Gene Summary

Gene:GNAI2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2
Aliases: GIP, GNAI2B, H_LUCA15.1, H_LUCA16.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an alpha subunit of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). The encoded protein contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and is involved in the hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (36)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone
  • Cancer DNA
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Messenger RNA
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Oncogenes
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Tumor Markers
  • Receptors, Oxytocin
  • Mutation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • Chromosome 3
  • Stromal Cells
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • VHL
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • siRNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • Exons
  • MicroRNAs
  • Sequence Homology
  • Virulence Factors, Bordetella
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunit, Gi2
  • Base Sequence
  • NIH 3T3 Cells
  • Brain Tumours
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GNAI2 (cancer-related)

Bordji K, Grandval A, Cuhna-Alves L, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), but not HIF-1α, is essential for hypoxic induction of class III β-tubulin expression in human glioblastoma cells.
FEBS J. 2014; 281(23):5220-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest form of primary brain cancer. Several reports have indicated aberrant levels of βIII-tubulin (βIII-t) in human GBM. βIII-t overexpression was linked to increasing malignancy in glial tumors and described to determine the onset of resistance to chemotherapy. Furthermore, a linkage was suggested between the induction of βIII-t expression and hypoxia, a hallmark of GBM. We investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α in the regulation of the βIII-t gene (TUBB3) in GBM cells cultured in either normoxia or hypoxia. We report for the first time that HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, is involved in hypoxia-induced βIII-t expression in GBM cells. By gene-reporter experiments and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that two overlapping hypoxia response elements located in the 3' UTR of the gene were involved in the activation of TUBB3. This occurred through an enhanced binding of HIF-2α to the 3' region, as revealed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Conversely, the promoter of TUBB3 was shown to be inactive. In addition, we observed that HIF-1α exhibits a repressive effect on βIII-t expression in cells cultured in normoxia. These results show that both HIF-α isoforms have opposing effects on βIII-t expression in GBM cells. Finally, we observed that hypoxia-induced βIII-t expression is well correlated with the kinetics of HIF-2α protein stabilization. The evidence for a direct linkage between HIF-2α and increased expression of βIII-t by hypoxia suggests that an anti-HIF-2α strategy (i.e. by downregulating βIII-t) could be of potential interest for improving the treatment of GBM.

Bai W, Chen Y, Yang J, et al.
Aberrant miRNA profiles associated with chronic benzene poisoning.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 96(3):426-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, miRNA profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic benzene poisoning patients and health controls matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the Exiqon miRNA PCR ARRAY and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. Totally, 6 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-205, miR-10b, let-7d, miR-185 and miR-423-5p-2) and 7 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-543, hsa-miR-130a, miR-27b,miR-223, miR-142-5p and miR-320b) were found in chronic benzene poisoning group compared to health controls (P ≤ 0.05). By integrating miRNA and mRNA expression data, these differential miRNAs were mainly involved in regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, axon guidance, regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, nervous system development, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. Further, pathway analysis indicated that SMAD4, PLCB1, NFAT5, GNAI2, PTEN, VEGFA, BCL2, CTNNB1 and CCND1 were key target genes of differential miRNAs which were implicated in Adherens junction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, tight junction and Pathways in cancer. In conclusion, the aberrant miRNAs might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

Calipel A, Landreville S, De La Fouchardière A, et al.
Mechanisms of resistance to imatinib mesylate in KIT-positive metastatic uveal melanoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(5):553-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib mesylate is used in targeted therapy of cancer to inhibit type III tyrosine kinase receptors, such as KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs). Expression of KIT in uveal melanoma (UM) suggests that this receptor may be the target of imatinib mesylate therapy. However, phase II multicenter clinical studies have shown no effect of imatinib mesylate in patients with unresectable liver metastases of UM. We therefore investigated which molecular mechanisms promote imatinib mesylate-resistance in metastatic UM. Expression of KIT, stem cell factor (SCF), PDGFRα and PDGFRβ, was analyzed by RT-PCR, immunostaining, and Western blot in twenty-four samples of UM liver metastases, as well as UM primary tumor and metastatic cell lines. Soluble SCF was quantified in UM cell lines using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability of UM cell lines treated with imatinib mesylate and grown in SCF-supplemented medium or in microvascular endothelial cells-conditioned medium was studied by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays. UM liver metastases and cell lines expressed KIT and SCF, but not the PDGFRs. Ninety-five percent of liver metastases expressed KIT at the protein level, but PDGFRs were not detected in these samples. Imatinib mesylate reduced the viability of UM metastatic cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but an increased resistance to this drug was observed when cells were incubated in SCF-supplemented or microvascular endothelial cells-conditioned medium. This study provides evidence that tumor microenvironment cytokines such as SCF may promote resistance to imatinib mesylate in metastatic UM.

Morin RD, Mungall K, Pleasance E, et al.
Mutational and structural analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using whole-genome sequencing.
Blood. 2013; 122(7):1256-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a genetically heterogeneous cancer composed of at least 2 molecular subtypes that differ in gene expression and distribution of mutations. Recently, application of genome/exome sequencing and RNA-seq to DLBCL has revealed numerous genes that are recurrent targets of somatic point mutation in this disease. Here we provide a whole-genome-sequencing-based perspective of DLBCL mutational complexity by characterizing 40 de novo DLBCL cases and 13 DLBCL cell lines and combining these data with DNA copy number analysis and RNA-seq from an extended cohort of 96 cases. Our analysis identified widespread genomic rearrangements including evidence for chromothripsis as well as the presence of known and novel fusion transcripts. We uncovered new gene targets of recurrent somatic point mutations and genes that are targeted by focal somatic deletions in this disease. We highlight the recurrence of germinal center B-cell-restricted mutations affecting genes that encode the S1P receptor and 2 small GTPases (GNA13 and GNAI2) that together converge on regulation of B-cell homing. We further analyzed our data to approximate the relative temporal order in which some recurrent mutations were acquired and demonstrate that ongoing acquisition of mutations and intratumoral clonal heterogeneity are common features of DLBCL. This study further improves our understanding of the processes and pathways involved in lymphomagenesis, and some of the pathways mutated here may indicate new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

Zhong M, Clarke S, Vo BT, Khan SA
The essential role of Giα2 in prostate cancer cell migration.
Mol Cancer Res. 2012; 10(10):1380-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell- and receptor-specific regulation of cell migration by Gi/oα-proteins remains unknown in prostate cancer cells. In the present study, oxytocin (OXT) receptor was detected at the protein level in total cell lysates from C81 (an androgen-independent subline of LNCaP), DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells, but not in immortalized normal prostate luminal epithelial cells (RWPE1), and OXT-induced migration of PC3 cells. This effect of OXT has been shown to be mediated by Gi/oα-dependent signaling. Accordingly, OXT inhibited forskolin-induced luciferase activity in PC3 cells that were transfected with a luciferase reporter for cyclic AMP activity. Although mRNAs for all three Giα isoforms were present in PC3 cells, Giα2 was the most abundant isoform that was detected at the protein level. Pertussis toxin (PTx) inhibited the OXT-induced migration of PC3 cells. Ectopic expression of the PTx-resistant Giα2-C352G, but not wild-type Giα2, abolished this effect of PTx on OXT-induced cell migration. The Giα2-targeting siRNA was shown to specifically reduce Giα2 mRNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. The Giα2-targeting siRNA eliminated OXT-induced migration of PC3 cells. These data suggest that Giα2 plays an important role in the effects of OXT on PC3 cell migration. The Giα2-targeting siRNA also inhibited EGF-induced migration of PC3 and DU145 cells. Expression of the siRNA-resistant Giα2, but not wild type Giα2, restored the effects of EGF in PC3 cells transfected with the Giα2-targeting siRNA. In conclusion, Giα2 plays an essential role in OXT and EGF signaling to induce prostate cancer cell migration.

Dmitriev AA, Kashuba VI, Haraldson K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic analysis of non-small cell lung cancer with NotI-microarrays.
Epigenetics. 2012; 7(5):502-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to clarify genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur during lung carcinogenesis and to design perspective sets of newly identified biomarkers. The original method includes chromosome 3 specific NotI-microarrays containing 180 NotI clones associated with genes for hybridization with 40 paired normal/tumor DNA samples of primary lung tumors: 28 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 12 adenocarcinomas (ADC). The NotI-microarray data were confirmed by qPCR and bisulfite sequencing analyses. Forty-four genes showed methylation and/or deletions in more than 15% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. In general, SCC samples were more frequently methylated/deleted than ADC. Moreover, the SCC alterations were observed already at stage I of tumor development, whereas in ADC many genes showed tumor progression specific methylation/deletions. Among genes frequently methylated/deleted in NSCLC, only a few were already known tumor suppressor genes: RBSP3 (CTDSPL), VHL and THRB. The RPL32, LOC285205, FGD5 and other genes were previously not shown to be involved in lung carcinogenesis. Ten methylated genes, i.e., IQSEC1, RBSP3, ITGA 9, FOXP1, LRRN1, GNAI2, VHL, FGD5, ALDH1L1 and BCL6 were tested for expression by qPCR and were found downregulated in the majority of cases. Three genes (RBSP3, FBLN2 and ITGA9) demonstrated strong cell growth inhibition activity. A comprehensive statistical analysis suggested the set of 19 gene markers, ANKRD28, BHLHE40, CGGBP1, RBSP3, EPHB1, FGD5, FOXP1, GORASP1/TTC21, IQSEC1, ITGA9, LOC285375, LRRC3B, LRRN1, MITF, NKIRAS1/RPL15, TRH, UBE2E2, VHL, WNT7A, to allow early detection, tumor progression, metastases and to discriminate between SCC and ADC with sensitivity and specificity of 80-100%.

Waser B, Rehmann R, Sanchez C, et al.
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptors in most gastroenteropancreatic and bronchial neuroendocrine tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(2):482-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Gastrointestinal peptide hormone receptors overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors (NET), such as somatostatin or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors, are used for in vivo tumor targeting. Unfortunately, not all NET express these receptors sufficiently.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate in vitro the expression of another incretin receptor, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor, in human tumors and compare it with that in adjacent nonneoplastic tissues and also with somatostatin and GLP-1 receptor expression.
METHODS: GIP receptor protein expression was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated in 260 human tumors and in nonneoplastic human tissues with receptor autoradiography using [(125)I]GIP(1-30). Pharmacological competition experiments and mRNA analysis were performed to provide proof of specificity. Somatostatin receptor and GLP-1 receptor autoradiography were performed in adjacent sections.
RESULTS: GIP receptors are expressed in the majority of pancreatic, ileal, and bronchial NET. Importantly, most of the somatostatin receptor-negative NET and GLP-1 receptor-negative malignant insulinomas are GIP receptor positive. Conversely, the epithelial and stromal gastrointestinal tumors, including gastric, colonic, and hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors as well as lung adenocarcinomas are usually GIP receptor negative, except for 26% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Pancreatic islets, but not acini, are GIP receptor positive. The rank order of potencies for receptor binding and mRNA analysis by PCR reveal specific GIP receptors.
CONCLUSIONS: The numerous GIP receptors in gastroenteropancreatic and bronchial NET represent novel universal molecular targets for clinical applications, in particular for in vivo scintigraphy and targeted radiotherapy. These results may also be the basis for multiple targeting, with concomitant use of GIP, somatostatin, and GLP-1 analogs as radiotracers.

Occhi G, Losa M, Albiger N, et al.
The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor is overexpressed amongst GNAS1 mutation-negative somatotropinomas and drives growth hormone (GH)-promoter activity in GH3 cells.
J Neuroendocrinol. 2011; 23(7):641-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mutations in the GNAS1 gene, encoding the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric stimulatory G protein (Gαs), occur in approximately 40% of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumours. By altering the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway, they unequivocally give somatotroph cells a growth advantage. Hence, the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas could be linked to anomalies in receptors coupled to the cAMP second-messenger cascade. Among them, the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) is already known to play a primary role in the impaired cAMP-dependent cortisol secretion in patients affected by food-dependent Cushing's syndrome. In the present study, 43 somatotropinomas and 12 normal pituitary glands were investigated for GIPR expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Tumoural specimens were also evaluated for GNAS1 mutational status. The effect of GIPR overexpression on cAMP levels and GH transcription was evaluated in an in vitro model of somatotropinomas, the GH-secreting pituitary cell line GH3. GIPR was expressed at higher levels compared to normal pituitaries in 13 GNAS1 mutation-negative somatotropinomas. GIP stimulated adenylyl cyclase and GH-promoter activity in GIPR-transfected GH3 cells, confirming a correct coupling of GIPR to Gαs. In a proportion of acromegalic patients, GIPR overexpression appeared to be associated with a paradoxical increase in GH after an oral glucose tolerance test. Whether GIPR overexpression in acromegalic patients may be associated with this paradoxical response or more generally involved in the pathogenesis of acromegaly, as suggested by the mutually exclusive high GIPR levels and GNAS1 mutations, remains an open question.

Yoshida M, Hiroi M, Imai T, et al.
A case of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
Endocr J. 2011; 58(4):269-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome characterized by the occurrence of tumors in the parathyroid glands, pancreas, and anterior pituitary. Approximately 30-40% of MEN1 patients also have adrenal lesions, such as hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and adrenocortical carcinoma. Most of the cases are hormonally silent. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man with bilateral macronodular adrenal lesions, in addition to parathyroid tumors, multiple insulinomas, and non-functioning pituitary microadenoma. Endocrinological tests revealed subclinical hypercortisolism; midnight cortisol level rose slightly (8.0 µg/dL), although basal plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were within the normal range (19.5 pg/mL and 12.0 µg/dL, respectively). One and 8 mg dexamethasone suppression tests showed cortisol levels of 2.3 and 9.8 µg/dL, respectively. (131)I-adosterol scintigraphy under dexamethasone suppression revealed bilateral adrenal uptake with right-sided predominance. The histological features of the removed right adrenal gland were consistent with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH): immunoreactivity of 17α-hydroxylase was predominantly observed in the small compact cells, while that of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was exclusively expressed in the large clear cells. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor was expressed at high levels in compact cells, suggesting that GIP is responsible for the development of AIMAH. Unilateral small adrenal lesions were detected in the patient's 2 children, who also presented with MEN1 symptoms. Genetic abnormalities in the MEN1, p27, and p18 genes were not found, however, the present case may provide a clue to the understanding of the etiology of MEN1 and AIMAH.

Garcia-Marcos M, Ghosh P, Farquhar MG
Molecular basis of a novel oncogenic mutation in GNAO1.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(23):2691-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that control signal transduction, and their dysregulation can promote oncogenesis. Somatic mutations in GNAS, GNAI2 and GNAQ genes induce oncogenesis by rendering Gα subunits constitutively activated. Recently the first somatic mutation, arginine(243) → histidine (R243H) in the GNAO1 (Gαo) gene was identified in breast carcinomas and shown to promote oncogenic transformation when introduced into cells. Here, we provide the molecular basis for the oncogenic properties of the Gαo R243H mutant. Using limited proteolysis assays, nucleotide-binding assays, and single-turnover and steady-state GTPase assays, we demonstrate that the oncogenic R234H mutation renders Gαo constitutively active by accelerating the rate of nucleotide exchange; however, this mutation does not affect Gαo's ability to become deactivated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) or by its intrinsic GTPase activity. This mechanism differs from that of previously reported oncogenic mutations that impair GTPase activity and GAP sensitivity without affecting nucleotide exchange. The constitutively active Gαo R243H mutant also enhances Src-STAT3 signaling in NIH-3T3 cells, a pathway previously shown to be directly triggered by active Gαo proteins to promote cellular transformation. Based on structural analyses, we propose that the enhanced rate of nucleotide exchange in Gαo R243H results from loss of the highly conserved electrostatic interaction of R243 with E43, located in the in the P-loop that represents the binding site for the α- and β-phosphates of the nucleotide. We conclude that the novel R234H mutation imparts oncogenic properties to Gαo by accelerating nucleotide exchange and rendering it constitutively active, thereby enhancing signaling pathways, for example, src-STAT3, responsible for neoplastic transformation.

Jiang L, Dai Y, Liu X, et al.
Identification and experimental validation of G protein alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 (GNAI2) as a microRNA-138 target in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum Genet. 2011; 129(2):189-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA deregulation is a critical event in tumor initiation and progression. The down-regulation of microRNA-138 has been frequently observed in various cancers, including tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Our previous studies suggest that deregulation of miR-138 is associated with the enhanced proliferation and invasion in TSCC cells. Here, we seek to identify the targets of miR-138 in TSCC, and explore their functional relevance in tumorigenesis. Our genome-wide expression profiling experiments identified a panel of 194 unique transcripts that were significantly down-regulated in TSCC cells transfected with miR-138. A comprehensive screening using six different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 51 out of these 194 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for miR-138. These targets include: chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A (CLNS1A), G protein alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 (GNAI2), solute carrier family 20, member 1 (SLC20A1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), and Rho-related GTP-binding protein C (RhoC). GNAI2 is a known proto-oncogene that is involved in the initiation and progression of several different types of tumors. Direct targeting of miR-138 to two candidate binding sequences located in the 3'-untranslated region of GNAI2 mRNA was confirmed using luciferase reporter gene assays. Knockdown of miR-138 in TSCC cells enhanced the expression of GNAI2 at both mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, ectopic transfection of miR-138 reduced the expression of GNAI2, which, in consequence, led to reduced proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confident miR-138 target genes, including proto-oncogene GNAI2, which may play an important role in TSCC initiation and progression.

Hoo RL, Chu JY, Yuan Y, et al.
Functional identification of an intronic promoter of the human glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide gene.
Gene. 2010; 463(1-2):29-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a physiological incretin and enterogastrone, plays a vital role in regulating glucose-dependent insulin release from the pancreas and gastric acid secretion from the stomach. By using a transgenic mouse approach, we previously reported that the distal 1.2kb promoter region of the human GIP (hGIP) gene (-2545/-346, relative to the ATG) was able to target the transgene expression in the stomach but not in the small intestine where the majority of GIP-producing cells are located. In the present study, in order to identify the cis-acting element(s) that is/are required for intestinal expression, a 1.6kb (-1580/-) DNA fragment within the first intron of the hGIP gene was isolated and characterized in three GIP-expressing cell lines including HuTu80 (duodenal cells), PANC-1 (pancreatic ductal cells) and Hs746T (stomach cells). By 5' and 3' deletion analysis, a proximal promoter element was confined within the nucleotides -102/-1. This promoter element, functions in an orientation-dependent manner, was able to drive 15.1 and 18.3 fold increases in promoter activities in HuTu80 and PANC-1 cells, respectively. Site-directed mutation analysis indicated that the region -54/-23 was essential for promoter function while the region -22/-1 might possess opposite effects in HuTu80 and PANC-1 cells. In competitive and antibody supershift assays, interactions of the progesterone receptor (PR) and some unknown protein factors from HuTu80 and PANC-1 with the motif(s) at -54/-23 were evident. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated the transcriptional regulation of the hGIP promoter by progesterone via the PR-B isoform and that progesterone treatment in both HuTu80 and PANC-1 cells resulted in an increase in hGIP transcript level. In addition, a sequence motif (ACATGT) residing -48/-43 was found to be responsible for the binding of potential TFII regulator(s). Taken together, our results suggest that the proximal intronic sequences contain essential cis-acting elements for the cell-specific expression of the hGIP gene.

Ruggeri RM, Santarpia L, Curtò L, et al.
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2008; 31(11):946-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations of the genes encoding the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gs) and of the inhibiting Gi2 protein (GNAS1 and GNAI2 genes, respectively) have been described in various endocrine neoplasias, including pituitary tumors.
AIM: To search for mutations of GNAS1 and GNAI2 in a continuous series of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) patients neurosurgically treated.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The surgical samples of 22 patients who have been defined and characterized on a clinical, biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical point of view have been processed for investigating the presence of the above mutations by PCR amplification of the hot spots exons 8 and 9 of GNAS1, and exons 5 and 6 of GNAI2, followed by direct sequencing. Moreover, the promoter region of GNAI2, in order to assess the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), was investigated in the same series.
RESULTS: A CGT>TGT mutation at codon 201 of GNAS1 gene in a single case of NFPA was found, but no mutation of GNAI2A was demonstrated.
CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests and confirms that G-protein mutations are rare and not crucial in NFPA development. Additionally, we found a silent SNP at codon 318 in the promoter of the Gi2alpha gene in one out of the 22 NFPA.

Specht K, Harbeck N, Smida J, et al.
Expression profiling identifies genes that predict recurrence of breast cancer after adjuvant CMF-based chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 118(1):45-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracile (CMF)-based chemotherapy for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer reduces the risk of relapse. In this exploratory study, we tested the feasibility of identifying molecular markers of recurrence in CMF-treated patients. Using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips, RNA samples from 19 patients with primary breast cancer who had been uniformly treated with adjuvant CMF chemotherapy were analyzed. Two supervised class prediction approaches were used to identify gene markers that can best discriminate between patients who would experience relapse and patients who would remain disease-free. An additional independent validation set of 51 patients and 21 genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Applying different algorithms to evaluate our microarray data, we identified two gene expression signatures of 21 and 12 genes containing eight overlapping genes, that predict recurrence in 19 cases with high accuracy (94%). Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that six genes from the combined signatures (CXCL9, ITSN2, GNAI2, H2AFX, INDO, and MGC10986) were significantly differentially expressed in the recurrence versus the non-recurrence group of the 19 cases and the independent breast cancer patient cohort (n = 51) treated with CMF. High expression levels of CXCL9, ITSN2, and GNAI2 were associated with prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.029, 0.018 and 0.032, respectively). When patients were stratified by combined CXCL9/ITSN2 or CXCL9/FLJ22028 tumor levels, they exhibited significantly different disease-free survival curves (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.005, respectively). Finally, the CXCL9/ITSN2 and CXCL9/FLJ22028 ratio was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.034 and P = 0.003, respectively) for DFS by multivariate Cox analysis in the 70-patient cohort. Our data highlight the feasibility of a prognostic assay that is applicable to therapeutic decision-making for breast cancer. Whether the biomarker profile is chemotherapy-specific or whether it is a more general indicator of bad prognosis of breast cancer patients remains to be explored.

Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Feige JJ, Thomas M
Aberrant GPCR expression is a sufficient genetic event to trigger adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007; 265-266:23-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in the adrenal cortex is observed in some cases of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias and adenomas associated with Cushing syndrome (CS). Although there is clinical evidence for the implication of these receptors in abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion, whether this aberrant expression also directly causes the development of a benign adrenocortical tumor is an open question. Cell transplantation provides a way to study genes that may be important in human tumor development. The system we developed uses genetically modified adrenocortical cells transplanted into adrenalectomized immunodeficient mice, which form a functional tissue structure. We observed that enforcing expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor or the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor genes (taken as canonical examples of aberrantly expressed GPCRs) in adrenocortical cells resulted in the formation of hyperplastic tissues and the development of Cushing syndrome features in transplanted mice.

Peters DG, Kudla DM, Deloia JA, et al.
Comparative gene expression analysis of ovarian carcinoma and normal ovarian epithelium by serial analysis of gene expression.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005; 14(7):1717-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the importance of early diagnosis, there are no reliable noninvasive biomarkers for detection in the early stages of disease. Therefore, to identify novel ovarian cancer markers with potential utility in early-stage screening protocols, we have undertaken an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of gene expression in primary ovarian tumors and normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). Specifically, we have generated SAGE libraries from three serous adenocarcinomas of the ovary and, using novel statistical tools, have compared these to SAGE data derived from two pools of normal HOSE. Significantly, in contrast to previous SAGE-based studies, our normal SAGE libraries are not derived from cultured cell lines. We have also compared our data with publicly available SAGE data obtained from primary tumors and "normal" HOSE-derived cell lines. We have thus identified several known and novel genes whose expressions are elevated in ovarian cancer. These include but are not limited to CLDN3, WFDC2, FOLR1, COL18A1, CCND1, and FLJ12988. Furthermore, we found marked differences in gene expression patterns in primary HOSE tissue compared with cultured HOSE. The use of HOSE tissue as a control for these experiments, along with hierarchical clustering analysis, identified several potentially novel biomarkers of ovarian cancer, including TACC3, CD9, GNAI2, AHCY, CCT3, and HMGA1. In summary, these data identify several genes whose elevated expressions have not been observed previously in ovarian cancer, confirm the validity of several existing markers, and provide a foundation for future studies in the understanding and management of this disease.

Dall'Asta C, Ballarè E, Mantovani G, et al.
Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.
Horm Metab Res. 2004; 36(8):578-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses.

Bourdeau I, Antonini SR, Lacroix A, et al.
Gene array analysis of macronodular adrenal hyperplasia confirms clinical heterogeneity and identifies several candidate genes as molecular mediators.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(8):1575-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Corticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a heterogeneous condition in which cortisol secretion may be mediated by gastrointestinal peptide (GIP), vasopressin, catecholamines and other hormones. We studied the expression profile of AIMAH by genomic cDNA microarray analysis. Total RNA was extracted from eight tissues (three GIP-dependent) and compared to total RNA obtained from adrenal glands from 62 normal subjects. Genes had to be altered in 75% of the patients, and be up- or downregulated at a cutoff ratio of at least 2.0; 82 and 31 genes were found to be consistently up- and downregulated, respectively. Among the former were regulators of transcription, chromatin remodeling, and cell cycle and adhesion. Downregulated sequences included genes involved in immune responses and insulin signaling. Hierarchical clustering correlated with the two main AIMAH diagnostic groups: GIP-dependent and non-GIP-dependent. The genes encoding the 7B2 protein (SGNE1) and WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP2) were specifically overexpressed in the GIP-dependent AIMAH. For these, and six more genes, the data were validated by semiquantitative amplification in samples from a total of 32 patients (the original eight, six more cases of AIMAH, and 18 other adrenocortical hyperplasias and tumors) and the H295R adrenocortical cancer cell line. In conclusion, our data confirmed AIMAH's clinical heterogeneity by identifying molecularly distinct diagnostic subgroups. Several candidate genes that may be responsible for AIMAH formation and/or progression were also identified, suggesting pathways that affect the cell cycle, adhesion and transcription as possible mediators of adrenocortical hyperplasia.

Kan B, Esapa C, Sipahi T, et al.
G protein mutations in pituitary tumors: a study on Turkish patients.
Pituitary. 2003; 6(2):75-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating mutations of the G proteins, Gsalpha (gsp) and Gi2alpha (gip) have been reported in subsets of pituitary tumors. The objective of the study was to assess the frequency of gsp and gip mutations in pituitary tumors from Turkish patients and to investigate the possibility of mutations of protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKAC) that activates the downstream effectors of adenylyl cyclase. PCR-amplified genomic DNA was analyzed for the presence of mutations in codons 201 and 227 of Gsalpha, codon 179 and 205 of Gi2alpha and codon 196 of PKAC, by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and DNA sequencing. Twenty-two patients from Turkey, 15 females and 7 males were investigated; 7 somatotroph adenomas, 7 clinically non-functioning tumors, 7 prolactinomas and 1 corticotroph adenoma. G protein mutations were identified in 6 of 22 (27.3%) pituitary tumors. Four tumors (3/7 somatotroph adenomas, 43%, 1/7 clinically non-functioning tumor) demonstrated gsp mutations at codon 201 arginine to cysteine and one recurrent somatotroph adenoma demonstrated a mutation of the Gi2alpha gene at codon 193 lysine to arginine. One tumor exhibited a C to T variation in the intervening sequence between codons 179 and 205 of the Gi2alpha gene. No mutations at codon 227 of Gsalpha, codons 179 and 205 of Gi2alpha and codon 196 of the PKAC gene were identified.

Sarubi JC, Bei H, Adams EF, et al.
Clonal composition of human adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas and somatic mutation analyses of the patched (PTCH), Gsalpha and Gi2alpha genes.
Neurosci Lett. 2001; 310(1):5-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Craniopharyngioma is the most common childhood tumor and thought to arise from embryonic remnants of Rathke's pouch. The paucity of published data on the molecular basis of these tumors prompted us to examine 22 adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas looking for genetic abnormalities. Using the X-linked polymorphic androgen receptor gene as a tool for X-chromosome inactivating analysis, we found that a subset of craniopharyngiomas are monoclonal and therefore are probably due to acquired somatic genetic defects. Thus, we investigated these tumours for mutations within three candidate genes, Gsalpha, Gi2alpha and patched (PTCH). Using single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing, the presence of somatic mutations in these genes could not be demonstrated in any tumor. Our data indicate that a subset of craniopharyngiomas are monoclonal and the mutations in the PTCH, Gsalpha, and Gi2alpha contribute little if any to craniopharyngioma development.

Jorge BH, Agarwal SK, Lando VS, et al.
Study of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, Gs alpha, and Gi2 alpha genes in isolated familial acromegaly.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86(2):542-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial acromegaly may occur as an isolated pituitary disorder or as a feature of hereditary syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or the Carney complex. Herein, we characterized a newly identified kindred with isolated acromegaly and searched for germline mutation in genes that have been associated with endocrine tumors [i.e. MEN1, Gs alpha (GNAS1), and Gi2 alpha (GNAI2)], as well as the GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) gene. Genomic DNA was used to amplify exons 2-10 of MEN1, followed by dideoxy fingerprinting mutation analysis and direct sequencing. The GHRH-R gene was analyzed via direct sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments representing the coding exons and intron-exon junctions. To exclude mutation at hot spot areas of GNAS1 and GNAI2, exons 8 and 9 of GNAS1 and exons 5 and 6 of GNAI2 were amplified and screened for mutation via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No mutations were detected in any of the four genes. The present data extend prior reports of the absence of mutation in MEN1, GHRH-R, and GNAS1 and describe the first family with isolated acromegaly in which germline mutation in GNAI2 has been searched.

Kostic C, Shaw PH
Isolation and characterization of sixteen novel p53 response genes.
Oncogene. 2000; 19(35):3978-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The EB-1 cell line is a stable transfectant of EB, a p53 null colon carcinoma cell line, with an inducible promoter controlling expression of a wild type p53 cDNA. The induced p53 is transcriptionally active and gives rise to apoptosis in these cells. Using this cellular model for presence or absence of the transcription factor p53 and transactivated genes, the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) technique permitted the isolation of 17 mRNA candidates (GIPs-Genes induced by p53), whose expression appears to be p53-dependent. Identity has been established for nine of the 17 isolated candidates. These are HGFL/MSP, Zap-70, APOBEC2, Ponsin/SH3P12/CAP/FLAF2, CDCrel2b/H5/Pnutl2, IgG, lats 2, cytokeratin 15 and PIG-3 (quinone oxidoreductase). The latter gene is the only GIP previously demonstrated to be p53 regulated. Of the eight remaining GIPs, six correspond to Unigene clusters. One candidate, GIP #1, is significantly homologous (72% identity) to a chicken zinc finger protein, CTCF, which binds to insulator elements and thus attenuates enhancer cross-talk between physically adjacent promoters. The p53-dependent expression of GIPs was confirmed by dependence of expression upon induction of wt p53 expression in the EB-1 cellular model and by up-regulation following activation of an endogenous wt p53 by treatment with adriamycin. Oncogene (2000) 19, 3978 - 3987.

Ebinger M, Jehle DR, Fussgaenger RD, et al.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 improves insulin and proinsulin binding on RINm5F cells and human monocytes.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 279(1):E88-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7---36) amide (GLP-1) is a potent incretin hormone secreted from distal gut. It stimulates basal and glucose-induced insulin secretion and proinsulin gene expression. The present study tested the hypothesis that GLP-1 may modulate insulin receptor binding. RINm5F rat insulinoma cells were incubated with GLP-1 (0.01-100 nM) for different periods (1 min-24 h). Insulin receptor binding was assessed by competitive ligand binding studies. In addition, we investigated the effect of GLP-1 on insulin receptor binding on monocytes isolated from type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients and healthy volunteers. In RINm5F cells, GLP-1 increased the capacity and affinity of insulin binding in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 showed similar effects, whereas the receptor antagonist exendin-(9---39) amide inhibited the GLP-1-induced increase in insulin receptor binding. The GLP-1 effect was potentiated by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the stable cAMP analog Sp-5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole-3', 5'-monophosphorothioate but was antagonized by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(0-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM. Glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and GIP-(1---30) did not affect insulin binding. In isolated monocytes, 24 h incubation with 100 nM GLP-1 significantly (P<0.05) increased the diminished number of high-capacity/low-affinity insulin binding sites per cell in type 1 diabetics (9,000+/-3,200 vs. 18,500+/-3,600) and in type 2 diabetics (15,700+/-2,100 vs. 28,900+/-1,800) compared with nondiabetic control subjects (25,100+/-2,700 vs. 26,200+/-4,200). Based on our previous experiments in IEC-6 cells and IM-9 lymphoblasts indicating that the low-affinity/high-capacity insulin binding sites may be more specific for proinsulin (Jehle, PM, Fussgaenger RD, Angelus NK, Jungwirth RJ, Saile B, and Lutz MP. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 276: E262-E268, 1999 and Jehle, PM, Lutz MP, and Fussgaenger RD. Diabetologia 39: 421-432, 1996), we further investigated the effect of GLP-1 on proinsulin binding in RINm5F cells and monocytes. In both cell types, GLP-1 induced a significant increase in proinsulin binding. We conclude that, in RINm5F cells and in isolated human monocytes, GLP-1 specifically increases the number of high-capacity insulin binding sites that may be functional proinsulin receptors.

Zhang WJ, Koltun WA, Tilberg AF, et al.
Absence of GNAI2 codon 179 oncogene mutations in inflammatory bowel disease.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2000; 6(2):103-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human GNAI2 gene coding for G protein, Galphai2, is located on chromosome 3p21 in proximity to the region where an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) locus has been suggested. Galphai2-deficient mice develop a lethal diffuse colitis that resembles human ulcerative colitis (UC) and frequently progresses to colon adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the human GNAI2 gene is subject to point mutations at certain positions, including three at codon 179, all of which have been reported in human endocrine tumors. In order to evaluate the possible involvement of this gene in IBD pathogenesis, we have examined GNAI2 codon 179 sequences in 28 familial IBD patients, including 13 UC, 15 Crohn's disease (CD), and 7 patients with colon cancer/dysplasia, from 12 multiplex IBD families. The wildtype codon 179, CGC for arginine, plus the first G of the codon 180 engender a sequence recognizable by the enzyme BstUI. Mutations, therefore, can result in the abrogation of BstUI digestion of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products containing the codon 179. Using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, all 28 IBD patients, including those with colon cancer, and 14 non-IBD family members show a BstUI-cleavable PCR-banding pattern indicating the presence of wildtype codon 179. We conclude that, in the familial IBD and colon cancer/dysplasia patients studied, there is no detectable mutation in the codon 179 of the GNAI2 gene.

Petersenn S, Heyens M, Lüdecke DK, et al.
Absence of somatostatin receptor type 2 A mutations and gip oncogene in pituitary somatotroph adenomas.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000; 52(1):35-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Somatostatin, acting via specific receptors in the anterior pituitary, tonically inhibits pituitary growth hormone secretion and somatotroph proliferation. Reduction of growth hormone secretion and tumour regression in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas treated with long-acting somatostatin analogues varies widely. In 30-40% of these tumours dominant somatic mutations of the Gsalpha gene (gsp) have been demonstrated leading to constitutive adenylyl cyclase induction. A relationship between somatostatin sensitivity and tumour pathogenesis in some tumours has been suggested. Changes in the function of the somatostatin receptor or intracellular signal elements may be of relevance. Somatostatin receptor type 2 A (sst2A) and Gi2 are proposed to mediate selectively the inhibition of GH release in the somatotroph. We therefore investigated the presence of sst2A mutations and gip oncogene in somatotrophic pituitary adenomas.
DESIGN: Tumour samples from 15 patients with pituitary somatotroph adenomas were obtained. RNA was isolated and used for reverse transcription and subsequent polymerase chain reaction. All samples were screened for the presence of sst2A mutations and of the gip oncogene by SSCP analysis and sequencing. For comparison, the gsp oncogene was examined. The relationship between clinical data and molecular analysis results was investigated.
RESULTS: Seven of the tumours harboured a gsp mutation. No mutations affecting the sst2A protein were found in any of the tumours analysed. Furthermore, gip oncogene was absent in all tumours.
CONCLUSION: Mutations of the somatostatin receptor type 2 A and the gip oncogene are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of acromegaly.

Chabre O, Liakos P, Vivier J, et al.
Cushing's syndrome due to a gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent adrenal adenoma: insights into hormonal control of adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(9):3134-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied a patient with food-induced, ACTH-independent, Cushing's syndrome and a unilateral adrenocortical adenoma. In vivo cortisol secretion was stimulated by mixed, glucidic, lipidic, or proteic meals. Plasma ACTH levels were undetectable, but iv injection of ACTH stimulated cortisol secretion. Unilateral adrenalectomy was followed by hypocortisolism with loss of steroidogenic responses to both food and ACTH. In vitro, cortisol secretion by isolated tumor cells was stimulated by the gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and ACTH, but not by another gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Both peptides stimulated the production of cAMP but not of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. In quiescent cells, GIP and ACTH stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation and p42-p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. GIP receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA), assessed by RT-PCR, was highly expressed in the tumor, whereas it was undetectable in the adjacent hypotrophic adrenal tissue, in two adrenal tumors responsible for food-independent Cushing's syndrome, and in two hyperplastic adrenals associated with ACTH hypersecretion. In situ hybridization demonstrated that expression of GIP receptor RNA was confined to the adrenocortical tumor cells. Low levels of ACTH receptor messenger RNA were also detectable in the tumor. We conclude that abnormal expression of the GIP receptor allows adrenocortical cells to respond to food intake with an increase in cAMP that may participate in the stimulation of both cortisol secretion and proliferation of the tumor cells.

Fragoso MC, Latronico AC, Carvalho FM, et al.
Activating mutation of the stimulatory G protein (gsp) as a putative cause of ovarian and testicular human stromal Leydig cell tumors.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(6):2074-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating mutations of the G protein genes have been associated with the development of several endocrine neoplasms. Such activating mutations, gip2, affecting the alpha-subunit of the G alpha i2 protein were previously described by a single group in 30% of ovarian sex cord stromal tumors. Other activating mutations of the alpha-subunit of the Gs (gsp) have been identified in GH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, autonomous thyroid adenomas, and all affected McCune-Albright tissues, but not in sex cord stromal tumors. In the present study, we investigated the presence of gip2 and gsp mutations in 14 human sex cord stromal tumors. Six Leydig cell tumors (4 ovaries and 2 testes), 2 thecomas, 2 granulosa cell tumors, 3 androblastomas, and 1 gonadoblastoma (sex cord and germ cell) were included in this study. Genomic DNA was obtained from either fresh-frozen tumor tissues or paraffin-embedded sections and in some cases from blood samples. Using PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and direct sequencing, we detected 4 tumors (66.6%) with the gsp mutation (R201C) in our series of ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors. In contrast, no gip2 mutations were found in any of the sex cord stromal tumors studied. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the putative oncogene gsp may play a significant role in the molecular mechanism of these tumors.

Szeles A, Yang Y, Sandlund AM, et al.
Human/mouse microcell hybrid based elimination test reduces the putative tumor suppressor region at 3p21.3 to 1.6 cM.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1997; 20(4):329-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously identified an approximately 7 cM long common eliminated region (CER), involving the 3p21.3 markers AP20R, D3S966, D3S3559, D3S1029, WI-7947, D3S2354, AFMb362wb9, and D3S32, in human chromosome 3/A9 mouse fibrosarcoma microcell hybrid (MCH) derived SCID mouse tumors. We now report the results of our more detailed analysis on 24 SCID mouse tumors derived from two MCH lines that originally carried intact human chromosomes 3. They were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting and PCR, using 24 markers covering the region between D3S1611 and D3S13235 at 3p22-p21.2. D3S32 and D3S2354 were regularly eliminated during in vivo tumor growth, whereas the other 22 markers, D3S1611, ACAA, D3S1260, WI-692, AP20R, D3S3521, D3S966, D3S1029, D3S643, WI-2420, MSTI. GNAI2, D3S1235, D3S1298, GLBI, WI-4193, D3S3658, D3S3559, D3S3678, WI-6400, WI-7947, and WI-10865, were regularly retained. We have defined a common eliminated region of approximately 1.6 cM (designated as CER1) inside the 7 cM CER described earlier. CER1 is flanked distally by D3S1029 and proximally by D3S643.

Fromm C, Coso OA, Montaner S, et al.
The small GTP-binding protein Rho links G protein-coupled receptors and Galpha12 to the serum response element and to cellular transformation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997; 94(19):10098-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins can effectively stimulate growth promoting pathways in a large variety of cell types, and if persistently activated, these receptors can also behave as dominant-acting oncoproteins. Consistently, activating mutations for G proteins of the Galphas and Galphai2 families were found in human tumors; and members of the Galphaq and Galpha12 families are fully transforming when expressed in murine fibroblasts. In an effort aimed to elucidate the molecular events involved in proliferative signaling through heterotrimeric G proteins we have focused recently on gene expression regulation. Using NIH 3T3 fibroblasts expressing m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as a model system, we have observed that activation of this transforming G protein-coupled receptors induces the rapid expression of a variety of early responsive genes, including the c-fos protooncogene. One of the c-fos promoter elements, the serum response element (SRE), plays a central regulatory role, and activation of SRE-dependent transcription has been found to be regulated by several proteins, including the serum response factor and the ternary complex factor. With the aid of reporter plasmids for gene expression, we observed here that stimulation of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors potently induced SRE-driven reporter gene activity in NIH 3T3 cells. In these cells, only the Galpha12 family of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits strongly induced the SRE, while Gbeta1gamma2 dimers activated SRE to a more limited extent. Furthermore, our study provides strong evidence that m1, Galpha12 and the small GTP-binding protein RhoA are components of a novel signal transduction pathway that leads to the ternary complex factor-independent transcriptional activation of the SRE and to cellular transformation.

Esapa C, Foster S, Johnson S, et al.
G protein and thyrotropin receptor mutations in thyroid neoplasia.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82(2):493-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cAMP pathway plays a central role in thyroid follicular cell growth and function. Mutations of the TSH receptor (TSHR) or G proteins (gsp) that activate adenylyl cyclase have been identified in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Gsp mutations have been identified also in other forms of thyroid neoplasia, but their reported prevalence has been extremely variable. We have studied the prevalence of gsp mutations and activating mutations of Gi2 alpha (gip) in a series of 66 benign and 34 malignant thyroid tumors. Thirty-six tumors were from Boston and 64 from the UK. In addition, we examined the 64 UK tumors for mutations of the TSHR gene. DNA extracted from fresh-frozen or paraffin-embedded tissue was amplified by PCR and examined for mutations using oligonucleotide-specific hybridization and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. No G protein gene mutations were identified in the Boston tumors. One gsp mutation, R201C, in a Hürthle cell adenoma and 1 gip mutation, R179C, in a follicular adenoma were demonstrated in tumors from the UK. Oligonucleotide-specific hybridization and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the UK tumors did not demonstrate any mutations of the TSHR gene. Eleven normal thyroid tissue samples were wild-type for Gs alpha, Gi2 alpha, and the TSHR gene.

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