Gene Summary

Gene:HOXA10; homeobox A10
Aliases: PL, HOX1, HOX1H, HOX1.8
Summary:In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. More specifically, it may function in fertility, embryo viability, and regulation of hematopoietic lineage commitment. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream homeobox A9 (HOXA9) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein Hox-A10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Epigenetics
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • HOXA10
  • MicroRNAs
  • Transcriptome
  • DNA Methylation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Chromosome 7
  • KMT2A
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription
  • Validation Studies as Topic
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cultured Cells
  • Western Blotting
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • siRNA
  • Homeobox Genes
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Mutation
  • Adolescents
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • Disease Progression
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Up-Regulation
  • Leukaemia
  • Transfection
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HOXA10 (cancer-related)

Wieczorek E, Jablonowski Z, Tomasik B, et al.
Different Gene Expression and Activity Pattern of Antioxidant Enzymes in Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):841-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The analysis was performed at diagnosis and recurrence, taking into account the time of recurrence. Gene expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes. The activity of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) was examined in plasma, and GPX1 and copper-zinc containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in erythrocytes. SOD2 and GPX1 expression and GPX1 and SOD1 activity were significantly higher in patients at diagnosis of BC in comparison to controls. In patients who had recurrence earlier than 1 year from TUR, CAT and SOD2 expression was lower (at diagnosis p=0.024 and p=0.434, at recurrence p=0.022 and p=0.010), while the GPX1 and GPX3 activity was higher (at diagnosis p=0.242 and p=0.394, at recurrence p=0.019 and p=0.025) compared to patients with recurrence after 1 year from TUR. This study revealed that the gene expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes are elevated in blood of patients with BC, although a low expression of CAT might contribute to the recurrence of BC, in early prognosis.

Palko-Labuz A, Sroda-Pomianek K, Uryga A, et al.
Anticancer activity of baicalein and luteolin studied in colorectal adenocarcinoma LoVo cells and in drug-resistant LoVo/Dx cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 88:232-241 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to the type-specific diversity of cancer cells, an analysis and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for anticancer properties of biologically active compounds are essential. Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids may be useful in cancer chemoprevention or treatment because they influence diverse molecular pathways in cancer cells. In these studies anticancer activity of natural occurring flavones, baicalein and luteolin was investigated in colon cancer cells LoVo and in their drug resistant subline LoVo/Dx. Inhibitory activity of these flavones on cells growth and their ability to induce apoptosis were observed. A less pronounced influence of studied flavones on proliferation and apoptosis of LoVo/Dx as compared with LoVo cells well correlated with significantly lower cytotoxicity of these compounds in drug-resistant cells. These effects may be related to overexpression of multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein in drug-resistant LoVo/Dx cells. Our studies indicated that baicalein could be a substrate of this drug transporter.

Licznerska B, Szaefer H, Wierzchowski M, et al.
Resveratrol and its methoxy derivatives modulate the expression of estrogen metabolism enzymes in breast epithelial cells by AhR down-regulation.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2017; 425(1-2):169-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our earlier studies have shown that compared to resveratrol, its analogs with ortho-methoxy substituents exert stronger antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. Since estrogens are considered the major risk factors of breast carcinogenesis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3,4,2'-trimethoxy (3MS), 3,4,2',4'-tetramethoxy (4MS), and 3,4,2',4',6'-pentamethoxy (5MS) trans-stilbenes on the constitutive expression of the enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, as well as receptors: AhR and HER2 in breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. The results showed different effect of resveratrol and its methoxy derivatives on the expression of genes encoding key enzymes of estrogen synthesis and catabolism. Resveratrol at the doses of 1 and 5 µmol/L increased the level of CYP19 transcript and protein level, while 5MS reduced mRNA transcript of both CYP19 and STS genes. Resveratrol and all its derivatives reduced also SULT1E1 mRNA transcript level. The reduced expression of AhR, CYP1A1, and 1B1 was also found as a result of treatment with these compounds. The most significant changes were found in the case of AhR. The most potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 and 1B1 genes expression was 5MS, which reduced the levels of mRNA transcript and protein of both CYPs from 31 to 89% of the initial levels. These results indicate that methoxy derivatives of resveratrol might be efficient modulators of estrogen metabolism. Moreover, the number of methoxy groups introduced to stilbene structure may play a certain role in this effect.

Boguslawska J, Sokol E, Rybicka B, et al.
microRNAs target SRSF7 splicing factor to modulate the expression of osteopontin splice variants in renal cancer cells.
Gene. 2016; 595(2):142-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
SRSF7 is a SR splicing factor involved in the regulation of splicing and mRNA export of cancer-related genes. The mechanisms regulating the expression of SRSF7 are unknown. This study shows that SRSF7 expression in cancer cells is regulated by microRNAs: short, non-coding RNAs that bind to 3'UTR of target genes and downregulate their expression. We show that microRNAs miR-30a-5p and miR-181a-5p together with SRSF7 form regulatory feedback loop in which the expression of microRNAs is recurrently regulated by its target. Finally, we demonstrate that silencing of SRSF7 affects the expression of osteopontin splice variants and decreases proliferation rate of renal cancer cells.

Górska A, Gruchała-Niedoszytko M, Niedoszytko M, et al.
The Role of TRAF4 and B3GAT1 Gene Expression in the Food Hypersensitivity and Insect Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2016; 64(6):497-503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mastocytosis is an uncommon disease classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, however, its symptoms are broad and place patients at crossroads between dermatology, hematology and allergology. Patients with mastocytosis often suffer from symptoms resulting from the activation and release of mediators from the mast cells, such as generalized itching, redness, headache, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, bone pain or arthritis, hypotension and shock. The possible severe, fatal or near fatal reactions caused by food hypersensitivity are reasons for the research focused on marker identification. The aim of the study was to analyse the gene expression differences in mastocytosis patients with and without food and drug hypersensitivity and insect venom allergy (IVA). A total of 57 Caucasian patients with mastocytosis were studied [median age 41.8; range 18-77 years; 15 (26.3 %) males and 42 (73.7 %) females]. Quantitative RT-PCRs of 11 genes plus ribosomal 18S RNA were run. Symptoms of food hypersensitivity were found in 12 patients (21 %), including 3 patients (13 %) with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM), and 9 (28 %) with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM). IVA was confirmed in 13 patients (22.8 %) including 6 patients (10.5 %) with CM, and 7 patients (12.3 %) with ISM. Drug hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 10 patients (17.5 %). Significant differences in the gene expression were found for TRAF4 (p = 0.008) in the comparison of the mastocytosis patients with and without concomitant food hypersensitivity. Furthermore significant differences were found in gene expression for B3GAT1 (p = 0.003) in patients with IVA compared to patients without insect sting anaphylaxis in the medical history. The expression of studied genes did not differ according to the presence of drug hypersensitivity. The TRAF4 expression was higher in mastocytosis patients with food hypersensitivity in their medical history, the B3GAT1 expression was lower in mastocytosis patients with IVA in history.

Drozd E, Krzysztoń-Russjan J, Marczewska J, et al.
Up-regulation of glutathione-related genes, enzyme activities and transport proteins in human cervical cancer cells treated with doxorubicin.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:397-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most effective anticancer drugs, acts in a variety of ways including DNA damage, enzyme inhibition and generation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-related enzymes including: glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) may play a role in adaptive detoxification processes in response to the oxidative stress, thus contributing to drug resistance phenotype. In this study, we investigated effects of DOX treatment on expression and activity of GSH-related enzymes and multidrug resistance-associated proteins in cultured human cervical cancer cells displaying different resistance against this drug (HeLa and KB-V1). Determination of expression level of genes encoding GST isoforms and MRP proteins (GCS, GPX, GSR, GSTA1-3, GSTM1, GSTP1, ABCC1-3, MGST1-3) was performed using StellARray™ Technology. Enzymatic activities of GPX and GSR were measured using biochemical methods. Expression of MRP1 was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. This study showed that native expression levels of GSTM1 and GSTA3 were markedly higher in KB-V1 cells (2000-fold and 200-fold) compared to HeLa cells. Resistant cells have also shown significantly elevated expression of GSTA1 and GSTA2 genes (200-fold and 50-fold) as a result of DOX treatment. In HeLa cells, exposure to DOX increased expression of all genes: GSTM1 (7-fold) and GSTA1-3 (550-fold, 150-fold and 300-fold). Exposure to DOX led to the slight increase of GCS expression as well as GPX activity in KB-V1 cells, while in HeLa cells it did not. Expression of ABCC1 (MRP1) was not increased in any of the tested cell lines. Our results indicate that expression of GSTM1 and GSTA1-3 genes is up-regulated by DOX treatment and suggest that activity of these genes may be associated with drug resistance of the tested cells. At the same time, involvement of MRP1 in DOX resistance in the given experimental conditions is unlikely.

Wu X, Feng X, Zhao X, et al.
Role of Beclin-1-Mediated Autophagy in the Survival of Pediatric Leukemia Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(5):1827-1836 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute and chronic leukemia are severe malignant cancers worldwide, and can occur in pediatric patients. Since bone marrow cell transplantation is seriously limited by the availability of the immune-paired donor sources, the therapy for pediatric leukemia (PL) remains challenging. Autophagy is essential for the regulation of cell survival in the harsh environment. However, the role of autophagy in the survival of PL cells under the oxidative stress, e.g. chemotherapy, remain ill-defined. In the current study, we addressed these questions.
METHODS: We analyzed the effects of oxidative stress on the cell viability of PL cells in vitro, using a CCK-8 assay. We analyzed the effects of oxidative stress on the apoptosis and autophagy of PL cells. We analyzed the levels of Beclin-1 and microRNA-93 (miR-93) in PL cells. Prediction of binding between miR-93 and 3'-UTR of Beclin-1 mRNA was performed by a bioinformatics algorithm and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. The relationship between levels of miR-93 and patients' survival was analyzed in PL patients.
RESULTS: We found that oxidative stress dose-dependently increased autophagy in PL cells. While low-level oxidative stress did not increase apoptosis, high-level oxidative stress increased apoptosis, seemingly from failure of autophagy-mediated cell survival. High-level oxidative stress appeared to suppress the protein levels of an autophagy protein Beclin-1 in PL cells, possibly through induction of miR-93, which inhibited the translation of Beclin-1 mRNA via 3'-UTR binding.
CONCLUSION: Beclin-1-mediated autophagy plays a key role in the survival of PL cells against oxidative stress. Induction of miR-93 may increase the sensitivity of PL cells to oxidative stress during chemotherapy to improve therapeutic outcome.

Gil D, Ciołczyk-Wierzbicka D, Dulińska-Litewka J, Laidler P
Integrin-linked kinase regulates cadherin switch in bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):15185-15191 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cadherin switch is specific of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is closely related to tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanism that promotes the phenotypic changes remains unclear and elusive. We found that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a key factor involved in cadherin switch. The expression and activity of ILK are elevated in a variety of cancers but its mechanisms are not exactly understood. In this report, we studied the role and mechanism of ILK in EMT of human bladder cancer. We showed that silencing of ILK expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly abolished the nuclear translocation or the presence of markers associated with EMT like Snail, Twist, Zeb, and beta-catenin. ILK knockdown by siRNA suppressed N-cadherin expression and increased re-expression of E-cadherin in bladder cancer cells. We suggest that ILK is a major signaling factor involved in EMT. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanism of EMT in aim to possibly use it in search for new therapeutic targets.

Wozniak M, Mielczarek A, Czyz M
miRNAs in Melanoma: Tumor Suppressors and Oncogenes with Prognostic Potential.
Curr Med Chem. 2016; 23(28):3136-3153 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of target genes, control the vast majority of cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence, autophagy, metabolism and genome stability. Even slight alterations in miRNA expression levels may induce the development of pathological states, including cancer. Several studies have already demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the regulation of melanocytes. Upregulation of oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs), mainly by amplification and translocation of miRNA genes, and downregulation of oncosuppressor miRNAs (anti-oncomiRs) by deletion and other mutations, promoter methylation and abnormal processing contributes to melanoma initiation and progression. At each phase of melanoma progression, tumor cells exhibit distinct profiles of miRNA expression, as compared with normal melanocytes. Moreover, as miRNAs are stable molecules that can be identified in bodily fluids, such as blood and saliva, they can serve as potent non-invasive prognostic markers of disease progression and response to therapy. This review summarizes recent findings regarding miRNA-mediated control of melanocytes and melanoma development, and presents miRNAs as prognostic markers for this disease.

Koczkowska M, Wierzba J, Śmigiel R, et al.
Genomic findings in patients with clinical suspicion of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
J Appl Genet. 2017; 58(1):93-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, one of the most common human genomic syndromes, has highly heterogeneous clinical presentation. Patients usually harbor a 1.5 to 3 Mb hemizygous deletion at chromosome 22q11.2, resulting in pathognomic TBX1, CRKL and/or MAPK1 haploinsufficiency. However, there are some individuals with clinical features resembling the syndrome who are eventually diagnosed with genomic disorders affecting other chromosomal regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the additive value of high-resolution array-CGH testing in the cohort of 41 patients with clinical features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and negative results of standard cytogenetic diagnostic testing (karyotype and FISH for 22q11.2 locus). Array-CGH analysis revealed no aberrations at chromosomes 22 or 10 allegedly related to the syndrome. Five (12.2 %) patients were found to have other genomic imbalances, namely 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome (MIM#610443), 1p36 deletion syndrome (MIM#607872), NF1 microduplication syndrome (MIM#613675), chromosome 6pter-p24 deletion syndrome (MIM#612582) and a novel interstitial deletion at 3q26.31 of 0.65 Mb encompassing a dosage-dependent gene NAALADL2. Our study demonstrates that the implementation of array-CGH into the panel of classic diagnostic procedures adds significantly to their efficacy. It allows for detection of constitutional genomic imbalances in 12 % of subjects with negative result of karyotype and FISH targeted for 22q11.2 region. Moreover, if used as first-tier genetic test, the method would provide immediate diagnosis in ∼40 % phenotypic 22q11.2 deletion subjects.

Ding L, El Zaatari M, Merchant JL
Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 908:441-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model.

Paszel-Jaworska A, Totoń E, Dettlaff K, et al.
Increased proapoptotic activity of electron beam irradiated doxorubicin and epirubicin in multidrug-resistant human leukemic cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 258:69-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation on the cytotoxic activity of anthracycline antibiotics such as doxorubicin (DOX), epirubicin (EPI), and dunorubicin (DAU) in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM and its multidrug-resistant variant CCRF-VCR1000 cell line characterized by the overexpression of ABCB1 gene. Drugs were irradiated at doses of 10 and 25 kGy. Data from EPR studies proved that the highest concentration of free radicals was found in DOX and that the number of stable free radicals is always greater after irradiation. In in vitro studies, a higher cytotoxic activity of irradiated DOX and EPI in multidrug-resistant CCRF-VCR1000 cells was observed. This tendency was maintained during the storage at 4 °C for 90 days. Changes in CCRF-CEM cells' viability were not dependent on the irradiation status and its dose and were only drug-concentration dependent in all measurement time points. It was proved that increased potency of 25 kGy e-beam irradiated drugs results from their enhanced proapoptotic activity. Apoptotic cell death observed in CCRF-VCR1000 cells treated with irradiated drugs was caspase-8, -9, and -3 dependent and related to the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. No significant differences in the effects of irradiated and non-irradiated drugs on p53 and NFκB transcription factor level and their translocation to the nucleus were noted. Increased activity of the irradiated drugs was not dependent on ABCB1 level.

Czapiewski P, Gorczyński A, Haybaeck J, et al.
Expression pattern of ISL-1, TTF-1 and PAX5 in olfactory neuroblastoma.
Pol J Pathol. 2016; 67(2):130-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare neoplasm of the sinonasal area with neuroendocrine differentiation. ISL-1, TTF-1 and PAX5 are transcription factors that are frequently upregulated in tumors showing neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate these markers in a group of ONBs. We included 11 ONBs from 4 large university hospitals. Immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, PAX5 and ISL-1 was evaluated. TTF-1, ISL-1 and PAX5 were expressed in 3/11 cases (27.27%, h-score: 3-45), 7/11 cases (63.64%, h-score: 23-200), and in 3/11 cases (27.77%, h-score 3-85), respectively. The patient with the strongest PAX5 reactivity exhibited an aggressive clinical course with rapid dissemination to the spine and death shortly after the diagnosis. No significant correlation in the expression of PAX5 and TTF-1 ( = 0.43; p = 0.18) was observed. ISL-1 is widely expressed in tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation and therefore of limited value in their differential diagnosis. TTF-1 positivity does not exclude the diagnosis of primary ONB, although usually only a small percentage of cells are positive. PAX5 expression is infrequent (27.27%) in ONB; however, if present it can be associated with a very aggressive clinical course.

Imani R, Shao W, Taherkhani S, et al.
Dual-functionalized graphene oxide for enhanced siRNA delivery to breast cancer cells.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016; 147:315-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to improve hydrocolloid stability and siRNA transfection ability of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based nano-carrier using a phospholipid-based amphiphilic polymer (PL-PEG) and cell penetrating peptide (CPPs). The dual functionalized nano-carrier is comprehensively characterized for its chemical structure, size, surface charge and morphology as well as thermal stability. The nano-carrier cytocompatibility, siRNA condensation ability both in the presence and absence of enzyme, endosomal buffering capacity, cellular uptake and intracellular localization are also assessed. The siRNA loaded nano-carrier is used for internalization to MCF-7 cells and its gene silencing ability is compared with AllStars Hs Cell Death siRNA as a model gene. The nano-carrier remains stable in biological solution, exhibits excellent cytocompatibility, retards the siRNA migration and protects it against enzyme degradation. The buffering capacity analysis shows that incorporation of the peptide in nano-carrier structure would increase the resistance to endo/lysosomal like acidic condition (pH 6-4) The functionalized nano-carrier which is loaded with siRNA in an optimal N:P ratio presents superior internalization efficiency (82±5.1% compared to HiPerFect(®)), endosomal escape quality and capable of inducing cell death in MCF-7 cancer cells (51±3.1% compared to non-treated cells). The success of siRNA-based therapy is largely dependent on the safe and efficient delivery system, therefore; the dual functionalized rGO introduced here could have a great potential to be used as a carrier for siRNA delivery with relevancy in therapeutics and clinical applications.

Graboń W, Otto-Ślusarczyk D, Chrzanowska A, et al.
Lactate Formation in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer Cells at Hypoxia and Normoxia.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2016; 34(7):483-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
High glucose consumption and lactate synthesis in aerobic glycolysis are a hallmark of cancer cells. They can form lactate also in glutaminolysis, but it is not clear how oxygen availability affects this process. We studied lactate synthesis at various oxygen levels in human primary (SW480) and metastatic (SW620) colon cancer cells cultured with L-Ser and/or L-Asp. Glucose and lactate levels were determined colorimetrically, amino acids by HPLC, expression of AST1-mRNA and AST2-mRNA by RT-PCR. In both lines glucose consumption and lactate synthesis were higher at 10% than at 1% oxygen, and lactate/glucose ratio was increased above 2.0 by L-Asp. AST1-mRNA expression was independent on oxygen and cell line, but AST2-mRNA was lower at hypoxia in SW480. We conclude that, in both cell lines at 1% hypoxia, lactate is formed mainly from glucose but at 10% normoxia also from L-Asp. At 10% normoxia, lactate synthesis is more pronounced in primary than metastatic colon cancer cells.

Hankus J, Tomaszewska R
Neuroendocrine neoplasms and somatostatin receptor subtypes expression.
Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2016; 19(2):111-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) show wide spectrum of clinical course - from benign biological potential to recurrences and rapidly progressive disease. Somatostatin analogs that bind to somatostatin receptor are part of the therapy; detection and evaluation of activation of somatostatin receptor subtypes are part of the process of new therapy induction. When using RT-PCR method and immunohistochemistry, it is possible to detect more than two SSTR subtypes in majority or all neuroendo-crine neoplasms regardless tumor origin. Generally with some exceptions, from the viewpoint of tumor grade - apart the site of origin, there is a tendency to decrease the percentage of SSTRs expression; 100% (G1, 2)-85.7% (G3) for SSTR 1; 81.8% (G1, 2)-61.9% (G3) for SSTR 2; 54.5% (G1, 2)-52.4% (G3) for SSTR 3; 9% (G1, 2)-4.8% (G3) for SSTR 5. Different studies indi-cate significant differences in the expression of SSTR 1 and 2A and 2B between NEC G3 small cell type and non-small cell type. Further research on SSTRs expression in NEN could serve as base to development and improvement of somatostatin analogs' pharmacotherapy in patients with unsatisfactory course.

Czaplinska D, Mieczkowski K, Supernat A, et al.
Interactions between FGFR2 and RSK2-implications for breast cancer prognosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13721-13731 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) activates ribosomal s6 kinase 2 (RSK2) in mammary epithelial cells and that this pathway promotes in vitro cell growth and migration. Potential clinical significance of FGFR2 and RSK2 association has never been investigated. Herein, we have undertaken an evaluation of a possible relationship between FGFR2/RSK2 interdependence and disease outcome in breast cancer (BCa) patients. The clinical analysis was complemented by an in vitro investigation of an involvement of RSK2 in the regulation of FGFR2 function. Primary tumour samples from 152 stage I-III BCa patients were examined for FGFR2 and RSK2 gene and protein expression. FGFR2 showed a positive correlation with RSK2 at both protein (p = 0.003) and messenger RNA (mRNA) (p = 0.001) levels. Lack of both FGFR2 and activated RSK (RSK-P) significantly correlated with better disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.01). Patients with tumours displaying immunoreactivity for either or both FGFR2 and RSK-P had 4.89-fold higher risk of recurrence when compared to the FGFR2/RSK-P-negative subgroup. FGFR2-RSK2 interactions were verified by co-immunoprecipitation and internalization assays in HB2 mammary epithelial cell line (characterized by high endogenous FGFR2 and RSK2 expression). In vitro analyses revealed that FGFR2 and RSK2 formed an indirect complex and that activated RSK exerted a significant impact on fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-triggered internalization of FGFR2. Our results suggest that the FGFR2-RSK2 signalling pathway is involved in pathophysiology of BCa and evaluation of FGFR2/RSK-P expression may be useful in disease prognostication.

Jasek M, Bojarska-Junak A, Wagner M, et al.
Association of variants in BAFF (rs9514828 and rs1041569) and BAFF-R (rs61756766) genes with the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13617-13626 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The B-cell activator factor (BAFF)/BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) axis seems to play an important role in the development and progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we investigated the association of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BAFF (TNFSF13B) and BAFF-R (TNFRSF13C) genes with risk of sporadic CLL in a group of 439 CLL patients and 477 controls. We also examined the correlation between selected SNPs and CLL clinical parameters as well as BAFF plasma levels and intracellular BAFF expression. Our results point to a possible association between the rs9514828 (CT vs. CC + TT; OR = 0.74; CI 95 % = 0.57; 0.97; p = 0.022) and rs1041569 (AT vs. AA + TT; OR = 0.72; CI 95 % = 0.54; 0.95; p = 0.021) of BAFF gene and rs61756766 (CC vs. CT; OR = 2.03; CI 95 % = 1.03; 3.99; p = 0.03) of BAFF-R gene and CLL risk. Additionally, we observed that homozygotes rs1041569 AA and TT had a slightly higher risk (HR = 1.12) for the need of treatment in comparison to AT heterozygotes. In conclusion, our results indicate that SNPs in BAFF and BAFF-R genes may be considered as potential CLL risk factors.

Yaghmour G, Pandey M, Ireland C, et al.
Role of Genomic Instability in Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4033-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We evaluated whether tumor genome sequencing to detect the number and type of alterations could be used as a valuable biomarker for judging the potential utility of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with solid tumors who were treated with checkpoint inibitors and had received commercially available next generation sequencing (NGS). Tumors profiled by Caris Life Sciences, Foundation Medicine and Guardant360 between 2013 and 2015. Patients were divided into 5 quintiles based on mutational load (pathogenic mutations plus variants of undetermined significance).
RESULTS: Fifty patients with solid tumors on immunotherapy that had NGS reports available were identified. Top quintile patients had more genomic alterations (median=16.5) than the others (median=2) and had more pathogenic mutations in cell-cycle regulatory genes (100% versus 48%). The overall survival (OS) was significantly superior for patients in the top quintile (722 days) versus the others (432 days). We found no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between the two groups. The objective response rate was numerically higher for the top quintile (50%) vs. others (20%). Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL1) status by immunohistochemistry was not associated with outcomes.
CONCLUSION: The use of immune checkpoint blockade in tumors with higher mutational load was associated with improved OS. Our results suggest that the evaluation of tumor genomes may be predictive of immunotherapy benefit.

Zatonski T, Ciesielska U, Nowinska K, et al.
Expression of Cell Cycle-Related Proteins p16, p27, p53 and Ki-67 in HPV-positive and -negative Samples of Papillomas of the Upper Respiratory Tract.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3917-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as an etiological factor of respiratory tract papillomas has been described in numerous studies, however its role in malignant transformation has not been clearly defined. Depending on their oncogenic potential they have been classified as low- and high-risk HPVs. We analyzed the expression of four cell cycle-related proteins in order to understand the processes leading to malignant transformation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six cases of pharyngeal and laryngeal papillomas were analyzed. Nested multiplex polymerase chain reactions to detect the presence of the HPV types, as well as immunohistochemical reactions were performed for the detection of cell cycle-related proteins p16, p27, p53 and Ki-67.
RESULTS: The presence of HPVs 6/11 and 16 was confirmed in 10/56 cases. The expression of all analyzed cell cycle-related proteins was increased in HPV-infected papillomas.
CONCLUSION: HPV infection of the upper respiratory tract may influence the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, that could indicate its possible role in the process of malignant transformation.

Szylberg Ł, Karbownik D, Marszałek A
The Role of FOXP3 in Human Cancers.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3789-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
FOXP3 transcription factor can be observed as the main component of the immune system expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells that regulate hemostasis and self-tolerance. Moreover, the altered expression of FOXP3 was found in autoimmune diseases, benign tumors and carcinomas. Latest reports indicate that the FOXP3 gene mutation can contribute to carcinogenesis, which can be associated with immune response abnormalities. Infiltration of the Treg cells into tumor cells can be associated with prognosis. Understanding the biology of the FOXP3 gene may be crucial in developing new immunotherapeutics.

Mizerska-Kowalska M, Bojarska-Junak A, Jakubowicz-Gil J, Kandefer-Szerszeń M
Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is differentially involved in biological activities and cell signaling of colon cancer cell lines derived from various stages of tumor development.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13355-13368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The presented studies were aimed at exploring the role of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) in the function of colon cancer cell lines LS 180 and SW 620, derived from different grades and stages of tumor development. NEP silencing by siRNA resulted in decreased viability and proliferation accompanied by increased apoptosis in both cell lines. Additionally, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase was observed, but only in LS 180 cells. Opposite to these results, serum-stimulated migration was increased in both cell lines. Furthermore, NEP silencing influenced the invasive activity of LS 180 and SW 620 cells in an opposite manner: while LS 180 cells showed an enhanced invasiveness, SW 620 cells exerted a reduced activity. An exploration of the activity of signaling molecules responsible for the function of tumor cells-Akt, PTEN, and FAK-after NEP silencing indicated that the endopeptidase is involved in their regulation. The increased phosphorylation level of Akt was accompanied by a decrease in PTEN in the presence of a high concentration of serum. A reduced concentration of serum did not change the phosphorylation status of Akt. Enhanced autophosphorylation of FAK was observed in LS 180 and SW 620 cells cultivated in a medium with a high concentration of serum. Taken together, these results confirm that NEP is implicated in the regulation of the survival, growth, and motile activity of colon cancer. This is also the first report which shows that NEP mediates cancer cell migration and invasiveness, but not growth and survival, through Akt/FAK signaling pathways.

Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, et al.
Gene/protein expression of CAPN1/2-CAST system members is associated with ERK1/2 kinases activity as well as progression and clinical outcome in human laryngeal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13185-13203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence indicates the involvement of calpains (CAPNs), a family of cysteine proteases, in cancer development and progression, as well as the insufficient response to cancer therapies. The contribution of CAPNs and regulatory calpastatin (CAST) and ERK1/2 kinases to aggressiveness, disease course, and outcome in laryngeal cancer remains elusive. This study was aimed to evaluate the CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 enzyme system mRNA/protein level and to investigate whether they can promote the dynamic of tumor growth and prognosis. The mRNA expression of marker genes was determined in 106 laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of corresponding proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. SLUG expression, as indicator of pathological advancement was determined using IHC staining. Significant increases of CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 levels of mRNA/protein were noted in SCLC compared to NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, a higher level of CAPN1 and ERK1 genes was related to larger tumor size, more aggressive and deeper growth according to TFG scale and SLUG level (p < 0.05). There were also relationships of CAPN1/2 and ERK1 with incidences of local/nodal recurrences (p < 0.05). An inverse association for CAPN1/2, CAST, and ERK1/2 transcripts was determined with regard to overall survival (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher CAPN1 and phospho-ERK1 protein level was related to higher grade and stage (p < 0.05) and was found to promote worse prognosis. This is the first study to show that activity of CAPN1/2- CAST-ERK1/2 axis may be an indicator of tumor phenotype and unfavorable outcome in SCLC.

Drzewiecka H, Gałęcki B, Jarmołowska-Jurczyszyn D, et al.
Decreased expression of connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with clinicopathological variables and can be restored by epigenetic modifiers.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(9):1927-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent studies indicated undisputed contribution of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the development of many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the functional role and regulation of CTGF expression during tumorigenesis remain elusive. Our goal was to determine CTGF transcript and protein levels in tumoral and matched control tissues from 98 NSCLC patients, to correlate the results with clinicopathological features and to investigate whether the CTGF expression can be epigenetically regulated in NSCLC.
METHODS: We used quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to evaluate CTGF expression in lung cancerous and histopathologically unchanged tissues. We tested the impact of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) and trichostatin A (TSA) on CTGF transcript and protein levels in NSCLC cells (A549, Calu-1). DNA methylation status of the CTGF regulatory region was evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. The influence of 5-dAzaC and TSA on NSCLC cells viability and proliferation was monitored by the trypan blue assay.
RESULTS: We found significantly decreased levels of CTGF mRNA and protein (both p < 0.0000001) in cancerous tissues of NSCLC patients. Down-regulation of CTGF occurred regardless of gender in all histological subtypes of NSCLC. Moreover, we showed that 5-dAzaC and TSA were able to restore CTGF mRNA and protein contents in NSCLC cells. However, no methylation within CTGF regulatory region was detected. Both compounds significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of CTGF is a common feature in NSCLC; however, it can be restored by the chromatin-modifying agents such as 5-dAzaC or TSA and consequently restrain cancer development.

Reszka E, Przybek M
Circadian Genes in Breast Cancer.
Adv Clin Chem. 2016; 75:53-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exploring the putative impact of circadian rhythms is a relatively novel approach to illuminating hormone-related female breast cancer etiology and prognosis. One of several proposed mechanisms underlying breast cancer risk among individuals exposed to light at night involves circadian gene alterations. Although in vitro and animal studies indicate a key role of circadian genes in breast tumor suppression, there is a paucity of data on the role of circadian genes in human breast cancer. This review summarizes recent findings of circadian gene expression and DNA methylation profile from human breast cancer studies in relation to hormonal status, clinicopathological features of tumors, and exposure to night shift work. The major findings from human studies indicate that expression of circadian genes is deregulated in breast cancer. Breast cancer etiology and prognosis-associated PERs, CRYs, CLOCK downregulation, and TIMELESS upregulation may be related to relevant gene methylation in tumor tissue. Alterations and desynchronization of molecular clock machinery found on genetic and epigenetic level were observed in more aggressive breast cancer tumors and those lacking estrogen receptors.

Ku WY, Liaw YP, Huang JY, et al.
An Online Atlas for Exploring Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Cancer Mortality (1972-2011) and Incidence (1995-2008) in Taiwan.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(21):e3496 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Public health mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are already being used to locate the geographical spread of diseases. This study describes the construction of an easy-to-use online atlas of cancer mortality (1972-2011) and incidence (1995-2008) in Taiwan.Two sets of color maps were made based on "age-adjusted mortality by rate" and "age-adjusted mortality by rank." AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), and SVG (Scaling Vector Graphic) were used to create the online atlas. Spatio-temporal patterns of cancer mortality and incidence in Taiwan over the period from 1972 to 2011 and from 1995 to 2008.The constructed online atlas contains information on cancer mortality and incidence (http://taiwancancermap.csmu-liawyp.tw/). The common GIS functions include zoom and pan and identity tools. Users can easily customize the maps to explore the spatio-temporal trends of cancer mortality and incidence using different devices (such as personal computers, mobile phone, or pad). This study suggests an easy- to-use, low-cost, and independent platform for exploring cancer incidence and mortality. It is expected to serve as a reference tool for cancer prevention and risk assessment.This online atlas is a cheap and fast tool that integrates various cancer maps. Therefore, it can serve as a powerful tool that allows users to examine and compare spatio-temporal patterns of various maps. Furthermore, it is an-easy-to use tool for updating data and assessing risk factors of cancer in Taiwan.

Coskun C, Verim A, Farooqi AA, et al.
Are there possible associations between MnSOD and GPx1 gene variants for laryngeal cancer risk or disease progression?
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(5):25-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a multifaceted and genomically complex disease and cellular and preclinical studies have demystified wide ranging molecular mechanisms which underpin its development and progression and resistance against wide ranging molecular therapeutics. Oxidative stress is a widely studied molecular mechanism and reportedly involved in carcinogenesis. Increasingly it is being realized that accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) activates defensive mechanism to counteract oxidative stress induced damage. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are important members of defensive machinery. We investigated whether the polymorphisms of MnSOD (Ala-9Val, rs4880) and GPx1 (Pro198Leu, rs1050450) are associated with LSCC and also evaluated possible interactions between these polymorphisms and various lifestyle factors or pathological features of patients. For this purpose, 67 LSCC patients and 73 healty controls were enrolled. Molecular assessment of MnSOD and GPx1 variants were determined with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. We found that the frequency of both heterozygous PL genotype and P allele was considerably higher in patients with advanced tumor stage (T3/T4) than in those with early tumor stage (T1/T2) (OR= 5.106; 95% CI=1.372-19.004; p<0.001, OR=5.787; 95% CI =1.564-21.414; p<0.001 respectively). Although the frequency of ValVal/LL combine genotype was significantly decreased (OR=0.204, 95% CI=0.055-0.760; p=0.021), the frequency of ValAla/PL combine genotypes was higher in patients with stage T3/T4 than in those patients with stage T1/T2 (p=0.027). Consequently, we have concluded that variants of GPx1 and MnSOD should not be considered as a risk factor of LSCC, only may be accepted as a prognostic markers. Use of new technologies such as metabolomics and deep DNA sequencing will prove to be helpful in developing a deeper knowledge related to how cancer cell metabolism adapts and provides a buffer against increased oxidative stress.

Mirecka A, Morawiec Z, Wozniak K
Genetic Polymorphism of SUMO-Specific Cysteine Proteases - SENP1 and SENP2 in Breast Cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(4):817-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SENP proteases take part in post-translational modification of proteins known as sumoylation. They catalyze three distinct processes during sumoylation: processing of SUMO protein, deconjugation of SUMO from the target protein, and chain editing which mentions to the dismantling of SUMO chain. Many proteins that are involved in the basic processes of cells, such as regulation of transcription, DNA repair or cell cycle control, are sumoylated. The aim of these studies was to investigate an association between polymorphic variants (SNPs) of the SENP1 gene (c.1691 + 36C > T, rs12297820) and SENP2 gene (c.902C > A, p.Thr301Lys, rs6762208) and a risk of breast cancer occurrence. We performed a case-control study in 324 breast cancer cases and 335 controls using PCR-RLFP. In the case of the SENP1 gene polymorphism we did not find any association between this polymorphism and breast cancer risk. In the case of SENP2 gene polymorphism we observed higher risk of breast cancer for carriers of the A allele (OR =1.33; 95 % CI 1.04-1.69). Our analysis also showed the genotype C/C (OR =0.67, 95 % CI 0.48-0.93) and the allele C (OR =0.75, 95 % CI 0.59-0.69) of this polymorphism decrease a risk of breast cancer. We also checked the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the SENP1 and SENP2 genes polymorphisms in groups of patients with different hormone receptor status, patients with positive and negative lymph node status and patients with different tumor grade. Odds ratio analysis showed a higher risk of metastases in women with the genotype C/C (OR =2.07, 95 % CI 1.06-4.05) and allele C (OR =2.10 95 % CI 1.10-4.01) of the c.1691 + 36C > T SENP1 gene polymorphism. Moreover, we observed reduced risk in women with the allele T (OR =0.48, 95 % CI 0.25-0.91) in this polymorphic site. In the case of SENP2 gene polymorphism we observed that the A/A genotype correlated with the lack of estrogen receptor (OR =1.94, 95 % CI 1.04-3.62). Our results suggest that the variability of the SENP1 and SENP2 genes may play a role in breast cancer occurrence. Further studies are needed to clarify their biological functions in breast cancer.

Stasikowska-Kanicka O, Wągrowska-Danilewicz M, Danilewicz M
Immunohistochemical Study EMT-Related Proteins in HPV-, and EBV-Negative Patients with Sinonasal Tumours.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(4):781-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process in which the epithelial cells, transform to mesenchymal cells via multiple biochemical modifications. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression of EMT-related proteins: Slug, E-cadherin and fibronectin, in 41 cases of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP), 33 cases of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNC), and 22 cases of normal mucosa as a control. In all cases negative viral status was previously confirmed using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical method. The immunoexpression of Slug and fibronectin were significantly increased in the SNC group as compared to SIPs and control cases. The immunoexpresssion of Slug was also higher in SIPs as compared to controls. The immunoexpression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in SNCs group as compared with SIPs and controls, but no statistically significant difference in E-cadherin immunoexpression was noted between SIPs and control cases. There were statistically significant negative correlations between immunoexpression of Slug vs E-cadherin, E-cadherin vs fibronectin and positive correlation between Slug vs fibronectin in SNC. Statistically significant correlation between Slug and fibronectin immunoexpression in SIPs was also found. In conclusion, our findings suggest that relationships between Slug, E-cadherin and fibronectin could potentially point to EMT in the sinonasal cancer. Lack of correlation between EMT-related proteins in tested SIPs could reflect a benign nature of those cases.

Nicoś M, Krawczyk P, Powrózek T, et al.
PIK3CA Mutations Detected in Patients with Central Nervous System Metastases of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(5):2243-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) gene mutations have been reported in fewer than 5% of primary tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed PIK3CA gene mutations in 145 tissue samples from central nervous system (CNS) metastases of NSCLC using three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques: high resolution melting-PCR (HRM-PCR), allele-specific-quantitative PCR (ASP-qPCR) and TaqMan PCR.
RESULTS: HRM analysis allowed us to select three PIK3CA-positive specimens (2.1% of the studied group) and ASP-qPCR techniques identified them as one E542K and two H1047R substitutions, which were confirmed by TaqMan probes. The PIK3CA mutations were indicated only in males (3% of all males). One of the patients was reported to be a non-smoker with adenocarcinoma (AC; 2.5% of the AC group), however, the other two patients were smokers with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 3.4% of SCC group).
CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the presence of PIK3CA gene mutation in CNS-metastatic lesions of NSCLC worldwide that could broaden therapeutic choices in such patients.

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