Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL5; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5
Aliases: SCYB5, ENA-78
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. Chemokines, which recruit and activate leukocytes, are classified by function (inflammatory or homeostatic) or by structure. This protein is proposed to bind the G-protein coupled receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils, to promote angiogenesis and to remodel connective tissues. This protein is thought to play a role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL5 (cancer-related)

Echizen K, Hirose O, Maeda Y, Oshima M
Inflammation in gastric cancer: Interplay of the COX-2/prostaglandin E2 and Toll-like receptor/MyD88 pathways.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(4):391-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its downstream product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play a key role in generation of the inflammatory microenvironment in tumor tissues. Gastric cancer is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, which stimulates innate immune responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), inducing COX-2/PGE2 pathway through nuclear factor-κB activation. A pathway analysis of human gastric cancer shows that both the COX-2 pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling are significantly activated in tubular-type gastric cancer, and basal levels of these pathways are also increased in other types of gastric cancer. Expression of interleukin-11, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL2, and CXCL5, which play tumor-promoting roles through a variety of mechanisms, is induced in a COX-2/PGE2 pathway-dependent manner in both human and mouse gastric tumors. Moreover, the COX-2/PGE2 pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of stemness with expression of stem cell markers, including CD44, Prom1, and Sox9, which are induced in both gastritis and gastric tumors through a COX-2/PGE2 -dependent mechanism. In contrast, disruption of Myd88 results in suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment in gastric tumors even when the COX-2/PGE2 pathway is activated, indicating that the interplay of the COX-2/PGE2 and TLR/MyD88 pathways is needed for inflammatory response in tumor tissues. Furthermore, TLR2/MyD88 signaling plays a role in maintenance of stemness in normal stem cells as well as gastric tumor cells. Accordingly, these results suggest that targeting the COX-2/PGE2 pathway together with TLR/MyD88 signaling, which would suppress the inflammatory microenvironment and maintenance of stemness, could be an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

Guo F, Guo L, Li Y, et al.
MALAT1 is an oncogenic long non-coding RNA associated with tumor invasion in non-small cell lung cancer regulated by DNA methylation.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(12):15903-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MALAT1 is an important long noncoding RNA in tumor progression. Here we showed that the expression of MALAT1 was upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs) or tissues as compared with the normal lung cell or tissues. Thus, the knockdown of MALAT1 led to decreased cell migration and invasion. Next we also found that CXCL5 as a downstream gene of MALAT1 regulated cell migration and invasion. However the regulation of MALAT1 expression was rarely known. Here we found that the treatment with SAM suppressed of MALAT1 expression. Finally, we showed that the methylated forms of MALAT1 promoter in lung cancer cells or tissues decreased compared with normal lung cells or tissues. These demonstrated that the expression of MALAT1 was dependent on the methylation. Overall, our findings illuminate the oncogenic function of MALAT1 which is regulated by DNA methylation that might provide potential clinical application in NSCLC.

Wang G, Lu X, Dey P, et al.
Targeting YAP-Dependent MDSC Infiltration Impairs Tumor Progression.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(1):80-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The signaling mechanisms between prostate cancer cells and infiltrating immune cells may illuminate novel therapeutic approaches. Here, utilizing a prostate adenocarcinoma model driven by loss of Pten and Smad4, we identify polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) as the major infiltrating immune cell type, and depletion of MDSCs blocks progression. Employing a novel dual reporter prostate cancer model, epithelial and stromal transcriptomic profiling identified CXCL5 as a cancer-secreted chemokine to attract CXCR2-expressing MDSCs, and, correspondingly, pharmacologic inhibition of CXCR2 impeded tumor progression. Integrated analyses identified hyperactivated Hippo-YAP signaling in driving CXCL5 upregulation in cancer cells through the YAP-TEAD complex and promoting MDSC recruitment. Clinicopathologic studies reveal upregulation and activation of YAP1 in a subset of human prostate tumors, and the YAP1 signature is enriched in primary prostate tumor samples with stronger expression of MDSC-relevant genes. Together, YAP-driven MDSC recruitment via heterotypic CXCL5-CXCR2 signaling reveals an effective therapeutic strategy for advanced prostate cancer.
SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate a critical role of MDSCs in prostate tumor progression and discover a cancer cell nonautonomous function of the Hippo-YAP pathway in regulation of CXCL5, a ligand for CXCR2-expressing MDSCs. Pharmacologic elimination of MDSCs or blocking the heterotypic CXCL5-CXCR2 signaling circuit elicits robust antitumor responses and prolongs survival.

Abe A, Nagatsuma AK, Higuchi Y, et al.
Site-specific fibroblasts regulate site-specific inflammatory niche formation in gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2017; 20(1):92-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are the commonest type of cancer stromal cells. Inflammation occurs in cancer tissue, and the inflammatory process has been suggested to be caused by interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. In this study, we clarified that site-specific fibroblasts regulate the formation of a site-specific inflammatory niche according to the depth of gastric cancer cell invasion.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed with paraffin-embedded tissues. The numbers of immune cells and the fibroblast area were calculated according to the cancer depth. The gene expression patterns of submucosal fibroblasts and subperitoneal fibroblasts stimulated with HSC44PE-conditioned medium were analyzed with a microarray. To examine the effects on the cancer microenvironment of differences in gene expressions between HSC44PE-stimulated submucosal fibroblasts and subperitoneal fibroblasts, assays of HSC44PE proliferation, T cell migration, and M2-like macrophage differentiation were performed.
RESULTS: The distributions of immune cells differed between the submucosal layer and the subserosal layer. The number of M2 macrophages was significantly higher and the fibroblast area was significantly larger in the subserosal layer compared with the submucosal layer. High expression levels of IL1B, TNFSF15, and CCL13 were observed in HSC44PE-stimulated submucosal fibroblasts, and higher expression levels of TGFB2, CSF1, CCL8, and CXCL5 were found in HSC44PE-stimulated subperitoneal fibroblasts. HSC44PE-stimulated subperitoneal fibroblast medium promoted the differentiation of monocytes into M2-like macrophages, whereas HSC44PE-stimulated submucosal fibroblasts significantly induced the migration of Jurkat cells and the growth of HSC44PE cells.
CONCLUSION: The dynamic states of immune cells differ between the submucosal and subserosal layers in cancer tissues. Site-specific fibroblasts regulate site-specific inflammatory niche formation according to the depth of cancer cell invasion.

Xu H, Moni MA, Liò P
Network regularised Cox regression and multiplex network models to predict disease comorbidities and survival of cancer.
Comput Biol Chem. 2015; 59 Pt B:15-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
In cancer genomics, gene expression levels provide important molecular signatures for all types of cancer, and this could be very useful for predicting the survival of cancer patients. However, the main challenge of gene expression data analysis is high dimensionality, and microarray is characterised by few number of samples with large number of genes. To overcome this problem, a variety of penalised Cox proportional hazard models have been proposed. We introduce a novel network regularised Cox proportional hazard model and a novel multiplex network model to measure the disease comorbidities and to predict survival of the cancer patient. Our methods are applied to analyse seven microarray cancer gene expression datasets: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer and osteosarcoma. Firstly, we applied a principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality of original gene expression data. Secondly, we applied a network regularised Cox regression model on the reduced gene expression datasets. By using normalised mutual information method and multiplex network model, we predict the comorbidities for the liver cancer based on the integration of diverse set of omics and clinical data, and we find the diseasome associations (disease-gene association) among different cancers based on the identified common significant genes. Finally, we evaluated the precision of the approach with respect to the accuracy of survival prediction using ROC curves. We report that colon cancer, liver cancer and renal cancer share the CXCL5 gene, and breast cancer, ovarian cancer and renal cancer share the CCND2 gene. Our methods are useful to predict survival of the patient and disease comorbidities more accurately and helpful for improvement of the care of patients with comorbidity. Software in Matlab and R is available on our GitHub page:

Soutto M, Chen Z, Katsha AM, et al.
Trefoil factor 1 expression suppresses Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation in gastric carcinogenesis.
Cancer. 2015; 121(24):4348-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori, a high-risk factor for gastric cancer, is frequently associated with chronic inflammation through activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a constitutively expressed protein in the stomach that has tumor-suppressor functions and plays a critical role in maintaining mucosal integrity. This study investigated the role of TFF1 in regulating the proinflammatory response to H. pylori infections.
METHODS: For in vitro studies, immunofluorescence, luciferase reporter assays, Western blots, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to investigate the activation of NF-κB and its target genes in response to infections with H. pylori strains J166 and 7.13. In addition, Tff1-knockout (KO) and Tff1-wild-type mice were used for infections with the H. pylori strain called premouse Sydney strain 1.
RESULTS: The reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells significantly suppressed H. pylori-mediated increases in NF-κB-p65 nuclear staining, transcriptional activity, and expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 5, and interleukin 4 receptor) that were associated with reductions in the expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 and IκB kinase α/β proteins. The in vivo studies using the Tff1-KO mouse model of gastric neoplasia confirmed the in vitro findings. Furthermore, they demonstrated increases in chronic inflammation scores and in the frequency of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma in the Tff1-KO mice infected with H. pylori versus the uninfected Tff1-KO mice.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore an important protective role of TFF1 in abrogating H. pylori-mediated inflammation, a crucial hallmark of gastric tumorigenesis. Therefore, loss of TFF1 expression could be an important step in H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis.

Schneider MA, Granzow M, Warth A, et al.
Glycodelin: A New Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Functions in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(15):3529-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In recent years, immune therapeutic strategies against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) based on tissue-derived biomarkers, for example PD1/PD-L1 (CD274), have evolved as novel and promising treatment options. However, the crosstalk between tumor and immune cells is poorly understood. Glycodelin (gene name PAEP), initially described in the context of pregnancy and trophoblastic implantation, is a secreted immunosuppressive glycoprotein with an as-of-yet largely unknown function in lung cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we characterized the expression and role of glycodelin in NSCLC through mRNA and protein expression analyses, functional knockdown experiments, and correlations with clinicopathologic parameters.
RESULTS: Glycodelin mRNA expression was significantly elevated in tumors (n = 336) compared with matched normal tissue (P < 0.0001). Overall survival (OS) was significantly reduced in NSCLC with high glycodelin mRNA levels in women but not in men. Glycodelin was detected in the sera of patients, and the levels correlated with recurrence and metastatic disease. Knockdown of glycodelin with siRNAs in NSCLC cell lines resulted in significant upregulation of immune system modulatory factors such as PDL1, CXCL5, CXCL16, MICA/B, and CD83 as well as proliferation stimulators EDN1 and HBEGF. Furthermore, decreased migration of tumor cells was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the comprehensive characterization of glycodelin in NSCLC provides strong support for its use as a biomarker with immune modulatory function.

Han N, Yuan X, Wu H, et al.
DACH1 inhibits lung adenocarcinoma invasion and tumor growth by repressing CXCL5 signaling.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(8):5877-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) identified that DACH1, is a human homolog of drosophila gene dac, is involved in NSCLC. Here we showed that expression of DACH1 was significantly decreased in human NSCLC tissues and DACH1 abundance was inversely correlated with tumor stages and grades. Restoration of DACH1 expression in NSCLC cells significantly reduced cellular proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as tumor growth in vivo. Unbiased screen and functional study suggested that DACH1 mediated effects were dependent in part on suppression of CXCL5. There was an inverse correlation between DACH1 mRNA levels and CXCL5 in both lung cancer cell lines and human NSCLC tissues. Kaplan-Mier analysis of human NSCLC samples demonstrated that high DACH1 mRNA levels predicted favorable prognosis for relapse-free and overall survival. In agreement, high CXCL5 expression predicted a worse prognosis for survival.

Zhou SL, Zhou ZJ, Hu ZQ, et al.
CXCR2/CXCL5 axis contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells through activating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 358(2):124-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Upregulation of CXCR2 in tumor cells has been documented in several types of cancer. As one of its ligands, CXCL5 is associated with neutrophil infiltration and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the role of the CXCR2/CXCL5 axis in the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. In this study, we examined CXCR2 expression in human HCC cell lines and in three independent cohorts of HCC patients. The molecular effects of high expression levels of CXCR2 and CXCL5 in HCC cells were determined using qRT-PCR, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, matrigel invasion assay, and xenograft mouse models. We found that high levels of CXCR2 correlated with progression and poor prognosis in human HCC. CXCR2/CXCL5 together promoted cell spreading by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling pathway. In clinical HCC samples, high expression of both CXCR2 and CXCL5 showed a significant correlation with the activation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling and EMT phenotype. In conclusion, our data showed that the CXCR2/CXCL5 axis contributes to EMT of HCC cells through activating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

Yan J, Tingey C, Lyde R, et al.
Novel and enhanced anti-melanoma DNA vaccine targeting the tyrosinase protein inhibits myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth in a syngeneic prophylactic and therapeutic murine model.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(12):507-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer, constituting annually ∼ 75% of all cutaneous cancer-related deaths due to metastatic spread. Currently, because of metastatic spread, there are no effective treatment options for late-stage metastatic melanoma patients. Studies over the past two decades have provided insight into several complex molecular mechanisms as to how these malignancies evade immunological control, indicating the importance of immune escape or suppression for tumor survival. Thus, it is essential to develop innovative cancer strategies and address immune obstacles with the goal of generating more effective immunotherapies. One important area of study is to further elucidate the role and significance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the maintenance of the tumor microenvironment. These cells possess a remarkable ability to suppress immune responses and, as such, facilitate tumor growth. Thus, MDSCs represent an important new target for preventing tumor progression and escape from immune control. In this study, we investigated the role of MDSCs in immune suppression of T cells in an antigen-specific B16 melanoma murine system utilizing a novel synthetic tyrosinase (Tyr) DNA vaccine therapy in both prophylactic and therapeutic models. This Tyr vaccine induced a robust and broad immune response, including directing CD8 T-cell infiltration into tumor sites. The vaccine also reduced the number of MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment through the downregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-10, CXCL5 and arginase II, factors important for MDSC expansion. This novel synthetic DNA vaccine significantly reduced the melanoma tumor burden and increased survival in vivo, due likely, in part, to the facilitation of a change in the tumor microenvironment through MDSC suppression.

Garcia-Gomez A, De Las Rivas J, Ocio EM, et al.
Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8284-305 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease.

Choudhury Y, Wei X, Chu YH, et al.
A multigene assay identifying distinct prognostic subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma with differential response to tyrosine kinase inhibition.
Eur Urol. 2015; 67(1):17-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have divergent survival outcomes and therapeutic responses, which may be determined by underlying molecular diversity. We aimed to develop a practical molecular assay that can identify subtypes with differential prognosis and response to targeted therapy. Whole-genome expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material from 55 ccRCC patients was performed and two molecular subtypes with differential clinical outcomes were identified by hierarchical clustering. An eight-gene quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for classification into two subtypes was developed for FFPE material. The primary objective was to assess assay performance by correlating ccRCC prognostic subtypes to cancer-specific survival (CSS) and, for patients receiving targeted therapy, radiologic response. In three validation cohorts, patients could be distinguished into prognostic subtypes with differential CSS (Singapore General Hospital FFPE cohort: n = 224; p = 1.48 × 10(-8); the Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-Sequencing cohort: n = 419; p = 3.06 × 10(-7); Van Andel Research Institute microarray cohort: n=174; p=0.00743). For 48 patients receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, the prognostic classification was associated with radiologic response to treatment (p = 5.96 × 10(-4)) and prolonged survival on TKI treatment (p=0.019). The multigene assay can classify ccRCCs into clinical prognostic subtypes, which may be predictive of response in patients receiving TKI therapy.

Zheng J, Zhu X, Zhang J
CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(1):18-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Kowalczuk O, Burzykowski T, Niklinska WE, et al.
CXCL5 as a potential novel prognostic factor in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: results of a study of expression levels of 23 genes.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4619-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the current staging system is imprecise for estimating prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to identify other methods for selecting high-risk patients after failed surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of 23 genes as putative prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC. The study was performed on 109 pairs of tumor and matched unaffected lung tissue surgical specimens taken from stage I and II NSCLC patients. We evaluated the mRNA level of 23 genes using the real-time PCR method. The difference in the expression between the tumor and normal tissue for each gene was analyzed using a general linear model. The influence of gene expression on survival was analyzed by using the proportional hazards model. Eighteen out of the 23 genes showed statistically significant differences in expression between the tumor and non-tumor tissue. For 12 genes (ITGB1, ITGB3, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCR3, CXCR4, TNF, CHKA, AGFG1, and CTC1), the expression was lower, and for six genes (ITGA5, IL8, IL6, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL12), it was higher in the tumor tissue as compared to the matched normal tissue. Expression changes were more pronounced in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas or large cell carcinomas. Of all the analyzed genes, only CXCL5 was found to statistically significantly (p = 0.04) influence both overall and disease-free survival. Among the 23 genes previously suggested to be relevant for early staged NSCLC patients' postoperative outcome, only CXCL5 showed a statistically significant prognostic effect.

Singha B, Gatla HR, Manna S, et al.
Proteasome inhibition increases recruitment of IκB kinase β (IKKβ), S536P-p65, and transcription factor EGR1 to interleukin-8 (IL-8) promoter, resulting in increased IL-8 production in ovarian cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(5):2687-700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) contributes to ovarian cancer progression through its induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Proteasome inhibition by bortezomib, which has been used as a frontline therapy in multiple myeloma, has shown only limited effectiveness in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. However, the responsible mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition dramatically increases the IL-8 expression and release in ovarian cancer cells. The responsible mechanism involves an increased nuclear accumulation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and an increased recruitment of the nuclear IKKβ, p65-phosphorylated at Ser-536, and the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR-1) to the endogenous IL-8 promoter. Coimmunoprecipitation studies identified the nuclear EGR-1 associated with IKKβ and with p65, with preferential binding to S536P-p65. Both IKKβ activity and EGR-1 expression are required for the increased IL-8 expression induced by proteasome inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. Interestingly, in multiple myeloma cells the IL-8 release is not increased by bortezomib. Together, these data indicate that the increased IL-8 release may represent one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the decreased effectiveness of proteasome inhibition in ovarian cancer treatment and identify IKKβ and EGR-1 as potential new targets in ovarian cancer combination therapies.

Huang P, Xu X, Wang L, et al.
The role of EGF-EGFR signalling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma inflammatory microenvironment.
J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18(2):218-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and their receptor (EGFR) play an important role in the development of cancer proliferation, and metastasis, although the mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed at investigating the role of EGF-EGFR signalling pathway in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) inflammatory environment. Gene profiles of inflammatory cytokines from HCC were measured. Cell bio-behaviours of HCC with low or high metastasis were detected by the live cell monitoring system. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8. The protein level of CXCL5 and CXCL8 was measured by ELISA. The phosphorylation of PI3K, ERK, MAPK was measured by western blot. EGF significantly induced cell proliferation in HepG2 cells, but not in HCCLM3 cells. EGF prompted the cell movement in both HepG2 and HCCLM3 and regulated the production of CXCL5 and CXCL8 from HCC, which were inhibited by EGFR inhibitor, Erk inhibitor (U0126), or PI3K inhibitors (BEZ-235 and SHBM1009). HCC proliferation, metastasis and production of inflammatory cytokines were regulated via EGF-EGFR signal pathways. CXCL5 could interact with CXCL8, possibly by CXCR2 or the cross-talk between CXCR2 and EGFR. EGF-EGFR signaling pathway can be the potential target of therapies for HCC.

Karagiannis GS, Saraon P, Jarvi KA, Diamandis EP
Proteomic signatures of angiogenesis in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2014; 74(3):260-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The observation that angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, in healthy prostate and early prostate cancer is androgen-dependent gave rise to significant questions on how hypervascularization and increased angiogenesis is also achieved at the molecular level in advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer. The exact paracrine molecular network that is hardwired into the proteome of the endothelial and cancer subpopulations participating in this process remains partially understood.
METHODS: Here, we interrogated the signaling pathways and the molecular functional signatures across the proteome of endothelial cells after interacting with various secretomes produced by androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
RESULTS: We found the significant overexpression (P < 0.05) of prominent markers of angiogenesis, such as vonWillebrand factor (vWF) (∼ 2.5-fold) and CD31 (∼ 2-fold) in HUVECs stimulated with conditioned media from the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3. By mining the proteome of PC3 conditioned media, we discovered a signature of chemokine CXC motif ligands (i.e., CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8) that could potentially coordinate increased angiogenesis in androgen-independent prostate cancer and verified their increased expression (P < 0.05) in both in vitro and xenograft models of androgen-independence.
DISCUSSION: Our findings form the basis for understanding the regulation of crucial metastatic phenomena during the transition of androgen-dependent prostate cancer into the highly aggressive, androgen-independent state and provide further insight on potential therapeutic targets of cancer-related angiogenesis.

Gong Z, Quan L, Yao S, et al.
Innate immunity pathways and breast cancer Risk in African American and European-American women in the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS).
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72619 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.

Gantsev SK, Umezawa K, Islamgulov DV, et al.
The role of inflammatory chemokines in lymphoid neoorganogenesis in breast cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2013; 67(5):363-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression profiling analysis of inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in newly formed lymph nodes in breast cancer was carried out. The analysis revealed the increase in expression of the genes CCL16, XCR1, CYFIP2, TNFSF14 and the reduction in expression of chemokine ligands CXCL5 and CXCL12 in tertiary lymphoid organs. The obtained results allow us to suggest that the process of induction of lymph nodes neogenesis is identical (in its key mechanisms) to the process of lymphoid tissue neogenesis in autoimmune diseases and in some infections, but may have different triggers.

Saintigny P, Massarelli E, Lin S, et al.
CXCR2 expression in tumor cells is a poor prognostic factor and promotes invasion and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(2):571-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CXCR2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been studied mainly in stromal cells and is known to increase tumor inflammation and angiogenesis. Here, we examined the prognostic importance of CXCR2 in NSCLC and the role of CXCR2 and its ligands in lung cancer cells. The effect of CXCR2 expression on tumor cells was studied using stable knockdown clones derived from a murine KRAS/p53-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line with high metastatic potential and an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model and in vitro using a CXCR2 small-molecule antagonist (SB225002). CXCR2 protein expression was analyzed in tumor cells from 262 NSCLC. Gene expression profiles for CXCR2 and its ligands (CXCR2 axis) were analyzed in 52 human NSCLC cell lines and 442 human lung adenocarcinomas. Methylation of CXCR2 axis promoters was determined in 70 human NSCLC cell lines. Invasion and metastasis were decreased in CXCR2 knockdown clones in vitro and in vivo. SB225002 decreased invasion in vitro. In lung adenocarcinomas, CXCR2 expression in tumor cells was associated with smoking and poor prognosis. CXCR2 axis gene expression profiles in human NSCLC cell lines and lung adenocarcinomas defined a cluster driven by CXCL5 and associated with smoking, poor prognosis, and RAS pathway activation. Expression of CXCL5 was regulated by promoter methylation. The CXCR2 axis may be an important target in smoking-related lung adenocarcinoma.

Kresse SH, Rydbeck H, Skårn M, et al.
Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e48262 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression) using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30%) cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between DNA copy number, DNA methylation and mRNA expression in osteosarcomas, contributing to better understanding of osteosarcoma biology.

Hsu YL, Hou MF, Kuo PL, et al.
Breast tumor-associated osteoblast-derived CXCL5 increases cancer progression by ERK/MSK1/Elk-1/snail signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(37):4436-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
The skeleton is the most common metastatic site for breast cancer, with bone metastasis causing pain as well as risk of pathological fractures. Interaction between tumors and the bone microenvironment creates a vicious cycle that accelerates both bone destruction and cancer progression. This study is the first to analyze the soluble factors secreted by breast tumor-associated osteoblasts (TAOBs), which are responsible for promoting cancer progression. The addition of CXCL5 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5), present in large amounts in TAOB-condition medium (TAOB-CM), mimicked the inductive effect of TAOB-CM on breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion. In contrast, inhibition of CXCL5 in OBs decreased TAOB-mediated cancer progression. Inducement of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer progression by TAOB-derived CXCL5 is associated with increased Raf/MEK/ERK activation, and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) and Elk-1 phosphorylation, as well as Snail upregulation. Activation of Elk-1 facilitates recruitment of phosphorylated MSK1, which in turn enhances histone H3 acetylation and phosphorylation (serine 10) of Snail promoter, resulting in Snail enhancement and E-cadherin downregulation. Moreover, mice treated with anti-CXCL5 antibodies showed decreased metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that inhibition of CXCL5-mediated ERK/Snail signaling is an attractive therapeutic target for treating metastases in breast cancer patients.

Han T, Shang D, Xu X, Tian Y
Gene expression profiling of the synergy of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and paclitaxel against renal cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol. 2012; 10:183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common kidney cancers and is highly resistant to chemotherapy. We previously demonstrated that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) could significantly increase the susceptibility of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to paclitaxel (PTX) treatment in vitro, and showed the synergy of DAC and PTX against RCC. The purpose of this study is to investigated the gene transcriptional alteration and investigate possible molecular mechanism and pathways implicated in the synergy of DAC and PTX against RCC.
METHODS: cDNA microarray was performed and coupled with real-time PCR to identify critical genes in the synergistic mechanism of both agents against RCC cells. Various patterns of gene expression were observed by cluster analysis. IPA software was used to analyze possible biological pathways and to explore the inter-relationships between interesting network genes.
RESULTS: We found that lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI), C-X-C motif ligand 5 (CXCL5) and myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene (c-myc) may play a pivotal role in the synergy of DAC and PTX. The PI3K/Akt pathway and other pathways associated with cyclins, DNA replication and cell cycle/mitotic regulation were also associated with the synergy of DAC and PTX against RCC.
CONCLUSION: The activation of PI3K/Akt-LEF1/β-catenin pathway could be suppressed synergistically by two agents and that PI3K/Akt-LEF1/β-catenin pathway is participated in the synergy of two agents.

Xu Z, Wu R
Alteration in metastasis potential and gene expression in human lung cancer cell lines by ITGB8 silencing.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012; 295(9):1446-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world and metastasis is an essential aspect of lung cancer progression. ITGB8 has been implicated in metastasis of human tumors. However, the molecular mechanism by which ITGB8 is involved in tumor metastasis is still unclear. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of human lung cancer cell lines A549 and PC9 by ITGB8 gene silencing with that of parent cells and negative control cells to comprehensively investigate ITGB8-mediated changes with respect to the metastatic potential and gene expression of human lung cancer cell lines. Our results showed that ITGB8 silencing cells exhibited significant cell cycle arrest and less adhesion and invasion abilities. We confirmed by Western blot, ELISA, and real-time PCR that the expression of metastasis-related genes CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly decreased while that of E-Cadherin and cystatin B were dramatically increased in A549- and PC9-ITGB8 silencing cells. Furthermore, silencing of ITGB8 caused Snail and NF-κB transcriptional activation, and MEK and Akt phosphorylation level changes in lung cancer cell lines. Our results indicated that ITGB8 may play an important role in metastasis of human lung cancer cells. The ITGB8 silencing may change the lung cancer cells to a less invasive phenotype through alteration in the expression of metastasis-related genes.

López-Lago MA, Posner S, Thodima VJ, et al.
Neutrophil chemokines secreted by tumor cells mount a lung antimetastatic response during renal cell carcinoma progression.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(14):1752-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanism by which renal cell carcinoma (RCC) colonizes the lung microenvironment during metastasis remains largely unknown. To investigate this process, we grafted human RCC cells with varying lung metastatic potential in mice. Gene expression profiling of the mouse lung stromal compartment revealed a signature enriched for neutrophil-specific functions that was induced preferentially by poorly metastatic cells. Analysis of the gene expression signatures of tumor cell lines showed an inverse correlation between metastatic activity and the levels of a number of chemokines, including CXCL5 and IL8. Enforced depletion of CXCL5 and IL8 in these cell lines enabled us to establish a functional link between lung neutrophil infiltration, secretion of chemokines by cancer cells and metastatic activity. We further show that human neutrophils display a higher cytotoxic activity against poorly metastatic cells compared with highly metastatic cells. Together, these results support a model in which neutrophils recruited to the lung by tumor-secreted chemokines build an antimetastatic barrier with loss of neutrophil chemokines in tumor cells acting as a critical rate-limiting step during lung metastatic seeding.

Maalouf SW, Theivakumar S, Owens DM
Epidermal α6β4 integrin stimulates the influx of immunosuppressive cells during skin tumor promotion.
J Dermatol Sci. 2012; 66(2):108-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Induction of α6β4 integrin in the differentiated epidermal cell layers in skin is a hallmark of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) pathogenesis and stimulates chemically induced SCC formation in Invα6β4 transgenic mice, which exhibit persistent expression of α6β4 in the suprabasal epidermal layers. However, the molecular basis for the support of SCC development by suprabasal α6β4 is not fully understood.
OBJECTIVE: We examined the relevance for suprabasal α6β4 expression in the epidermis for the recruitment of immunosuppressive leukocytes during the early stages of tumor promotion.
METHODS: In this study, we made use of the Invα6β4 transgenic mouse model, which exhibits expression of α6β4 integrin in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis driven by the involucrin promoter. First, we examined protein lysates from Invα6β4 transgenic skin using a pro-inflammatory cytokine array panel. Next, we immunofluorescence labeling of murine skin sections was employed to immunophenotype tumor promoter-treated Invα6β4 transgenic skin. Finally, a macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) neutralizing antibody strategy was administered to resolve Invα6β4 transgenic skin inflammation.
RESULTS: Employing the Invα6β4 transgenic mouse model, we show that suprabasal α6β4 integrin expression selectively alters the profile of secreted pro-inflammatory molecules by epidermal cells, in particular CXCL5 and M-CSF, in response to acute tumor promoter treatment. The induction of CXCL5 and M-CSF in Invα6β4 transgenic epidermis was shortly followed by an exacerbated influx of CD200R(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which co-expressed the M-CSF receptor, and FoxP3(+) Treg cells compared to wild-type mice. As a result, the levels of activated CD4(+) T lymphocytes were dramatically diminished in Invα6β4 transgenic compared to wild-type skin, whereas similar levels of lymphocyte activation were observed in the peripheral blood. Finally, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced CD200R(+) infiltrative cells and epidermal proliferation were suppressed in Invα6β4 mice treated with M-CSF neutralizing antibodies.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that aberrant expression of α6β4 integrin in post-mitotic epidermal keratinocytes stimulates a pro-tumorigenic skin microenvironment by augmenting the influx of immunosuppressive granular cells during tumor promotion.

Novitskiy SV, Pickup MW, Gorska AE, et al.
TGF-β receptor II loss promotes mammary carcinoma progression by Th17 dependent mechanisms.
Cancer Discov. 2011; 1(5):430-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report that IL-17 significantly increases the secretion of CXCL1 and CXCL5 from mammary carcinoma cells, which is downregulated by TGF-β through the type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII). Carcinoma cells with conditional knockout of TβRII (Tgfbr2(KO)) have enhanced sensitivity to IL-17a in the stimulation of chemokine secretion. During polyoma middle T (PyMT) induced tumor progression, levels of Th17 inducing cytokines TGF-β, IL-6, IL-23 were increased in PyMT/Tgfbr2(KO) tumors, which was associated with an increased number of Th17 cells. IL-17 increased the suppressive function of MDSCs on T cells through the upregulation of Arg, IDO, and COX2. Treatment of PyMT/Tgfbr2(KO) mice with anti-IL-17 Ab decreased carcinoma growth and metastatic burden. Analysis of human breast cancer transcriptome databases showed a strong association between IL-17 gene expression and poor outcome in lymph node positive, estrogen receptor negative or luminal B subtypes suggesting potential therapeutic approaches.

Okabe H, Beppu T, Ueda M, et al.
Identification of CXCL5/ENA-78 as a factor involved in the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(10):2234-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Knowledge of tumor-stromal interactions is essential for understanding tumor development. We focused on the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and reported their positive interaction in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study is to identify the key protein involved in the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma cells and CAFs and its role on cholangiocarcinoma progression. Using the conditioning medium from cholangiocarcinoma cells, hepatic stellate cells and coculture of them, Protein-Chip analysis with SELDI-TOF-MS showed that the peak of an 8,360-Da protein remarkably increased in the coculture medium. This protein was identified as CXCL5/ENA78, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78, by q-TOF/MS/MS analysis. Two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, HuCCT1 and RBE, produced CXCL5 that promoted their invasion and migration in an autocrine fashion. These effects of CXCL5 significantly decreased by inhibition of CXC-receptor 2, which is the receptor for CXCL5. In addition, IL-1β produced by hepatic stellate cells induced the expression of CXCL5 in cholangiocarcinoma cells. In human tissue samples, a significant correlation was observed between CAFs and CXCL5 produced by cholangiocarcinoma cells in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (p = 0.0044). Furthermore, the high-CXCL5-expression group exhibited poor overall survival after curative hepatic resection (p = 0.027). The presence of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils expressing CD66b was associated with CXCL5 expression in tumor cells (p < 0.0001). These data suggest that CXCL5 is important for the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma and CAFs, and inhibition of tumor-stromal interactions may be a useful therapeutic approach for cholangiocarcinoma.

Gameiro SR, Caballero JA, Hodge JW
Defining the molecular signature of chemotherapy-mediated lung tumor phenotype modulation and increased susceptibility to T-cell killing.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2012; 27(1):23-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemotherapy with platinum doublets, including cisplatin plus vinorelbine, is standard of care for non-small-cell lung cancer. Sublethal exposure to certain chemotherapeutic agents has been demonstrated to alter the phenotype or biology of human tumor cells, rendering them more susceptible to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis. The effects of cisplatin/vinorelbine on tumor sensitivity to T-cell cytotoxicity and its molecular mechanisms, however, have not been fully elucidated. We examined the effect of this chemotherapy on growth, cell-surface phenotype, and CTL-mediated lysis of five distinct human lung carcinoma cell lines in vitro and examined the molecular mechanisms associated with enhanced CTL sensitivity. These studies demonstrate that sublethal exposure of human lung tumor cells to the platinum doublet modulates tumor cell phenotype and increases sensitivity to major histocompatibility complex-restricted perforin/granzyme-mediated CTL killing. These studies also demonstrate that exposure to chemotherapy markedly decreased the protein secretion ratio of transforming growth factor-β/interleukin (IL)-8. We examined the gene expression profile of two lung tumor cell lines to identify a shared gene signature in response to sublethal cisplatin/vinorelbine and found coordinate expression of only 16 transcripts, including those for cytokine/chemokine expression and apoptosis such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL8, CXCL5, and B cell lymphoma-2-like genes (BCL-2). Overall, these results suggest that sublethal exposure to cisplatin/vinorelbine increases sensitivity to perforin/granzyme-mediated CTL killing by modulation of (a) tumor phenotype, (b) cytokine/chemokine milieu, and (c) the proapoptotic/antiapoptotic gene ratio. The data presented here propose a complex mechanism that is distinct from and complementary to that of immunogenic cell death. This molecular signature may be useful in predicting responses to immunotherapy as well as provide the rationale for the potential clinical benefit of the combined use of vaccine with cisplatin/vinorelbine regimens.

Yeudall WA, Vaughan CA, Miyazaki H, et al.
Gain-of-function mutant p53 upregulates CXC chemokines and enhances cell migration.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(2):442-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of dominant transforming p53 in carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Our previous data suggested that aberrant p53 proteins can enhance tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we examined potential mechanisms through which gain-of-function (GOF) p53 proteins can induce motility. Cells expressing GOF p53 -R175H, -R273H and -D281G showed enhanced migration, which was reversed by RNA interference (RNAi) or transactivation-deficient mutants. In cells with engineered or endogenous p53 mutants, enhanced migration was reduced by downregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB2, a GOF p53 target. We found that GOF p53 proteins upregulate CXC-chemokine expression, the inflammatory mediators that contribute to multiple aspects of tumorigenesis. Elevated expression of CXCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL12 was found in cells expressing oncogenic p53. Transcription was elevated as CXCL5 and CXCL8 promoter activity was higher in cells expressing GOF p53, whereas wild-type p53 repressed promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed enhanced presence of acetylated histone H3 on the CXCL5 promoter in H1299/R273H cells, in agreement with increased transcriptional activity of the promoter, whereas RNAi-mediated repression of CXCL5 inhibited cell migration. Consistent with this, knockdown of the endogenous mutant p53 in lung cancer or melanoma cells reduced CXCL5 expression and cell migration. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA knockdown of mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced expression of a number of key targets, including several chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. Finally, CXCL5 expression was also elevated in lung tumor samples containing GOF p53, indicating relevance to human cancer. The data suggest a mechanistic link between GOF p53 proteins and chemokines in enhanced cell motility.

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