EFEMP1; EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (2p16)

Gene Summary

Gene:EFEMP1; EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the fibulin family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Like all members of this family, the encoded protein contains tandemly repeated epidermal growth factor-like repeats followed by a C-terminus fibulin-type domain. This gene is upregulated in malignant gliomas and may play a role in the aggressive nature of these tumors. Mutations in this gene are associated with Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1
Updated:12 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 12 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Vimentin
  • Up-Regulation
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Endothelial Cells
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • CpG Islands
  • Signal Transduction
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Staging
  • Western Blotting
  • Messenger RNA
  • Apoptosis
  • Survival Rate
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Transfection
  • Cell Movement
  • Liver Cancer
  • Epigenetics
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Gene Silencing
  • Angiogenesis
  • Disease Progression
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair None
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tumor Markers
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Adenocarcinoma
Tag cloud generated 12 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (3)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Lung CancerEFEMP1 and Lung Cancer View Publications5
Lung Cancer, Non-Small CellEFEMP1 and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer View Publications4
Liver CancerEFEMP1 and Liver Cancer View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: EFEMP1 (cancer-related)

Chen J, Wei D, Zhao Y, et al.
Overexpression of EFEMP1 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human ovarian carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78783 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study was to explore the role of EFEMP1 in ovarian tumor progression and its relationship with prognosis of ovarian carcinoma.
METHODS: EFEMP1 mRNA and protein expressions in normal ovarian tissue, ovarian tumor, high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR. Serum EFEMP1 levels in patients with ovarian tumor were measured by ELISA assay. To assess the angiogenic properties of EFEMP1, VEGF and tumor microvessel density were analyzed in ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: EFEMP1 expression was up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma, positively correlated with MVD and VEGF, and its overexpression and high serum levels were significantly associated with high stage, low differentiation, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of ovarian cancer. EFEMP1 expression was also found to be over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones.
CONCLUSION: EFEMP1 is a newly identified gene over-expressed in ovarian cancer, associated with poor clinicopathologic features and promotes angiogenesis. This study shows that EFEMP1 may serve as a new prognostic factor and a therapeutic target for patients with ovarian cancer in the future.

Related: Angiogenesis and Cancer Ovarian Cancer VEGFA

Xu S, Yang Y, Sun YB, et al.
Role of fibulin-3 in lung cancer: in vivo and in vitro analyses.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(1):79-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer was the most commonly diagnosed cancer in 2008 worldwide. The level of fibulin-3 expression was found to be decreased in many cancer types due to aberrant promoter methylation and is correlated with poor survival of patients. However, the role of fibulin-3 and which form of fibulin-3 is expressed in lung cancer cells remain unclear. Therefore, pathologic and functional studies were carried out to determine the role of fibulin-3 in suppressing lung cancer both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we found that the levels of fibulin-3 mRNA and protein were lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Downregulation of fibulin-3 mRNA in tumor tissues was associated with an increase in fibulin-3 promoter methylation. Circulating fibulin-3 was significantly associated with tumor progression, survival rate of lung cancer patients, and the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). To examine the effects of exogenous expression of fibulin-3 in vitro, lung cancer A549 cells were transfected with the pEGFP-C1-fibulin-3 expression vector. Relative to the untreated cells, fibulin-3-expressing cells exhibited lower proliferation and mobility as determined by MTT and Transwell assays, respectively. To conclude, our results suggest that fibulin-3 negatively modulates the invasiveness of lung cancer cells via regulation of p38-MAPK and MMP-2/9.

Related: Lung Cancer MMP2 MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9

Duong CV, Yacqub-Usman K, Emes RD, et al.
The EFEMP1 gene: a frequent target for epigenetic silencing in multiple human pituitary adenoma subtypes.
Neuroendocrinology. 2013; 98(3):200-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In a genome-wide investigation we recently identified the EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 gene, EFEMP1, as hypermethylated in growth hormone-secreting adenoma.
METHODS: In an independent cohort we determined expression of EFEMP1, CpG island methylation and histone tail modification status. The causal consequences of epigenetic modification were determined through epidrug-induced reversal and enforced EFEMP1 expression in GH3 cells.
RESULTS: The majority of adenomas, irrespective of subtype, show reduced EFEMP1 expression. However, epigenetic change, as determined by CpG island methylation, was not invariantly associated with decreased EFEMP1 expression. Conversely, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed enrichment for modifications associated with either active or silenced genes in adenoma that did or did not express EFEMP1 respectively. In AtT-20 and GH3 cells a causal relationship between epigenetic silencing and expression of EFEMP1 was established where co-incubation with the epidrugs zebularine and TSA induced expression of EFEMP1 and concomitant histone tail modifications toward those associated with expressed genes. Enforced expression of EFEMP1 in GH3 cells was without effect on cell proliferation or apoptotic end-points, however inhibition of endogenous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression was apparent. Primary adenomas did not show this relationship, however a positive correlation was apparent with the MMP7 transcript and perhaps reflects cell or species differences.
CONCLUSIONS: The protein product of the EFEMP1 gene, fibulin-3, is reported to impact on multiple pathways in a cell-specific context. Subtype-independent loss of EFEMP1 expression in the majority of primary adenomas should prompt more detailed investigation in this tumour type.

Related: Pituitary Tumors

Luo R, Zhang M, Liu L, et al.
Decrease of fibulin-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma indicates poor prognosis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibulin-3, originally identified in senescent and Werner syndrome fibroblasts, has been implicated in cell morphology, growth, adhesion and motility. Fibulin-3 exhibits both antitumor and oncogenic activities towards human cancers; however, the role of Fibulin-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this study, we showed that both the mRNA and protein levels of Fibulin-3 were remarkably downregulated in HCC cell lines and fresh tissues. Immunohistochemical data revealed that Fibulin-3 was decreased in tumorous tissues in 67.1% (171/255) of cases compared to the corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissues. The results of statistical analysis indicated that low Fibulin-3 expression, defined by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), was significantly associated with tumor differentiation (P=0.008), clinical stage (P=0.014) and serum AFP levels (P<0.01). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis suggested that Fibulin-3 is an independent negative prognostic indicator for both overall (P<0.001) and recurrence-free (P=0.036) survival. In addition, an in vitro study demonstrated that knockdown of Fibulin-3 by siRNA markedly increased cell viability and promoted cell invasion in HCC cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Fibulin-3 exhibits antitumor effects towards HCC and serves as a biomarker of unfavorable prognosis for this deadly disease.

Related: Liver Cancer

Yang T, Qiu H, Bao W, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of EFEMP1 is associated with tumor suppressive function in endometrial carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e67458 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: EFEMP1, the epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1, functions as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor depending on the cancer types. In this study, we aim to determine whether EFEMP1 affects the tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma.
METHODS: The expression of EFEMP1 was investigated using immunohistochemistry in a panel of normal endometrium (n = 40), atypical hyperplasia (n = 10) and endometrial carcinoma tissues (n = 84). Methylation status of the EFEMP1 promoter was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulphite genomic sequencing. Up- or down-regulation of EFEMP1 were achieved by stable or transient transfection with pCMV6/GFP/Neo-EFEMP1 or pGPU6/GFP/Neo-shEFEMP1 respectively. Effects of EFEMP1 on tumor proliferation, invasion and migration were evaluated by MTT, plate colony formation, Transwell and wound healing assay. The nude mouse tumor xenograft assay was used to investigate function of EFEMP1 in vivo.
RESULTS: Compared with normal endometrium (32/40) and atypical hyperplasia (7/10), EFEMP1 expression was much lower in endometrial carcinoma tissues (16/84) (P<0.001 and P = 0.02). EFEMP1 promoter was hypermethylated in endometrial carcinoma tissues (67%) as compared to normal tissue (10%) and down-regulation of EFEMP1 was associated with promoter hypermethylation. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and/or trichostatin A (TSA) altered EFEMP1 methylation status, and restored EFEMP1 expression. Moreover, EFEMP1 decreased secretion of MMPs and inhibited tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumorigenesis in nude mice. Besides, EFEMP1 increased expression of E-cadherin and suppressed expression of vimentin in endometrial carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: EFEMP1 is a new candidate tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma, and is frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation. It could inhibit tumor growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings propose that targeting EFEMP1 might offer future clinical utility in endometrial carcinoma.

Related: Endometrial (Uterus) Cancer Endometrial Cancer

Márquez J, Kohli M, Arteta B, et al.
Identification of hepatic microvascular adhesion-related genes of human colon cancer cells using random homozygous gene perturbation.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(9):2113-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Random homozygous gene perturbation (RHGP), in combination with liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) adhesion screening of clonal colon cancer cells with perturbed genes, was used to identify genes contributing to the hepatic microvascular adhesion of colon cancer cells. Plasmid vector encoding transactivator and gene search vector were transfected into HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells to create a HT-29 RHGP cell library; the adhesion of these library cells to primary cultured mouse LSEC significantly decreased in the presence of RSL1 ligand (inducer), indicating that most of the genes contributing to HT-29 adhesion to LSEC were altered. Next, HT-29 RHGP cell library fractions with upregulated or silenced LSEC adhesion-related genes were isolated. Around 160 clones having altered expression in LSEC adhesion-related genes were obtained, and nine relevant protein-coding genes were identified. Some were proadhesive genes detected because of their overexpression in adherent HT-29 cells (DGCR8 and EFEMP1 genes) and their silenced status in nonadherent HT-29 cells (DGKE, DPY19L1, KIAA0753, PVR and USP11 genes). Others were antiadhesive genes detected because of their overexpression in nonadherent HT-29 cells (ITPKC gene) and their silenced status in adherent HT-29 cells (PPP6R2 gene). Silencing of PVR, DGCR8 and EFEMP1 genes decreased adhesion to LSEC and hepatic microvascular retention of HT-29 cells. The results conclude that RHGP was a valuable strategy for the discovery of mechanisms regulating microvascular adhesion of circulating colon cancer cells before hepatic metastasis formation. Identified genes may contribute to understand the metastatic process of colon cancer and to discovering molecular targets for hepatic metastasis therapeutics.

Related: Apoptosis Liver Cancer

Volkomorov V, Grigoryeva E, Krasnov G, et al.
Search for potential gastric cancer markers using miRNA databases and gene expression analysis.
Exp Oncol. 2013; 35(1):2-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in gastric tumors and to analyze the association of their expression level with tumor clinicopathologic features.
METHODS: In the present research, we used bioinformatic-driven search to identify miRNA that are down-regulated in gastric tumors and to find their potential targets. Then, the expression levels of some of the target mRNAs were investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis.
RESULTS: As a result of the bioinformatics analysis, fifteen genes were found to be potentially differentially expressed between the tumors and normal gastric tissue. Five of them were chosen for the further analysis (WNT4, FGF12, EFEMP1, CTGF, and HSPG2) due to their important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Expression levels of these genes were evaluated in our collection of frozen tissue samples of gastric tumor and paired normal stomach epithelia. Increased FGF12 expression was observed in diffuse type of gastric cancer while WNT4 mRNA was found to be down-regulated in intestinal type of gastric cancer. Besides, CTGF gene overexpression was revealed in diffuse type of stomach cancer in comparison with that in intestinal type. Up-regulation of CTGF was also associated with lymph node metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings show its expedient to perform further investigations in order to clarify diagnostic and prognostic value of CTGF, FGF12, and WNT4's in stomach cancer as well as the role of these genes in carcinogenesis.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Diersch S, Wenzel P, Szameitat M, et al.
Efemp1 and p27(Kip1) modulate responsiveness of pancreatic cancer cells towards a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor in preclinical models.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(2):277-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a dismal disease with a poor prognosis and targeted therapies have failed in the clinic so far. Several evidences point to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mTOR pathway as a promising signaling node for targeted therapeutic intervention. Markers, which predict responsiveness of PDAC cells towards PI3K inhibitors are unknown. However, such markers are needed and critical to better stratify patients in clinical trials. We used a large murine Kras(G12D)- and PI3K (p110α(H1047R))-driven PDAC cell line platform to unbiased define modulators of responsiveness towards the dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitor Bez235. In contrast to other tumor models, we show that Kras(G12D)- and PI3K (p110α(H1047R))-driven PDAC cell lines are equally sensitive towards Bez235. In an unbiased approach we found that the extracellular matrix protein Efemp1 controls sensitivity of murine PDAC cells towards Bez235. We show that Efemp1 expression is connected to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). In a murine Kras(G12D)-driven PDAC model, p27(Kip1) haploinsufficiency accelerates cancer development in vivo. Furthermore, p27(Kip1) controls Bez235 sensitivity in a gene dose-dependent fashion in murine PDAC cells and lowering of p27(Kip1) decreases Bez235 responsiveness in murine PDAC models. Together, we define the Efemp1-p27(Kip1) axis as a potential marker module of PDAC cell sensitivity towards dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitors, which might help to better stratify patients in clinical trials.

Related: CDKN1B Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Signal Transduction

Kresse SH, Rydbeck H, Skårn M, et al.
Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e48262 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression) using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30%) cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between DNA copy number, DNA methylation and mRNA expression in osteosarcomas, contributing to better understanding of osteosarcoma biology.

Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma

Rehfeld JF
Beginnings: a reflection on the history of gastrointestinal endocrinology.
Regul Pept. 2012; 177 Suppl:S1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gut is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones share some characteristics: Their structure groups hormones into families, each of which originate from a single gene. A hormone gene is often expressed in multiple peptides due to tandem genes, alternative splicing or differentiated posttranslational processing. By these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are produced in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, gut hormones are widely expressed outside the gut. The different cell types often express different products of the same gene and release the peptides in different ways. Consequently, the same peptide may act as a hormone, a local growth factor, or a neurotransmitter. This new biology suggests that gastrointestinal hormones should be conceived as intercellular messengers of major general impact. The following short review is a vignette on steps in the history of gastrointestinal endocrinology from classic studies of digestive juice secretion over peptide chemistry, immunochemistry, and molecular genetics to modern receptor pharmacology and drug development. From shadowy beginnings, gastrointestinal endocrinology has emerged as a central discipline in the understanding of multicellular life and its diseases.

Hu B, Nandhu MS, Sim H, et al.
Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(15):3873-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance, therefore, could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma-initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a noncanonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and shows how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment.

Related: NOTCH1 gene

Lopez FJ, Cuadros M, Cano C, et al.
Biomedical application of fuzzy association rules for identifying breast cancer biomarkers.
Med Biol Eng Comput. 2012; 50(9):981-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current breast cancer research involves the study of many different prognosis factors: primary tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, tumor receptor status, p53, and ki67 levels, among others. High-throughput microarray technologies are allowing to better understand and identify prognostic factors in breast cancer. But the massive amounts of data derived from these technologies require the use of efficient computational techniques to unveil new and relevant biomedical knowledge. Furthermore, integrative tools are needed that effectively combine heterogeneous types of biomedical data, such as prognosis factors and expression data. The objective of this study was to integrate information from the main prognostic factors in breast cancer with whole-genome microarray data to identify potential associations among them. We propose the application of a data mining approach, called fuzzy association rule mining, to automatically unveil these associations. This paper describes the proposed methodology and illustrates how it can be applied to different breast cancer datasets. The obtained results support known associations involving the number of copies of chromosome-17, HER2 amplification, or the expression level of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer patients. They also confirm the correspondence between the HER2 status predicted by different testing methodologies (immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization). In addition, other interesting rules involving CDC6, SOX11, and EFEMP1 genes are identified, although further detailed studies are needed to statistically confirm these findings. As part of this study, a web platform implementing the fuzzy association rule mining approach has been made freely available at: http://www.genome2.ugr.es/biofar .

Related: Breast Cancer

Malmberg J, Perols A, Varasteh Z, et al.
Comparative evaluation of synthetic anti-HER2 Affibody molecules site-specifically labelled with 111In using N-terminal DOTA, NOTA and NODAGA chelators in mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012; 39(3):481-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In disseminated prostate cancer, expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is one of the pathways to androgen independence. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 expression in disseminated prostate cancer might identify patients for HER2-targeted therapy. Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) targeting proteins with high potential as tracers for radionuclide imaging. The goal of this study was to develop an optimal Affibody-based tracer for visualization of HER2 expression in prostate cancer.
METHODS: A synthetic variant of the anti-HER2 Z(HER2:342) Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:S1), was N-terminally conjugated with the chelators DOTA, NOTA and NODAGA. The conjugated proteins were biophysically characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor analysis. After labelling with (111)In, the biodistribution was assessed in normal mice and the two most promising conjugates were further evaluated for tumour targeting in mice bearing DU-145 prostate cancer xenografts.
RESULTS: The HER2-binding equilibrium dissociation constants were 130, 140 and 90 pM for DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1), respectively. A comparative study of (111)In-labelled DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) in normal mice demonstrated a substantial influence of the chelators on the biodistribution properties of the conjugates. (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) had the most rapid clearance from blood and healthy tissues. (111)In-NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) showed high hepatic uptake and was excluded from further evaluation. (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) demonstrated specific uptake in DU-145 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. The tumour uptake of (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1), 5.6 ± 0.4%ID/g, was significantly lower than the uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), 7.4 ± 0.5%ID/g, presumably because of lower bioavailability due to more rapid clearance. (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) provided higher tumour-to-blood ratio, but somewhat lower tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-spleen and tumour-to-bone ratios.
CONCLUSION: Since distant prostate cancer metastases are situated in bone or bone marrow, the higher tumour-to-bone ratio is the most important. This renders (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1) a preferable agent for imaging of HER2 expression in disseminated prostate cancer.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Prostate Cancer

Marghoob AA
Skin cancers and their etiologies.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2011; 30(4 Suppl):S1-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Skin cancers are the most common form of malignancy. Early diagnosis and treatment provides the best chance for survival and reduced morbidity. However, some patients have recurrent or resistant lesions. In patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), prognosis is relatively good for all four types of lesions (superficial, nodular, infiltrative, and morpheaform), but the highest recurrence rates and greatest morbidity are associated with infiltrative and morpheaform BCC, and prognosis is least favorable when perineural invasion has occurred. Research into the etiology of BCC and other skin cancers has led to the identification of several genetic mutations-those of the Patched and Hedgehog genes. By targeting these pathways, treatments aimed at driver mutations hold promise for new nonsurgical treatments.

Related: Basal Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer

Hu Y, Pioli PD, Siegel E, et al.
EFEMP1 suppresses malignant glioma growth and exerts its action within the tumor extracellular compartment.
Mol Cancer. 2011; 10:123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: There are conflicting reports regarding the function of EFEMP1 in different cancer types. In this study, we sought to evaluate the role of EFEMP1 in malignant glioma biology.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Real-time qRT-PCR was used to quantify EFEMP1 expression in 95 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Human high-grade glioma cell lines and primary cultures were engineered to express ectopic EFEMP1, a small hairpin RNA of EFEMP1, or treated with exogenous recombinant EFEMP1 protein. Following treatment, growth was assayed both in vitro and in vivo (subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracranial (i.c.) xenograft model systems).
RESULTS: Cox regression revealed that EFEMP1 is a favorable prognostic marker for patients with GBM. Over-expression of EFEMP1 eliminated tumor development and suppressed angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and VEGFA expression, while the converse was true with knock-down of endogenous EFEMP1 expression. The EFEMP1 suppression of tumor onset time was nearly restored by ectopic VEGFA expression; however, overall tumor growth rate remained suppressed. This suggested that inhibition of angiogenesis was only partly responsible for EFEMP1's impact on glioma development. In glioma cells that were treated by exogenous EFEMP1 protein or over-expressed endogenous EFEMP1, the EGFR level was reduced and AKT signaling activity attenuated. Mixing of EFEMP1 protein with cells prior to s.c. and i.c. implantations or injection of the protein around the established s.c. xenografts, both significantly suppressed tumorigenicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data reveals that EEFEMP1 suppresses glioma growth in vivo, both by modulating the tumor extracellular microenvironment and by altering critical intracellular oncogenic signaling pathways.

Related: AKT1 Signal Transduction

Kim EJ, Lee SY, Woo MK, et al.
Fibulin-3 promoter methylation alters the invasive behavior of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines via MMP-7 and MMP-2 regulation.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 40(2):402-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibulin-3, an extracellular glycoprotein, has been suggested as having functions in tissue regeneration and organogenesis. However, its role in cancer remains unclear. We show here that fibulin-3 was silenced by hypermethylation of the promoter region in the relatively invasive A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells compared with less invasive H460 NSCLC cells. Enforced expression of fibulin-3 in A549 cells down-regulated cellular MMP-7 and MMP-2, which was followed by inhibition of cell invasiveness. Conversely, suppression of fibulin-3 expression with siRNA in H460 cells showed the opposite effect. These results indicate that fibulin-3 is a negative regulator of invasiveness in NSCLC and further studies are needed for its therapeutic applications in treatment of NSCLC.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer MMP2 MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 Signal Transduction

Wang Z, Yuan X, Jiao N, et al.
CDH13 and FLBN3 gene methylation are associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2012; 18(2):263-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify potential epigenetic prognostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Chinese population. The methylation status of five tumor suppressor genes (CDH13, DLEC1, FBLN3, hMHL1 and RUNX3) was determined using manual microdissection followed by methylation-specific PCR in 85 paired CRC specimens and adjacent normal tissue. The results showed that methylation frequencies in cancerous tissues were 31.8% for CDH13, 37.6% for DLEC1, 38.8% for FBLN3, 22.4% for hMHL1 and 27.1% for RUNX3, all of which were significantly higher than in corresponding normal tissue. Furthermore, CDH13 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P = 0.019) and tended to be predominant in advanced stages (P = 0.084); FBLN3 methylation was associated with advanced stages (P = 0.027) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.029). Accordingly, the methylation status of CDH13 (P = 0.022), FBLN3 (P = 0.008), CDH13 and/or FBLN3 (P = 0.001) predicted adverse overall survival in CRC, while hMHL1 methylation showed a protective role in survival (P = 0.046). Cox proportional hazard models further indicated that CDH13 and/or FBLN3 methylation, but not that of hMHL1, was an independent prognostic factor for CRC. In conclusion, we found CDH13 and FBLN3 gene methylation are potential biomarkers for poor prognosis in CRC.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Tong JD, Jiao NL, Wang YX, et al.
Downregulation of fibulin-3 gene by promoter methylation in colorectal cancer predicts adverse prognosis.
Neoplasma. 2011; 58(5):441-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibulin-3 gene has been identified as an antagonist of angiogenesis. We investigated the protein expression and promoter methylation status of fibulin-3 gene in colorectal cancer (CRC) and analyzed its correlation with clinicopathological factors. The study population enrolled 85 paired CRC specimens and adjacent normal tissues, as well as 32 cases of colorectal adenoma. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded samples using manual microdissection. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was used to determine the promoter methylation status and fibulin-3 gene expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that, downregulation or silence of fibulin-3 protein was found in 57.6% (49/85) of CRC tissues, which was significantly higher than that of adjacent normal tissues (28.2%, 24/85) and colorectal adenoma (34.4%, 11/32) (P<0.05). Furthermore, 33 out of 85 (38.8%) CRC specimens showed hypermethylation in fibulin-3 promoter region, and fibulin-3 methylation was closely correlated with its loss of expression. Also, downregulation of fibulin-3 was associated with advanced stage (P=0.008) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.013). Survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models indicated that fibulin-3 downregulation was an independent factor related to adverse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of CRC. In conclusion, we found aberrant methylation caused fibulin-3 downregulation in CRC, and fibulin-3 downregulation was correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and poor survival, which maybe use as a potential prognostic factor for CRC.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Kim YJ, Yoon HY, Kim SK, et al.
EFEMP1 as a novel DNA methylation marker for prostate cancer: array-based DNA methylation and expression profiling.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(13):4523-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Abnormal DNA methylation is associated with many human cancers. The aim of the present study was to identify novel methylation markers in prostate cancer (PCa) by microarray analysis and to test whether these markers could discriminate normal and PCa cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Microarray-based DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was carried out using a panel of PCa cell lines and a control normal prostate cell line. The methylation status of candidate genes in prostate cell lines was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, bisulfite sequencing analysis, and treatment with a demethylation agent. DNA methylation and gene expression analysis in 203 human prostate specimens, including 106 PCa and 97 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), were carried out. Further validation using microarray gene expression data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was carried out.
RESULTS: Epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was identified as a lead candidate methylation marker for PCa. The gene expression level of EFEMP1 was significantly higher in tissue samples from patients with BPH than in those with PCa (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of EFEMP1 methylation status in discriminating between PCa and BPH reached 95.3% (101 of 106) and 86.6% (84 of 97), respectively. From the GEO data set, we confirmed that the expression level of EFEMP1 was significantly different between PCa and BPH.
CONCLUSION: Genome-wide characterization of DNA methylation profiles enabled the identification of EFEMP1 aberrant methylation patterns in PCa. EFEMP1 might be a useful indicator for the detection of PCa.

Related: Azacitidine Prostate Cancer

Zhang Y, Wang R, Song H, et al.
Methylation of multiple genes as a candidate biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2011; 303(1):21-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation is a common phenomenon in human cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate the methylation profiles of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Chinese population. Twenty tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) were determined of the methylation status using methylation-specific PCR in 78 paired NSCLC specimens and adjacent normal tissues, as well as in 110 Stage I/II NSCLC and 50 cancer-free plasmas. The results showed that, nine genes (APC, CDH13, KLK10, DLEC1, RASSF1A, EFEMP1, SFRP1, RARβ and p16(INK4A)) demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of methylation in NSCLC compared with the normal tissues (P≤0.001), while the others (RUNX3, hMLH1, DAPK, BRCA1, p14(ARF), MGMT, NORE1A, FHIT, CMTM3, LSAMP and OPCML) showed relatively low sensitivity or specificity. Furthermore, methylation of multiple genes was more frequentin cancerous tissue, CpG island methylator phenotype positive (CIMP+) cases were detected in 65.38% of (51/78) NSCLC while only in 1.28% (1/78) of adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001), and CIMP+ was associated with advanced stage (P=0.017), lymphatic metastasis (P=0.001) and adverse 2-year progression-free survival (P=0.027). The nine genes validated in tissues also showed a significantly higher frequency of tumor-specific hypermethylation in NSCLC plasma, as compared with the cancer-free plasmas, and a 5-gene set (APC, RASSF1A, CDH13, KLK10 and DLEC1) achieved a sensitivity of 83.64% and a specificity of 74.0% for cancer diagnosis. Thus, the results indicated that methylated alteration of multiple genes plays an important role in NSCLC pathogenesis and a panel of candidate epigenetic biomarkers for NSCLC detection in the Chinese population was identified.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Press JZ, Wurz K, Norquist BM, et al.
Identification of a preneoplastic gene expression profile in tubal epithelium of BRCA1 mutation carriers.
Neoplasia. 2010; 12(12):993-1002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microinvasive carcinomas and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasms are commonly discovered within the fallopian tube of BRCA1 mutation carriers at the time of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, suggesting that many BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas originate in tubal epithelium. We hypothesized that changes in gene expression profiles within the histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium of BRCA1 mutation carriers would overlap with the expression profiles in BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas and represent a BRCA1 preneoplastic signature. Laser capture microdissection of frozen sections was used to isolate neoplastic cells or histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium, and expression profiles were generated on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 gene expression arrays. Normal-risk controls were 11 women wild type for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (WT-FT). WT-FT were compared with histologically normal fallopian tube epithelium from seven women with deleterious BRCA1 mutations who had foci of at least intraepithelial neoplasm within their fallopian tube (B1-FTocc). WT-FT samples were also compared with 12 BRCA1 ovarian carcinomas (B1-CA). The comparison of WT-FT versus B1-FTocc resulted in 152 differentially expressed probe sets, and the comparison of WT-FT versus B1-CA resulted in 4079 differentially expressed probe sets. The BRCA1 preneoplastic signature was composed of the overlap between these two lists, which included 41 concordant probe sets. Genes in the BRCA1 preneoplastic signature included several known tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN1C and EFEMP1 and several thought to be important in invasion and metastasis such as E2F3. The expression of a subset of genes was validated with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.

Related: E2F3 Fallopian Tube Cancer BRCA1 BRCA2 MKI67 Ovarian Cancer

Song EL, Hou YP, Yu SP, et al.
EFEMP1 expression promotes angiogenesis and accelerates the growth of cervical cancer in vivo.
Gynecol Oncol. 2011; 121(1):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study was to investigate the role of EFEMP1 in angiogenesis and growth of cervical carcinoma in vivo.
METHODS: Effects of EFEMP1 on proliferation of Hela cells and HUVECs, invasion of Hela cells and migration of HUVECs, and adhesion of Hela cells to HUVECs were evaluated by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and adhesion assay, respectively. EFEMP1 overexpression in Hela cells was achieved by stable EFEMP1 gene transfection into Hela cells by Lipofectamin™ 2000 and the effectiveness of transfection was verified with western-blotting. The effect of EFEMP1 transfection upon the VEGF expression of Hela cells was detected with ELISA. The nude mouse models bearing cervical cancer were established with Hela cells transfected with EFEMP1 gene to observe the role of EFEMP1 in angiogenesis and growth of cervical cancer in vivo. VEGF expression and microvascular density of cervical cancer tissues were detected with immunohistochemistry and CD34 labeling respectively to elucidate the pathway by which EFEMP1 influences the growth of cervical cancer.
RESULTS: Proliferation and invasion of Hela cells were promoted by the EFEMP1 protein. The EFEMP1 gene transfection into Hela cells was successful and EFEMP1 gene obtained stable high expression in Hela cells. Compared to the control, the tumors with EFEMP1 overexpression showed a faster growth rate and had a higher level of VEGF expression and microvascular density. EFEMP1 gene transfection elevated the VEGF protein level in Hela cells and EFEMP1 protein facilitated the adhesion of Hela cells to HUVECs. However, no direct effect of EFEMP1 was observed on proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs.
CONCLUSIONS: EFEMP1 promoted the angiogenesis and accelerated the growth of cervical carcinoma in vivo through a VEGF up-regulation pathway.

Related: Angiogenesis and Cancer Cervical Cancer

Hwang CF, Chien CY, Huang SC, et al.
Fibulin-3 is associated with tumour progression and a poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinomas and inhibits cell migration and invasion via suppressed AKT activity.
J Pathol. 2010; 222(4):367-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is known for its highly metastatic character. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment have not improved the high mortality rate that is attributable to early metastasis. Although several biomarkers correlate with metastasis and prognosis, the molecular mechanisms of NPC development and progression remain unclear. We demonstrate comprehensively that fibulin-3 is down-regulated in NPC. Loss of fibulin-3 expression is significantly correlated with advanced tumour and lymph node-metastasis stages, and indicates a poor 5-year survival rate. Functionally, fibulin-3 has the ability to suppress cell migration and invasion in NPC cancer cells by decreasing the activity of phospho-AKT. Conversely, its depletion by fibulin-3-mediated siRNAs may elevate phospho-AKT activity and significantly enhance the ability of NPC cancer cells to migrate and invade. Consistent with this negative association between fibulin-3 and phospho-AKT, their expression levels are inversely correlated in NPC specimens by immunohistochemical analysis. Thus, lower fibulin-3 expression is an important indicator of poor survival. It may also contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies to block the PI3K/AKT pathway in NPC cancer cells.

Related: Nasopharyngeal Cancer AKT1

Davidson B, Stavnes HT, Holth A, et al.
Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions.
J Cell Mol Med. 2011; 15(3):535-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities.With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies,as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina.Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3,PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.

Related: Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer TFF1

Wang R, Zhang YW, Chen LB
Aberrant promoter methylation of FBLN-3 gene and clinicopathological significance in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Lung Cancer. 2010; 69(2):239-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
FBLN-3 has been identified as an antagonist of angiogenesis which modulates cell morphology, growth, adhesion, and motility. In the present study, we investigated the promoter methylation status of FBLN-3 gene in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) by methylation-specific PCR and analyzed its correlation with clinicopathological factors. The methylation of FBLN-3 gene promoter was detected in 28 of 65 (43.1%) NSCLC tissue samples and 6 of 65 (9.2%) corresponding non-tumor tissue samples (P<0.05). The methylation of FBLN-3 gene promoter led to the loss of FBLN-3 gene expression in NSCLC. Additionally, FBLN-3 promoter methylation was observed to be correlated with relative poor differentiation, advanced pathological stage and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC patients (P=0.017, 0.0057 or 0.002, respectively), but not with gender, age, histological type, and smoking condition (P>0.05). These results indicated that the loss of FBLN-3 gene induced by promoter methylation might play important roles in the progression of NSCLC and FBLN-3 promoter methylation might be a promising biomarker for early detection of NSCLC.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cancer Screening and Early Detection Lung Cancer

Nomoto S, Kanda M, Okamura Y, et al.
Epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1, EFEMP1, a novel tumor-suppressor gene detected in hepatocellular carcinoma using double combination array analysis.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2010; 17(3):923-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers worldwide, the underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis are still not clear.
METHODS: In this study, we performed double array analysis, consisting of both expression profiling and karyotyping analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, of the same HCC sample from a 68-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis type C, and attempted to find a novel tumor-suppressor gene as a prognostic marker for HCC.
RESULTS: According to the results of expression array, EFEMP1 gene, which has a role as an angiostatic molecule, showed decreased expression in tumor tissue. The copy number of chromosome 2, where EFEMP1 exists, 2p16, did not show chromosomal deletion. We found many CpG islands in the promoter region of EFEMP1 gene. Reactivation of EFEMP1 expression was seen on 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment using HCC cell lines, and 24 of 48 (50%) HCC samples showed promoter hypermethylation. In the 24 methylated cases, most of the values of EFEMP1 gene expression examined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in tumor tissues were significantly decreased (P = 0.0004). Intriguingly, EFEMP1 hypermethylation was significantly correlated with worse prognosis (P = 0.0271).
CONCLUSION: Double array analysis revealed a novel tumor-suppressor gene, EFEMP1, for hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism for downregulation of EFEMP1 expression was closely associated with promoter hypermethylation. Promoter methylation of EFEMP1 gene was a marker of a worse prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Related: Liver Cancer

Hu B, Thirtamara-Rajamani KK, Sim H, Viapiano MS
Fibulin-3 is uniquely upregulated in malignant gliomas and promotes tumor cell motility and invasion.
Mol Cancer Res. 2009; 7(11):1756-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumors with an almost invariably rapid and lethal outcome. Surgery and chemoradiotherapy fail to remove resistant tumor cells that disperse within normal tissue, which are a major cause for disease progression and therapy failure. Infiltration of the neural parenchyma is a distinctive property of malignant gliomas compared with other solid tumors. Thus, glioma cells are thought to produce unique molecular changes that remodel the neural extracellular matrix and form a microenvironment permissive for their motility. Here, we describe the unique expression and proinvasive role of fibulin-3, a mesenchymal matrix protein specifically upregulated in gliomas. Fibulin-3 is downregulated in peripheral tumors and is thought to inhibit tumor growth. However, we found fibulin-3 highly upregulated in gliomas and cultured glioma cells, although the protein was undetectable in normal brain or cultured astrocytes. Overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that fibulin-3 did not seem to affect glioma cell morphology or proliferation, but enhanced substrate-specific cell adhesion and promoted cell motility and dispersion in organotypic cultures. Moreover, orthotopic implantation of fibulin-3-overexpressing glioma cells resulted in diffuse tumors with increased volume and rostrocaudal extension compared with controls. Tumors and cultured cells overexpressing fibulin-3 also showed elevated expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases, such as MMP-2/MMP-9 and ADAMTS-5. Taken together, our results suggest that fibulin-3 has a unique expression and protumoral role in gliomas, and could be a potential target against tumor progression. Strategies against this glioma-specific matrix component could disrupt invasive mechanisms and restrict the dissemination of these tumors.

Abe K, Thung SN, Wu HC, et al.
Pre-S2 deletion mutants of hepatitis B virus could have an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis in Asian children.
Cancer Sci. 2009; 100(12):2249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although many studies on the risk factors and their carcinogenesis in adult hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reported, they remain poorly understood in childhood HCC. A retrospective study of 42 HCC cases in Asian children was conducted. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in HCC tissues was detected in 36 of 42 (86%) cases tested, while no hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was detectable in any of HCCs. Twenty of 36 (56%) HCC cases were accompanied by cirrhosis. Surprisingly, very high prevalence of the HBV pre-S deletion mutant was recognized in 27 of 30 (90%) HCCs examined. They occurred most frequently in pre-S2 (20/27, 74%) followed by pre-S1 (5/27, 18.5%), and both pre-S1/S2 (2/27, 7.4%). Interestingly, the pre-S2 mutant consistently appeared with deletion at nt 4-57 in all of the 20 cases with the pre-S2 mutant (100%) and within this locus in the two cases with both pre-S-1/S2 mutants. Type II ground-glass hepatocytes in non-tumorous livers were seen in 15 of the 22 HCCs with the pre-S2 deletion mutant (68%). This hotspot mutation in the pre-S2 was further confirmed by complete genomic sequence of HBV in a Japanese boy who eventually developed HCC. Our result strongly suggests that HBV is a major contributor to the development of HCC in Asian children. The HBV pre-S2 deletion mutant at nt 4-57 which has a CD8 T-cell epitope could be responsible for the emergence and aggressive outcome of childhood HCC. Determination of this hotspot mutation in the pre-S2 region could be a useful index for predicting the clinical outcome of HCC development.

Related: Liver Cancer Childhood Liver Cancer

Seeliger H, Camaj P, Ischenko I, et al.
EFEMP1 expression promotes in vivo tumor growth in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2009; 7(2):189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
The progression of pancreatic cancer is dependent on local tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. EFEMP1, a recently discovered member of the fibulin family, was characterized with regard to these key elements of pancreatic cancer progression. Differential gene expression was assessed by mRNA microarray hybridization in FG human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells and L3.6pl cells, a highly metastatic variant of FG. In vivo orthotopic tumor growth of EFEMP1-transfected FG cells was examined in nude mice. To assess the angiogenic properties of EFEMP1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production of tumor cells, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and tumor microvessel density were analyzed in response to EFEMP1. Further, tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and resistance to cytotoxic agents were quantitated by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. In microarray hybridization, EFEMP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated in L3.6pl cells compared with FG cells. Concordantly, EFEMP1 transfection of FG cells stimulated orthotopic and metastatic tumor growth in vivo. EFEMP1 expression resulted in a stimulation of VEGF production by tumor cells and an increased number of CD31-positive microvessels. Endothelial cell proliferation and migration were not altered by EFEMP1, indicating an indirect angiogenic effect. Further, EFEMP1 expression decreased apoptosis and promoted cell cycle progression in response to serum starvation or exposure to gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan. EFEMP1 has protumorigenic effects on pancreatic cancer in vivo and in vitro mediated by VEGF-driven angiogenesis and antiapoptotic mechanisms. Hence, EFEMP1 is a promising candidate for assessing prognosis and individualizing therapy in a clinical tumor setting.

Related: Apoptosis Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer VEGFA

Sadr-Nabavi A, Ramser J, Volkmann J, et al.
Decreased expression of angiogenesis antagonist EFEMP1 in sporadic breast cancer is caused by aberrant promoter methylation and points to an impact of EFEMP1 as molecular biomarker.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 124(7):1727-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was recently described as an antagonist of angiogenesis. Motivated by a strong dependence of tumor growth and metastasis on angiogenesis, we investigated the role of EFEMP1 in human breast cancer. We applied RNA microarray expression analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (QRT) in a total of 45 sporadic breast cancer tissues and found EFEMP1 down-regulation in 59% and 61% of the analyzed tissues, respectively. This down-regulation was confirmed on protein level. Immunohistochemistry in 211 breast cancer tissues resulted in reduced or even abolished EFEMP1 expression in 57-62.5% of the tumors. Bisulphite genomic sequencing in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancer tissues revealed promoter methylation as the major cause of this down-regulation. Furthermore, analysis of 203 clinically well characterized primary breast cancers displayed a significant correlation of reduced EFEMP1 protein expression with poor disease-free (p = 0.037) and overall survival (p = 0.032), particularly in those node-positive patients who received adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy, but not in those treated by either cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil (CMF) or Tamoxifen. In summary, the presented data demonstrate for the first time the reduced EFEMP1 expression on RNA and protein level in a substantial number of sporadic breast carcinomas and its correlation with epigenetic alterations. Furthermore, these data point towards a possible predictive impact of EFEMP1 expression in primary breast cancer.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Breast Cancer Angiogenesis and Cancer


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