Gene Summary

Gene:IL1B; interleukin 1, beta
Aliases: IL-1, IL1F2, IL1-BETA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-1 beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (98)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • China
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Messenger RNA
  • Alleles
  • Interleukin-10
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cytokines
  • TNF
  • Risk Factors
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Skin Cancer
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Chromosome 2
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
  • Kaposi Sarcoma
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Survivors
  • Promoter Regions
  • TGFB1
  • Saliva
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Polymorphism
  • Helicobacter Infections
  • Lung Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription Factors, General
  • Genotype
  • Helicobacter pylori and cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Inflammation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Genetic Variation
  • Haplotypes
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Sialoglycoproteins
  • Interleukin-1
  • Adenocarcinoma
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL1B (cancer-related)

Ren X, Wu X, Hillier SG, et al.
Local estrogen metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer suggests novel targets for therapy.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 150:54-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) accounts for about 90% of malignant ovarian tumors, and estrogen is often implicated in disease progression. We therefore compared the potential for gating of estrogen action via pre-receptor metabolism in normal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), EOC and selected EOC cell lines (SKOV3 and PEO1). Steroid sulphatase (STS), estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 2 (17BHSD2) and 5 (17BHSD5) mRNAs, proteins and enzymatic activities were all detectable in primary cell cultures of OSE and EOC, whereas aromatase and 17BHSD1 expression was negligible. qRT-PCR assay on total mRNA revealed significantly higher EST mRNA expression in OSE compared to EOC (P<0.05). Radioenzymatic measurements confirmed reduced sulfoconjugation (neutralization) of free estrogen in EOC relative to OSE. OSE cells were more effective at converting free [(3)H]-E1 to [(3)H]-E1S or [(3)H]-E2S, while EOC cell lines mainly converted [(3)H]-E1 to [(3)H]-E2 with minimal formation of [(3)H]-E1S or [(3)H]-E2S. IL1α treatment suppressed EST (P<0.01) and 17BHSD2 (P<0.001) mRNA levels in OSE and stimulated STS mRNA levels (P<0.001) in cancer (SKOV3) cells. These results show that estrogen is differentially metabolized in OSE and EOC cells, with E2 'activation' from conjugated estrogen predominating in EOC. Inflammatory cytokines may further augment the local production of E2 by stimulating STS and suppressing EST. We conclude that local estrogen metabolism may be a target for EOC treatment.

Williams TM, Leeth RA, Rothschild DE, et al.
The NLRP1 inflammasome attenuates colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(7):3369-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are a diverse family of pattern recognition receptors that are essential mediators of inflammation and host defense in the gastrointestinal system. Recent studies have identified a subgroup of inflammasome forming NLRs that modulate the mucosal immune response during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis associated tumorigenesis. To better elucidate the contribution of NLR family members in IBD and cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis of gene expression metadata from human patients. These data revealed that NLRP1, an inflammasome forming NLR, was significantly dysregulated in IBD and colon cancer. To better characterize the function of NLRP1 in disease pathogenesis, we used Nlrp1b(-/-) mice in colitis and colitis-associated cancer models. In this paper, we report that NLRP1 attenuates gastrointestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis. Nlrp1b(-/-) mice demonstrated significant increases in morbidity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis compared with wild-type animals. Similar to data previously reported for related inflammasome forming NLRs, the increased inflammation and tumor burden was correlated with attenuated levels of IL-1β and IL-18. Further mechanistic studies using bone marrow reconstitution experiments revealed that the increased disease pathogenesis in the Nlrp1b(-/-) mice was associated with nonhematopoietic-derived cells and suggests that NLRP1 functions in the colon epithelial cell compartment to attenuate tumorigenesis. Taken together, these data identify NLRP1 as an essential mediator of the host immune response during IBD and cancer. These findings are consistent with a model whereby multiple NLR inflammasomes attenuate disease pathobiology through modulating IL-1β and IL-18 levels in the colon.

Yamada D, Rizvi S, Razumilava N, et al.
IL-33 facilitates oncogene-induced cholangiocarcinoma in mice by an interleukin-6-sensitive mechanism.
Hepatology. 2015; 61(5):1627-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm originating from the biliary apparatus. In humans, CCA risk factors include hepatobiliary inflammation and fibrosis. The recently identified interleukin (IL)-1 family member, IL-33, has been shown to be a biliary mitogen which also promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to generate a mouse model of CCA mimicking the human disease. Ectopic oncogene expression in the biliary tract was accomplished by the Sleeping Beauty transposon transfection system with transduction of constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) and Yes-associated protein. Intrabiliary instillation of the transposon-transposase complex was coupled with lobar bile duct ligation in C57BL/6 mice, followed by administration of IL-33 for 3 consecutive days. Tumors developed in 72% of the male mice receiving both oncogenes plus IL-33 by 10 weeks but in only 20% of the male mice transduced with the oncogenes alone. Tumors expressed SOX9 and pancytokeratin (features of CCA) but were negative for HepPar1 (a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma). Substantive overlap with human CCA specimens was revealed by RNA profiling. Not only did IL-33 induce IL-6 expression by human cholangiocytes but it likely facilitated tumor development in vivo by an IL-6-sensitive process as tumor development was significantly attenuated in Il-6(-/-) male animals. Furthermore, tumor formation occurred at a similar rate when IL-6 was substituted for IL-33 in this model.
CONCLUSION: The transposase-mediated transduction of constitutively active AKT and Yes-associated protein in the biliary epithelium coupled with lobar obstruction and IL-33 administration results in the development of CCA with morphological and biochemical features of the human disease; this model highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines in CCA oncogenesis.

Fabbi M, Carbotti G, Ferrini S
Context-dependent role of IL-18 in cancer biology and counter-regulation by IL-18BP.
J Leukoc Biol. 2015; 97(4):665-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-18 is a proinflammatory and immune regulatory cytokine, member of the IL-1 family. IL-18 was initially identified as an IFN-γ-inducing factor in T and NK cells, involved in Th1 responses. IL-18 is produced as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18) that is enzymatically processed into a mature form by Casp1. Different cells, such as macrophages, DCs, microglial cells, synovial fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, express pro-IL-18, and the production of bioactive IL-18 is mainly regulated at the processing level. PAMP or DAMP molecules activate inflammasomes, which trigger Casp1 activation and IL-18 conversion. The natural inhibitor IL-18BP , whose production is enhanced by IFN-γ and IL-27, further regulates IL-18 activity in the extracellular environment. Inflammasomes and IL-18 represent double-edged swords in cancer, as their activation may promote tumor development and progression or oppositely, enhance anti-tumor immunity and limit tumor growth. IL-18 has shown anti-tumor activity in different preclinical models of cancer immunotherapy through the activation of NK and/or T cell responses and has been tested in clinical studies in cancer patients. However, the dual role of IL-18 in different experimental tumor models and human cancers raises critical issues on its therapeutic use in cancer. This review will summarize the biology of the IL-18/IL-18R/IL-18BP system and will address the role of IL-18 and its inhibitor, IL-18BP, in cancer biology and immunotherapy.

Adinolfi E, Capece M, Franceschini A, et al.
Accelerated tumor progression in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(4):635-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ATP receptor P2X7 (P2X7R or P2RX7) has a key role in inflammation and immunity, but its possible roles in cancer are not firmly established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of host genetic deletion of P2X7R in the mouse on the growth of B16 melanoma or CT26 colon carcinoma cells. Tumor size and metastatic dissemination were assessed by in vivo calliper and luciferase luminescence emission measurements along with postmortem examination. In P2X7R-deficient mice, tumor growth and metastatic spreading were accelerated strongly, compared with wild-type (wt) mice. Intratumoral IL-1β and VEGF release were drastically reduced, and inflammatory cell infiltration was abrogated nearly completely. Similarly, tumor growth was also greatly accelerated in wt chimeric mice implanted with P2X7R-deficient bone marrow cells, defining hematopoietic cells as a sufficient site of P2X7R action. Finally, dendritic cells from P2X7R-deficient mice were unresponsive to stimulation with tumor cells, and chemotaxis of P2X7R-less cells was impaired. Overall, our results showed that host P2X7R expression was critical to support an antitumor immune response, and to restrict tumor growth and metastatic diffusion.

Jurado-Camino T, Córdoba R, Esteban-Burgos L, et al.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a paradigm of innate immune cross-tolerance.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(2):719-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The pathogenesis of infections is multifactorial and includes hypogammaglobulinemia, conventional therapy with alkylating drugs, and recently, purine analogs and mAb-associated T cells. Patients without these risk factors also suffer from infections, although the mechanism remains unknown. In a cohort of 70 patients with CLL, we demonstrated that their monocytes were locked into a refractory state and were unable to mount a classic inflammatory response to pathogens. In addition, they exhibited the primary features of endotoxin tolerance, including low cytokine production, high phagocytic activity, and impaired Ag presentation. The involvement of miR-146a in this phenomenon was suspected. We found miR-146a target genes, such as IRAK1 and TRAF6, were manifestly downregulated. Our study provides a new explanation for infections in patients with CLL and describes a cross-tolerance between endotoxins and tumors.

Skeff MA, Brito GA, de Oliveira MG, et al.
S-nitrosoglutathione accelerates recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e113378 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mucositis induced by anti-neoplastic drugs is an important, dose-limiting and costly side-effect of cancer therapy.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of the topical application of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a nitric oxide donor, on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral mucositis was induced in male hamsters by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU on the first and second days of the experiment (60 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) followed by mechanical trauma on the fourth day. Animals received saline, HPMC or HPMC/GSNO (0.1, 0.5 or 2.0 mM) 1 h prior to the 5-FU injection and twice a day for 10 or 14 days. Samples of cheek pouches were harvested for: histopathological analysis, TNF-α and IL-1β levels, immunohistochemical staining for iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, Ki67 and TGF-β RII and a TUNEL assay. The presence and levels of 39 bacterial taxa were analyzed using the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. The profiles of NO released from the HPMC/GSNO formulations were characterized using chemiluminescence.
RESULTS: The HPMC/GSNO formulations were found to provide sustained release of NO for more than 4 h at concentration-dependent rates of 14 to 80 nmol/mL/h. Treatment with HPMC/GSNO (0.5 mM) significantly reduced mucosal damage, inflammatory alterations and cell death associated with 5-FU-induced oral mucositis on day 14 but not on day 10. HPMC/GSNO administration also reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on cell proliferation on day 14. In addition, we observed that the chemotherapy significantly increased the levels and/or prevalence of several bacterial species.
CONCLUSION: Topical HPMC/GSNO accelerates mucosal recovery, reduces inflammatory parameters, speeds up re-epithelization and decreases levels of periodontopathic species in mucosal ulcers.

Ségaliny AI, Mohamadi A, Dizier B, et al.
Interleukin-34 promotes tumor progression and metastatic process in osteosarcoma through induction of angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(1):73-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was recently characterized as the M-CSF "twin" cytokine, regulating the proliferation/differentiation/survival of myeloid cells. The implication of M-CSF in oncology was initially suspected by the reduced metastatic dissemination in knock-out mice, due to angiogenesis impairment. Based on this observation, our work studied the involvement of IL-34 in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The in vivo effects of IL-34 were assessed on tissue vasculature and macrophage infiltration in a murine preclinical model based on a paratibial inoculation of human osteosarcoma cells overexpressing or not IL-34 or M-CSF. In vitro investigations using endothelial cell precursors and mature HUVEC cells were performed to analyse the involvement of IL-34 in angiogenesis and myeloid cell adhesion. The data revealed that IL-34 overexpression was associated with the progression of osteosarcoma (tumor growth, lung metastases) and an increase of neo-angiogenesis. In vitro analyses demonstrated that IL-34 stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and vascular cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells by chondroitinases/heparinases reduced the formation of vascular tubes and abolished the associated cell signalling. In addition, IL-34 increased the in vivo recruitment of M2 tumor-associated macrophages into the tumor tissue. IL-34 increased in vitro monocyte/CD34(+) cell adhesion to activated HUVEC monolayers under physiological shear stress conditions. This work also demonstrates that IL-34 is expressed by osteosarcoma cells, is regulated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and contributes to osteosarcoma growth by increasing the neo-angiogenesis and the recruitment of M2 macrophages. By promoting new vessel formation and extravasation of immune cells, IL-34 may play a key role in tumor development and inflammatory diseases.

Shi Q, Wang XS, Li G, et al.
Racial/ethnic disparities in inflammatory gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictors of a high risk for symptom burden in patients with multiple myeloma 1 year after diagnosis.
Cancer. 2015; 121(7):1138-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine whether any regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an inflammatory gene was associated with a high symptom burden in patients 1 year after the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM).
METHODS: MM patients rated symptoms with the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory multiple myeloma module (MDASI-MM) and provided buccal-swab DNA samples. SNPs for 4 cytokine genes (interleukin 6 [IL6] -174G>C, IL1β -511C>T, tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα] -308G>A, and IL10 -1082G>A) were tested. Logistic regression models were used to identify SNPs that might predict moderate/severe symptoms (rated ≥ 4 on the MDASI-MM 0-10 scale). For the evaluation of the relationship between SNPs and overall symptom burden, a 2-step cluster analysis was used to divide patients into subgroups with high or low symptom levels.
RESULTS: Forty-one percent of the 344 patients enrolled had a high overall symptom burden. The most prevalent moderate/severe symptoms were fatigue (47%), pain (42%), numbness (38%), and bone aches (32%). For non-Hispanic whites, the IL1β -511 CC genotype was associated with a high overall symptom burden (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-4.72; P = .004), whereas the IL6 -174 GG genotype predicted less moderate/severe fatigue (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.88; P = .013). For other patients, the IL6 -174 GG genotype predicted moderate/severe pain (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.23-13.64; P = .010).
CONCLUSIONS: These results support growing evidence showing that inflammation is associated with cancer-related symptoms, and they suggest that racial/ethnic factors contribute to this association.

Chittezhath M, Dhillon MK, Lim JY, et al.
Molecular profiling reveals a tumor-promoting phenotype of monocytes and macrophages in human cancer progression.
Immunity. 2014; 41(5):815-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monocytes and macrophages are major components of the tumor microenvironment, but their contributions to human cancer are poorly understood. We used molecular profiling combined with functional assays to investigate the role of these cells in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Blood monocytes from RCC patients displayed a tumor-promoting transcriptional profile that supported functions like angiogenesis and invasion. Induction of this protumor phenotype required an interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-dependent mechanism. Indeed, targeting of IL-1-IL-1R axis in a human RCC xenograft model abrogated the protumor phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and reduced tumor growth in vivo. Supporting this, meta-analysis of gene expression from human RCC tumors showed IL1B expression to correlate with myelomonocytic markers, protumor genes, and tumor staging. Analyzing RCC patient tumors confirmed the protumor phenotype of TAMs. These data provide direct evidence for a tumor-promoting role of monocytes and macrophages in human cancer and indicate IL-1-IL-1R as a possible therapeutic target.

Bae JY, Kim EK, Yang DH, et al.
Reciprocal interaction between carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and squamous carcinoma cells through interleukin-1α induces cancer progression.
Neoplasia. 2014; 16(11):928-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Crosstalk between cancer cells and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has earned recognition as an interaction that plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Thus, we attempted to clarify whether increase in the level of CAFs promotes cancer progression by proportionally enhancing the interaction between cancer cells and CAFs. We first analyzed clinical correlation between the levels of fibroblasts and cancer progression and found that the level of CAFs made a noticeable difference on the prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In vivo animal study also demonstrated that tumor volume depended on the dose of CAFs that was co-injected with OSCC cells. The same tendency was observed in an in vitro study. We also found that interleukin-1α (IL-1α) secreted from OSCC cells had dual effects on CAFs: IL-1α not only promoted the proliferation of CAFs but also upregulated the secretion of cytokines in CAFs such as CCL7, CXCL1, and IL-8. The induction activity of cytokine secretion by IL-1α surpassed that of proliferation in OSCC cells. In summary, we unraveled an important interactive mechanism of carcinogenesis: IL-1α released from carcinoma stimulates the proliferation of CAFs and the simultaneous increase in cytokine secretion from CAFs promotes cancer progression in human OSCC. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the level of CAFs is eligible for being selected as a prognostic factor that will be useful in routine diagnosis. We also propose that blockage of reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and CAFs will provide an insight for developing novel chemotherapeutic strategy.

Lamy S, Moldovan PL, Ben Saad A, Annabi B
Biphasic effects of luteolin on interleukin-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in glioblastoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1853(1):126-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Success in developing therapeutic approaches to target brain tumor-associated inflammation in patients has been limited. Given that the inflammatory microenvironment is a hallmark signature of solid tumor development, anti-inflammatory targeting strategies have been envisioned as preventing glioblastoma initiation or progression. Consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers, a chemopreventive effect that is, in part, attributed to their high content of phytochemicals with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We explored whether luteolin, a common flavonoid in many types of plants, may inhibit interleukin (IL)-1β function induction of the inflammation biomarker cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. We found that IL-1β triggered COX-2 expression in U-87 glioblastoma cells and synergized with luteolin to potentiate or inhibit that induction in a biphasic manner. Luteolin pretreatment of cells inhibited IL-1β-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB, nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase in a concentration-dependent manner. Luteolin also inhibited AKT phosphorylation and survivin expression, while it triggered both caspase-3 cleavage and expression of glucose-regulated protein 78. These effects were all potentiated by IL-1β, in part through increased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Finally, luteolin was able to reduce IL-1 receptor gene expression, and treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist or gene silencing of IL-1 receptor prevented IL-1β/luteolin-induced COX-2 expression. Our results document a novel adaptive cellular response to luteolin, which triggers anti-survival and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to the chemopreventive properties of this diet-derived molecule.

Cui G, Qi H, Gundersen MD, et al.
Dynamics of the IL-33/ST2 network in the progression of human colorectal adenoma to sporadic colorectal cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(2):181-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop from preformed adenomas. Cytokines are involved in the transition from adenoma to CRC. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a newly discovered proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 cytokine family and involved in the development of chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the IL-33/ST2 axis during the sequence of progression from normal colorectum to adenoma to carcinoma and to investigate the association of IL-33 and ST2 expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The results demonstrated that the levels of IL-33 and ST2 in adenomas (n = 50), determined by real-time PCR, were significantly higher than those of normal controls (n = 30); the levels of both IL-33/ST mRNA in CRCs (n = 50) were higher than in normal controls but lower than in adenomas. Further analysis revealed that the expression level of ST2 in CRCs was associated with tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) stage. The log-rank test showed that neither the IL-33 nor the ST2 expression level was correlated with overall survival in patients with CRC. The increased expression of IL-33/ST2 in adenomas and CRC tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was observed in both the tumor stromal cells and adenomatous/cancerous cells. Notably, increased densities of IL-33-positive and ST2-positive microvessels were found in the stroma of adenomas and CRCs. In conclusion, increased expression of the IL-33/ST2 axis along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence might be involved in the neoplastic transformation via the participation of this axis in the regulation of angiogenesis.

Zhang X, Hyer JM, Yu H, et al.
DUSP1 phosphatase regulates the proinflammatory milieu in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7191-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
DUSP1 is a dual-specificity phosphatase that regulates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. Studies have associated loss of DUSP1 expression with certain cancers, but there has been no report of a mechanism by which this supports tumor progression. In this study, we found DUSP1 mRNA and protein decreased in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tissues compared with adjacent nontumor controls. To evaluate the impact of this difference, we compared the susceptibility of Dusp1-deficient mice with oral squamous carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Dusp1-deficient mice displayed enhanced disease progression, characterized by advanced onset, histologic stage, and tumor burden. In a syngeneic model of tumor progression, subcutaneous injection of EO771 cells formed faster-growing tumors in Dusp1-deficient mice, an effect abrogated by inhibition of p38 MAP kinase with SB203580. Histologic and quantitative assessments demonstrated increased inflammation and deregulated chemokine and cytokine expression in Dusp1-deficient tumor tissues. Specifically, proinflammatory cytokine IL1β was elevated. IL1β production was recapitulated ex vivo in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from Dusp1-deficient mice. Together, our results clearly establish the role of Dusp1 as a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cancer-associated inflammation.

Monga J, Aggarwal V, Suthar SK, et al.
Topical (+)-catechin emulsified gel prevents DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin by modulating antioxidants and inflammatory biomarkers in BALB/c mice.
Food Funct. 2014; 5(12):3197-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
An emulsified gel of (+)-catechin was developed and evaluated topically against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted (DMBA-induced and TPA-promoted) squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in BALB/c mice. The biological evaluation outcome indicated that the (+)-catechin emulsified gel increased the activity of oxidative stress biomarkers glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), whereas it decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). The mechanistic study showed that genes implicated in the inflammation and cancer, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), were down-regulated by (+)-catechin emulsified gel while inhibiting an inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The (+)-catechin emulsified gel further suppressed the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, viz. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The in vitro permeation study revealed that release of (+)-catechin from an emulsified gel base reached a steady state after 6 h, while pH of the entire emulsified gel was found to be between 6.2 and 6.5 that falls well within the normal pH range of the skin.

Dzhugashvili M, Luengo-Gil G, García T, et al.
Role of genetic polymorphisms in NFKB-mediated inflammatory pathways in response to primary chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014; 90(3):595-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate whether polymorphisms of genes related to inflammation are associated with pathologic response (primary endpoint) in patients with rectal cancer treated with primary chemoradiation therapy (PCRT).
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Genomic DNA of 159 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with PCRT was genotyped for polymorphisms rs28362491 (NFKB1), rs1213266/rs5789 (PTGS1), rs5275 (PTGS2), and rs16944/rs1143627 (IL1B) using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. The association between each genotype and pathologic response (poor response vs complete or partial response) was analyzed using logistic regression models.
RESULTS: The NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype was associated with pathologic response (odds ratio [OR], 6.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-52.65; P=.03) after PCRT. No statistically significant associations between other polymorphisms and response to PCRT were observed. Patients with the NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype showed a trend for longer disease-free survival (log-rank test, P=.096) and overall survival (P=.049), which was not significant in a multivariate analysis that included pathologic response. Analysis for 6 polymorphisms showed that patients carrying the haplotype rs28362491-DEL/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G (13.7% of cases) had a higher response rate to PCRT (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.21-64.98; P=.034) than the reference group (rs28362491-INS/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G). Clinically significant (grade ≥2) acute organ toxicity was also more frequent in patients with that same haplotype (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.11-15.36; P=.037).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variation in NFKB-related inflammatory pathways might influence sensitivity to primary chemoradiation for rectal cancer. If confirmed, an inflammation-related radiogenetic profile might be used to select patients with rectal cancer for preoperative combined-modality treatment.

Su B, Luo T, Zhu J, et al.
Interleukin-1β/Iinterleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 inflammatory signaling contributes to persistent Gankyrin activation during hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology. 2015; 61(2):585-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prototype of inflammation-associated cancer. Oncoprotein Gankyrin, which mostly increases in HCC, plays a critical role in HCC development and metastasis. However, the exact mechanism of Gankyrin up-regulation in HCC remains unclear. A Gankyrin luciferase reporter was developed to screen a potential regulator for Gankyrin from a list of proinflammatory cytokines, and interleukin (IL)-1β was found as one of its activators. In clinical premalignant and malignant liver disease samples, enhanced IL-1β/interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) signaling accompanied by increased Gankyrin was observed. Lower expression of Gankyrin and phospho-IRAK-1 are favorable prognostic markers for HCC. A similar correlation was observed in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN) model of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. The results from Gankyrin reporter activity, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or immunoblotting further confirmed the up-regulation of Gankyrin by IL-1β/IRAK-1 inflammatory signaling. Moreover, a series of Gankyrin's truncated reporters were constructed, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to analyze the properties of Gankyrin promoter. Mechanistically, the core promoter of Gankyrin contains the binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family members, which can recruit histone acetyltransferase coactivator E1A-binding protein p300 (p300) or CREB-binding protein (CBP) to promote Gankyrin transcription. Conversely, knockdown of NF-Y, p300, or CBP inhibits Gankyrin expression. IL-1β stimulation causes sequential phosphorylation of IRAK-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p300 and enhances recruitment of the p300/CBP/NF-Y complex to Gankyrin promoter. Inhibition of phospho-JNK impairs IL-1β/IRAK-1 signaling-mediated up-regulation of Gankyrin.
CONCLUSION: The finding of IL-1β/IRAK-1 signaling promoting Gankyrin expression through JNK and NF-Y/p300/CBP complex provides a fresh view on inflammation-enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis.

Rhyasen GW, Starczynowski DT
IRAK signalling in cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(2):232-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
Innate immune signalling has an essential role in inflammation, and the dysregulation of signalling components of this pathway is increasingly being recognised as an important mediator in cancer initiation and progression. In some malignancies, dysregulation of inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) signalling is typified by increased NF-κB activity, and it occurs through somatic mutations, chromosomal deletions, and/or transcriptional deregulation. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family members are mediators of TLR/IL1R superfamily signalling, and mounting evidence implicates these kinases as viable cancer targets. Although there have been previous efforts aimed at the development of IRAK kinase inhibitors, this is currently an area of renewed interest for cancer drug development.

Shyu PT, Oyong GG, Cabrera EC
Cytotoxicity of probiotics from Philippine commercial dairy products on cancer cells and the effect on expression of cfos and cjun early apoptotic-promoting genes and Interleukin-1 β and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α proinflammatory cytokine genes.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:491740 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
This study determined cytotoxicity of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. from Philippine dairy products on cancer cells and normal fibroblasts and their effects on expression of early apoptotic-promoting cfos, cjun and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, TNF-α genes. Cultures were from Yakult, Bear Brand Probiotic Drink, Nido3+ Powdered Milk. Filter-sterilized supernatants from cultures of Lactobacillus spp. were evaluated for cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT116), leukemia cells (THP-1), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn) using PrestoBlue. Bleomycin was the positive control. Absolute quantification of transcript levels was conducted using qRT-PCR. Cytotoxicity index profiles on HDFn, THP-1 of all probiotic supernatants and negative controls suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to bleomycin, whereas all probiotic supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines. Expression of cfos, cjun transcripts was significantly upregulated in HT-29 and HCT116 cells treated with probiotic supernatants compared to untreated baseline levels (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1β and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages was significantly downregulated in cells with probiotic supernatants compared to those exposed to MRS medium (P < 0.05). Results provide strong support for the role of Lactobacillus spp. studied in anticancer therapy and in prevention of inflammation that may act as precursor to carcinogenesis.

Wang Z, Ding L, Zhang S, et al.
Effects of icariin on the regulation of the OPG-RANKL-RANK system are mediated through the MAPK pathways in IL-1β-stimulated human SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 34(6):1720-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arthrodial cartilage degradation and subchondral bone remodeling comprise the most predominant pathological changes in osteoarthritis (OA). Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that the abnormal expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) plays a vital role in the collapse of cartilage and subchondral bone. In the present study, the effects of icariin on the expression levels of these 3 factors in interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were investigated. The SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were cultured in the presence or absence of icariin and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway inhibitors, and were then stimulated with IL-1β. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein expression of OPG, RANKL and RANK was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)1/2 were detected by western blot analysis. The results from western blot analysis revealed that treatment with icariin decreased the levels of p-p38 and increased the levels of p-ERK1/2 in the IL-1β-stimulated SW1353 cells. In addition, treatment with icariin decreased the levels of RANK and RANKL. Furthermore, the suppressive effects of icariin on OPG and OPG/RANKL were greater than those exhibited by the p38 signaling pathway inhibitor (SB203580). The findings of the the present study suggest that icariin has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of OA.

Fennell DA, Myrand SP, Nguyen TS, et al.
Association between gene expression profiles and clinical outcome of pemetrexed-based treatment in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: exploratory results from a phase II study.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e107455 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: We report exploratory gene-expression profiling data from a single-arm Phase-II-study in patients with non-squamous (ns)NSCLC treated with pemetrexed and cisplatin. Previously disclosed results indicated a significant association of low thymidylate-synthase (TS)-expression with longer progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS).
METHODS: Treatment-naïve nsNSCLC patients (IIIB/IV) received 4 cycles of pemetrexed/cisplatin; non-progressing patients continued on pemetrexed-maintenance. Diagnostic tissue-samples were used to assess TS-expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and mRNA-expression array-profiling (1,030 lung cancer-specific genes). Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to explore the association between each gene and PFS/OS. Genes significantly correlated with PFS/OS were further correlated with TS-protein expression (Spearman-rank). Unsupervised clustering was applied to all evaluable samples (n = 51) for all 1,030 genes and an overlapping 870-gene subset associated with adenocarcinoma (ADC, n = 47).
RESULTS: 51/70 tissue-samples (72.9%) were evaluable; 9 of 1,030 genes were significantly associated with PFS/OS (unadjusted p < 0.01, genes: Chromosome 16 open reading frame 89, napsin A, surfactant protein B, aquaporin 4, TRAF2- and Nck-interacting kinase, Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1, Interleukin 1 receptor type II, NK2 homeobox 1, ABO glycosyl-transferase); expression for all except IL1R2 correlated negatively with nuclear TS-expression (statistically significant for 5/8 genes, unadjusted p<0.01). Cluster-analysis based on 1,030 genes revealed no clear trend regarding PFS/OS; the ADC-based cluster analysis identified 3 groups (n = 21/11/15) with median (95%CI) PFS of 8.1(6.9,NE)/2.4(1.2,NE)/4.4(1.2,NE) months and OS of 20.3(17.5,NE)/4.3(1.4,NE)/8.3(3.9,NE) months, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory gene-expression profiling results describe genes potentially linked to low TS-expression. Nine genes were significantly associated with PFS/OS but could not be differentiated as prognostic or predictive as this was a single-arm study. Although these hypotheses-generating results are interesting, they provide no evidence to change the current histology-based treatment approach with pemetrexed.

Miaskowski C, Cataldo JK, Baggott CR, et al.
Cytokine gene variations associated with trait and state anxiety in oncology patients and their family caregivers.
Support Care Cancer. 2015; 23(4):953-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Anxiety is common among cancer patients and their family caregivers (FCs) and is associated with poorer outcomes. Recently, associations between inflammation and anxiety were identified. However, the relationship between variations in cytokine genes and anxiety warrants investigation. Therefore, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics associated with trait and state anxiety were evaluated in a sample of 167 oncology patients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs.
METHODS: Using multiple regression analyses, the associations between participants' demographic and clinical characteristics as well as variations in cytokine genes and trait and state anxiety were evaluated.
RESULTS: In the bivariate analyses, a number of phenotypic characteristics were associated with both trait and state anxiety (e.g., age, functional status). However, some associations were specific only to trait anxiety (e.g., number of comorbid conditions) or state anxiety (e.g., participation with a FC). Variations in three cytokine genes (i.e., interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL1 receptor 2 (IL1R2), nuclear factor kappa beta 2 (NFKB2)) were associated with trait anxiety, and variations in two genes (i.e., IL1R2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)) were associated with state anxiety.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both trait and state anxiety need to be assessed in oncology patients and their FCs. Furthermore, variations in cytokine genes may contribute to higher levels of anxiety in oncology patients and their FCs.

Weidert E, Pohler SE, Gomez EW, Dong C
Actinomyosin contraction, phosphorylation of VE-cadherin, and actin remodeling enable melanoma-induced endothelial cell-cell junction disassembly.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108092 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2015 Related Publications
During melanoma cell extravasation through the vascular endothelium, melanoma cells interact with endothelial cells through secretion of cytokines and by adhesion between proteins displayed on opposing cell surfaces. How these tumor cell associated signals together regulate the dynamics of intracellular signaling pathways within endothelial cells leading to endothelial cell-cell junction disruption is not well understood. Here, we used a combination of experimental and computational approaches to examine the individual and combined effects of activation of the vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-1β signaling pathways on the integrity of vascular junctions. Our simulations predict a multifaceted interplay of signaling resulting from individual activation of VCAM-1, IL-8 and IL-1β pathways that is neither synergistic nor additive compared to all inputs turned on simultaneously. Furthermore, we show that the levels of phosphorylated proteins associated with actinomyosin contractility and junction disassembly peak prior to those related to actin remodeling. The results of this work provide insight into the dynamics of tumor-mediated endothelial junction disassembly and suggest that targeting proteins downstream of several interaction pathways may be the most effective therapeutic approach to reduce melanoma extravasation.

Chatterjee S, Thyagarajan K, Kesarwani P, et al.
Reducing CD73 expression by IL1β-Programmed Th17 cells improves immunotherapeutic control of tumors.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(21):6048-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
T cells of the T helper (Th)17 subset offer promise in adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer. However, current protocols for ex vivo programming of Th17 cells, which include TGFβ exposure, increase the expression of CD39 and CD73, two cell surface ATP ectonucleotidases that reduce T-cell effector functions and promote immunosuppression. Here, we report that ATP-mediated suppression of IFNγ production by Th17 cells can be overcome by genetic ablation of CD73 or by using IL1β instead of TGFβ to program Th17 cells ex vivo. Th17 cells cultured in IL1β were also highly polyfunctional, expressing high levels of effector molecules and exhibiting superior short-term control of melanoma in mice, despite reduced stem cell-like properties. TGFβ addition at low doses that did not upregulate CD73 expression but induced stemness properties drastically improved the antitumor effects of IL1β-cultured Th17 cells. Effector properties of IL1β-dependent Th17 cells were likely related to their high glycolytic capacity, since ex vivo programming in pyruvate impaired glycolysis and antitumor effects. Overall, we show that including TGFβ in ex vivo cultures used to program Th17 cells blunts their immunotherapeutic potential and demonstrate how this potential can be more fully realized for adoptive T-cell therapy.

Lee CH, Chang JS, Syu SH, et al.
IL-1β promotes malignant transformation and tumor aggressiveness in oral cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(4):875-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation, coupled with alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette consumption, is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a critical mediator of chronic inflammation and implicated in many cancers. In this study, we showed that increased pro-IL-1β expression was associated with the severity of oral malignant transformation in a mouse OSCC model induced by 4-Nitroquinolin-1-oxide (4-NQO) and arecoline, two carcinogens related to tobacco and betel quid, respectively. Using microarray and quantitative PCR assay, we showed that pro-IL-1β was upregulated in human OSCC tumors associated with tobacco and betel quid consumption. In a human OSCC cell line TW2.6, we demonstrated nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) and arecoline stimulated IL-1β secretion in an inflammasome-dependent manner. IL-1β treatment significantly increased the proliferation and dysregulated the Akt signaling pathways of dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOKs). Using cytokine antibodies and inflammation cytometric bead arrays, we found that DOK and OSCC cells secreted high levels of IL-6, IL-8, and growth-regulated oncogene-α following IL-1β stimulation. The conditioned medium of IL-1β-treated OSCC cells exerted significant proangiogenic effects. Crucially, IL-1β increased the invasiveness of OSCC cells through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin, and alterations in morphology. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying OSCC tumorigenesis. Our study suggested that IL-1β can be induced by tobacco and betel quid-related carcinogens, and participates in the early and late stages of oral carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of dysplasia oral cells, stimulating oncogenic cytokines, and promoting aggressiveness of OSCC.

Zhang Z, Zhou B, Gao Q, et al.
A polymorphism at miRNA-122-binding site in the IL-1α 3'UTR is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Fam Cancer. 2014; 13(4):595-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to investigate the association between rs3783553 polymorphism and susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer in a Chinese population and discussed the risk factors associated with survival time. In a case-control study, 301 patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer and 240 healthy controls were genotyped for rs3783553 polymorphism. Survival time of ovarian cancer patients was explored by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling. The distributions of genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls. The variant homozygote (ins/ins) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of ovarian cancer. The patients with del/ins polymorphism seemed to be diagnosed "earlier" (FIGO stage I-II) and be more likely to achieve optimal cytoreductive surgery. Advanced FIGO stage (stages III-IV) and non-optimal cytoreductive surgery (residual tumor <1 cm) were poor prognostic factors in the univariate analysis. However, optimal cytoreductive surgery was found to be the only independent significant prognostic factor. This study suggests that rs3783553 polymorphism may be involved in the susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer. It may also be related with the tumor stage and the ability to achieve optimal tumor surgery, while the latter predicts the clinical outcomes for patients as the only independent prognostic factor.

Golozar A, Beaty TH, Gravitt PE, et al.
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk Chinese populations: Possible role for vascular epithelial growth factor A.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(16):2855-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms involved in wound healing play some role in carcinogenesis in multiple organs, likely by creating a chronic inflammatory milieu. This study sought to assess the role of genetic markers in selected inflammation-related genes involved in wound healing (interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1b, IL-1 Receptor type I (IL-1Ra), IL-1 Receptor type II (IL-1Rb), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member (TNFRSF)1A, nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB)1, NF-kB2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A and P-53) in risk to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: We genotyped 125 tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s in 410 cases and 377 age and sex matched disease-free individuals from Nutritional Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort, and 546 cases and 556 controls individually matched for age, sex and neighbourhood from Shanxi case-control study, both conducted in high-risk areas of north-central China (1985-2007). Cox proportional-hazard models and conditional logistic regression models were used for SNPs analyses for NIT and Shanxi, respectively. Fisher's inverse test statistics were used to obtain gene-level significance.
RESULTS: Multiple SNPs were significantly associated with OSCC in both studies, however, none retained their significance after a conservative Bonferroni adjustment. Empiric p-values for tag SNPs in VEGFA in NIT were highly concentrated in the lower tail of the distribution, suggesting this gene may be influencing risk. Permutation tests confirmed the significance of this pattern. At the gene level, VEGFA yielded an empiric significance (P=0.027) in NIT. We also observed some evidence for interaction between environmental factors and some VEGFA tag SNPs.
CONCLUSION: Our finding adds further evidence for a potential role for markers in the VEGFA gene in the development and progression of early precancerous lesions of oesophagus.

Bei CH, Bai H, Yu HP, et al.
Combined effects of six cytokine gene polymorphisms and SNP-SNP interactions on hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Southern Guangxi, China.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(16):6961-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the genesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that combined effects of cytokine gene SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions are associated with HCC risk. Six SNPs in cytokine genes (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10) were genotyped in a study of 720 Chinese HCC cases and 784 cancer-free controls. Although none of these SNPs individually had a significant effect on the risk of HCC, we found that the combined effects of these six SNPs may contribute to HCC risk (OR=1.821, 95% CI=1.078-3.075). This risk was pronounced among smokers, drinkers, and hepatitis B virus carriers. A SNP-SNP interaction between IL-2-330 and IFN-γ-1615 was associated with an increased HCC risk (OR=1.078, 95% CI=1.022-1.136). In conclusion, combined effects of SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions in cytokine genes may contribute to HCC risk.

Nie L, Lyros O, Medda R, et al.
Endothelial-mesenchymal transition in normal human esophageal endothelial cells cocultured with esophageal adenocarcinoma cells: role of IL-1β and TGF-β2.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014; 307(9):C859-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been recognized as a key determinant of tumor microenvironment in cancer progression and metastasis. Endothelial cells undergoing EndoMT lose their endothelial markers, acquire the mesenchymal phenotype, and become more invasive with increased migratory abilities. Early stages of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are characterized by strong microvasculature whose impact in tumor progression remains undefined. Our aim was to determine the role of EndoMT in EAC by investigating the impact of tumor cells on normal primary human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC). HEMEC were either cocultured with OE33 adenocarcinoma cells or treated with IL-1β and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) for indicated periods and analyzed for EndoMT-associated changes by real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and functional assays. Additionally, human EAC tissues were investigated for detection of EndoMT-like cells. Our results demonstrate an increased expression of mesenchymal markers [fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1), collagen1α2, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and Snail], decreased expression of endothelial markers [CD31, von Willebrand factor VIII (vWF), and VE-cadherin], and elevated migration ability in HEMEC following coculture with OE33 cells. The EndoMT-related changes were inhibited by IL-1β and TGF-β2 gene silencing in OE33 cells. Recombinant IL-1β and TGF-β2 induced EndoMT in HEMEC. Although the level of VEGF expression was elevated in EndoMT cells, the angiogenic property of these cells was diminished. In vivo, by immunostaining EndoMT-like cells were detected at the invasive front of EAC. Our findings underscore a significant role for EndoMT in EAC and provide new insights into the mechanisms and significance of EndoMT in the context of tumor progression.

Comar M, Zanotta N, Bonotti A, et al.
Increased levels of C-C chemokine RANTES in asbestos exposed workers and in malignant mesothelioma patients from an hyperendemic area.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e104848 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Asbestos-induced mesothelial inflammatory processes are thought to be the basic mechanisms underlying Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) development. Detection of MM often occurs at late stage due to the long and unpredictable latent period and the low incidence in asbestos exposed individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate early immunological biomarkers to characterize the prognostic profile of a possible asbestos-induced disease, in subjects from a MM hyperendemic area.
METHODS: The Luminex Multiplex Panel Technology was used for the simultaneous measurement of serum levels of a large panel of 47 analytes, including cytokines and growth factors, from workers previously exposed to asbestos (Asb-workers), asbestos-induced MM patients and healthy subjects. In addition, to explore the influence on serum cytokines profile exerted by SV40 infection, a cofactor in MM development, a quantitative real time PCR was performed for sequences detection in the N-terminal and intronic regions of the SV40 Tag gene. Statistical analysis was done by means of the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskall-Wallis test for variance analysis.
RESULTS: A variety of 25 cytokines linked to pulmonary inflammation and tumor development were found significantly associated with Asb-workers and MM patients compared with healthy controls. A specific pattern of cytokines were found highly expressed in Asb-workers: IFN-alpha (p<0.05), EOTAXIN (p<0.01), RANTES (p<0.001), and in MM patients: IL-12(p40), IL-3, IL-1 alpha, MCP-3, beta-NGF, TNF-beta, RANTES (p<0.001). Notably, the chemokine RANTES measured the highest serum level showing an increased gradient of concentration from healthy subjects to Asb-workers and MM patients (p<0.001), independently of SV40 infection.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that, in subjects from an hyperendemic area for MM, the C-C chemokine RANTES is associated with the exposure to asbestos fibres. If validated in larger samples, this factor could have the potential to be a critical biomarker for MM prognosis as recently reported for breast tumor.

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