Gene Summary

Gene:HOXA10; homeobox A10
Aliases: PL, HOX1, HOX1H, HOX1.8
Summary:In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. More specifically, it may function in fertility, embryo viability, and regulation of hematopoietic lineage commitment. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream homeobox A9 (HOXA9) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:homeobox protein Hox-A10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HOXA10 (cancer-related)

Wińska P, Widło Ł, Skierka K, et al.
Simultaneous Inhibition of Protein Kinase CK2 and Dihydrofolate Reductase Results in Synergistic Effect on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3531-3542 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Recently, we demonstrated the ability of inhibitors of protein kinase 2 (casein kinase II; CK2) to enhance the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil, a thymidylate synthase (TYMS)-directed drug for anticancer treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the antileukemic effect of simultaneous inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), another enzyme involved in the thymidylate biosynthesis cycle, and CK2 in CCRF-CEM acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of combined treatment on apoptosis and cell-cycle progression, as well as the endocellular level of DHFR protein and inhibition of CK2 were determined using flow cytometry and western blot analysis, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the influence of silmitasertib (CX-4945), a selective inhibitor of CK2 on the expression of DHFR and TYMS genes.
RESULTS: The synergistic effect was correlated with the increase of annexin V-binding cell fraction, caspase 3/7 activation and a significant reduce in the activity of CK2. An increase of DHFR protein level was observed in CCRF-CEM cells after CX-4945 treatment, with the mRNA level remaining relatively constant.
CONCLUSION: The obtained results demonstrate a possibility to improve methotrexate-based anti-leukemia therapy by simultaneous inhibition of CK2. The effect of CK2 inhibition on DHFR expression suggests the important regulatory role of CK2-mediated phosphorylation of DHFR inside cells.

Wasniewski T, Kiezun J, Krazinski BE, et al.
WNT5A gene and protein expression in endometrial cancer.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2019; 57(2):84-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: WNT5A (Wnt family member 5A) belongs to the WNT family of secreted signaling glycoproteins that play essential role in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. WNT5A was shown to take part in carcinogenesis process playing both oncogenic and suppressor functions in various types of human malignancies. This study aimed to assess the expression of the WNT5A gene at the mRNA and protein levels in the specimens derived from endometrial cancer (EC) or unchanged control endometrium. The associations between the WNT5A expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics and survival of EC patients were evaluated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was isolated in order to assess the relative amounts of WNT5A mRNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) in samples of unchanged endometrial control (n = 8) and tumor samples of EC patients (n = 28). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the presence of WNT5A protein in the sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens derived from unchanged endome-trial controls (n = 6) and EC tumors (n = 19). Significance of differences in WNT5A expression levels between the studied groups of EC patients and correlations between the WNT5A and demographic data, pathological features, hematological parameters and overall survival of the patients were evaluated by statistical analysis.
RESULTS: The level of WNT5A mRNA was decreased in EC in comparison to unchanged endometrium. WNT5A expression was associated with primary tumor invasion status exhibiting reduced level of transcripts in EC that involved organs beyond the uterus when compared to the uterus-confined cancers. WNT5A immunoreactivity was visualized in the cytoplasm and nuclei of EC cells as well as in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells of unchanged endometrium. WNT5A mRNA expression levels correlated negatively with cytoplasmic, and positively with nuclear immunoreactivity of the WNT5A protein in the EC cells. In addition, the relationships between blood leucocyte count (in particular granulocytes and lymphocytes) of patients with EC and their WNT5A mRNA and protein expression levels were established. A positive correlation between the nuclear immunoexpression of WNT5A protein in the cancer cells in cell nuclei and mean platelet volume in blood was also found.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the first study of WNT5A expression at the transcript and protein levels indicate that it could be considered as a potential marker of molecular changes that take place during EC development.

Chaszczewska-Markowska M, Kosacka M, Chryplewicz A, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):3269-3272 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Although genetic factors are presumed to account only for a part of the inter-individual variation in lung cancer susceptibility, the results are conflicting and there are no data available regarding the Polish population. We, therefore, performed a case-control study to investigate the association of seven selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes coding for excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1: rs11615, rs3212986, rs2298881), nuclear factor ĸB (NFKB2: rs7897947, rs12769316), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4: rs1957860), complement receptor 1 (CR1: rs7525160) and del/ins polymorphism in the family hypoxia inducible factor 2 gene (EGLN2: rs10680577), with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was used for genotyping of NSCLC patients and healthy individuals of Polish origin.
RESULTS: The ERCC1 rs11615 T allele and rs3212986 GG homozygosity were found to be associated with a higher risk of developing NSCLC. In addition, NFKB2 rs12769316 GG homozygosity was more frequently detected among male patients than controls, while no significant differences were found between the five polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION: ERCC1 polymorphisms may affect NSCLC risk in the Polish population, while the NFKB2 variant may be a possible marker of the disease in males.

Roder H, Oliveira C, Net L, et al.
Robust identification of molecular phenotypes using semi-supervised learning.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(1):273 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Modern molecular profiling techniques are yielding vast amounts of data from patient samples that could be utilized with machine learning methods to provide important biological insights and improvements in patient outcomes. Unsupervised methods have been successfully used to identify molecularly-defined disease subtypes. However, these approaches do not take advantage of potential additional clinical outcome information. Supervised methods can be implemented when training classes are apparent (e.g., responders or non-responders to treatment). However, training classes can be difficult to define when assessing relative benefit of one therapy over another using gold standard clinical endpoints, since it is often not clear how much benefit each individual patient receives.
RESULTS: We introduce an iterative approach to binary classification tasks based on the simultaneous refinement of training class labels and classifiers towards self-consistency. As training labels are refined during the process, the method is well suited to cases where training class definitions are not obvious or noisy. Clinical data, including time-to-event endpoints, can be incorporated into the approach to enable the iterative refinement to identify molecular phenotypes associated with a particular clinical variable. Using synthetic data, we show how this approach can be used to increase the accuracy of identification of outcome-related phenotypes and their associated molecular attributes. Further, we demonstrate that the advantages of the method persist in real world genomic datasets, allowing the reliable identification of molecular phenotypes and estimation of their association with outcome that generalizes to validation datasets. We show that at convergence of the iterative refinement, there is a consistent incorporation of the molecular data into the classifier yielding the molecular phenotype and that this allows a robust identification of associated attributes and the underlying biological processes.
CONCLUSIONS: The consistent incorporation of the structure of the molecular data into the classifier helps to minimize overfitting and facilitates not only good generalization of classification and molecular phenotypes, but also reliable identification of biologically relevant features and elucidation of underlying biological processes.

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Roder J, Linstid B, Oliveira C
Improving the power of gene set enrichment analyses.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(1):257 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Set enrichment methods are commonly used to analyze high-dimensional molecular data and gain biological insight into molecular or clinical phenotypes. One important category of analysis methods employs an enrichment score, which is created from ranked univariate correlations between phenotype and each molecular attribute. Estimates of the significance of the associations are determined via a null distribution generated from phenotype permutation. We investigate some statistical properties of this method and demonstrate how alternative assessments of enrichment can be used to increase the statistical power of such analyses to detect associations between phenotype and biological processes and pathways.
RESULTS: For this category of set enrichment analysis, the null distribution is largely independent of the number of samples with available molecular data. Hence, providing the sample cohort is not too small, we show that increased statistical power to identify associations between biological processes and phenotype can be achieved by splitting the cohort into two halves and using the average of the enrichment scores evaluated for each half as an alternative test statistic. Further, we demonstrate that this principle can be extended by averaging over multiple random splits of the cohort into halves. This enables the calculation of an enrichment statistic and associated p value of arbitrary precision, independent of the exact random splits used.
CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to increase the statistical power of gene set enrichment analyses that employ enrichment scores created from running sums of univariate phenotype-attribute correlations and phenotype-permutation generated null distributions. This increase can be achieved by using alternative test statistics that average enrichment scores calculated for splits of the dataset. Apart from the special case of a close balance between up- and down-regulated genes within a gene set, statistical power can be improved, or at least maintained, by this method down to small sample sizes, where accurate assessment of univariate phenotype-gene correlations becomes unfeasible.

Dudzik P, Trojan SE, Ostrowska B, et al.
The Epigenetic Modifier 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine Triggers the Expression of
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2395-2403 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: During cancer progression cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although EMT is a complex process, recently, it has been reported that CD146 overexpression in prostate cancer cells is sufficient to induce mesenchymal phenotype. The following study aimed to investigate whether the expression of CD146 is altered by an epigenetic modifier in prostate cancer cells, in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three human prostate cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine; the expression of CD146 and EMT-related factors was analyzed by RT-PCR and western Blot. The methylation status of the CD146 promoter area was assessed using bisulfite sequencing.
RESULTS: Our data showed that, the expression of CD146 was evidently increased in all three studied cell lines in response to a demethylating agent, both at the mRNA and protein level, suggesting epigenetic regulation of the analyzed gene. However, there was no methylation in the studied CpG island in CD146 gene promoter. Moreover, the demethylating agent induced the expression of EMT-related transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST1 and ZEB1), the pattern of which differed among the cell lines, as well as alterations in cell morphology; altogether accounting for the mesenchymal phenotype.
CONCLUSION: The demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine triggers the expression of CD146 in prostate cancer cells independently on the methylation status of the analyzed CpG island fragment in CD146 gene promoter. Moreover, demethylation treatment induces a mesenchymal profile in prostate cancer cells.

Nowinska K, Ciesielska U, Piotrowska A, et al.
MCM5 Expression Is Associated With the Grade of Malignancy and Ki-67 Antigen in LSCC.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2325-2335 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) may be potential biomarkers of cancer cell proliferation. They are essential to initiate DNA replication. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of MCM5 expression in benign lesions (BLs) and laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out on 83 LSCCs and 10 BLs. Western-blot, immunofluorescence analysis (IF) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were performed using HEp-2 cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes.
RESULTS: The expression of MCM5 was higher in LSCC than in the BLs (p<0.0001) and was higher in subsequent malignancies of LSCC. Positive correlations were demonstrated between the expression levels of MCM5 and the Ki-67 antigen. In vitro studies have confirmed that the expression of MCM5 is elevated in cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: MCM5 protein may be used as a potential marker of cancer cell proliferation in LSCC.

Rudzińska M, Grzanka M, Stachurska A, et al.
Molecular Signature of Prospero Homeobox 1 (PROX1) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1) transcription factor is a product of one of the lymphangiogenesis master genes. It has also been suggested to play a role in carcinogenesis, although its precise role in tumour development and metastasis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge on the PROX1 function in thyroid tumorigenesis. Follicular thyroid cancer-derived cells-CGTH-W-1-were transfected with PROX1-siRNA (small interfering RNA) and their proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and motility were then analysed. The transcriptional signature of

Wujcicka W, Zając A, Stachowiak G
Impact of
In Vivo. 2019 May-Jun; 33(3):917-924 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDM2, TP53, and CDKN2A (P14ARF) genes on the onset and course of endometrial cancer (EC) in postmenopausal women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 144 EC women and 50 non-cancer controls. MDM2 rs22279744, TP53 rs1042522, and P14ARF rs3088440, rs3731217, and rs3731245 SNPs were analysed.
RESULTS: The double-SNP combinations T-C, T-T, or T-G in MDM2 SNP 309 and P14ARF polymorphisms decreased EC risk. The triple-SNP combinations T-C-T, T-C-G, or T-T-G in MDM2 SNP and two P14ARF polymorphisms decreased EC risk. The multiple-SNP combination T-C-T-G in MDM2 and three P14ARF polymorphisms decreased EC risk. The G-Arg-C-T-G carriers were at increased EC risk, while the T-Arg-C-T-G carriers were at decreased EC risk.
CONCLUSION: MDM2 SNP309 plays a role in EC onset in postmenopausal women.

Świerczewska M, Sterzyńska K, Wojtowicz K, et al.
PTPRK Expression Is Downregulated in Drug Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, and Especially in ALDH1A1 Positive CSCs-Like Populations.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Musiał-Wysocka A, Kot M, Sułkowski M, et al.
Molecular and Functional Verification of Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs) Pluripotency.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), especially their self-renewal and ability to differentiate into different cell lines, are widely discussed. Considering the fact that MSCs isolated from perinatal tissues reveal higher differentiation capacity than most adult MSCs, we examined mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord (WJ-MSCs) in terms of pluripotency markers expression. Our studies showed that WJ-MSCs express some pluripotency markers-such as NANOG, OCT-4, and SSEA-4-but in comparison to iPS cells expression level is significantly lower. The level of expression can be raised under hypoxic conditions. Despite their high proliferation potential and ability to differentiate into different cells type, WJ-MSCs do not form tumors in vivo, the major caveat of iPS cells. Owing to their biological properties, high plasticity, proliferation capacity, and ease of isolation and culture, WJ-MSCs are turning out to be a promising tool of modern regenerative medicine.

Grodzik M, Szczepaniak J, Strojny-Cieslak B, et al.
Diamond Nanoparticles Downregulate Expression of
Molecules. 2019; 24(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that diamond nanoparticles (NDs) exhibited antiangiogenic and proapoptotic properties in vitro in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors in vivo. Moreover, NDs inhibited adhesion, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion of GBM. In the present study, we hypothesized that the NDs might also inhibit proliferation and cell cycle in glioma cells. Experiments were performed in vitro with the U87 and U118 lines of GBM cells, and for comparison, the Hs5 line of stromal cells (normal cells) after 24 h and 72 h of treatment. The analyses included cell morphology, cell death, viability, and cell cycle analysis, double timing assay, and gene expression (

Wojas-Krawczyk K, Kalinka E, Grenda A, et al.
Beyond PD-L1 Markers for Lung Cancer Immunotherapy.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy using immune checkpoints inhibitors has become the standard treatment for first and second line therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, proper predictive factors allowing precise qualification of NSCLC patients for immunotherapy have not been developed so far. Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and tumor mutation burden are used in qualification of patients to first line therapy with pembrolizumab and atezolizumab in combination with ipilimumab in prospective clinical trials. Nevertheless, not all patients with these predictive factors benefit from immunotherapy. Major methodological difficulties in testing of these factors and in the interpretation of test results still exist. Therefore, other predictive factors are sought. Intensive research on the recognition of tumor immunophenotype and gut microbiome in NSCLC patients are underway. The first correlations between the effectiveness of immunotherapy and the intensity of inflammatory response in the tumor, microbiome diversity, and the occurrence of certain bacterial species in gut have been described. The purpose of our manuscript is to draw attention to factors affecting the efficacy of immunotherapy with anti-PD-L1 antibodies in NSCLC patients. Additional markers, for example TMB (tumor mutations burden) or microbiome profile, are needed to more accurately determine which patients will benefit from immunotherapy treatment.

Nagel A, Szade J, Iliszko M, et al.
Clinical and Biological Significance of
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The amplification of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) encoded by the

Zajda K, Rak A, Ptak A, Gregoraszczuk EL
Compounds of PAH mixtures dependent interaction between multiple signaling pathways in granulosa tumour cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2019; 310:14-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanism of PAH mixtures, using granulosa tumour cells, was investigated. Cells were exposed to a mixture of all 16 priority PAHs (M1) or a mixture of five PAHs not classified as human carcinogens (M2). The effect of siAHR, siAHRR and siNFKB2 on the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, ERα, AR and cell proliferation was described. M1 decreased AhR and CYP1A1, while increased AhRR and ARNT expression. M2 also decreased AhR and CYP1A1 but had no effect on AhRR expression. siAHRR reversed the inhibitory effect of M1 on AhR and CYP1A1,while inhibitory effect of M2 was still observed. siNFKB2 reversed inhibitory effect of both mixtures on AhR and CYP1A1 expression and stimulatory effect of M1 on AhRR expression. siAHR reversed stimulatory effect of both mixtures on ERα expression. Stimulatory effect of M1 on cell proliferation was not observed in siAHR, was still observed in siESR1 cells. M2 had no effect on cell proliferation, however stimulatory effect was appeared in siAHR and siESR1cells. In conclusion: M1 by activation of AhRR and NFkB p52, but M2 only by activation of NFκB attenuated AhR signalling and ligand-induced CYP1A1 expression. Interaction between AhR and ER following M1 and M2 exposure is primarily initiated through AhR.

Kielbik M, Szulc-Kielbik I, Klink M
The Potential Role of iNOS in Ovarian Cancer Progression and Chemoresistance.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide (NO) production, is not present in most cells under normal conditions. The expression of its mRNA, as well as its protein synthesis and full enzymatic activity, undergoes multilevel regulation including transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, the availability of iNOS substrate and cofactors and oxygen tension. However, in various malignant diseases, such as ovarian cancer, the intracellular mechanisms controlling iNOS are dysregulated, resulting in the permanent induction of iNOS expression and activation. The present review summarizes the multistaged processes occurring in normal cells that promote NO synthesis and focuses on factors regulating iNOS expression in ovarian cancer. The possible involvement of iNOS in the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer and its potential as a prognostic/predictive factor in the course of disease development are also reviewed. According to the available yet limited data, it is difficult to draw unequivocal conclusions on the pros and cons of iNOS in ovarian cancer. Most clinical data support the hypothesis that high levels of iNOS expression in ovarian tumors are associated with a greater risk of disease relapse and patient death. However, in vitro studies with various ovarian cancer cell lines indicate a correlation between a high level of iNOS expression and sensitivity to cisplatin.

Szpechcinski A, Florczuk M, Duk K, et al.
The expression of circulating miR-504 in plasma is associated with EGFR mutation status in non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(18):3641-3656 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are grossly misregulated in some human cancers, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The aberrant expression of specific miRNAs results in the abnormal regulation of key components of signalling pathways in tumour cells. MiRNA levels and the activity of the gene targets, including oncogenes and tumour suppressors, produce feedback that changes miRNA expression levels and indicates the cell's genetic activity. In this study, we measured the expression of five circulating miRNAs (miR-195, miR-504, miR-122, miR-10b and miR-21) and evaluated their association with EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) mutation status in 66 NSCLC patients. Moreover, we examined the discriminative power of circulating miRNAs for EGFR mutant-positive and -negative NSCLC patients using two different data normalisation approaches. We extracted total RNA from the plasma of 66 non-squamous NSCLC patients (31 of whom had tumours with EGFR mutations) and measured circulating miRNA levels using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The miRNA expression levels were normalised using two endogenous controls: miR-191 and miR-16. We found significant associations between the expression of circulating miR-504 and EGFR-activating mutations in NSCLC patients regardless of the normalisation approach used (p = 0.0072 and 0.0236 for miR-16 and miR-191 normalisation, respectively). The greatest discriminative power of circulating miR-504 was observed in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletions versus wild-type EGFR normalised to miR-191 (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, circulating miR-504 levels were significantly reduced in the v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated subgroup compared to EGFR-mutated patients (p < 0.0030) and those with EGFR/KRAS wild-type tumours (p < 0.0359). Our study demonstrated the feasibility and potential diagnostic value of plasma miR-504 expression analysis to distinguish between EGFR-mutated and wild-type NSCLC patients. However, quality control and normalisation strategies are very important and have a major impact on the outcomes of circulating miRNA analyses.

Kowalczyk A, Krajczewski J, Kowalik A, et al.
New strategy for the gene mutation identification using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).
Biosens Bioelectron. 2019; 132:326-332 [PubMed] Related Publications
An early and accurate diagnosis of a specific DNA mutations has a decisive role for effective treatment. Especially, when an immediate decision on treatment most needs to be made, the rapid and precise confirmation of clinical findings is vital. Herein, we show a new strategy for the gene mutation (BRAF c.1799T>A; p. V600E) identification using highly SERS-active and reproducible SERS substrate (photo-etched GaN covered with a thin layer of sputtered gold) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The detection is based on the conformation change (gauche → trans) of the alkanethiol linker modifying the capture DNA during the hybridization process. The value of the intensity ratio of the ν(C-S) bands of the trans and gauche conformer higher than 1.0 indicated the presence of mutation. The demonstrated new DNA SERS (bio)sensor is characterized by the low detection limit at the level of pg μL

Sadłecki P, Grabiec M, Grzanka D, et al.
Expression of zinc finger transcription factors (ZNF143 and ZNF281) in serous borderline ovarian tumors and low-grade ovarian cancers.
J Ovarian Res. 2019; 12(1):23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low-grade ovarian cancers represent up to 8% of all epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs). Recent studies demonstrated that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is crucial for the progression of EOCs. EMT plays a key role in cancer invasion, metastasis formation and chemotherapy resistance. An array of novel EMT transcription factors from the zinc finger protein family have been described recently, among them zinc finger protein 143 (ZNF143) and zinc finger protein 281 (ZNF281). The study included tissue specimens from 42 patients. Based on histopathological examination of surgical specimens, eight lesions were classified as serous borderline ovarian tumors (sBOTs) and 34 as low-grade EOCs. The proportions of the ovarian tumors that tested positively for ZNF143 and ZNF281 were 90 and 57%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in the expressions of ZNF143 and ZNF281 transcription factors in SBOTs and low-grade EOCs. Considering the expression patterns for ZNF143 and ZNF281 identified in this study, both sBOTs and low-grade EOCs might undergo a dynamic epithelial-mesenchymal interconversion. The lack of statistically significant differences in the expressions of the zinc finger proteins in sBOTs and low-grade serous EOCs might constitute an evidence for common origin of these two tumor types.

Kasprzak A, Adamek A
Mucins: the Old, the New and the Promising Factors in Hepatobiliary Carcinogenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mucins are large

Włodarczyk M, Nowicka G
Obesity, DNA Damage, and Development of Obesity-Related Diseases.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Obesity has been recognized to increase the risk of such diseases as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. It indicates that obesity can impact genome stability. Oxidative stress and inflammation, commonly occurring in obesity, can induce DNA damage and inhibit DNA repair mechanisms. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to an enhanced mutation rate and can alter gene expression resulting in disturbances in cell metabolism. Obesity-associated DNA damage can promote cancer growth by favoring cancer cell proliferation and migration, and resistance to apoptosis. Estimation of the DNA damage and/or disturbances in DNA repair could be potentially useful in the risk assessment and prevention of obesity-associated metabolic disorders as well as cancers. DNA damage in people with obesity appears to be reversible and both weight loss and improvement of dietary habits and diet composition can affect genome stability.

Abramek J, Bogucki J, Ziaja-Sołtys M, et al.
Effect of sodium dichloroacetate on apoptotic gene expression in human leukemia cell lines.
Pharmacol Rep. 2019; 71(2):248-256 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) is an agent with anticancer properties against solid tumors. DCA also seems to have antileukemic activity. In order to affirm it we investigate the effect of DCA on cell viability and apoptotic gene expression profiles in leukemia cell lines: CEM/C1, CCRF/CEM, HL-60, HL-60/MX2.
METHODS: Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. The expression of 93 genes involved in the process of apoptosis was determined by real-time PCR method using Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA).
RESULTS: CEM/C1, CCRF/CEM, HL-60, HL-60/MX2 cells were exposed to DCA for 24 h. The sensitivity of each cell line to DCA is different and depends on the concentration. CEM/C1 was the most sensitive with an half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 30 mM, while HL-60/MX2 was the most resistant with an IC50 value of 75 mM. Exposure of leukemia cells to DCA causes differences in gene expression profiles which cannot indicate that any particular pathway of apoptosis is initiated. However, the presence of 388 statistically significant correlations between expression pattern of gens was determined.
CONCLUSION: We showed that DCA causes a decrease in viability of leukemia cells. The decline depends on DCA concentration. The induction of any particular apoptosis pathway is not shown in cells after DCA treatment. For that reason, studies on the molecular mechanism of cell death after exposure to DCA should be continued.

Gołos A, Jesionek-Kupnicka D, Gil L, et al.
The Expression of the SLIT-ROBO Family in Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2019; 67(2):109-123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: SLIT-ROBO is a ligand-receptor family of neuronal guidance cues that has been involved in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. SLIT-ROBO expression is altered in many tumours. However, no data exist about the role of the whole family in acute myelogenous myeloid leukemia (AML).
PURPOSE: Herein, we assessed the expression of all SLIT-ROBO family in bone marrow (BM) biopsy of AML patients and control group on both protein and RNA levels.
METHODS: The paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were subjected to immunohistochemistry for SLIT1, SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3, and ROBO4. Microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated by CD34 immunohistochemistry. An in silico analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas data repository was conducted for assessment of RNA level.
RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia patients were generally high expressers of ROBO1 and ROBO2 compared to the controls (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, low expression of SLIT1, SLIT2, and SLIT3 ligands has been noted more commonly in AML than in control BM samples (p < 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001, respectively). ROBO4 expression correlated with MVD. The in silico analysis showed a poor prognostic value of high ROBO3 and low SLIT2 RNA levels (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0008, respectively), as well as high ROBO3 and ROBO4 RNA levels in cytogenetic poor risk groups of patients (p = 0.0029 and p = 0.0003, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SLIT-ROBO family members play a role in the biology of AML. Low expression of SLIT in BM of AML patients may suggest its expression alterations in AML. Increased expression of ROBO1 and ROBO2 in AML patients suggests their participation in AML pathogenesis.

Wątek M, Piktel E, Wollny T, et al.
Defective Sphingolipids Metabolism and Tumor Associated Macrophages as the Possible Links Between Gaucher Disease and Blood Cancer Development.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is a rising number of evidence indicating the increased risk of cancer development in association with congenital metabolic errors. Although these diseases represent disorders of individual genes, they lead to the disruption of metabolic pathways resulting in metabolite accumulation or their deficiency. Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive sphingolipidosis. It is a rare lysosomal storage disease. A strong correlation between GD and different types of cancers, such as multiple myeloma, leukemia, and hepatocellular carcinoma, has been reported. Common features for all types of GD include spleen and liver enlargement, cytopenia, and a variety of bone defects. Overall, the molecular bases leading to the association of GD and cancers are not clearly understood. Here, we describe the role of ceramides in GD, discuss the potential implications of immune cells activation and show how the disturbances in their metabolism might promote blood cancer development.

Langner E, Jeleniewicz W, Turski WA, Plech T
Quinaldic acid induces changes in the expression of p53 tumor suppressor both on protein and gene level in colon cancer LS180 cells.
Pharmacol Rep. 2019; 71(2):189-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Origin, synthesis and activity of quinaldic acid (QA), proposed derivative of kynurenic acid, have been poorly studied to date. Previously, we have demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of QA in a colon cancer model in vitro. The goal of present study was to verify QA activity to modify the expression of p53 tumor suppressor in colon cancer cells, and to relate it to its cancer cell growth inhibiting activity in vitro.
METHODS: LS180 colon cancer cells possessing the wild type form of p53 were used in the study. Real-time PCR and immunobloting techniques were used to test the expression of p53 at gene and protein level, respectively. Next, immunocytochemistry was used to visualize the localization of p53 protein within the cells. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of QA was retested in cells with siRNA silenced P53 gene.
RESULTS: The activity of QA to modify both the expression and phosphorylation of p53 protein as well as the level of P53 gene is shown. Concomitantly, the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of phospho-p53 protein upon QA treatment is also presented. Moreover, reduced activity of QA in colon cancer cells with silenced p53 expression is observed.
CONCLUSION: QA affects the expression of p53 tumor suppressor, both at gene and protein level. The prominent contribution of p53 to the antiproliferative effect of QA in LS180 colon cancer cells can be suggested.

Kluiver J, Niu F, Yuan Y, et al.
NGS-Based High-Throughput Screen to Identify MicroRNAs Regulating Growth of B-Cell Lymphoma.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1956:269-282 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in development, differentiation, and homeostasis by regulating protein translation. In B-cell lymphoma, many miRNAs have altered expression levels, and for a limited subset of them, experimental data supports their functional relevance in lymphoma pathogenesis. This chapter describes an unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based high-throughput screening approach to identify miRNAs that are involved in the control of cell growth. First, we provide a protocol for performing high-throughput screening for miRNA inhibition and overexpression. Second, we describe the procedure for next-generation sequencing library preparation. Third, we provide a workflow for data analysis.

Giefing M, Siebert R
FISH and FICTION in Lymphoma Research.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1956:249-267 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful and robust technique allowing the visualization of target sequences like genes in interphase nuclei. It is widely used in routine diagnostics to identify cancer-specific aberrations including lymphoma-associated translocations or gene copy number changes in single tumor cells. By combining FISH with immunophenotyping-a technique called fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetic as a tool for investigation of neoplasia (FICTION)-it is moreover possible to identify a cell population of interest. Here we describe standard protocols for FISH and FICTION as used in our laboratories in diagnosis and research.

Pawelczyk K, Piotrowska A, Ciesielska U, et al.
Role of PD-L1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Prognostic Significance according to Clinicopathological Factors and Diagnostic Markers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The latest immunotherapy, used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), uses monoclonal antibodies directed against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to inhibit its interaction with the PD-1 receptor. Elevated levels of PD-L1 expression were observed on NSCLC cells. The association between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features is still unclear. Therefore, we examined this relationship and also compare PD-L1 expression levels with Ki-67, p63 and TTF-1.
METHODS: 866 samples of NSCLCs were used to prepare tissue microarrays (TMAs) on which immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions were performed. Changes in the level of
RESULTS: PD-L1 expression was observed in 32.6% of NSCLCs. PD-L1 expression was increased in higher malignancy grades (G) (
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 expression seems to be associated with increased tumor proliferation and aggressiveness as well as shorter patient survival in NSCLC, predominantly in the AC group.

Kurzejamska E, Sacharczuk M, Landázuri N, et al.
Effect of Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 7 (CCL7) and Its Receptor (CCR2) Expression on Colorectal Cancer Behaviors.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is the source of one of the most common cancer-related deaths worldwide, where the main cause of patient mortality remains metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of CCL7 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7) in tumor progression and finding whether it could predict survival of colorectal cancer patients. Initially, our study focused on the crosstalk between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and CT26 colon carcinoma cells and resulted in identifying CCL7 as a chemokine upregulated in CT26 colon cancer cells cocultured with MSCs, compared with CT26 in monoculture in vitro. Moreover, we showed that MSCs enhance CT26 tumor cell proliferation and migration. We analyzed the effect of CCL7 overexpression on tumor progression in a murine CT26 model, where cells overexpressing CCL7 accelerated the early phase of tumor growth and caused higher lung metastasis rates compared with control mice. Microarray analysis revealed that tumors overexpressing CCL7 had lower expression of immunoglobulins produced by B lymphocytes. Additionally, using Jh mutant mice, we confirmed that in the CT26 model, CCL7 has an immunoglobulin-, and thereby, B-cell-dependent effect on metastasis formation. Finally, higher expression of CCL7 receptor CCR2 (C-C chemokine receptor type 2) was associated with shorter overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. Altogether, we showed that CCL7 is essentially involved in the progression of colorectal cancer in a CT26 mouse model and that the expression of its receptor CCR2 could be related to a different outcome pattern of patients with colorectal carcinoma.

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