Ras/H-Ras. Inhibitor studies suggested that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway is involved in the repression of miR-27b. MicroRNA-27b was repressed in various colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Re-expression of miR-27b in human colon cancer HCT116 cells caused morphological changes and suppressed tumor growth, cell adhesion, and invasion. We also identified ARFGEF1 and paxillin as novel targets of miR-27b, and found that miR-27b-mediated regulation of ARFGEF1 is crucial for controlling anchorage-independent growth, and that of paxillin is important for controlling cell adhesion and invasion. Re-expression of miR-27b suppressed the activation of c-Src induced by integrin-mediated cell adhesion, suggesting that repression of miR-27b may contribute to c-Src activation in cancer cells. These findings show that miR-27b functions as a tumor suppressor by controlling ARFGEF1 and the paxillin/c-Src circuit at focal adhesions.

Kaneko S, Nakatani Y, Takezaki T, et al.
Ceacam1L Modulates STAT3 Signaling to Control the Proliferation of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(19):4224-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma-initiating cells (GIC) are a tumorigenic cell subpopulation resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are a likely source of recurrence. However, the basis through which GICs are maintained has yet to be elucidated in detail. We herein demonstrated that the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule Ceacam1L acts as a crucial factor in GIC maintenance and tumorigenesis by activating c-Src/STAT3 signaling. Furthermore, we showed that monomers of the cytoplasmic domain of Ceacam1L bound to c-Src and STAT3 and induced their phosphorylation, whereas oligomerization of this domain ablated this function. Our results suggest that Ceacam1L-dependent adhesion between GIC and surrounding cells play an essential role in GIC maintenance and proliferation, as mediated by signals transmitted by monomeric forms of the Ceacam1L cytoplasmic domain.

Garcia-Recio S, Pastor-Arroyo EM, Marín-Aguilera M, et al.
The Transmodulation of HER2 and EGFR by Substance P in Breast Cancer Cells Requires c-Src and Metalloproteinase Activation.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129661 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is a pleiotropic cytokine/neuropeptide that enhances breast cancer (BC) aggressiveness by transactivating tyrosine kinase receptors like EGFR and HER2. We previously showed that SP and its cognate receptor NK-1 (SP/NK1-R) signaling modulates the basal phosphorylation of HER2 and EGFR in BC, increasing aggressiveness and drug resistance. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for NK-1R-mediated HER2 and EGFR transactivation, we investigated the involvement of c-Src (a ligand-independent mediator) and of metalloproteinases (ligand-dependent mediators) in HER2/EGFR activation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overexpression of NK-1R in MDA-MB-231 and its chemical inhibition in SK-BR-3, BT-474 and MDA-MB-468 BC cells significantly modulated c-Src activation, suggesting that this protein is a mediator of NK-1R signaling. In addition, the c-Src inhibitor 4-(4'-phenoxyanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline prevented SP-induced activation of HER2. On the other hand, SP-dependent phosphorylation of HER2 and EGFR decreased substantially in the presence of the MMP inhibitor 1-10, phenanthroline monohydrate, and the dual inhibition of both c-Src and MMP almost abolished the activation of HER2 and EGFR. Moreover, the use of these inhibitors demonstrated that this Src and MMP-dependent signaling is important to the cell viability and migration capacity of HER2+ and EGFR+ cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the transactivation of HER2 and EGFR by the pro-inflammatory cytokine/neuropeptide SP in BC cells is a c-Src and MMP-dependent process.

Nam K, Oh S, Lee KM, et al.
CD44 regulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via modulation of c-Src transcription in human breast cancer cells.
Cell Signal. 2015; 27(9):1882-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD44 was recently identified as a cancer initiation marker on the cell membrane. The cytoplasmic tail of CD44 is known to bind ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) proteins, cytoskeletal proteins like ankyrin, and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src. CD44 transmits its oncogenic signaling via c-Src and its downstream effectors. To investigate the role of CD44 in breast cancer cells, we generated CD44 knock-down cells via retroviral delivery of shRNA against CD44. We found that silencing of CD44 decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. The expression and activity of cell migration-related proteins, including c-Src, paxillin, and FAK were decreased by CD44 silencing. We also found that the c-Jun protein level was negatively regulated via induction of a GSK-3β-dependent degradation pathway in CD44 knock-down cells. The expression level of Sp1, a target gene product of c-Jun, was also decreased in these cells. Finally, CD44 knock-down suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of c-Src and its downstream MAPK pathway as a result of down-regulation of Sp1 as a transcription factor for c-Src. Collectively, these results indicate that biological changes induced by CD44 silencing are mediated by cumulative down-regulation of c-Jun, Sp1, and c-Src in human breast cancer cells.

Teng Y, Radde BN, Litchfield LM, et al.
Dehydroepiandrosterone Activation of G-protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor Rapidly Stimulates MicroRNA-21 Transcription in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(25):15799-811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Little is known about the regulation of the oncomiR miR-21 in liver. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) regulates gene expression as a ligand for a G-protein-coupled receptor and as a precursor for steroids that activate nuclear receptor signaling. We report that 10 nm DHEA increases primary miR-21 (pri-miR-21) transcription and mature miR-21 expression in HepG2 cells in a biphasic manner with an initial peak at 1 h followed by a second, sustained response from 3-12 h. DHEA also increased miR-21 in primary human hepatocytes and Hep3B cells. siRNA, antibody, and inhibitor studies suggest that the rapid DHEA-mediated increase in miR-21 involves a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30), estrogen receptor α-36 (ERα36), epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway requiring activation of c-Src, ERK1/2, and PI3K. GPER antagonist G-15 attenuated DHEA- and BSA-conjugated DHEA-stimulated pri-miR-21 transcription. Like DHEA, GPER agonists G-1 and fulvestrant increased pri-miR-21 in a GPER- and ERα36-dependent manner. DHEA, like G-1, increased GPER and ERα36 mRNA and protein levels. DHEA increased ERK1/2 and c-Src phosphorylation in a GPER-responsive manner. DHEA increased c-Jun, but not c-Fos, protein expression after 2 h. DHEA increased androgen receptor, c-Fos, and c-Jun recruitment to the miR-21 promoter. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of DHEA activate a GPER intracellular signaling cascade that increases pri-miR-21 transcription mediated at least in part by AP-1 and androgen receptor miR-21 promoter interaction.

Zhao S, Li H, Wang Q, et al.
The role of c-Src in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with activated α2M.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:389 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging data have suggested that cell surface GRP78 is a multifunctional receptor and has been linked to proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Activated α2-macroglobin (α2M*) is a natural circulating ligand of cell surface GRP78. Association of cell surface GRP78 with α2M* is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis in human cancers.
METHODS: The invasion and metastasis of HCC cells were examined using transwell and wound healing assay; Cell surface expression of GRP78 was detected by in cell western assay. Translocation of GRP78 from cytosol to cell surface was observed by transfection of GRP78-EGFP plus TRIRC-WGA staining. The levels of Src, phosphor-Src, FAK, phospho-FAK, EGFR, phospho-EGFR, phospho-Cortactin, phospho-Paxillin were determined by western blot. Cell surface expression of GRP78 in HCC tissue samples was observed by immunofluorescence. The distribution of Paxillin and Cortactin in HCC cells was also observed by immunofluorescence. The interaction between GRP78 and Src were detected by far-western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown. GRP78 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: In the current study, we showed that association of cell surface GRP78 with α2M* stimulated the invasion and metastasis of HCC. Cell surface GRP78 could interact directly with c-Src, promoted the phosphorylation of c-Src at Y416. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src with PP2 reverted the stimulatory effect caused by association of cell surface GRP78 with α2M*. Moreover, association of cell surface GRP78 with α2M* facilitates the interaction between EGFR and c-Src and consequently phosphorylated EGFR at Y1101 and Y845, promoting the invasion and metastasis of HCCs. However, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase of c-Src do not affect the interaction between EGFR and Src.
CONCLUSION: c-Src plays a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with α2M*. Cell surface GRP78 directly binds and phosphorylates c-Src. As a consequence, c-Src phosphorylated EGFR, promoting the invasion and metastasis of HCCs.

Lai X, Chen Q, Zhu C, et al.
Regulation of RPTPα-c-Src signalling pathway by miR-218.
FEBS J. 2015; 282(14):2722-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPα), an activator of Src family kinases, is found significantly overexpressed in human cancer tissues. However, little is known about the regulation of RPTPα expression. miRNAs target multiple genes and play important roles in many cancer processes. Here, we identified a miRNA, miR-218 that binds directly to the 3'-UTR of RPTPα. Ectopic overexpression of miR-218 decreased RPTPα protein leading to decreased dephosphorylation of c-Src and decreased tumour growth in vitro and in vivo. A feedback loop between c-Src and miR-218 was revealed where c-Src inhibits transcription of SLIT2, which intronically hosts miR-218. These results show a novel regulatory pathway for RPTPα-c-Src signalling.

Oneyama C, Yoshikawa Y, Ninomiya Y, et al.
Fer tyrosine kinase oligomer mediates and amplifies Src-induced tumor progression.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(4):501-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
c-Src is upregulated in various human cancers, suggesting its role in malignant progression. However, the molecular circuits of c-Src oncogenic signaling remain elusive. Here we show that Fer tyrosine kinase oligomer mediates and amplifies Src-induced tumor progression. Previously, we showed that transformation of fibroblasts is promoted by the relocation of c-Src to non-raft membranes. In this study, we identified Fer and ezrin as non-raft c-Src targets. c-Src directly activated Fer by initiating its autophosphorylation, which was further amplified by Fer oligomerization. Fer interacted with active c-Src at focal adhesion membranes and activated Fer-phosphorylated ezrin to induce cell transformation. Fer was also crucial for cell transformation induced by v-Src or epidermal growth-factor receptor activation. Furthermore, Fer activation was required for tumorigenesis and invasiveness in some cancer cells in which c-Src is upregulated. We propose that the Src-Fer axis represents a new therapeutic target for treatment of a subset of human cancers.

Kim TH, Monsefi N, Song JH, et al.
Network-based identification of feedback modules that control RhoA activity and cell migration.
J Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 7(3):242-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cell migration enables metastatic spread causing most cancer deaths. Rho-family GTPases control cell migration, but being embedded in a highly interconnected feedback network, the control of their dynamical behavior during cell migration remains elusive. To address this question, we reconstructed the Rho-family GTPases signaling network involved in cell migration, and developed a Boolean network model to analyze the different states and emergent rewiring of the Rho-family GTPases signaling network at protrusions and during extracellular matrix-dependent cell migration. Extensive simulations and experimental validations revealed that the bursts of RhoA activity induced at protrusions by EGF are regulated by a negative-feedback module composed of Src, FAK, and CSK. Interestingly, perturbing this module interfered with cyclic Rho activation and extracellular matrix-dependent migration, suggesting that CSK inhibition can be a novel and effective intervention strategy for blocking extracellular matrix-dependent cancer cell migration, while Src inhibition might fail, depending on the genetic background of cells. Thus, this study provides new insights into the mechanisms that regulate the intricate activation states of Rho-family GTPases during extracellular matrix-dependent migration, revealing potential new targets for interfering with extracellular matrix-dependent cancer cell migration.

Yoon AR, Stasinopoulos I, Kim JH, et al.
COX-2 dependent regulation of mechanotransduction in human breast cancer cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(3):430-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ability of living cells to exert physical forces upon their surrounding is a necessary prerequisite for diverse biological processes, such as local cellular migrations in wound healing to metastatic-invasion of cancer. How forces are coopted in metastasis has remained unclear, however, because the mechanical interplay between cancer cells and the various stromal components has not been experimentally accessible. Current dogma implicates inflammation in these mechanical processes. Using Fourier transform traction microscopy, we measured the force-generating capacity of human breast cancer cells occupying a spectrum of invasiveness as well as basal and inducible COX-2 expression (MCF-7

Zhou D, Dong P, Li YM, et al.
Overexpression of Csk-binding protein decreases growth, invasion, and migration of esophageal carcinoma cells by controlling Src activation.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(6):1814-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms by which Csk-binding protein (CBP) inhibits tumor progression in esophageal carcinoma.
METHODS: A CBP overexpressing esophageal carcinoma cell line (TE-1) was established. The growth, invasion, and migration of CBP-TE-1 cells, as well as the expression of Src were then determined and compared with those in normal TE-1 cells.
RESULTS: The expression of Src was decreased by the overexpression of CBP in TE-1 cells. The growth, invasion, and migration of TE-1 cells were decreased by the overexpression of CBP.
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that CBP may decrease the metastasis of esophageal carcinoma by inhibiting the activation of Src. CBP may be a potential tumor suppressor and targeting the CBP gene may be an alternative strategy for the development of therapies for esophageal carcinoma.

Cazzaniga V, Bugarin C, Bardini M, et al.
LCK over-expression drives STAT5 oncogenic signaling in PAX5 translocated BCP-ALL patients.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(3):1569-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PAX5 gene is altered in 30% of BCP-ALL patients and PAX5 chromosomal translocations account for 2-3% of cases. Although PAX5 fusion genes significantly affect the transcription of PAX5 target genes, their role in sustaining leukemia cell survival is poorly understood. In an in vitro model of PAX5/ETV6 leukemia, we demonstrated that Lck hyper-activation, and down-regulation of its negative regulator Csk, lead to STAT5 hyper-activation and consequently to the up-regulation of the downstream effectors, cMyc and Ccnd2. More important, cells from PAX5 translocated patients show LCK up-regulation and over-activation, as well as STAT5 hyper-phosphorylation, compared to PAX5 wt and PAX5 deleted cases. As in BCR/ABL1 positive ALL, the hyper-activation of STAT5 pathway can represent a survival signal in PAX5 translocated cells, alternative to the pre-BCR, which is down-regulated. The LCK inhibitor BIBF1120 selectively reverts this phenomenon both in the murine model and in leukemic primary cells. LCK inhibitor could therefore represent a suitable candidate drug to target this subgroup of ALL patients.

Kim MB, Kim C, Chung WS, et al.
The hydrolysed products of iridoid glycosides can enhance imatinib mesylate-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukaemia cells.
Phytother Res. 2015; 29(3):434-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several studies have demonstrated that deregulated activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been associated with survival, proliferation, chemoresistance and angiogenesis of tumour cells. Thus, inhibition of STAT3 expression could be a potent therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Using several leukaemia cell lines, the effect of the hydrolysed-catalpol (H-catalpol) and hydrolysed-aucubin (H-aucubin) products on the STAT3 signalling pathway, inhibition of BCR-ABL activation, cellular proliferation and potentiation of imatinib mesylate-induced apoptosis was investigated. We found that iridoid glycosides (catalpol and aucubin) did not exert any cytotoxicity in the tumour cells, whereas both H-catalpol and H-aucubin exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on K562 human myeloid leukaemia cells. Indeed, H-catalpol and H-aucubin down-regulated BCR-ABL phosphorylation and inhibited constitutive STAT3 activation through abrogating upstream JAK2 and c-Src and constitutive STAT5 activation leading to apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. Hydrolysed-catalpol enhanced the apoptosis induced by imatinib mesylate and this correlated with down-regulation of gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), and cell survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin); all known to be regulated by the STAT3. Overall, our results provide novel insight into the role of hydrolysed iridoids in potentially treating leukaemia through the modulation of STAT3 signalling pathway.

Liu ZM, Tseng HY, Yeh BW, et al.
TG-interacting factor mediates arsenic-induced malignant transformation of keratinocytes via c-Src/EGFR/AKT/FOXO3A and redox signalings.
Arch Toxicol. 2015; 89(12):2229-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inorganic arsenic is well known as a carcinogen in human beings. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic increases risks of developing some cancers and non-carcinogenic diseases, such as skin lesions in humans. However, the modes of action are not well elucidated. In the present study, HaCaT cells, an immortalized non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte, were continuously exposed to low-dose trivalent arsenic (arsenic trioxide, 0.1 and 0.2 μM) for at least 4 weeks. We proved that low-dose arsenic could stimulate malignant transformation of HaCaT cells, including increase of cellular proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers alteration, matrix metalloproteinases activation, invadopodia formation, migration/invasion activities, and anchorage-independent growth. Surprisingly, low-dose arsenic could also transcriptionally increase TG-interacting factor (TGIF) expression via c-Src/EGFR/AKT/FOXO3A signaling involving superoxide production from NADPH oxidase. Moreover, stable overexpression of TGIF could also induce malignant transformation of HaCaT cells. Knockdown of TGIF with its specific shRNA abolished the arsenic-induced effects. Taken together, we suggest that TGIF plays an important role in low-dose arsenic-induced malignant transformation of HaCaT cells, which is regulated by c-Src/EGFR/AKT/FOXO3A pathway and redox signaling.

Shiraishi T, Verdone JE, Huang J, et al.
Glycolysis is the primary bioenergetic pathway for cell motility and cytoskeletal remodeling in human prostate and breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(1):130-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ability of a cancer cell to detach from the primary tumor and move to distant sites is fundamental to a lethal cancer phenotype. Metabolic transformations are associated with highly motile aggressive cellular phenotypes in tumor progression. Here, we report that cancer cell motility requires increased utilization of the glycolytic pathway. Mesenchymal cancer cells exhibited higher aerobic glycolysis compared to epithelial cancer cells while no significant change was observed in mitochondrial ATP production rate. Higher glycolysis was associated with increased rates of cytoskeletal remodeling, greater cell traction forces and faster cell migration, all of which were blocked by inhibition of glycolysis, but not by inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Thus, our results demonstrate that cancer cell motility and cytoskeleton rearrangement is energetically dependent on aerobic glycolysis and not oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial derived ATP is insufficient to compensate for inhibition of the glycolytic pathway with regard to cellular motility and CSK rearrangement, implying that localization of ATP derived from glycolytic enzymes near sites of active CSK rearrangement is more important for cell motility than total cellular ATP production rate. These results extend our understanding of cancer cell metabolism, potentially providing a target metabolic pathway associated with aggressive disease.

Cheng E, Whitsett TG, Tran NL, Winkles JA
The TWEAK Receptor Fn14 Is an Src-Inducible Protein and a Positive Regulator of Src-Driven Cell Invasion.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(3):575-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The TNF receptor superfamily member Fn14 (TNFRSF12A) is the sole signaling receptor for the proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK (TNFSF12).
TWEAK: Fn14 engagement stimulates multiple signal transduction pathways, including the NF-κB pathway, and this triggers important cellular processes (e.g., growth, differentiation, migration, and invasion). The TWEAK-Fn14 axis is thought to be a major physiologic mediator of tissue repair after acute injury. Various studies have revealed that Fn14 is highly expressed in many solid tumor types, and that Fn14 signaling may play a role in tumor growth and metastasis. Previously, it was shown that Fn14 levels are frequently elevated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors and cell lines that exhibit constitutive EGFR phosphorylation (activation). Furthermore, elevated Fn14 levels increased NSCLC cell invasion in vitro and lung metastatic tumor colonization in vivo. The present study reveals that EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells that express high levels of Fn14 exhibit constitutive activation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Src, and that treatment with the Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor dasatinib decreases Fn14 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Importantly, siRNA-mediated depletion of the SFK member Src in NSCLC cells also decreases Fn14 expression. Finally, expression of the constitutively active v-Src oncoprotein in NIH 3T3 cells induces Fn14 gene expression, and NIH 3T3/v-Src cells require Fn14 expression for full invasive capacity.
IMPLICATIONS: These results indicate that oncogenic Src may contribute to Fn14 overexpression in solid tumors, and that Src-mediated cell invasion could potentially be inhibited with Fn14-targeted therapeutics.

Pandey V, Wu ZS, Zhang M, et al.
Trefoil factor 3 promotes metastatic seeding and predicts poor survival outcome of patients with mammary carcinoma.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(5):429 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recurrence or early metastasis remains the predominant cause of mortality in patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) mammary carcinoma (MC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initial progression of ER+ MC to metastasis remains poorly understood. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is an estrogen-responsive oncogene in MC. Herein, we provide evidence for a functional role of TFF3 in metastatic progression of ER+ MC.
METHODS: The association of TFF3 expression with clinicopathological parameters and survival outcome in a cohort of MC patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of TFF3 in MCF7 and T47D cells was modulated by forced expression or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3. mRNA and protein levels were determined using qPCR and western blot. The functional effect of modulation of TFF3 expression in MC cells was determined in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic analyses were performed using reporter constructs, modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression, and pharmacological inhibitors against c-SRC and STAT3 activity.
RESULTS: TFF3 protein expression was positively associated with larger tumour size, lymph node metastasis, higher stage, and poor survival outcome. Forced expression of TFF3 in ER+ MC cells stimulated colony scattering, cell adhesion to a Collagen I-coated matrix, colony formation on a Collagen I- or Matrigel-coated matrix, endothelial cell adhesion, and transmigration through an endothelial cell barrier. In vivo, forced expression of TFF3 in MCF7 cells stimulated the formation of metastatic nodules in animal lungs. TFF3 regulation of the mRNA levels of epithelial, mesenchymal, and metastatic-related genes in ER+ MC cells were consistent with the altered cell behaviour. Forced expression of TFF3 in ER+ MC cells stimulated phosphorylation of c-SRC that subsequently increased STAT3 activity, which lead to the downregulation of E-cadherin. siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3 reduced the invasiveness of ER+ MC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: TFF3 expression predicts metastasis and poor survival outcome of patients with MC and functionally stimulates cellular invasion and metastasis of ER+ MC cells. Adjuvant functional inhibition of TFF3 may therefore be considered to ameliorate outcome of ER+ MC patients.

Huang O, Xie Z, Zhang W, et al.
A771726, an anti-inflammatory drug, exerts an anticancer effect and reverses tamoxifen resistance in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):627-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
A771726, an orally available anti-inflammatory agent, has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis by diminishing entire inflammatory responses through multiple signaling pathways. Recently, a few emerging studies have focused on the potential application of A771726 in cancer therapy, less on the treatment of breast cancer and particularly on overcoming drug resistance in breast cancer. We report here for the first time the cytotoxic activity and drug resistance reversal of A771726 in acquired tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell line MCF-7/LCC9. We discovered that A771726 treatment showed antiproliferative activities in MCF-7/LCC9 cells, which were even more sensitive to A771726 than their parental tamoxifen-sensitive cells (MCF‑7). A771726 also exerted pro-apoptotic activities and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Notably, treatment of A771726 restored the sensitivity of MCF-7/LCC9 cells to tamoxifen. Western blot analysis revealed that A771726 decreased the phosphorylation level of Src, one key driver of tamoxifen resistance. Moreover, in order to comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of A771726 in anti-estrogen-resistant cells, we explored a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, and showed that A771726 could modulate multiple signaling pathways (e.g. cell cycle, apoptosis, MAPK, metabolism and p53 signaling pathway) and cellular processes (e.g. signal transduction, transcription and cell cycle). Overall, our results indicate that A771726 alone and the combination of A771726 with anti-estrogens may be of therapeutic benefit for ER-positive and endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Ribeiro-Pereira C, Moraes JA, Souza Mde J, et al.
Redox modulation of FAK controls melanoma survival--role of NOX4.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99481 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase are essential for melanoma proliferation and survival. However, the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates these effects are still unclear. In this work, we investigate the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in the signaling events that coordinate melanoma cell survival. Using the highly metastatic human melanoma cell line MV3, we observed that pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibition reduced melanoma viability and induced dramatic cellular shape changes. These effects were accompanied by actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, diminished FAKY397 phosphorylation, and decrease of FAK-actin and FAK-cSrc association, indicating disassembly of focal adhesion processes, a phenomenon that often results in anoikis. Accordingly, NADPH oxidase inhibition also enhanced hypodiploid DNA content, and caspase-3 activation, suggesting activation of the apoptotic machinery. NOX4 is likely to be involved in these effects, since silencing of NOX4 significantly inhibited basal ROS production, reduced FAKY397 phosphorylation and decreased tumor cell viability. Altogether, the results suggest that intracellular ROS generated by the NADPH oxidase, most likely NOX4, transmits cell survival signals on melanoma cells through the FAK pathway, maintaining adhesion contacts and cell viability.

Kundu J, Choi BY, Jeong CH, et al.
Thymoquinone induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells through inactivation of STAT3 by blocking JAK2- and Src‑mediated phosphorylation of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):821-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from black seed oil (Nigella sativa), has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of TQ remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that TQ significantly reduced the viability of human colon cancer HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with TQ induced apoptosis, which was associated with the upregulation of Bax and inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression. TQ also activated caspase-9,-7, and -3, and induced the cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, abrogated TQ-induced apoptosis by blocking the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. Treatment of cells with TQ also diminished the constitutive phosphorylation, nuclear localization and the reporter gene activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). TQ attenuated the expression of STAT3 target gene products, such as survivin, c-Myc, and cyclin-D1, -D2, and enhanced the expression of cell cycle inhibitory proteins p27 and p21. Treatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of upstream kinases, such as Janus-activated kinase-2 (JAK2), Src kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2 and Src blunted tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3, while treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 without affecting that of JAK2 and Src in HCT116 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that TQ induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells by blocking STAT3 signaling via inhibition of JAK2- and Src-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine kinase.

Yang Y, Bai ZG, Yin J, et al.
Role of c-Src activity in the regulation of gastric cancer cell migration.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):45-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is associated with increased migration and invasion. In the present study, we explored the role of c-Src in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. BGC-823 gastric cancer cells were used to investigate migration following treatment of these cells with the c-Src inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656. Migration and invasion were analyzed by wound healing and Transwell assays. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of MT1-MMP and VEGF-C, while the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was monitored with gelatin zymography assay. Immunoprecipitation was used to detect interactions among furin, pro-MT1-MMP and pro-VEGF-C. MT1-MMP and VEGF-C expression levels were inhibited by PP2 and SU6656 treatment, in accordance with decreased c-Src activity. Similarly, the zymography assay demonstrated that the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 was decreased following PP2 or SU6656 treatment. Blockade of c-Src also inhibited the invasive and migratory capacity of BGC-823 cells. Notably, c-Src interacted with furin in vivo, while interactions between furin and its substrates, pro-MT1-MMP and pro-VEGF-C, were decreased by c-Src inhibitors. In conclusion, the interaction among furin and pro-MT1-MMP or pro-VEGF-C or other tumor-associated precursor enzymes can be regulated by c-Src activity, thus reducing or changing the expression of these enzymes in order to reduce the development of gastric cancer, invasion and metastasis.

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