Gene Summary

Gene:CYP3A4; cytochrome P450 family 3 subfamily A member 4
Aliases: HLP, CP33, CP34, CYP3A, NF-25, CYP3A3, P450C3, CYPIIIA3, CYPIIIA4, P450PCN1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by glucocorticoids and some pharmacological agents. This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in use today, including acetaminophen, codeine, cyclosporin A, diazepam and erythromycin. The enzyme also metabolizes some steroids and carcinogens. This gene is part of a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 7q21.1. Previously another CYP3A gene, CYP3A3, was thought to exist; however, it is now thought that this sequence represents a transcript variant of CYP3A4. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 3A4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (38)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Receptors, Opioid, mu
  • Scotland
  • Steroids
  • Breast Cancer
  • South Africa
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Washington
  • Genotype
  • Smoking
  • Polymorphism
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Tamoxifen
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 7
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Xenograft Models
  • Messenger RNA
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Regression Analysis
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Receptors, Steroid
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Testosterone
  • Survival Rate
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Women's Health
  • p53 Protein
  • Urban Population
  • Rifampin
  • Transcription
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Lung Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Siblings
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP3A4 (cancer-related)

Karakurt S
Modulatory effects of rutin on the expression of cytochrome P450s and antioxidant enzymes in human hepatoma cells.
Acta Pharm. 2016; 66(4):491-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of a drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs), and antioxidant enzymes can be modulated by various factors. The flavonoid rutin was investigated for its anti-carcinogen and protective effects as well as modulatory action on CYPs and phase II enzymes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Rutin inhibited proliferation of HEPG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 52.7 μmol L-1 and invasion of HEPG2 cells (21.6 %, p = 0.0018) and colony formation of those invaded cells (57.4 %, p < 0.0001). Rutin treatment also significantly increased early/late-stage apoptosis in HEPG2 cells (28.9 %, p < 0.001). Treatment by rutin significantly inhibited protein expressions of cytochrome P450-dependent CYP3A4 (75.3 %, p < 0.0001), elevated CYP1A1 enzymes (1.7-fold, p = 0.0084) and increased protein expressions of antioxidant and phase II reaction catalyzing enzymes, NQO1 (2.42-fold, p < 0.0001) and GSTP1 (2.03-fold, p < 0.0001). Besides, rutin treatment significantly inhibited mRNA expression of CYP3A4 (73.2 %, p=0.0014). Also, CYP1A1, NQO1 and GSTP1 mRNA expressions were significantly increased 2.77-fold (p = 0.029), 4.85- fold (p = 0.0051) and 9.84-fold (p < 0.0001), respectively.

Šemeláková M, Jendželovský R, Fedoročko P
Drug membrane transporters and CYP3A4 are affected by hypericin, hyperforin or aristoforin in colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81:38-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous results have shown that the combination of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) at sub-optimal dose with hyperforin (HP) (compounds of Hypericum sp.), or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) stimulates generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to antitumour activity. This enhanced oxidative stress evoked the need for an explanation for HY accumulation in colon cancer cells pretreated with HP or AR. Generally, the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutics is limited by drug resistance related to the overexpression of drug efflux transporters in tumour cells. Therefore, the impact of non-activated hypericin (HY), HY-PDT, HP and AR on cell membrane transporter systems (Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1-MRP1/ABCC1, Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-MRP2/ABCC2, Breast cancer resistance protein - BCRP/ABCG2, P-glycoprotein-P-gp/ABCC1) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) was evaluated. The different effects of the three compounds on their expression, protein level and activity was determined under specific PDT light (T0+, T6+) or dark conditions (T0- T6-). We found that HP or AR treatment affected the protein levels of MRP2 and P-gp, whereas HP decreased MRP2 and P-gp expression mostly in the T0+ and T6+ conditions, while AR decreased MRP2 in T0- and T6+. Moreover, HY-PDT treatment induced the expression of MRP1. Our data demonstrate that HP or AR treatment in light or dark PDT conditions had an inhibitory effect on the activity of individual membrane transport proteins and significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in HT-29 cells. We found that HP or AR significantly affected intracellular accumulation of HY in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. These results suggest that HY, HP and AR might affect the efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, through interaction with membrane transporters and CYP3A4.

Qu Z, Li D, Xu H, et al.
 CUL4B, NEDD4, and UGT1As involve in the TGF-β signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Ann Hepatol. 2016 Jul-Aug; 15(4):568-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED:  Introduction and Aim. TGF-β signalling is involved in pathogenesis and progress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This bioinformatics study consequently aims to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of TGF- β activation in HCC cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dataset GSE10393 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 2 Huh-7 (HCC cell line) samples treated by TGF- β (100 pmol/L, 48 h) and 2 untreated samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using Limma package (false discovery rate < 0.05 and |log2 fold change| > 1.5), and then enrichment analyses of function, pathway, and disease were performed. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the PPI data from multiple databases including INACT, MINT, BioGRID, UniProt, BIND, BindingDB, and SPIKE databases. Transcription factor (TF)-DEG pairs (Bonferroni adjusted p-value < 0.01) from ChEA database and DEG-DEG pairs were used to construct TF-DEG regulatory network. Furthermore, TF-pathway-DEG complex network was constructed by integrating DEG-DEG pairs, TF-DEG pairs, and DEG-pathway pairs.
RESULTS: Totally, 209 DEGs and 30 TFs were identified. The DEGs were significantly enriched in adhesion-related functions. PPI network indicted hub genes such as CUL4B and NEDD4. According to the TF-DEG regulatory network, the two hub genes were targeted by SMAD2, SMAD3, and HNF4A. Besides, the 11 pathways in TF-pathway-DEG network were mainly enriched by UGT1A family and CYP3A7, which were predicted to be regulated by SMAD2, SMAD3, SOX2, TP63, and HNF4A.
CONCLUSIONS: TGF- β might influence biological processes of HCC cells via SMAD2/SMAD3-NEDD4, HNF4A-CUL4B/NEDD4, SOX2/TP63/HNF4A-CYP3A7, and SMAD2/SMAD3/SOX2/TP63/HNF4A-UGT1As regulatory pathways.

Karthikeyan C, Malla R, Ashby CR, et al.
Pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolines: Novel compounds that reverse ABCG2-mediated resistance in cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 376(1):118-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) subfamily G2 in cancer cells is known to elicit a MDR phenotype, ultimately resulting in cancer chemotherapy failure. Here, we report, for the first time, the effect of eight novel pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (IND) derivatives that inhibit ABCG2 transporter restoring cancer cell chemosensitivity. IND -4, -5, -6, -7, and -8, at 10 µM, and nilotinib at 5 µM, significantly potentiated (8-10 fold) the cytotoxicity of the ABCG2 substrates mitoxantrone (MX) and doxorubicin in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCG2 transporter, MX (~14 fold) in MX-resistant NCI-H460/MX-20 small cell lung cancer, and of topotecan (~7 fold) in S1-M1-80 colon cancer cells which all stably expressing ABCG2. In contrast, cytotoxicity of cisplatin, which is not an ABCG2 substrate, was not altered. IND-5,-6,-7, and -8 significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 in multidrug resistant NCI-H460/MX-20 cells overexpressing ABCG2. Both IND-7 and -8, the most potent ABCG2 inhibitors, had the highest affinities for the binding sites of ABCG2 in modeling studies. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of new class of agents warrant further development as potential MDR reversal agents for clinical anticancer agents that suffer from ABCG2-mediated MDR insensitivity.

Johnson N, De Ieso P, Migliorini G, et al.
Cytochrome P450 Allele CYP3A7*1C Associates with Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Breast, and Lung Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(6):1485-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially affecting drug effectiveness. Here, we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated SNP was rs45446698, an SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (HR, 1.74; P = 0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR, 1.43; P = 0.009), and CLL progression (HR, 1.62; P = 0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate, and clinical outcome (Pinteraction = 0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers.

Hirose T, Fujita K, Kusumoto S, et al.
Association of pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics with safety and efficacy of gefitinib in patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2016; 93:69-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Gefitinib is a potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is a key drug for patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The pharmacokinetics of orally administered gefitinib varies greatly among patients. We prospectively evaluated the association of pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics with the safety and efficacy of gefitinib in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics was evaluated with samples of peripheral blood obtained on day 1 before treatment and 1, 3, 5, 8, and 24h after gefitinib (250 mg per day) was administered and on days 8 and 15 as the trough values. The plasma concentration of gefitinib was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. The genotypes of ABCG2, ABCB1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed with direct sequencing.
RESULTS: The subjects were 35 patients (21 women; median age, 72 years; range, 53 to 90 years) with stage IV adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutations. The median peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 377 (range, 168-781)ng/mL. The median area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration of gefitinib from 0 to 24h was 4893 (range, 698-13991) ng/mL h. The common adverse events were skin toxicity (68% of patients), diarrhea (46%), and liver injury (63%). One patient died of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). The overall response rate was 82.9% (95% confidence interval, 66.4%-93.4%). The median progression-free survival time was 10 months, and the median survival time was 25 months. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics were not associated with significantly different toxicities, response rates, or survival times with gefitinib. However, the AUC and Cmax were highest and the trough value on day 8 was the second highest in one patient who died of drug-induced ILD.
CONCLUSION: Elevated gefitinib exposure might be associated with drug-induced ILD.

Ahmed NS, Elghazawy NH, ElHady AK, et al.
Design and synthesis of novel tamoxifen analogues that avoid CYP2D6 metabolism.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 112:171-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a widely used drug in the prophylaxis and treatment of breast cancer. TAM is metabolized to the more active 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-TAM) and endoxifen by cytochrome P450 (CYP) mainly CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Due to the genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 genes, high variation in the clinical outcomes of TAM treatment is observed among women of different populations. To address this issue, novel TAM analogues with possible altered activation pathways were synthesized. These analogues were tested for their antiproliferative action on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines as well as their binding affinity for estrogen receptor (ER) ER-α and ER-β receptors. These entire novel compounds showed better antiproliferative activity than did TAM on the MCF-7 cells. Moreover, compound 10 exhibited a half maximal growth inhibition (GI50) that was 1000 times more potent than that of TAM (GI50 < 0.005 μM vs 1.58 μM, respectively). Along with a broad spectrum activity on various cancer cell lines, all the TAM analogues showed considerable activity on the ER-negative breast cancer cell line. For further study, compound 10 was incubated in human liver microsomes (HLM), human hepatocytes (hHEP) and CYP2D6 supersomes. The active hydroxyl metabolite was detected after incubation in HLM and hHEP, implicating the involvement of other enzymes in its metabolism. These results prove that this novel series of TAM analogues might provide improved clinical outcomes for poor 2D6 metabolizers.

Noll EM, Eisen C, Stenzinger A, et al.
CYP3A5 mediates basal and acquired therapy resistance in different subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Nat Med. 2016; 22(3):278-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been described, this malignancy is clinically still treated as a single disease. Here we present patient-derived models representing the full spectrum of previously identified quasi-mesenchymal (QM-PDA), classical and exocrine-like PDAC subtypes, and identify two markers--HNF1A and KRT81--that enable stratification of tumors into different subtypes by using immunohistochemistry. Individuals with tumors of these subtypes showed substantial differences in overall survival, and their tumors differed in drug sensitivity, with the exocrine-like subtype being resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and paclitaxel. Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) metabolizes these compounds in tumors of the exocrine-like subtype, and pharmacological or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated CYP3A5 inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to these drugs. Whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha (HNF4A) controls basal expression of CYP3A5, drug-induced CYP3A5 upregulation is mediated by the nuclear receptor NR1I2. CYP3A5 also contributes to acquired drug resistance in QM-PDA and classical PDAC, and it is highly expressed in several additional malignancies. These findings designate CYP3A5 as a predictor of therapy response and as a tumor cell-autonomous detoxification mechanism that must be overcome to prevent drug resistance.

Ahn J, Park S, Zuniga B, et al.
Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer.
Vitam Horm. 2016; 100:321-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

Zhao J, Bai Z, Feng F, et al.
Cross-talk between EPAS-1/HIF-2α and PXR signaling pathway regulates multi-drug resistance of stomach cancer cell.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016; 72:73-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
EPAS-1/HIF-2α (Endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1/hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 2α) is a transcription factor expressed in a wide range of human cancers, including stomach cancer. Although EPAS-1 has been studied for years, its function in oncogenic transformation processes needs to be further investigated. In this study, we found that EPAS-1 would promote the growth of stomach cancer cell line BGC-823. Our results revealed that EPAS-1 interacts with Pregnane X Receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that regulates multiple genes' transcription involved in multi-drugs resistance (MDR) process. Protein-protein interaction between EPAS-1 and PXR was identified by co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pull down assays. By this interaction, EPAS-1 recruited PXR to its response elements in promoter/enhancer regions of CYP3A4, a PXR target gene. Over-expression of EPAS-1 increased the expression of PXR responsive genes, enhanced the proliferation of BGC-823 cells and boosted the resistance of BGC-823 cells against the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs, e.g. Mitomycin C and Paclitaxel. Reduction of EPAS-1 level via its siRNA disrupted the proliferation, and enhanced the susceptibility of BGC-823 cells to those chemotherapeutic drugs. Our findings suggested that EPAS-1 and PXR may cooperatively participate in development and especially MDR process of stomach cancer. These findings may contribute to more effective targeted drugs discovery for the stomach cancer therapy.

Szalai R, Ganczer A, Magyari L, et al.
Interethnic differences of cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms may influence outcome of taxane therapy in Roma and Hungarian populations.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2015; 30(6):453-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Taxanes are widely used microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. Several cytochrome P450 gene variants have been proven to influence taxane metabolism and therapy. The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution of genetic variations of CYP1B1, CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes as the first report on taxane metabolizer cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. A total of 397 Roma and 412 Hungarian healthy subjects were genotyped for CYP1B1 c.4326C > G, CYP2C8 c.792C > G and CYP3A5 c.6986A > G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of CYP1B1 4326 GG (p = 0.002) and CYP3A5 6986 GG (p < 0.001) between Roma and Hungarian populations. Regarding minor allele frequencies, for CYP2C8 a significantly increased prevalence was found in 792G allele frequency in the Hungarian population compared to the Roma population (5.83% vs. 2.14%, p = 0.001). Our results can be used as possible predictive factors in population specific treatment algorithms to developing effective programs for a better outcome in patients treated with taxanes.

Zhou X, Wang X, Song Q, et al.
Transformation of alkylating regimen of thiotepa into tepa determines the disease progression through GSTP1 gene polymorphism for metastatic breast cancer patients receiving thiotepa containing salvage chemotherapy.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 53(11):914-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The shifts to second-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were widely required based on pharmaceutical molecular profiles to reach out precision medicine. The emerging precise treatment of cancer requires the implementation of clarified pharmacogenetic profiles which are capable of elucidating the predictive responses to cancer chemotherapy. Therefore we were interested in the analysis of the roles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene) alleles to identify pharmacological links with predictors of clinical responses and toxicities.
METHODS: 93 MBC patients receiving thiotepa plus docetaxel chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Optimized CYP3A5, CYP2B6, and GSTP1 were predominantly selected as candidate genes and their three SNPs (CYP2B6 G516T, CYP3A5 A6986G, and GSTP1 A313G) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate, and chemo-related toxicities were recorded.
RESULTS: GSTP1 A313G (rs1695) was identified to be related with disease progression. In particular, patients harboring AG/GG genotype demonstrated a statistically longer PFS than those with AA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that AG/GG genotype was associated with both clinical responses and liver-localized metastatic lesions. No correlation was found between these three SNPs and chemotherapy-induced toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the GSTP1 polymorphism is a novel prognostic marker for clinical response to thiotepa-containing chemotherapy regimens. Such evidence could provide insight into the role of pharmacogenetics to deprive of biases in shifting regimens solely by empirical choices.

Diekstra MH, Liu X, Swen JJ, et al.
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL8 and IL13 with sunitinib-induced toxicity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015; 71(12):1477-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Earlier, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with toxicity and efficacy of sunitinib has been explored in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Recently, additional SNPs have been suggested as potential biomarkers. We investigated these novel SNPs for association with sunitinib treatment outcome in mRCC patients.
METHODS: In this exploratory study, we selected SNPs in genes CYP3A4, NR1I2, POR, IL8, IL13, IL4-R, HIF1A and MET that might possibly be associated with sunitinib treatment outcome. Each SNP was tested for association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by Cox-regression analysis and for clinical response and toxicity using logistic regression.
RESULTS: We included 374 patients for toxicity analyses, of which 38 patients with non-clear cell renal cell cancer were excluded from efficacy analyses. The risk for hypertension was increased in the presence of the T allele in IL8 rs1126647 (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI = 1.07-2.67, P = 0.024). The T allele in IL13 rs1800925 was associated with an increase in the risk of leukopenia (OR = 6.76, 95 % CI = 1.35-33.9, P = 0.020) and increased prevalence of any toxicity > grade 2 (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI = 1.06-2.88, P = 0.028). No significant associations were found with PFS, OS or clinical response.
CONCLUSIONS: We show that polymorphisms in IL8 rs1126647 and IL13 rs1800925 are associated with sunitinib-induced toxicities. Validation in an independent cohort is required.

Liu Y, Flynn TJ, Xia M, et al.
Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2015; 31(4-5):221-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 > HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC 50 within 2.5-fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity.

Han K, Jin JY, Marchand M, et al.
Population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications for cobimetinib in patients with solid tumors.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 76(5):917-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To characterize cobimetinib pharmacokinetics and evaluate impact of clinically relevant covariates on cobimetinib pharmacokinetics.
METHODS: Plasma samples (N = 4886) were collected from 487 patients with various solid tumors (mainly melanoma) in three clinical studies (MEK4592g, NO25395, GO28141). Cobimetinib was administered orally, once daily on either a 21-day-on/7-day-off, 14-day-on/14-day-off or 28-day-on schedule in a 28-day dosing cycle as single agent or in combination with vemurafenib. Cobimetinib doses ranged from 2.1 to 125 mg. NONMEM was used for pharmacokinetic analysis.
RESULTS: A linear two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag time and first-order elimination described cobimetinib pharmacokinetics. The typical estimates (inter-individual variability) of apparent clearance (CL/F), central volume of distribution (V2/F) and terminal half-life were 322 L/day (58 %), 511 L (49 %) and 2.2 days, respectively. Inter-occasion variability on relative bioavailability was estimated at 46 %. CL/F decreased with age. V2/F increased with body weight (BWT). However, the impact of age and BWT on cobimetinib steady-state exposure (peak and trough concentrations and AUC following the recommended daily dose of 60 mg 21-day-on/7-day-off) was limited (<25 % changes across the distribution of age and BWT). No significant difference in cobimetinib pharmacokinetics or steady-state exposure was observed between patient subgroups based on sex, renal function, ECOG score, hepatic function tests, race, region, cancer type, and co-administration of moderate and weak CYP3A inducers or inhibitors and vemurafenib.
CONCLUSION: A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for cobimetinib in cancer patients. Covariates had minimal impact on steady-state exposure, suggesting no need for dose adjustments and supporting the recommended dose for all patients.

Vaidya S, Ghosh K, Shanmukhaiah C, Vundinti BR
Genetic variations of hOCT1 gene and CYP3A4/A5 genes and their association with imatinib response in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2015; 765:124-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating that mechanisms independent of BCR/ABL gene also contribute to imatinib resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). It has been extensively reported that polymorphisms of the genes associated with imatinib metabolization and imatinib influx/efflux play an important role in the disease resistance. We investigated the impact of 12 genetic variants of the two genes, CYP3A4/A5 and the human cation transporter 1 gene (hOCT1) on the clinical outcome, in a cohort of 106 newly diagnosed CML patients. In the patient cohort investigated, only 6 variant alleles could be detected. The others were not present and could not be investigated. Two polymorphisms, CYP3A5*3 (rs776746)and hOCT1 M408V (rs628031), were significantly associated with the Complete Cytogenetic Response (CCyR) at 6 months and Major Molecular Response (MMR) at 12 months. The presence of favourable alleles at M408V and M420del in combination was associated with a MMR at 12 months. Functional polymorphisms of the genes associated with imatinib influx and metabolization may play a role in predicting primary response to imatinib and treatment outcome.

Sundby E, Han J, Kaspersen SJ, Hoff BH
In vitro baselining of new pyrrolopyrimidine EGFR-TK inhibitors with Erlotinib.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2015; 80:56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors are useful in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, and show promise in combination therapy settings. Two novel chiral pyrrolopyrimidines have been baselined towards Erlotinib, Lapatinib and Dasatinib using in vitro cellular studies and ADME profiling. One of these, (S)-2-((6-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-phenylethan-1-ol, was more active than Erlotinib in lung and breast cancer cell models. The compound also had promising activity towards ovarian cancer cell lines, while low activity was seen towards cells of haematological origin. ADME profiling revealed good solubility, higher metabolic stability than Erlotinib and no inhibitory effect towards the hERG voltage-gated ion channel. Investigation of inhibitory potency towards 6 CYP isoforms generally revealed low inhibitory potency, but in the case of CYP3A4, a substrate dependent inhibition was noted using testosterone as substrate (IC50: 12.5μM). No cellular or gene toxicity was noted for the compounds or products of phase I metabolism. However, permeability studies using Caco-2 cells revealed a high efflux ratio. Further experiments using ABC transporter inhibitors revealed that the pyrrolopyrimidines are actively transported by the breast cancer resistant protein and P-glycoprotein transporters, which might prevent their further development into drugs.

Shi Y, Liu Y, Wei Z, et al.
Hsa-miR-27a is involved in the regulation of CYP3A4 expression in human livers from Chinese Han population.
Pharmacogenomics. 2015; 16(12):1379-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The huge interindividual difference of CYP3A4 expression may contribute to the variability of drug response. Post-transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 remains elusive although transcriptional regulation has been studied much more clearly. microRNAs (miRNAs) were reported to be one of factors to regulate the expression of CYP3A4 previously.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Based on the in silico prediction of 3'-UTR-bindind site of microRNA-27a (miR-27a), the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of miR-27a were investigated through luciferase reporter assay, real-time PCR and immunoblot.
RESULTS: The significantly decrease of CYP3A4 3'-UTR-luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 and Hep3B cells was detected after transfected with plasmid that expressed miRNA-27a in luciferase reporter assay. Correlation study was conducted in human livers (n = 26) and significant correlation has been discovered between miRNA-27a and CYP3A4 mRNA and protein level.
CONCLUSION: Together, these findings suggest that miR-27a might be involved in the regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression.

Wan YC, Li T, Han YD, et al.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015 Apr-Jun; 29(2):401-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The causes and pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are still not clearly understood. This study aims to prove the important role of rifaximin played in inflammatory reaction caused by abnormity of the intestinal mucosal immune system. Intestinal microflora can greatly promote and maintain the inflammatory reaction of IBD, therefore, antibiotics can be used to treat IBD. Rifaximin is a medicine usually used for local intestinal infection. Many clinical and basic studies have shown that both a single application of rifaximin and the joint application with other medicines could achieve a good efficacy. This paper studied the activation of Pregnane Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) in treating IBD with rifaximin and analyzed its efficacy in IBD when PXR was involved in the transport of medicine and metabolism. The results prove that rifaximin can not only serve as an anti-microbial drug, but can activate PXR and actually weaken the reaction of IBD. Thus it is safe to say that rifaximin has great potential in treating IBD.

Lopes BA, Emerenciano M, Gonçalves BA, et al.
Polymorphisms in CYP1B1, CYP3A5, GSTT1, and SULT1A1 Are Associated with Early Age Acute Leukemia.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127308 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Based on observational studies, early age leukemia (EAL) was associated with maternal hormone exposure during pregnancy. We studied the association between genetic polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism and EAL. Using data from the Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia (2000-2012), 350 cases and 404 age-matched controls and 134 mothers of cases and controls were genotyped to explore polymorphisms in genes of the estrogen metabolism pathway: CYP1B1 (c.1294C>G, rs1056836), CYP3A4 (c.-392A>G, rs2740574), CYP3A5 (c.219-237G>A, rs776746), GSTM1/GSTT1 deletions, and SULT1A1 (c.638G>A, rs9282861; and c.667A>G, rs1801030). Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) by ethnicity. Because of multiple testing, p values < 0.01 were significant after Bonferroni correction. SULT1A1 (c.638G>A) was associated to infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk in males (additive model: aOR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, p = 0.03; dominant model: aOR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.05, p = 0.01, respectively). CYP1B1 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of AML either for non-white or female children (additive model: OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.76, p < 0.01; additive model: aOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Since polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 genes presented gender-specific risk associations, we also investigated their expression. CYP1B1 was not expressed in 57.1% of EAL cases, and its expression varied by genotype, gender, and leukemia subtype. Maternal-fetal GSTT1 null genotype was associated with risk of EAL. This study shows that polymorphisms in genes of estrogen metabolism confer genetic susceptibility to EAL, mainly in males, and maternal susceptibility genes modify the risk for developing EAL in newborns.

Chau CH, Price DK, Till C, et al.
Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0126672 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.
METHODS: Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.

de Vries Schultink AH, Zwart W, Linn SC, et al.
Effects of Pharmacogenetics on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamoxifen.
Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015; 54(8):797-810 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of metabolizing enzymes alone.

Diekstra MH, Swen JJ, Boven E, et al.
CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms as predictors for sunitinib outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Eur Urol. 2015; 68(4):621-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In our exploratory studies, we associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes with the efficacy and toxicities of sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
OBJECTIVE: To see whether previously reported associations of SNPs with sunitinib-induced toxicities and efficacy in mRCC can be confirmed in a large cohort of patients.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The mRCC patients treated with sunitinib and a DNA sample available were pooled from three exploratory studies conducted in the United States, Spain, and the Netherlands. A total of 22 SNPs and 6 haplotypes in 10 candidate genes related to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sunitinib were selected for association testing.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: SNPs and haplotypes were tested for associations with toxicity, dose reductions, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and best objective response.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 333 patients were included. We confirmed 2 of the 22 previously reported SNP associations. The presence of CYP3A5*1 was associated with dose reductions (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-4.0, p=0.039). The presence of CGT in the ABCB1 haplotype was associated with an increased PFS (hazard ratio: 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6; p<0.001) and remained significant after Bonferroni correction. These associations are consistent with prior observations.
CONCLUSIONS: The confirmation of previously reported associations between polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 with sunitinib toxicity and efficacy, respectively, indicates that genotyping of these genetic variants will be useful for guiding sunitinib treatment. A prospective validation study is needed to confirm our findings on ABCB1 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We confirmed that variants in genes involved in processing sunitinib through the body have an effect on sunitinib treatment outcome. These findings confirm the potential of testing for these genetic variants to improve individual patient care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

Alonso S, Su M, Jones JW, et al.
Human bone marrow niche chemoprotection mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(17):14905-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Substantial evidence now demonstrates that interactions between the tumor microenvironment and malignant cells are a critical component of clinical drug resistance. However, the mechanisms responsible for microenvironment-mediated chemoprotection remain unclear. We showed that bone marrow (BM) stromal cytochrome P450 (CYP)26 enzymes protect normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the pro-differentiation effects of retinoic acid. Here, we investigated if stromal expression of CYPs is a general mechanism of chemoprotection. We found that similar to human hepatocytes, human BM-derived stromal cells expressed a variety of drug-metabolizing enzymes. CYP3A4, the liver's major drug-metabolizing enzyme, was at least partially responsible for BM stroma's ability to protect multiple myeloma (MM) and leukemia cells from bortezomib and etoposide, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, clarithromycin overcame stromal-mediated MM resistance to dexamethasone, suggesting that CYP3A4 inhibition plays a role in its ability to augment the activity of lenalidomide and dexamethasone as part of the BiRd regimen. We uncovered a novel mechanism of microenvironment-mediated drug resistance, whereby the BM niche creates a sanctuary site from drugs. Targeting these sanctuaries holds promise for eliminating minimal residual tumor and improving cancer outcomes.

Lambrechts S, Lambrechts D, Despierre E, et al.
Genetic variability in drug transport, metabolism or DNA repair affecting toxicity of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015; 16:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair or metabolism of taxanes or platinum could predict toxicity or response to first-line chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Twenty-six selected SNPs in 18 genes were genotyped in 322 patients treated with first-line paclitaxel-carboplatin or carboplatin mono-therapy. Genotypes were correlated with toxicity events (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, neurotoxicity), use of growth factors and survival.
RESULTS: The risk of anemia was increased for variant alleles of rs1128503 (ABCB1, C > T; p = 0.023, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.07-2.71), rs363717 (ABCA1, A > G; p = 0.002, OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.32-3.27) and rs11615 (ERCC1, T > C; p = 0.031, OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.04-2.50), while it was decreased for variant alleles of rs12762549 (ABCC2, C > G; p = 0.004, OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.33-0.81). Likewise, increased risk of thrombocytopenia was associated with rs4986910 (CYP3A4, T > C; p = 0.025, OR = 4.99, 95% CI = 1.22-20.31). No significant correlations were found for neurotoxicity. Variant alleles of rs2073337 (ABCC2, A > G; p = 0.039, OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98), rs1695 (ABCC1, A > G; p = 0.017, OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) and rs1799793 (ERCC2, G > A; p = 0.042, OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.98) associated with the use of colony stimulating factors (CSF), while rs2074087 (ABCC1, G > C; p = 0.011, OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.18-3.68) correlated with use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Homozygous carriers of the rs1799793 (ERCC2, G > A) G-allele had a prolonged platinum-free interval (p = 0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal significant correlations between genetic variants of transport, hepatic metabolism, platinum related detoxification or DNA damage repair and toxicity or outcome in ovarian cancer.

Hagleitner MM, Coenen MJ, Gelderblom H, et al.
A First Step toward Personalized Medicine in Osteosarcoma: Pharmacogenetics as Predictive Marker of Outcome after Chemotherapy-Based Treatment.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(15):3436-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Overall survival in patients with osteosarcoma is only 60%. Poor response to chemotherapy is the dominant risk factor for poor survival. Pharmacogenetic research can offer possibilities to optimize treatment and improve outcome. We applied a pathway-based approach to evaluate the cumulative effect of genes involved in the metabolism of cisplatin and doxorubicin in relationship to clinical outcome.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We included 126 patients with osteosarcoma. To comprehensively assess common genetic variation in the 54 genes selected, linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8)-based tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) strategy was used. A final set of 384 SNPs was typed using Illumina Beadarray platform. SNPs significantly associated with 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) were replicated in another 64 patients with osteosarcoma.
RESULTS: We identified five variants in FasL, MSH2, ABCC5, CASP3, and CYP3A4 that were associated with 5-year PFS. Risk stratification based on the combined effects of the risk alleles showed a significant improvement of 5-year PFS. Patients that carried no or only one risk allele had a 5-year PFS of 100% compared with a 5-year PFS of 84.4% for carriers of two or three risk alleles, 66.7% PFS if a patient carried four to five alleles, and a 5-year PFS of 41.8% for patients with >5 risk alleles (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified several genes that showed association with PFS in patients with osteosarcoma. These pharmacogenetic risk factors might be useful to predict treatment outcome and to stratify patients immediately after diagnosis and offer the possibility to improve treatment and outcome.

Thomas M, Bayha C, Vetter S, et al.
Activating and Inhibitory Functions of WNT/β-Catenin in the Induction of Cytochromes P450 by Nuclear Receptors in HepaRG Cells.
Mol Pharmacol. 2015; 87(6):1013-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway has been identified as an important endogenous regulator of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) expression in mouse liver. In particular, it is involved in the regulation of P450 expression in response to exposure to xenobiotic agonists of the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and Nrf2. To systematically elucidate the effect of the WNT/β-catenin pathway on the regulation and inducibility of major human P450 enzymes, HepaRG cells were treated with either the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway agonist, WNT3a, or with small interfering RNA directed against β-catenin, alone or in combination with a panel of activating ligands for AhR [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)], CAR [6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO)], pregnane X receptor (PXR) [rifampicin], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid (WY14,643)]. Assessment of P450 gene expression and enzymatic activity after downregulation or activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway revealed a requirement of β-catenin in the AhR-, CAR-, and PXR-mediated induction of CYP1A, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 (for CAR and PXR), and CYP2C8 (for PXR) gene expression. By contrast, activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway prevented PPARα-mediated induction of CYP1A, CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP4A11 genes, suggesting a dominant-negative role of β-catenin in PPARα-mediated regulation of these genes. Our data indicate a significant effect of the WNT/β-catenin pathway on the regulation of P450 enzymes in human hepatocytes and reveal a novel crosstalk between β-catenin and PPARα signaling pathways in the regulation of P450 expression.

Hamilton G, Rath B, Burghuber O
Pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in NSCLC patients.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015; 11(5):835-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: For a subpopulation of NSCLC patients genetic rearrangement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was found as driver mutation, which can be targeted by the selective inhibitor crizotinib.
AREAS COVERED: This article presents an overview of the clinical studies that provided the characterization of the pharmacokinetic parameters for the administration of crizotinib to cancer patients and the factors influencing the clinical profiles of this drug.
EXPERT OPINION: Crizotinib is administered orally as a capsule and clinical studies indicated 250 mg crizotinib BID continuously as the maximal tolerated dose in cancer patients. Bioavailability is ∼ 40% and pharmacokinetic parameters are influenced by food only to a minor degree. This dose of the drug corresponds to a significant inhibition of the mutated ALK, retards tumor growth and achieves clinical responses in the majority of patients. Crizotinib lactam is the single metabolite with minor inhibitory activity for the ALK fusion protein. Metabolization is executed mainly by CYP3A4/5 and is modulated by other drugs interacting with this cytochrome oxidase. Despite the one-fits-all approach in administration of crizotinib at a fixed dose the pharmacokinetic parameters indicate a stable steady state upon continuous administration, which achieves sufficient inhibition of the ALK drug target.

Chiu CT, Hsuan SW, Lin HH, et al.
Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.
J Food Sci. 2015; 80(3):H649-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent.

Jiang F, Chen L, Yang YC, et al.
CYP3A5 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Regulating mTORC2/Akt Signaling.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(7):1470-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
CYP3A5 is a cytochrome P450 protein that functions in the liver metabolism of many carcinogens and cancer drugs. However, it has not been thought to directly affect cancer progression. In this study, we challenge this perspective by demonstrating that CYP3A5 is downregulated in many hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), where it has an important role as a tumor suppressor that antagonizes the malignant phenotype. CYP3A5 was downregulated in multiple cohorts of human HCC examined. Lower CYP3A5 levels were associated with more aggressive vascular invasion, poor differentiation, shorter time to disease recurrence after treatment, and worse overall patient survival. Mechanistic investigations showed that CYP3A5 overexpression limited MMP2/9 function and suppressed HCC migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting AKT signaling. Notably, AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 was inhibited in CYP3A5-overexpressing HCC cells, an event requiring mTORC2 but not Rictor/mTOR complex formation. CYP3A5-induced ROS accumulation was found to be a critical upstream regulator of mTORC2 activity, consistent with evidence of reduced GSH redox activity in most clinical HCC specimens with reduced metastatic capacity. Taken together, our results defined CYP3A5 as a suppressor of HCC pathogenesis and metastasis with potential utility a prognostic biomarker.

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