FGR

Gene Summary

Gene:FGR; FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
Aliases: SRC2, c-fgr, c-src2, p55-Fgr, p58-Fgr, p55c-fgr, p58c-fgr
Location:1p36.2-p36.1
Summary:This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to plasma membrane ruffles, and functions as a negative regulator of cell migration and adhesion triggered by the beta-2 integrin signal transduction pathway. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus results in the overexpression of this gene. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase Fgr
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (32)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • Breast Cancer
  • Karyotyping
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Transcription
  • Genetic Markers
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chromosome 1
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • RTPCR
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cell Line
  • Cancer DNA
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Northern Blotting
  • Gene Expression
  • Phorbol Esters
  • Burkitt Lymphoma
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • FGR
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Oncogenes
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Amplification
  • Translocation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Tumor Markers
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGR (cancer-related)

Iżykowska K, Zawada M, Nowicka K, et al.
Submicroscopic genomic rearrangements change gene expression in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
Eur J Haematol. 2014; 93(2):143-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL), we decided to search for those genetic alterations in T-LGL patients and MOTN-1 cell line (established from T-LGL patient) that have an impact on gene expression and as a result can influence cell biology.
METHODS: Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) analysis of the MOTN-1 cell line was performed as well as paired-end next-generation sequencing (NGS; Illumina HiSeq2000) of this cell line and one T-LGL patient. In addition, chosen 6q region was characterized in three T-LGL patients using high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (FT-CGH) and LM-PCR. Gene expression was studied by RNA sequencing (RNAseq; SOLID5500).
RESULTS: Rearrangements were detected within 1p and 2q in MOTN-1 affecting expression of FGR, ZEB2, and CASP8, and within 6q in MOTN-1 and one T-LGL patient affecting MAP3K5 and IFNGR1. Nineteen genes, among them FOXN3, RIN3, AKT1, PPP2R5C, were overexpressed as a result of an amplification in 14q in one T-LGL patient. Two novel fusion transcripts were identified: CASP8-ERBB4 in MOTN-1 and SBF1-PKHD1L1 in T-LGL patient.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that submicroscopic genomic rearrangements change gene expression in T-LGL. Several genes involved in rearrangements were previously linked to cancer and survival pattern that characterizes T-LGL cells.

Jensen HA, Styskal LE, Tasseff R, et al.
The Src-family kinase inhibitor PP2 rescues inducible differentiation events in emergent retinoic acid-resistant myeloblastic leukemia cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58621 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid is an embryonic morphogen and dietary factor that demonstrates chemotherapeutic efficacy in inducing maturation in leukemia cells. Using HL60 model human myeloid leukemia cells, where all-trans retinoic acid (RA) induces granulocytic differentiation, we developed two emergent RA-resistant HL60 cell lines which are characterized by loss of RA-inducible G1/G0 arrest, CD11b expression, inducible oxidative metabolism and p47(phox) expression. However, RA-treated RA-resistant HL60 continue to exhibit sustained MEK/ERK activation, and one of the two sequentially emergent resistant lines retains RA-inducible CD38 expression. Other signaling events that define the wild-type (WT) response are compromised, including c-Raf phosphorylation and increased expression of c-Cbl, Vav1, and the Src-family kinases (SFKs) Lyn and Fgr. As shown previously in WT HL60 cells, we found that the SFK inhibitor PP2 significantly increases G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, CD38 and CD11b expression, c-Raf phosphorylation and expression of the aforementioned regulators in RA-resistant HL60. The resistant cells were potentially incapable of developing inducible oxidative metabolism. These results motivate the concept that RA resistance can occur in steps, wherein growth arrest and other differentiation events may be recovered in both emergent lines. Investigating the mechanistic anomalies in resistant cell lines is of therapeutic significance and helps to mechanistically understand the response to retinoic acid's biological effects in WT HL60 cells.

Haenisch B, Huber M, Wilhelm T, et al.
Investigation into mechanisms mediating the inhibitory effect of 1,4-benzodiazepines on mast cells by gene expression profiling.
Life Sci. 2013; 92(6-7):345-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This study aims to identify by a molecular genetic approach potential targets in mast cells at which 1,4-benzodiazepines may cause their inhibitory effect on mast cell activity.
MAIN METHODS: Gene expression analyses with microarray gene chip and/or quantitative PCR were performed using 1,4-benzodiazepine-treated human mast cell leukemia HMC-1.2 cells, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells and human mast cells from healthy volunteers and patients with mast cell activation disease (MCAD). Pathway analysis was applied to search for enriched biological functions and canonical pathways within differentially regulated genes.
KEY FINDINGS: Both neoplastic and normal human mast cells express several GABA(A) receptor subunits at the mRNA level. In mast cells from MCAD patients expression of some GABA(A) receptor subunits and expression of the translocator protein TSPO are increased compared with those from healthy controls. Expression of the protein tyrosine kinases Lyn, Fgr and Yes1 was increased in HMC-1.2 cells as compared with the ontogenetically related HL60 cells. Differences in gene regulation in HMC-1.2 cells after treatment with the 1,4-benzodiazepines clonazepam, flunitrazepam and 4-chlorodiazepam suggested that signaling and gene expression induced by clonazepam was similar to that of flunitrazepam but different from that of 4-chlorodiazepam. This conclusion is supported by the results of the pathway analysis.
SIGNIFICANCE: A novel type of GABA(A) receptors on mast cells appears to be involved in the inhibition of mast cell activity by 1,4-benzodiazepines. These receptors seem to be composed without γ subunits suggesting unique pharmacological properties. An action at Src-kinases, or at TSPO located in the plasma membrane may also be involved.

Szczepanek J, Pogorzala M, Jarzab M, et al.
Expression profiles of signal transduction genes in ex vivo drug-resistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(2):503-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Identification of signal transduction genes related to drug resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo drug resistance in 107 children, divided into study and validation groups, was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) drug resistance assay. The gene expression profile was identified by microarray analysis and validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: A set of five genes involved in signal transduction, present in each resistance profile, was identified. The expression of four genes was up-regulated: Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, v-Fgr (FGR), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH1 domain (ARAP1), while the expression of growth hormone 1 (GH1) was found to be down-regulated in resistant leukemia blasts.
CONCLUSION: Ex vivo exposure of leukemia cells to anticancer drugs induces changes in the expression of genes involved in cell signaling pathways. These genes play an important role in the mechanism of cellular drug resistance.

Tesser-Gamba F, Petrilli AS, de Seixas Alves MT, et al.
MAPK7 and MAP2K4 as prognostic markers in osteosarcoma.
Hum Pathol. 2012; 43(7):994-1002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a class of cancer originating from the bone, affecting mainly children and young adults. Cytogenetic studies showed the presence of rearrangements and recurrent gains in specific chromosomal regions, indicating the possible involvement of genes located in these regions during the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. These studies investigated expression of 10 genes located in the chromosomal region involved in abnormalities in osteosarcoma, 1p36, 17p, and chromosome 19. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profile of genes located in regions involved in chromosomal rearrangements in osteosarcoma. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of 10 genes located in 1p36.3 (MTHFR, ERRFI1, FGR, E2F2), 17p (MAPK7, MAP2K4), and chromosome 19 (BBC3, FOSB, JUND, and RRAS), in 70 samples taken from 30 patients (30 prechemotherapy, 30 postchemotherapy, and 10 metastases specimens) and 10 healthy bones as a control sample. The most interesting results showed a strong association between the expression levels of MAPK7 and MAP2K4 genes and clinical parameters of osteosarcoma. Overexpression of these genes was significantly associated to a poor response to treatment (P = .0001 and P = .0049, respectively), tumor progression, and worse overall survival (P = .0052 and P = .0085, respectively), suggesting that MAPK7 and MAP2K4 could play an important role in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Thus, these genes could be good markers in assessing response to treatment and development of osteosarcoma.

Zwart W, Theodorou V, Kok M, et al.
Oestrogen receptor-co-factor-chromatin specificity in the transcriptional regulation of breast cancer.
EMBO J. 2011; 30(23):4764-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The complexity of oestrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated transcription is becoming apparent, but global insight into the co-regulatory proteins that assist ERα transcription is incomplete. Here, we present the most comprehensive chromatin-binding landscape of ERα co-regulatory proteins to date. We map by ChIP-seq the essential p160 co-regulators (SRC1, SRC2 and SRC3), and the histone acetyl transferases p300 and CBP in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We find a complex network of co-regulator binding, with preferential binding sites for each co-regulator. Unlike previous suggestions, we find SRC recruitment almost exclusively following ligand treatment. Interestingly, we find specific subsets of genes regulated by ligand-dependent and -independent co-regulator recruitment. Co-factor-binding profiles were integrated with expression data from cell lines and primary tumour cohorts, to reveal specific transcriptional networks that influence clinical outcome. Genes that are bound by SRC3, but not other p160 proteins, have predictive value in cohorts of breast cancer patients. By generating a robust and global view of co-factor-binding properties, we discover new levels of co-regulator complexity, but also reveal specific gene networks that may influence endocrine response.

Jasinski P, Zwolak P, Terai K, et al.
MT477 acts in tumor cells as an AURKA inhibitor and strongly induces NRF-2 signaling.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(4):1181-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The novel compound thiopyrano [2,3-c]quinoline (MT477) has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The present study examined the expression levels of 10,000 genes and how they changed after MT477 treatment in three cancer cell lines: H226, MDA231 and MiaPaCa-2. Materials and Methods/
RESULTS: Molecular function analysis revealed changes in genes involved in cell death, cell-cycle progression and cellular growth and proliferation in all three cancer cell lines. Canonical pathway analysis showed the involvement of the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, glucocorticoid, p53, RXR-VDR, G(1)/S checkpoint regulation, ERK, SAPK/JNK and JAS/Stat signaling. Analysis of 234 kinases and phosphatases using a kinase inhibition assay demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect for MAPK14 (104 ± 2%), AMPK A2/B1/G1 (89%) and FGR (83 ± 2%). AURKA was inhibited at 77 ± 1%. MiaPaCa-2 tumor xenograft studies showed a 49.5 ±1 4.8% inhibitory effect in mice treated with 100 μg/kg MT477 compared to untreated mice (p=0.0021).
CONCLUSION: MT477 induces molecular mechanisms related to cell death, survival, and inhibition of cellular growth in vitro and in vivo.

Prabhu JS, Korlimarla A, Banerjee A, et al.
Gene-specific methylation: potential markers for colorectal cancer.
Int J Biol Markers. 2009 Jan-Mar; 24(1):57-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Aberrant methylation of the promoter region is associated with silencing of many genes in neoplasia. CpG island methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for transcriptional silencing that occurs at various stages of colon tumorigenesis. In this study, we tested the promoter methylation and expression of seven genes from various pathways of DNA repair, apoptosis and inflammation, i.e., sFRP1, MLH1, RASSF1A, CDA, v-fgr, LYN-B, and TNFR10d.
METHOD: The genes were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the level of gene expression. The promoter methylation status of the genes was studied by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULT: The correlation of promoter methylation status with suppressed gene expression patterns suggested a potential role for the silencing these genes in colon cancer progression.
CONCLUSION: Promoter methylations of the studied genes could be explored as promising biomarkers for new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets of colorectal cancer.

Brusa G, Zuffa E, Hattinger CM, et al.
Genomic imbalances associated with secondary acute leukemias in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(6):1427-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secondary tumors and leukemias are major complications in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). They likely arise from clonal selection of cells that have accumulated genomic lesions induced by chemo- and radiotherapy and may be further promoted by the loss of DNA repair and/or other pathways ensuring the fidelity of replicated DNA. To distinguish genomic imbalances associated with the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in HL we used an array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) strategy on whole lymph node biopsies of HL patient. Genomic imbalances (amplifications and deletions) associated with AML outcome in 3 classic HL patients, at clinical diagnosis they exhibited a discrete individual variability. Three amplifications and 5 deletions were shared by all 3 patients. They involved AFM137XA11, a 9p11.2 pericentric region; FGFR1, the FGF receptor most frequently translocated in AML; PPARBP, a co-activator of nuclear receptors RARalpha, RXR and TRbeta1; AFM217YD10, a 17q25 telomeric region; FGR, an SRC2 kinase involved in cytokine production by NK and CD4+ NKT cells; GATA3, a Th2-specific transcription factor; TOP1, involved in DNA recombination and repair; WT1, a transcription factor involved in CD8+ T cell response against leukaemic blasts. Immunohistochemistry confirmed aCGH results and distinguished the distribution of either amplified or deleted gene products in neoplastic Reed Sternberg (RS) cells and non-neoplastic lymph node components.

Tan JM, Chow VT
Cellular expression, localization and interactions of the product of the human MOST-1 gene associated with breast and prostate cancers.
Int J Oncol. 2007; 30(1):81-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously isolated and characterized the novel human gene MOST-1 (C8orf17) that is ubiquitously expressed in all cancer cell lines tested but differentially expressed in normal adult tissues. MOST-1 maps to chromosome region 8q24.2 whose amplification is frequently associated with breast and prostate cancers. RT-PCR analyses of breast and prostatic biopsies revealed MOST-1 overexpression and/or amplification in high-grade carcinomas. We raised and characterized a polyclonal antibody against a MOST-1-specific synthetic peptide. in vitro expression of MOST-1 protein revealed a tendency to exist as high molecular mass isoforms which are SDS-insoluble upon thermal stress. MOST-1 displayed cytoplasmic localization in four human cell lines (hTERT-HME1 normal mammary epithelial, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, PrEC normal prostate epithelial and DU145 prostate carcinoma), with polar expression during cell division. Knockdown of MOST-1 expression in DU145 cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation but enhanced apoptosis implying a putative mitogenic role of MOST-1. Yeast two-hybrid analyses demonstrated interaction with seven human proteins, most of which are overexpressed in tumors or involved in metabolic pathways. The interacting proteins were creatine kinase, Gardner feline sarcoma v-FGR oncogene product, telethonin, SNC73 protein, ferritin light chain, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, and immunoglobulin C (mu) and C (delta) heavy chain. Co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the interactions of MOST-1 with the latter three proteins. Our results suggest that MOST-1 is associated with cell survival, proliferation and progression of cancer cells.

Valladares A, Hernández NG, Gómez FS, et al.
Genetic expression profiles and chromosomal alterations in sporadic breast cancer in Mexican women.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 170(2):147-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of death among Mexican women >35 years of age. At the molecular level, changes in many genetic pathways have been reported to be associated with this neoplasm. To analyze these changes, we determined gene expression profiles and chromosomal structural alterations in tumors from Mexican women. We obtained mRNA to identify expression profiles with microarray technology, and DNA to determine amplifications and deletions, in 10 fresh sporadic breast tumor biopsies without treatment, as well as in 10 nonaffected breast tissues. Expression profiles were compared with genetic changes observed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We compared the expression profiles against the structural alterations from the studied genes by means of microarrays; at least 17 of these genes correlated with DNA copy number alterations. We found that the following genes were overexpressed: LAMC1, PCTK3, CCNC, CCND1, FGF3, PCTK2, L1CAM, BGN, and PLXNB3 (alias PLEXR). Underexpressed genes included CASP9, FGR, TP73, HSPG2, and ERCC1; genes turned off included FRAP1, EPHA2 (previously ECK), IL12A, E2F5, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10A, EFNB3, and BCL2. The results will allow us, in the near future, to outline genes that could serve as diagnostic, prognostic, or target therapy markers for the Mexican population.

Martínez-Jiménez CP, Gómez-Lechón MJ, Castell JV, Jover R
Underexpressed coactivators PGC1alpha and SRC1 impair hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha function and promote dedifferentiation in human hepatoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2006; 281(40):29840-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) plays critical roles during liver development and in the transcriptional regulation of many hepatic genes in adult liver. Here we have demonstrated that in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, HNF4alpha is expressed at levels as high as in human liver but its activity on target genes is very low or absent. We have discovered that the low expression of key coactivators (PGC1alpha, SRC1, SRC2, and PCAF) might account for the lack of function of HNF4alpha in HepG2 cells. Among them, PGC1alpha and SRC1 are the two most important HNF4alpha coactivators as revealed by reporter assays with an Apo-CIII promoter construct. Moreover, the expression of these two coactivators was found to be down-regulated in all human hepatomas investigated. Overexpression of SRC1 and PGC1alpha by recombinant adenoviruses led to a significant up-regulation of well characterized HNF4alpha-dependent genes (ApoCIII, ApoAV, PEPCK, AldoB, OTC, and CYP7A1) and forced HepG2 cells toward a more differentiated phenotype as demonstrated by increased ureogenic rate. The positive effect of PGC1alpha was seen to be dependent on HNF4alpha. Finally, insulin treatment of human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells caused repression of PGC1alpha and a concomitant down-regulation of ApoCIII, PEPCK, AldoB, and OTC. Altogether, our results suggest that SRC1, and notably PGC1alpha, are key coactivators for the proper function of HNF4alpha in human liver and for an integrative control of multiple hepatic genes involved in metabolism and homeostasis. The down-regulation of key HNF4alpha coactivators could be a determinant factor for the dedifferentiation of human hepatomas.

O'Toole SA, Dunn E, Sheppard BL, et al.
Genome-wide analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid in endometrial cancer using comparative genomic hybridization microarrays.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 Mar-Apr; 16(2):834-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify amplified oncogenes in endometrial cancer using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Despite its prevalence, the molecular mechanisms of endometrial carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. The selected array CGH allows the simultaneous examination of 58 oncogenes commonly amplified in human cancers and is capable of achieving increased mapping resolution compared with conventional CGH. A subset of 8 specimens from a bank of 60 malignant and normal specimens was selected for array analysis to identify potential genes of interest. TaqMan polymerase chain reaction was carried out on the 60 specimens to examine if aberrations at the genomic level correlated with gene expression and to compare expression in normal and malignant samples. Oncogenes amplified in the endometrial cancers included AR, PIK3CA, MET, HRAS, NRAS, D17S1670, FGFR1, CTSB, RPS6KB1, LAMC2, MYC, PDGFRA, FGF4/FGF3, PAKI, and FGR. Three genes were examined at the messenger RNA level. AR and PIK3CA were higher in normal specimens, and MET was higher in malignant samples, suggesting a role for MET in endometrial cancer. Newer arrays examining more genes and larger sample numbers are necessary to elucidate the carcinogenic pathway in endometrial cancer.

Zhang G, Cao Y, Xu Y, See WA
Micro-array analysis of the effect of post-transurethral bladder tumor resection urine on transforming growth factor-beta1 dependent gene expression in transitional cell carcinoma.
Urol Oncol. 2005 Nov-Dec; 23(6):413-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have shown that bladder trauma occurring during transurethral bladder tumor resection increases urinary levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1. This study used complementary deoxyribonucleic acid micro-array technology to identify additional genes in human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), whose expression is altered as a consequence of increased urinary levels of TGF-beta1.
METHODS: The human TCC line 253J was cultured in standard media, or media spiked with either 10% post-transurethral bladder tumor resection urine (PTU), or PTU and anti-TGF-beta1 neutralizing antibody. Messenger ribonucleic acid from these conditions, together with messenger ribonucleic acid from stably transfected 253J cells over-expressing TGF-beta1, was hybridized with ATLAS micro-array membranes (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA) containing 588 human genes. Hybridization signal intensity was quantified using phospho-imaging. An analytic strategy based on the variance in the signal intensity ratio of specific housekeeping genes in control and experimental comparisons was used to identify significant changes in gene expression. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of target genes was used to confirm gene over-expression and TGF-beta1 responsiveness.
RESULTS: Seven genes were identified on micro-array: v-RAF-1, colony stimulating factor-1 receptor, v-FGR, insulin growth factor-1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, alpha5 integrin, and interferon receptor-1. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed over-expression in the autocrine TGF-beta1 producing cell line and increased expression in response to exogenous TGF-beta1.
CONCLUSIONS: TGF-beta1 in PTU alters the expression of multiple genes in human TCC in vitro. The impact of these changes on the biologic phenotype of the malignant cell and the efficacy of adjuvant therapies requires further evaluation.

Matthews J, Wihlén B, Thomsen J, Gustafsson JA
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcription: ligand-dependent recruitment of estrogen receptor alpha to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-responsive promoters.
Mol Cell Biol. 2005; 25(13):5317-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we studied the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated recruitment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and several co-regulators to the CYP1A1 promoter. AhR displayed a time-dependent recruitment, reaching a peak at 75 min and maintaining promoter occupancy for the remainder of the time course. Recruitment of AhR was followed by TIF2/SRC2, which preceded CBP, histone H3 acetylation, and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Simultaneous recruitment to the enhancer and the TATA box region suggests the formation of a large multiprotein complex bridging the two promoter regions. Interestingly, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) displayed a TCDD- and time-dependent recruitment to the CYP1A1 promoter, which was increased by co-treatment with estradiol. Transfection in HuH7 human liver cells confirmed previously reported ERalpha enhancement of AhR activity. In contrast, TCDD did not induce the recruitment of ERalpha to the estrogen-responsive pS2 promoter, and after 120 min of co-treatment with estradiol, ERalpha is still present on the CYP1A1 promoter but no longer at pS2. RNA interference studies with T47D cells support a role for ERalpha in TCDD-dependent CYP1A1 expression. Our data suggest that ERalpha acts as a coregulator of AhR-mediated transcriptional activation and that the recruitment of ERalpha by AhR represents a novel mechanism AhR-ERalpha cross talk.

Nakahara Y, Shiraishi T, Okamoto H, et al.
Detrended fluctuation analysis of genome-wide copy number profiles of glioblastomas using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
Neuro Oncol. 2004; 6(4):281-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We examined whole genomic aberrations of biopsied samples from 19 independent glioblastomas by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis. The highest frequencies of copy number gains were observed on RFC2 (73.3%), EGFR (63.2%), and FGR, ELN, CDKN1C , FES, TOP2A, and ARSA (57.9% each). The highest frequencies of copy number losses were detected on TBR1 (52.6%), BMI1 (52.6%), EGR2 (47.4%), DMBT1 (47.4%), MTAP (42.1%), and FGFR2 (42.1%). The copy number gains of CDKN1C and INS and the copy number losses of TBR1 were significantly correlated with longer survival of patients. High-level amplifications were identified on EGFR, SAS/CDK4, PDGFRA, MDM2, and ARSA. These genes are assumed to be involved in tumorigenesis or progression of glioblastomas. The first attempts to apply detrended fluctuation analysis to copy number profiles by considering the reading direction as the time axis demonstrated that higher long-term fractal scaling exponents (alpha2) correlated well with longer survival of glioblastoma patients. The present study indicates that array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis has great potential for assessment of copy number changes and altered chromosomal regions of brain tumors. Furthermore, we show that nonlinear analysis methods of whole genome copy number profiles may provide prognostic information about glioblastoma patients.

Hashimoto K, Mori N, Tamesa T, et al.
Analysis of DNA copy number aberrations in hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinomas by conventional CGH and array CGH.
Mod Pathol. 2004; 17(6):617-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
To clarify the genetic aberrations involved in the development and progression of hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC), we investigated DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) in 19 surgically resected HCCs by conventional CGH and array CGH. Conventional CGH revealed that increases of DNA copy number were frequent at 1q (79% of the cases), 8q (37%), 6p (32%), and 10p (32%) and that decreases were frequent at 17p (79%), 16q (58%), 4q (53%), 13q (42%), 10q (37%), 1p (32%), and 8p (32%). In general, genes that showed DCNAs by array CGH were usually located in chromosomal regions with DCNAs detected by conventional CGH analysis. Increases in copy numbers of the LAMC2, TGFB2, and AKT3 genes (located on 1q) and decreases in copy numbers of FGR/SRC2 and CYLD (located on 1p and 16q, respectively) were observed in more than 30% of tumors, including small, well-differentiated carcinomas. These findings suggest that these genes are associated with the development of HCV-HCC. Increases of MOS, MYC, EXT1, and PTK2 (located on 8q) were detected exclusively in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, suggesting that these alterations contribute to tumor progression. In conclusion, chromosomal and array CGH technologies allow identification of genes involved in the development and progression of HCV-HCC.

Hirai Y, Kawamata Y, Takeshima N, et al.
Conventional and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses of novel cell lines harboring HPV18 from glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
Int J Oncol. 2004; 24(4):977-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
We established 2 novel human cell lines (GCCOT-1, GCCRK) from glassy cell carcinoma. Both cell lines showed dual tendencies of glandular and squamous differentiation, and thus possess the characteristics resembling reserve cells, the putative origin of most carcinomas arising from the uterine cervix. HPV type 18 DNA including E6-E7, which is commonly found in cell types other than squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, was detected in both cell lines. We analyzed gene copy number alterations of the 2 cell lines using conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) coupled with array-based CGH. Among the putative oncogenes demonstrating copy number gain in both cell lines, FGR(SRC2) at 1p36.2-1 and LAMC2 at 1q25-31 have not been reported to show amplification in previous analyses of conventional cervical cell lines. These oncogenes are thus speculated to be directly associated with oncogenesis of glassy cell carcinoma. On the other hand, among the putative suppressor genes demonstrating copy number loss in both cell lines, the 9q region, ATM at 11q22.3, and CYLD at 16q12-13 have not been reported to show loss in conventional cervical cancer cell lines. These sites are speculated to be important as tumor suppressors directly associated with oncogenesis of glassy cell carcinoma. This study suggests for the first time that together with the presence of HPV type 18, alterations at the above sites are closely associated with oncogenesis of glassy cell carcinoma, a special type of carcinoma in the uterine cervix.

Edwards J, Krishna NS, Witton CJ, Bartlett JM
Gene amplifications associated with the development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003; 9(14):5271-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hormone resistance remains a significant clinical problem in prostate cancer with few therapeutic options. Research into mechanisms of hormone resistance is essential.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed 38 paired (prehormone/posthormone resistance) prostate cancer samples using the Vysis GenoSensor. Archival microdissected tumor DNA was extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to Amplionc I DNA microarrays containing 57 oncogenes.
RESULTS: Genetic instability increased during progression from hormone-sensitive to hormone-resistant cancer (P = 0.008). Amplification frequencies of 15 genes (TERC, MYBL3, HRAS, PI3KCA, JUNB, LAMC2, RAF1, MYC, GARP, SAS, FGFR1, PGY1, MYCL1, MYB, FGR) increased by >10% during hormone escape. Receptor tyrosine kinases were amplified in 73% of cases; this was unrelated to development of hormone resistance. However, downstream receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways showed increased amplification rates in resistant tumors for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (FGR/Src-2, HRAS, and RAF1; P = 0.005) and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase pathways (FGR/Src-2, PI3K, and Akt; P = 0.046). Transcription factors regulated by these pathways were also more frequently amplified after escape (MYC family: 21% before versus 63% after, P = 0.027; MYB family: 26% before versus 53% after, P = 0.18).
CONCLUSIONS: Development of clinical hormone escape is linked to phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These pathways may function independently of the androgen receptor or via androgen receptor activation by phosphorylation, providing novel therapeutic targets.

Hattinger CM, Reverter-Branchat G, Remondini D, et al.
Genomic imbalances associated with methotrexate resistance in human osteosarcoma cell lines detected by comparative genomic hybridization-based techniques.
Eur J Cell Biol. 2003; 82(9):483-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most important drugs for osteosarcoma (OS) treatment. To identify genetic aberrations associated with the development of MTX resistance in OS cells, in addition to the previously reported expression changes of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based techniques were used. The direct comparison between MTX-resistant variants of U-2OS or Saos-2 human OS cell lines with their respective parental cell lines by CGH on chromosomes revealed that development of MTX resistance was associated with gain of the chromosomal regions 5q12-q15 and 11q14-qter in U-2OS variants, and with gain of 8q22-qter in Saos-2 variants. Further analyses by CGH on microarrays demonstrated a progressively increasing gain of mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene (11q23) in U-2OS MTX-resistant variants, which was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in addition to gain of FGR (1p36), amplification/overexpression of DHFR, and slight decrease of RFC expression. In Saos-2 MTX-resistant variants, gain of MYC (8q24.12-q24.13) was detected, together with a remarkable decrease of RFC expression. Further analyses of DHFR, MLL, MYC, and RFC gene status in four additional human OS cell lines revealed that only gain of DHFR and MLL were associated with an inherent lower sensitivity to MTX. These data demonstrate that genetic analyses with complementary techniques are helpful for the identification of new candidate genes, which might be considered for an early identification of MTX unresponsive tumors.

Maesako Y, Uchiyama T, Ohno H
Comparison of gene expression profiles of lymphoma cell lines from transformed follicular lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Sci. 2003; 94(9):774-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine the specific gene expression in B-cell lymphoma subtypes, we compared expression profiles of cell lines from transformed follicular lymphoma (tFL), Epstein-Barr virus-negative (EBV(-)) Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and EBV(+)BL. Complementary DNAs were synthesized from these cell lines and hybridized with the Atlas Human 1.2 Array membrane. Hierarchical clustering analysis based upon the levels of 43 genes highlighted characteristic expression patterns of the 3 lymphoma subtypes. Genes expressed at higher levels in tFL than EBV(-)BL and EBV(+)BL included calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CAMK1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 (MAPK10). EBV(-)BL was characterized by high-level expression of amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), heat shock 27 kD protein 1 (HSPB1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1 (MADH1). Gardner-Rasheed feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FGR) was the most significant gene to delineate EBV(+)BL. A subtype prediction algorithm using 34 genes correctly classified 22 (92%) of 24 lymphomas into FL/tFL, EBV(-)BL or EBV(+)BL. By comparison with normal reference B-cell materials, the expression patterns of the selected genes were characteristic of lymphomas. We extended the clustering analysis to cell lines from de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The DLBCL cell lines were either separated from the former 3 lymphoma subtypes or segregated with EBV(+)BL, possibly reflecting variable genetic abnormalities. The associations of CAMK1 with tFL, APP and MADH1 with EBV(-)BL, FGR with EBV(+)BL, and BCL2 with tFL and DLBCL were confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction assays. This study has provided new molecular markers, expressions of which are closely associated with B-cell lymphoma subtypes.

Zhou J, Scholes J, Hsieh JT
Characterization of a novel negative regulator (DOC-2/DAB2) of c-Src in normal prostatic epithelium and cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2003; 278(9):6936-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
DOC-2/DAB2 is a potent tumor suppressor in many cancer types including prostate cancer. In prostate cancer, expression of DOC-2/DAB2 can inhibit its growth. Our recent studies demonstrate that DOC-2/DAB2 can suppress both protein kinase C and peptide growth factor-elicited signal pathways via the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In this study, we further showed that the proline-rich domain of DOC-2/DAB2 could also interact with proteins containing the Src homology 3 domain, such as Src and Fgr. The binding of c-Src to DOC-2/DAB2 was enhanced in cells treated with growth factor, and this interaction resulted in c-Src inactivation. The c-Src inactivation was evidenced by the decreased tyrosine 416 phosphorylation of c-Src and reduced downstream effector activation. It appears that DOC-2/DAB2 can bind to Src homology 3 domain of c-Src and maintain it in an inactive conformation. Thus, this study provides a new mechanism for modulating c-Src in prostatic epithelium and cancer.

Mao X, Lillington D, Child F, et al.
Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas: identification of common genomic alterations in disease pathogenesis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(2):144-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate genetic alterations in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCLs), we have analyzed 29 cases of PCBCL. Comparative genomic hybridization showed chromosome imbalances (CIs) in 12 cases (41%). The mean number of CIs per sample was 2.05 +/- 2.97, with gains (1.48 +/- 2.38) more frequent than losses (0.56 +/- 1.40). The common regions of gains were 18/18q (50%), 7/7p (42%), 3/3q (33%), 20 (33%), 1p (25%), 12/12q (25%), and 13/13q (25%), whereas loss of 6q was frequent (42%). Among the different subsets of PCBCLs, CI was seen in 50% of diffuse large-cell lymphomas (DLCLs), 33% of marginal zone lymphomas, and 8% of follicle center cell lymphomas and unclassified lymphomas. A similar pattern of CI was observed in these lymphomas, but loss of 6q and gains of 3/3q were present only in DLCLs. Microarray-based genomic analysis of four DLCL cases identified oncogene gains of SAS/CDK4 (12q13.3) in three cases and MYCL1 (1p34.3), MYC (8q24), FGFR2 (10q26), BCL2 (18q21.3), CSE1L (20q13), and PDGFB (22q12-13) in two cases, whereas losses of AKT1 (14q32.3), IGFR1 (15q25-26), and JUNB (19p13.2) were identified in three cases, and losses of FGR (1p36), ESR (6q25.1), ABL1 (9q34.1), TOP2A (17q21-22), ERBB2 (17q21.2), CCNE1 (19q13.1), and BCR (22q11) were each identified in two cases. In addition, real-time-polymerase chain reaction detected amplification of BCL2 in 5 of 29 cases. These findings suggest that there are complex but consistent genetic alterations associated with the pathogenesis of PCBCLs.

Dan Q, Sanchez R, Delgado C, et al.
Non-immunogenic murine hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells expressing the membrane form of macrophage colony stimulating factor are rejected in vivo and lead to CD8+ T-cell immunity against the parental tumor.
Mol Ther. 2001; 4(5):427-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a lethal disease and methods that develop effective cellular-based immunotherapy are needed. We retrovirally transduced non-immunogenic mouse Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells with the gene encoding the membrane form of macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF). Excess recombinant M-CSF and phagocytosis-inhibiting chemicals blocked macrophage-mediated killing of cloned mM-CSF transfected Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells. Macrophages derived from Hck(-/-)Fgr(-/-) and Lyn(-/-) triple knockout mice, which are incapable of performing phagocytosis, failed to kill the mM-CSF transduced cells. The mM-CSF transfected tumor clones failed to grow when injected into C57BL/6 or C57L/J mice. Splenocytes from these vaccinated mice displayed cytotoxicity against parental Hepa1-6 cells, but not against B16 and CT-26 tumor cells in vitro. Mice that rejected the mM-CSF transfected Hepa1-6 tumor subsequently rejected parental Hepa1-6 cells but not the B16 melanoma cells when rechallenged. Elimination of the CD8+ effector cells by an anti-CD8 antibody and complement treatment prevented the adoptive transfer of anti-Hepa1-6-specific immunity into naive animals. Thus, mM-CSF provides a method of generating effective anti-tumor immune responses by macrophages and cytotoxic T cells against the parental Hepa1-6 cells. Our work suggests that mM-CSF transduced hepatoma cells could be used as a tumor vaccine to stimulate immune responses against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hui AB, Lo KW, Yin XL, et al.
Detection of multiple gene amplifications in glioblastoma multiforme using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
Lab Invest. 2001; 81(5):717-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have used a new method of genomic microarray to investigate amplification of oncogenes throughout the genome of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) allows for simultaneous examination of 58 oncogenes/amplicons that are commonly amplified in various human cancers. Amplification of multiple oncogenes in human cancers can be rapidly determined in a single experiment. Tumor DNA and normal control DNA were labeled by nick translation with green- and red-tagged nucleotides, respectively. Instead of hybridizing to normal metaphase chromosomes in conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), the probes of the mixed fluorescent labeled DNA were applied to genomic array templates comprised of P1, PAC, and BAC clones of 58 target oncogenes. The baseline for measuring deviations was established by performing a series of independent array CGH using test and reference DNA made from normal individuals. In the present study, we examined fourteen GBMs (seven cell lines and seven tumours) with CGH and array CGH to reveal the particular oncogenes associated with this cancer. High-level amplifications were identified on the oncogenes/amplicons CDK4, GLI, MYCN, MYC, MDM2, and PDGFRA. The highest frequencies of gains were detected on PIK3CA (64.3%), EGFR (57.1%), CSE1L (57.1%), NRAS (50%), MYCN (42.9%), FGR (35.7%), ESR (35.7%), PGY1 (35.7%), and D17S167 (35.7%). These genes are suggested to be involved in the GBM tumorigenesis.

Spieker N, Beitsma M, van Sluis P, et al.
An integrated 5-Mb physical, genetic, and radiation hybrid map of a 1p36.1 region implicated in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000; 27(2):143-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Common genetic aberrations of neuroblastoma are deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) and MYCN amplification. Our deletion analysis of 25 tumor cell lines and 171 tumors strongly suggests that 1p harbors several tumor suppressor loci. Distinct loci are involved in MYCN single-copy versus MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. Deletions in MYCN single-copy tumors have a shortest region of overlap (SRO) of 20 cM at 1p36.3. MYCN-amplified tumors have large deletions with an SRO of about 60 cM, from 1p36.1 to the telomere. This SRO is defined by D1S7 (1p36.1), which was the most distal locus retained. Therefore, a suppressor gene associated with MYCN-amplified tumors probably maps within a few megabases distal of D1S7. In order to map this locus, we further refined this SRO. We mapped the breakpoint of the MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma with the smallest 1p deletion between 56.6 and 57.2 cM from 1pter. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid mapping were used to construct a 5-Mb physical map of this region. The map includes the region from 82.73 till 92.89 cR from 1pter. About half of it was isolated in P1 and PAC clones. The region harbors the genes FGR, SLC9A1, HMG17, EXTL1, AML2, RH, OP18, four ESTs, and a newly identified gene with a transcript size of approximately 7 Kb. Several of the mapped genes have a putative role in cell growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 27:143-152, 2000.

Bièche I, Khodja A, Lidereau R
Deletion mapping of chromosomal region 1p32-pter in primary breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 24(3):255-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Distal alterations of the short arm of chromosome 1 are among the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in human breast carcinoma. We studied 96 primary human breast carcinomas for allelic imbalance using a panel of 31 polymorphic microsatellite, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and variable number of tandem repeat markers located mainly in the 1p32-pter region. Allelic imbalance at one or more loci was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1 in 56 (58.3%) of the 96 tumors. The 56 1p-altered tumor DNAs showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH), 12 (21.4%) at all informative loci tested and 44 (78.6%) at some loci. The LOH pattern of these 44 partially deleted tumors identified two distinct consensus regions of deletion on 1p32-pter (1p36.3 and 1p32). These regions match those described by other investigators but are considerably smaller. The 1p32 band is located within one of the two 1p regions of LOH in neuroblastoma, suggesting the involvement of the same unidentified tumor suppressor gene in both human breast cancer and neuroblastoma. The candidate tumor suppressor genes TNFR2, RIZ, DAN, RAP1GA1, FGR, MDGI, EXTL, and hRAD54 were excluded from the two consensus regions of deletion identified at 1p32-pter. Analysis of six polymorphic markers chosen to map within the other deleted regions described in breast tumors confirmed that two additional breast tumor suppressor genes are located in the proximal part (1p22 and 1p13) of chromosome arm 1p. Taken together, these results suggest that several unknown suppressor genes on 1p might be involved in the development of breast cancer. The refinement of the regions of LOH to within a few cM, and the recent publication of transcript maps of the human genome, mean that candidate genes and expressed sequence tags mapping to these deleted regions can now be investigated.

Freytag SO, Rogulski KR, Paielli DL, et al.
A novel three-pronged approach to kill cancer cells selectively: concomitant viral, double suicide gene, and radiotherapy.
Hum Gene Ther. 1998; 9(9):1323-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two obstacles limiting the efficacy of nearly all cancer gene therapy trials are low gene transduction efficiencies and the lack of tumor specificity. Recently, a replication-competent, E1B-attenuated adenovirus (ONYX-015) was developed that could overcome these limitations, because it was capable of efficiently and selectively destroying tumor cells lacking functional p53. In an attempt to improve both the efficacy and safety of this approach, we constructed a similar adenovirus (FGR) containing a cytosine deaminase (CD)/herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) fusion gene, thereby allowing for the utilization of double-suicide gene therapy, which has previously been demonstrated to produce significant antitumor effects and potentiate the therapeutic effects of radiation. The FGR virus exhibited the same tumor cell specificity and replication kinetics as the ONYX-015 virus in vitro. Importantly, both the CD/5-FC and HSV-1 TK/GCV suicide gene systems markedly enhanced the tumor cell-specific cytopathic effect of the virus, and, as expected, sensitized tumor cells to radiation. By contrast, neither the FGR virus nor either suicide gene system showed significant toxicity to normal human cells. Both suicide gene systems could be used to suppress viral replication effectively, thereby providing a means to control viral spread. The results support the thesis that the three-pronged approach of viral therapy, suicide gene therapy, and radiotherapy may represent a powerful and safe means of selectively destroying tumor cells in vivo.

Ohtsu K, Hiyama E, Ichikawa T, et al.
Clinical investigation of neuroblastoma with partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 1.
Clin Cancer Res. 1997; 3(7):1221-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several loci on the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p) have been reported as the consensus deleted regions for the putative suppressor genes of neuroblastoma by deletion mapping. The significance of deletion in 1p on the clinical features of neuroblastoma remains controversial. To clarify the relationship between the clinical features of neuroblastoma cases and genetic status of 1p, we performed deletion mapping on 1p on samples obtained from 58 cases with neuroblastoma using 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite or minisatellite loci. Loss of heterozygosity of 1p was detected in 19 cases (33%) of primary tumors and in 21 cases (36%) when metastatic and recurrent sites were included. They were classified into two groups according to the 1p deletion pattern: interstitial deletion (group I, n = 11) and terminal deletion (group T, n = 10). The shortest region of overlap in group I ranged between FGR and D1S170 (1p36.1-2). Clinically, all group I cases survived disease free, and none of these cases showed MYCN amplification. However, in group T, eight (80%) cases showed a large terminal deletion from D1S162 (1p32-pter), including the shortest region of overlap of group I, and two (20%) showed a very terminal deletion from D1S160 (1p 36.3). Of the group T cases, only two survived disease free, and seven (70%) showed MYCN amplification. Thus, the candidates for the locations of neuroblastoma suppressor genes on 1p may involve at least two regions, which demonstrate different clinical features.

Kanno H, Yasunaga Y, Ohsawa M, et al.
Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection genes and oncogenes in lymphoma cell lines derived from pyothorax-associated lymphoma.
Int J Cancer. 1996; 67(1):86-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant lymphomas frequently develop in the pleural cavity of patients with long-standing pyothorax. The term pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) has been proposed for this type of tumor. Most PALs are diffuse lymphomas of the B-cell type and contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. We have established 2 lymphoma cell lines from biopsy specimens of PAL cases, OPL-1 and OPL-2, and examined their growth characteristics and the expression of EBV latent infection genes and oncogenes. OPL-2 exhibited a more rapid growth and higher saturation density than OPL-1, and only OPL-2 exhibited colony-forming activity in soft agar. OPL-1 and -2 were positive for B-cell differentiation markers and showed clonal surface immunoglobulins. Both line contained a single predominant form of episomal EBV DNA, indicating clonal cellular proliferation of an EBV-infected progenitor cell. OPL-1 and -2 contained type B and A EBV genome, respectively. Expression of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)2 mRNA and protein was detected by Northern and Western blot analysis in OPL-1, but not in OPL-2. On the other hand, the expression of latent membrane protein (LMP)1 mRNA in both OPL-1 and -2 was extremely weak and detectable only by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of LMP1 was not observed by Western blot analysis or immunocytochemistry. Both lines expressed c-myc mRNA. Only OPL-1 expressed mRNA of c-fgr, an oncogene whose expression is upregulated by EBNA2. Both OPLs expressed bcl-2 mRNA without detectable expression of LMP1 protein.

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