MDS1

Gene Summary

Gene:MDS1; myelodysplasia syndrome 1
Aliases: PRDM3, MDS1-EVI1
Location:3q26
Summary:-
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:myelodysplasia syndrome 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 3
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Messenger RNA
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Transcription Factors
  • Apoptosis
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Disease Progression
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • FISH
  • Leukaemia
  • Chromosome 12
  • Young Adult
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Chromosome 21
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Chromosome 1
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Virus Integration
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Markers
  • Adolescents
  • Cancer RNA
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Karyotyping
  • RTPCR
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MDS1 (cancer-related)

Braun CJ, Boztug K, Paruzynski A, et al.
Gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome--long-term efficacy and genotoxicity.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(227):227ra33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is characterized by microthrombocytopenia, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and susceptibility to malignancies. In our hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (GT) trial using a γ-retroviral vector, 9 of 10 patients showed sustained engraftment and correction of WAS protein (WASP) expression in lymphoid and myeloid cells and platelets. GT resulted in partial or complete resolution of immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and bleeding diathesis. Analysis of retroviral insertion sites revealed >140,000 unambiguous integration sites and a polyclonal pattern of hematopoiesis in all patients early after GT. Seven patients developed acute leukemia [one acute myeloid leukemia (AML), four T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), and two primary T-ALL with secondary AML associated with a dominant clone with vector integration at the LMO2 (six T-ALL), MDS1 (two AML), or MN1 (one AML) locus]. Cytogenetic analysis revealed additional genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocations. This study shows that hematopoietic stem cell GT for WAS is feasible and effective, but the use of γ-retroviral vectors is associated with a substantial risk of leukemogenesis.

Yee Ko JM, Dai W, Wun Wong EH, et al.
Multigene pathway-based analyses identify nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk associations for cumulative adverse effects of TERT-CLPTM1L and DNA double-strand breaks repair.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(7):1634-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and mechanisms for inherited susceptibility remain unclear. To examine genetic risk factors for NPC, we hypothesized that heritable risk is attributable to cumulative effects of multiple common low-risk variants. With the premise that individual SNPs only confer subtle effects for cancer risk, a multigenic pathway-based approach was used to systematically examine associations between NPC genetic susceptibility with SNPs in genes in DNA repair pathways and from previously identified cancer genome-wide association study analyses. This case-control study covers 161 genes/loci and focuses on pathway-based analyses in 2,349 Hong Kong individuals, allowing stratification according to NPC familial status for meaningful association analysis. Three SNPs (rs401681, rs6774494 and rs3757318) corresponding to TERT/CLPTM1L (OR 95% CI = 0.77, 0.68-0.88), MDS1-EVI1 (OR 95% CI=0.79 0.69-0.89) and CCDC170 (OR 95% CI = 0.76, 0.66-0.86) conferred modest protective effects individually for NPC risk by the logistic regression analysis after multiple testing adjustment (p(Bonferroni)  < 0.05). Stratification of NPC according to familial status identified rs2380165 in BLM (OR 95% CI = 1.49, 1.20-1.86, p(Bonferroni)  < 0.05) association with family history-positive NPC (FH+ NPC) patients. Multiple SNPs pathway-based analysis revealed that the combined gene dosage effects for increasing numbers of unfavorable genotypes in TERT-CLPTM1L and double-strand break repair (DSBR) conferred elevated risk in FH+ and sporadic NPC patients (ORs per allele, 95% CIs = 1.37, 1.22-1.55, p(Bonferroni)  = 5.00 × 10(-6); 1.17, 1.09-1.26, p(Bonferroni)  = 4.58 × 10(-4) , respectively, in TERT/NHEJ pathways). Our data suggested cumulative increased NPC risk associations with TERT-CLPTM1L and DSBR pathways contribute to genetic susceptibility to NPC and have potential translational relevance for patient stratification and therapeutics.

Glass C, Wilson M, Gonzalez R, et al.
The role of EVI1 in myeloid malignancies.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2014 Jun-Aug; 53(1-2):67-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The EVI1 oncogene at human chr 3q26 is rearranged and/or overexpressed in a subset of acute myeloid leukemias and myelodysplasias. The EVI1 protein is a 135 kDa transcriptional regulator with DNA-binding zinc finger domains. Here we provide a critical review of the current state of research into the molecular mechanisms by which this gene plays a role in myeloid malignancies. The major pertinent cellular effects are blocking myeloid differentiation and preventing cellular apoptosis, and several potential mechanisms for these phenomena have been identified. Evidence supports a role for EVI1 in inducing cellular quiescence, and this may contribute to the resistance to chemotherapy seen in patients with neoplasms that overexpress EVI1. Another isoform, MDS1-EVI1 (or PRDM3), encoded by the same locus as EVI1, harbors an N-terminal histone methyltransferase(HMT) domain; experimental findings indicate that this protein and its HMT activity are critical for the progression of a subset of AMLs, and this provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

Zhang Y, Owens K, Hatem L, et al.
Essential role of PR-domain protein MDS1-EVI1 in MLL-AF9 leukemia.
Blood. 2013; 122(16):2888-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A subgroup of leukemogenic mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins (MFPs) including MLL-AF9 activates the Mecom locus and exhibits extremely poor clinical prognosis. Mecom encodes EVI1 and MDS1-EVI1 (ME) proteins via alternative transcription start sites; these differ by the presence of a PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 (PR) domain with histone methyltransferase activity in the ME isoform. Using an ME-deficient mouse, we show that ME is required for MLL-AF9-induced transformation both in vitro and in vivo. And, although Nup98-HOXA9, MEIS1-HOXA9, and E2A-Hlf could transform ME-deficient cells, both MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL were ineffective, indicating that the ME requirement is specific to MLL fusion leukemia. Further, we show that the PR domain is essential for MFP-induced transformation. These studies clearly indicate an essential role of PR-domain protein ME in MFP leukemia, suggesting that ME may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention for this group of leukemias.

Jiang MM, Gao L, Jing Y, et al.
Rapid detection of AML1 associated fusion genes in patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 21(4):821-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to detect the expression of AML1 fusion genes in the patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and further to investigate their association with the progression and prognosis of AML. Bone marrow samples were collected from 168 patients with de novo adult AML, and the expression of AML1 ETO, AML1-EVI1, AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, AML1-LRP16, AML1-CLCA2 and AML1-PRDX4 was analyzed by a novel multiplex nested RT-PCR. Positive samples and minimal residual disease were further examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that the AML1 fusion genes were found in 10.7% (18/168) patients. Among them, AML1-ETO in 12 (7.1%) cases were detected, AML1-EVI1 in 2 cases (1.2%), and AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, and AML1-CLCA2 in 1 case (0.6%) each were detected. Among the patients with AML1-ETO, 10 patients (10/12, 83.33%) achieved complete remission (CR) after one cycle of chemotherapy, while 2 patients achieved CR after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. The 2 patients with AML1-EVI1 failed to achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. Patients with AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, or AML1-CACL2 did not achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. It is concluded that AML1 fusion genes are more frequent and can provide the molecular markers for diagnostics and prognosis evaluation of AML and for monitoring MRD.

Bard-Chapeau EA, Gunaratne J, Kumar P, et al.
EVI1 oncoprotein interacts with a large and complex network of proteins and integrates signals through protein phosphorylation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(31):E2885-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI1) is an oncogenic zinc finger transcription factor whose expression is frequently up-regulated in myeloid leukemia and epithelial cancers. To better understand the mechanisms underlying EVI1-associated disease, we sought to define the EVI1 interactome in cancer cells. By using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, we could confidently assign 78 proteins as EVI1-interacting partners for FLAG-tagged EVI1. Subsequently, we showed that 22 of 27 tested interacting proteins could coimmunoprecipitate with endogenous EVI1 protein, which represented an 81.5% validation rate. Additionally, by comparing the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) data with high-throughput yeast two hybrid results, we showed that five of these proteins interacted directly with EVI1. Functional classification of EVI1-interacting proteins revealed associations with cellular transcription machinery; modulators of transcription; components of WNT, TGF-β, and RAS pathways; and proteins regulating DNA repair, recombination, and mitosis. We also identified EVI1 phosphorylation sites by MS analysis and showed that Ser538 and Ser858 can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated by two EVI1 interactome proteins, casein kinase II and protein phosphatase-1α. Finally, mutations that impair EVI1 phosphorylation at these sites reduced EVI1 DNA binding through its C-terminal zinc finger domain and induced cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, these combinatorial proteomic approaches demonstrate that EVI1 interacts with large and complex networks of proteins, which integrate signals from various different signaling pathways important for oncogenesis. Comprehensive analysis of the EVI1 interactome has thus provided an important resource for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of EVI1-associated disease.

Dutta P, Bui T, Bauckman KA, et al.
EVI1 splice variants modulate functional responses in ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(3):647-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Amplification of 3q26.2, found in many cancer lineages, is a frequent and early event in ovarian cancer. We previously defined the most frequent region of copy number increase at 3q26.2 to EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site-1) and MDS1 (myelodysplastic syndrome 1) (aka MECOM), an observation recently confirmed by the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). MECOM is increased at the DNA, RNA, and protein level and likely contributes to patient outcome. Herein, we report that EVI1 is aberrantly spliced, generating multiple variants including a Del(190-515) variant (equivalent to previously reported) expressed in >90% of advanced stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers. Although EVI1(Del190-515) lacks ∼70% of exon 7, it binds CtBP1 as well as SMAD3, important mediators of TGFβ signaling, similar to wild type EVI1. This contrasts with EVI1 1-268 which failed to interact with CtBP1. Interestingly, the EVI1(Del190-515) splice variant preferentially localizes to PML nuclear bodies compared to wild type and EVI1(Del427-515). While wild type EVI1 efficiently repressed TGFβ-mediated AP-1 (activator protein-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoters, EVI1(Del190-515) elicited a slight increase in both promoter activities. Expression of EVI1 and EVI1(Del427-515) (but not EVI1(Del190-515)) in OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cells increased cyclin E1 LMW expression and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, knockdown of specific EVI1 splice variants (both MDS1/EVI1 and EVI1(Del190-515)) markedly increased claudin-1 mRNA and protein expression in HEY ovarian and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Changes in claudin-1 were associated with alterations in specific epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers concurrent with reduced migratory potential. Collectively, EVI1 is frequently aberrantly spliced in ovarian cancer with specific forms eliciting altered functions which could potentially contribute to ovarian cancer pathophysiology.

Geng Z, Zhang H, Wang D, et al.
Combination of cytogenetic analysis and molecular screening in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2012; 32(4):501-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nowadays the role of genetic findings in determining the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has become more valuable. To improve and validate the detection of clonal chromosomal aberrations in leukemia, we designed a combined application of karyotyping with multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and addressed the expression and distribution of fusion genes among the subtypes of Chinese adult patients with de novo AML. Multiplex RT-PCR assays were performed on 477 samples from newly diagnosed AML patients, and cytogenetic data were obtained from 373 of them by R or G banding techniques and those in some cases were confirmed by FISH. The PCR products in some suspected cases were tested by two-directional sequencing. The results showed that except unqualified samples, fusion genes were detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 211 of 474 patients (44.51%), including AML1-ETO, CBFβ-MYH11, PML-RARα, PLZF-RARα, NPM-RARα, MLL rearrangements, BCR-ABL, DEK-CAN, SET-CAN, TEL-PDGFR, TLS-ERG, AML1-MDS1 (EVI-1). In 373 patients, who took both multiplex RT-PCR and karyotype analysis, the detection rate of chromosomal aberrations by using multiplex RT-PCR and karyotyping was 160/373 (42.89%) and 179/373 (47.98%) respectively, and the combination could optimize the detection rate of clonal genetic abnormalities to 216/373 (57.90%). The PCR results from 11 cases "normal" in karyotyping but abnormal in RT-PCR for MLL rearrangements were confirmed by two-directional sequencing. It is concluded that karyotype studies remain the cornerstone for genetic testing; conventional cytogenetics and molecular-based methods are complementary tests for the detection of clonal genetic aberrations in AML, especially for the cryptic or submicroscopic aberrations. Once a genetic marker has been identified by combined analysis, it could be used to monitor residual disease during/after chemotherapy, by quantitative RT-PCR and/or FISH.

Shimada K, Tomita A, Minami Y, et al.
CML cells expressing the TEL/MDS1/EVI1 fusion are resistant to imatinib-induced apoptosis through inhibition of BAD, but are resensitized with ABT-737.
Exp Hematol. 2012; 40(9):724-737.e2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia is the first disease in which the potential of molecular targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was realized. Despite this success, a proportion of patients, particularly with advanced disease, are, or become, resistant to this treatment. Overcoming resistance and uncovering the underlying mechanisms is vital for further improvement of clinical outcomes. Here we report the identification, development, and characterization of a novel chronic myeloid leukemia cell line carrying the additional chromosomal aberration t(3;12)(q26;p13) resulting in expression of the TEL/MDS1/EVI1 fusion protein, which is resistant to TKIs. Resistance to TKIs was overcome by the co-administration of the BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. In addition, application of EVI1-specific small interfering RNA decreased expression of the TEL/MDS1/EVI1 fusion, reduced resistance to imatinib, and increased sensitivity to ABT-737. Subsequent studies revealed a role for the BH3-only protein BAD, probably via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT-dependent pathway, as pharmacological inhibition of AKT could also resensitize cells to death from TKIs. These findings indicate a novel pathway of TKI resistance regulated by EVI1 proteins and provide a promising means for overcoming resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia and other hematological malignancies displaying EVI1 overexpression.

De Weer A, Van der Meulen J, Rondou P, et al.
EVI1-mediated down regulation of MIR449A is essential for the survival of EVI1 positive leukaemic cells.
Br J Haematol. 2011; 154(3):337-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements involving the MECOM (MDS1 and EVI1 complex) locus are recurrent genetic events in myeloid leukaemia and are associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we assessed the role of MECOM locus protein EVI1 in the transcriptional regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the leukaemic phenotype. For this, we profiled expression of 366 miRNAs in 38 MECOM-rearranged patient samples, normal bone marrow controls and MECOM (EVI1) knock down/re-expression models. Cross-comparison of these miRNA expression profiling data showed that MECOM rearranged leukaemias are characterized by down regulation of MIR449A. Reconstitution of MIR449A expression in MECOM-rearranged cell line models induced apoptosis resulting in a strong decrease in cell viability. These effects might be mediated in part by MIR449A regulation of NOTCH1 and BCL2, which are shown here to be bona fide MIR449A targets. Finally, we confirmed that MIR449A repression is mediated through direct promoter occupation of the EVI1 transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, this study reveals MIR449A as a crucial direct target of the MECOM locus protein EVI1 involved in the pathogenesis of MECOM-rearranged leukaemias and unravels NOTCH1 and BCL2 as important novel targets of MIR449A. This EVI1-MIR449A-NOTCH1/BCL2 regulatory axis might open new possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies in this poor prognostic leukaemia subgroup.

Koos B, Bender S, Witt H, et al.
The transcription factor evi-1 is overexpressed, promotes proliferation, and is prognostically unfavorable in infratentorial ependymomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(11):3631-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ependymomas are glial tumors of presumably radial glial origin that share morphologic similarities with ependymal cells. The molecular genetics of ependymomas of supratentorial, infratentorial, and spinal location is heterogeneous. We aimed at identifying pathways operative in the development of infratentorial ependymomas.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To do so, gene expression profiles of tumor cells laser microdissected from infratentorial ependymomas (n = 15) were compared with that of nonneoplastic ependymal cells laser microdissected from autopsy tissue (n = 7).
RESULTS: Among 31 genes significantly overexpressed (>5-fold) in ependymomas, transcription factor EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site 1) showed the highest overexpression (35-fold). Evi-1 protein expression could be confirmed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 26 of 28 infratentorial ependymomas but only in 7 of 47 nonependymal glial tumors (P < 0.001). Furthermore, MDS1/EVI1 fusion transcripts were detectable in 17 of 28 infratentorial ependymomas and significantly correlated with MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase) promoter hypermethylation (P < 0.05). In primary infratentorial ependymoma cells, transfection with EVI1-specific siRNAs resulted in significant growth inhibition [48 hours: 87% ± 2% and 74% ± 10% as compared with control (mean ± SD; P < 0.001)]. The prognostic role of EVI1 could further be validated in an independent cohort of 39 infratentorial and 26 supratentorial ependymomas on the basis of mRNA expression profiling. Although in supratentorial ependymomas EVI1 expression status had no prognostic impact, in infratentorial ependymomas, high EVI1 expression was associated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, the transcription factor Evi-1 is overexpressed in infratentorial ependymomas, promotes proliferation of ependymal tumor cells, and is prognostically unfavorable.

Su E, Han X, Jiang G
The transforming growth factor beta 1/SMAD signaling pathway involved in human chronic myeloid leukemia.
Tumori. 2010 Sep-Oct; 96(5):659-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is the prototypic member of a large family of structurally related pleiotropic-secreted cytokines. The TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway usually participates in a wide range of cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Upon binding on TGF-beta1, the dimerized TGF-beta type II receptors recruit and phosphorylate the TGF-beta type I receptors, which phosphorylate the receptor-regulated SMAD (SMAD2 and SMAD3) presented by the SMAD anchor for receptor activation. The phosphorylated receptor-regulated SMAD form heterologous complexes with the common-mediator SMAD (SMAD4) and subsequently translocate into the nucleus, where they interact with other transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes. This multi-functional signaling pathway modulated by various elements with complex mechanisms at different levels is also inevitably involved in cancer. We herein present data on the role of the TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway in human chronic myeloid leukemia and explain the potent biological effects of TGF-beta1 on leukemia cells. The paper is based on a review of articles selected from Cancerline and Medline data bases. The constitutively active tyrosine kinase produced by the specific Bcr-Abl fusion gene on the Philadelphia chromosome can enhance the resistance of malignant cells to TGF-beta1-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis, which contributes to enhancement of proteasomal degradation of p27. However, overexpression of the EVI1 gene, which is also caused by Bcr-Abl, can recruit the C-terminal binding protein and histone deacetylase to prevent the MH2 domain on SMAD3. The later is essential for transcription activation on target genes and leads to blockage of the TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway. Some studies have indicated that certain therapeutic agents applied in clinical treatment can inhibit proliferation and promote differentiation of leukemia cells by way of modulation of the TGF-beta1/SMAD signal pathway. For example, arsenic trioxide can promote specific degradation of the AML1/MDS1/EVI1 oncoprotein and inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cells. However, specific histone deacetylase inhibitors can interrupt the effect of histone deacetylase to alleviate EVI1-mediated suppression of TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor in the target therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia can effectively inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl and induce suppression on the TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway. The TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway plays an important role in chronic myeloid leukemia cells and leads the leukemia cells to growth inhibition, differentiation and apoptosis. The positive influence of the TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia is fairly significant, and its potential effects in clinical treatment will bring about definite benefits. Since it is a complex signaling pathway widely involved in many aspects of cellular activities, further study and comprehensive analysis of the TGF-beta1/SMAD signaling pathway are imperative and will have a guiding significance in research and clinical applications. It is an exciting area for future research.

Lugthart S, Gröschel S, Beverloo HB, et al.
Clinical, molecular, and prognostic significance of WHO type inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and various other 3q abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia.
J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28(24):3890-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) [inv(3)/t(3;3)] is recognized as a distinctive entity in the WHO classification. Risk assignment and clinical and genetic characterization of AML with chromosome 3q abnormalities other than inv(3)/t(3;3) remain largely unresolved.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cytogenetics, molecular genetics, therapy response, and outcome analysis were performed in 6,515 newly diagnosed adult AML patients. Patients were treated on Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group/Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (HOVON/SAKK; n = 3,501) and German-Austrian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Study Group (AMLSG; n = 3,014) protocols. EVI1 and MDS1/EVI1 expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: 3q abnormalities were detected in 4.4% of AML patients (288 of 6,515). Four distinct groups were defined: A: inv(3)/t(3;3), 32%; B: balanced t(3q26), 18%; C: balanced t(3q21), 7%; and D: other 3q abnormalities, 43%. Monosomy 7 was the most common additional aberration in groups (A), 66%; (B), 31%; and (D), 37%. N-RAS mutations and dissociate EVI1 versus MDS1/EVI1 overexpression were associated with inv(3)/t(3;3). Patients with inv(3)/t(3;3) and balanced t(3q21) at diagnosis presented with higher WBC and platelet counts. In multivariable analysis, only inv(3)/t(3;3), but not t(3q26) and t(3q21), predicted reduced relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.99; P < .001) and overall survival (HR, 1.4; P = .006). This adverse prognostic impact of inv(3)/t(3;3) was enhanced by additional monosomy 7. Group D 3q aberrant AML also had a poor outcome related to the coexistence of complex and/or monosomal karyotypes and cryptic inv(3)/t(3;3).
CONCLUSION: Various categories of 3q abnormalities in AML can be distinguished according to their clinical, hematologic, and genetic features. AML with inv(3)/t(3;3) represents a distinctive subgroup with unfavorable prognosis.

Mitsuhashi J, Hosoyama H, Tsukahara S, et al.
In vivo expansion of MDR1-transduced cells accompanied by a post-transplantation chemotherapy regimen with mitomycin C and methotrexate.
J Gene Med. 2010; 12(7):596-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recurrent breast cancer patient received high-dose chemotherapy, a transplant of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)-transduced cells and four different protocols of post-transplantation chemotherapy. We report the analysis of MDR1-transduced cells in this patient.
METHODS: MDR1 transgene levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patient were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Retroviral integration sites of the MDR1-transduced cells were identified by linear amplification-mediated (LAM)-PCR.
RESULTS: Twelve days after transplantation, approximately 1% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were MDR1 transgene-positive. The transgene levels decreased quickly, and were at low levels until day 504. A remarkable increase in MDR1 transgene-positive cells was observed on day 532, during combination chemotherapy with mitomycin C and methotrexate. Using LAM-PCR, 31 MDR1-transduced clones were identified, and eight of these were long-life clones that survived for more than 500 days. Among the 31 clones, ten had a retroviral integration site near genes listed in the Retroviral Tagged Cancer Gene (RTCG) Database. Two long-life clones, N-30 and N-31, had retroviral integration sites within the MDS1-EVI1 locus. Another two long-life clones had integration sites close to PRDM16 or CUEDC1.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MDR1-transduced cells were enriched in vivo by an MDR1 substrate, mitomycin C. The possible activation of EVI1 or other RTCGs by retroviral insertion may have affected the survival and persistence of a proportion of the transduced cells.

Bei JX, Li Y, Jia WH, et al.
A genome-wide association study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma identifies three new susceptibility loci.
Nat Genet. 2010; 42(7):599-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify genetic susceptibility loci for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a genome-wide association study was performed using 464,328 autosomal SNPs in 1,583 NPC affected individuals (cases) and 1,894 controls of southern Chinese descent. The top 49 SNPs from the genome-wide association study were genotyped in 3,507 cases and 3,063 controls of southern Chinese descent from Guangdong and Guangxi. The seven supportive SNPs were further confirmed by transmission disequilibrium test analysis in 279 trios from Guangdong. We identified three new susceptibility loci, TNFRSF19 on 13q12 (rs9510787, Pcombined=1.53x10(-9), odds ratio (OR)=1.20), MDS1-EVI1 on 3q26 (rs6774494, Pcombined=1.34x10(-8), OR=0.84) and the CDKN2A-CDKN2B gene cluster on 9p21 (rs1412829, Pcombined=4.84x10(-7), OR=0.78). Furthermore, we confirmed the role of HLA by revealing independent associations at rs2860580 (Pcombined=4.88x10(-67), OR=0.58), rs2894207 (Pcombined=3.42x10(-33), OR=0.61) and rs28421666 (Pcombined=2.49x10(-18), OR=0.67). Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of NPC by highlighting the involvement of pathways related to TNFRSF19 and MDS1-EVI1 in addition to HLA molecules.

Jazaeri AA, Ferriss JS, Bryant JL, et al.
Evaluation of EVI1 and EVI1s (Delta324) as potential therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2010; 118(2):189-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) at 3q26 gives rise to several alternatively spliced transcripts implicated in leukemic oncogenesis. Overexpression of EVI1 in ovarian cancer has led to a proposed oncogenic role. Our objective was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EVI1 and EVI1s (also known as Delta324) in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Expression of EVI1 mRNA and protein isoforms was evaluated in ovarian cancers, normal ovaries, benign ovarian neoplasms, and fallopian tube fimbria. Effects of EVI1 isoform overexpression and knockdown on proliferation, cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and double stranded DNA breaks were investigated.
RESULTS: EVI1 and EVI1s mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in ovarian cancers and benign gynecologic tissues examined, with highest expression of both isoforms noted in the cancer samples. The EVI1s to total EVI1 mRNA ratio was uniform among the examined tissues. In contrast, EVI1 protein isoform levels were undetectable in normal ovarian tissues, and highest in serous ovarian cancers. EVI1 protein expression patterns were similar between serous ovarian cancer samples, fallopian tube fimbria, and benign neoplasms. Expression of EVI1 or EVI1s did not increase proliferation in EVI1-null OVCAR8 cells. Total and isoform selective knockdown of EVI1 isoforms in EVI1 expressing ovarian cancer cells had no effect on proliferation, cisplatin-induced apoptosis, or gamma-H2AX levels in ovarian cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data do not support a role for EVI1 or EVI1s in ovarian cancer cell proliferation or response to DNA damage. Further research is required before EVI1 can be considered an oncogene or a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.

Osterberg L, Levan K, Partheen K, et al.
Potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in stage III ovarian serous carcinomas.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Establishing predictive markers of chemoresponse would help to individualize therapy and improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. Chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer has been studied thoroughly and several non-overlapping single genes, gene profiles and copy number alterations have been suggested as potential markers. The objective of this study was to explore genetic alterations behind chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer with the ultimate aim to find potential predictive markers.
METHODS: To create the best opportunities for identifying genetic alterations of importance for resistance, we selected a homogenous tumor material concerning histology, stage and chemotherapy. Using high-resolution whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we analyzed the tumor genomes of 40 fresh-frozen stage III ovarian serous carcinomas, all uniformly treated with combination therapy paclitaxel/carboplatin. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences. Subsequently, we examined four genes in the significant regions (EVI1, MDS1, SH3GL2, SH3KBP1) plus the ABCB1 gene with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to evaluate the impact of DNA alterations on the transcriptional level.
RESULTS: We identified gain in 3q26.2, and losses in 6q11.2-12, 9p22.3, 9p22.2-22.1, 9p22.1-21.3, Xp22.2-22.12, Xp22.11-11.3, and Xp11.23-11.1 to be significantly associated with chemotherapy resistance. In the gene expression analysis, EVI1 expression differed between samples with gain versus without gain, exhibiting higher expression in the gain group.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we detected specific genetic alterations associated with resistance, of which some might be potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in advanced ovarian serous carcinomas. Thus, further studies are required to validate these findings in an independent ovarian tumor series.

Kang JU, Koo SH, Kwon KC, et al.
Identification of novel candidate target genes, including EPHB3, MASP1 and SST at 3q26.2-q29 in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The underlying genetic alterations for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) carcinogenesis are largely unknown.
METHODS: High-resolution array- CGH was performed to identify the differences in the patterns of genomic imbalances between SCC and AC of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
RESULTS: On a genome-wide profile, SCCs showed higher frequency of gains than ACs (p = 0.067). More specifically, statistically significant differences were observed across the histologic subtypes for gains at 2q14.2, 3q26.2-q29, 12p13.2-p13.33, and 19p13.3, as well as losses at 3p26.2-p26.3, 16p13.11, and 17p11.2 in SCC, and gains at 7q22.1 and losses at 15q22.2-q25.2 occurred in AC (P < 0.05). The most striking difference between SCC and AC was gains at the 3q26.2-q29, occurring in 86% (19/22) of SCCs, but in only 21% (3/14) of ACs. Many significant genes at the 3q26.2-q29 regions previously linked to a specific histology, such as EVI1,MDS1, PIK3CA and TP73L, were observed in SCC (P < 0.05). In addition, we identified the following possible target genes (> 30% of patients) at 3q26.2-q29: LOC389174 (3q26.2),KCNMB3 (3q26.32),EPHB3 (3q27.1), MASP1 and SST (3q27.3), LPP and FGF12 (3q28), and OPA1,KIAA022,LOC220729, LOC440996,LOC440997, and LOC440998 (3q29), all of which were significantly targeted in SCC (P < 0.05). Among these same genes, high-level amplifications were detected for the gene, EPHB3, at 3q27.1, and MASP1 and SST, at 3q27.3 (18, 18, and 14%, respectively). Quantitative real time PCR demonstrated array CGH detected potential candidate genes that were over expressed in SCCs.
CONCLUSION: Using whole-genome array CGH, we have successfully identified significant differences and unique information of chromosomal signatures prevalent between the SCC and AC subtypes of NSCLC. The newly identified candidate target genes may prove to be highly attractive candidate molecular markers for the classification of NSCLC histologic subtypes, and could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of the squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

Konrad TA, Karger A, Hackl H, et al.
Inducible expression of EVI1 in human myeloid cells causes phenotypes consistent with its role in myelodysplastic syndromes.
J Leukoc Biol. 2009; 86(4):813-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncogene EVI1 has been implicated in the etiology of AML and MDS. Although AML cells are characterized by accelerated proliferation and differentiation arrest, MDS cells hyperproliferate when immature but fail to differentiate later and die instead. In agreement with its roles in AML and in immature MDS cells, EVI1 was found to stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation in several experimental systems. In contrast, the variant protein MDS1/EVI1 caused the opposite effect in some of these assays. In the present study, we expressed EVI1 and MDS1/EVI1 in a tetracycline-regulable manner in the human myeloid cell line U937. Induction of either of these proteins caused cells to accumulate in the G(0)/G(1)-phase of the cell cycle and moderately increased the rate of spontaneous apoptosis. However, when EVI1- or MDS1/EVI1-expressing cells were induced to differentiate, they massively succumbed to apoptosis, as reflected by the accumulation of phosphatidylserine in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and increased rates of DNA fragmentation. In summary, these data show that inducible expression of EVI1 in U937 cells causes phenotypes that may be relevant for its role in MDS and provides a basis for further investigation of its contribution to this fatal disease.

Takahata M, Inoue Y, Tsuda H, et al.
SKI and MEL1 cooperate to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta signal in gastric cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(5):3334-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal amplification occurs frequently in solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Several reports demonstrated the cooperative effects of oncogenic factors in the same amplicon during cancer development. However, the functional correlation between the factors remains unclear. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling plays important roles in cytostasis and normal epithelium differentiation, and alterations in TGF-beta signaling have been identified in many malignancies. Here, we demonstrated that transcriptional co-repressors of TGF-beta signaling, SKI and MDS1/EVI1-like gene 1 (MEL1), were aberrantly expressed in MKN28 gastric cancer cells by chromosomal co-amplification of 1p36.32. SKI and MEL1 knockdown synergistically restored TGF-beta responsiveness in MKN28 cells and reduced tumor growth in vivo. MEL1 interacted with SKI and inhibited TGF-beta signaling by stabilizing the inactive Smad3-SKI complex on the promoter of TGF-beta target genes. These findings reveal a novel mechanism where distinct transcriptional co-repressors are co-amplified and functionally interact, and provide molecular targets for gastric cancer treatment.

Park TS, Choi JR, Yoon SH, et al.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia relapsing as secondary acute myelogenous leukemia with translocation t(3;21)(q26;q22) and RUNX1-MDS1-EVI1 fusion transcript.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2008; 187(2):61-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) that is characterized by peculiar clinical and biologic features, including severe hemorrhagic diathesis, specific recurrent chromosomal aberration, and distinct morphologic features with predominant pathologic promyelocytes. A reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 15 and 17, t(15;17)(q22;q21), is a characteristic feature of APL that represents approximately 5-8% of AML. The rearranged gene created by this translocation encodes a chimeric protein PML-RARA that is a transcriptional repressor. In contrast to other AML subtypes, APL is particularly sensitive to treatment with all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with chemotherapy, converting this once fatal leukemia to a highly curable disease. Nonetheless, therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome-acute myelogenous leukemia (t-MDS/AML) has been reported as a rare complication of chemotherapy in APL. Of 30 APL cases described as t-MDS/AML in the literature, only 1 case relapsed as acute leukemia with t(3;21)(q26;q22). Here we describe a rare case of APL relapsing as secondary AML with t(3;21)(q26;q22) and clinically characterize this patient using the RUNX1 (previously AML1)-MDS1-EVI1 fusion transcript (with follow-up for 55 months), and review the relevant literature.

Lugthart S, van Drunen E, van Norden Y, et al.
High EVI1 levels predict adverse outcome in acute myeloid leukemia: prevalence of EVI1 overexpression and chromosome 3q26 abnormalities underestimated.
Blood. 2008; 111(8):4329-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inappropriate expression of EVI1 (ecotropic virus integration-1), in particular splice form EVI1-1D, through chromosome 3q26 lesions or other mechanisms has been implicated in the development of high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To validate the clinical relevance of EVI1-1D, as well as of the other EVI1 splice forms and the related MDS1/EVI1 (ME) gene, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in 534 untreated adults with de novo AML. EVI1-1D was highly expressed in 6% of cases (n = 32), whereas 7.8% were EVI1(+) (n = 41) when all splice variants were taken into account. High EVI1 predicted a distinctly worse event-free survival (HR = 1.9; P = .002) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.1, P = .006) following multivariate analysis. Importantly, we distinguished a subset of EVI1(+) cases that lacked expression of ME (EVI1(+)ME(-); n = 17) from cases that were ME(+) (EVI1(+)ME(+); n = 24). The atypical EVI1(+)ME(-) expression pattern exhibited cytogenetically detectable chromosomal 3q26 breakpoints in 8 cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed 7 more EVI1(+)ME(-) cases that carried cryptic 3q26 breakpoints, which were not found in the EVI1(+)ME(+) group. EVI1(+)ME(-) expression predicts an extremely poor prognosis distinguishable from the general EVI1(+) AML patients (overall survival [OS]: P < .001 and event-free survival [EFS]: P = .002). We argue that EVI1/ME quantitative expression analysis should be implemented in the molecular diagnostic procedures of AML.

Haas K, Kundi M, Sperr WR, et al.
Expression and prognostic significance of different mRNA 5'-end variants of the oncogene EVI1 in 266 patients with de novo AML: EVI1 and MDS1/EVI1 overexpression both predict short remission duration.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008; 47(4):288-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rearrangements of chromosome band 3q26.2 lead to overexpression of the EVI1 gene and are associated with a poor prognosis in myeloid malignancies. EVI1 is also overexpressed in some cases without 3q26 rearrangements. To uncover its prognostic significance in this patient group, however, it may be necessary to distinguish among several known 5'-end variants of its mRNA. According to a recent report, overexpression of the transcript variant EVI1_1d was associated with shortened survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but overexpression of MDS1/EVI1, whose protein product differs structurally and functionally from that of all other known EVI1 5'-end variants, was not. The aim of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the expression and prognostic significance of all known EVI1 5'-end variants in AML. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of EVI1_1a, EVI1_1b, EVI1_1d, EVI1_3L, and MDS1/EVI1 in 266 samples from patients with de novo AML. To correlate expression of the EVI1 5'-end variants with survival parameters, regression analyses were performed. 41/266 patients (15.4%) overexpressed at least one, but more often several or all, EVI1 transcript type(s). High expression of each of the EVI1 mRNA variants, including MDS1/EVI1, was significantly associated with shortened continuous complete remission in the total patient population as well as in the subgroups of patients with intermediate risk or normal cytogenetics. The present study therefore shows that high levels of each of the known EVI1 mRNA 5'-end variants represents an adverse prognostic factor in de novo AML without 3q26 rearrangements. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.

Yang YL, Chu JY, Luo ML, et al.
Amplification of PRKCI, located in 3q26, is associated with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008; 47(2):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA amplification is one of the mechanisms to activate genes that are implicated in neoplastic transformation and gain of chromosome band 3q26 is a common event in squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of the present work was to identify the specific target gene from four candidates (MDS1, PRKCI, ECT2, and PIK3CA) located on 3q26 amplification in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). To assess the prevalence of copy number gains of putative genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on 108 ESCCs and 9 ESCC cell lines. Our data showed that MDS1 and PRKCI were more frequently gained. Positive correlation was found only for PRKCI between amplification and tumor size (P = 0.043), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.015) and clinical stage (P = 0.002). PRKCI gene amplification was highly correlated with protein overexpression (P = 0.009), suggesting that gene amplification is one important mechanism involved in PRKCI overexpression. To investigate further the role of PRKCI alteration in esophageal tumors, a tissue microarray containing samples from 180 ESCCs was used for immunohistochemistry analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that PRKCI overexpression was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and higher stage (P = 0.004). Performing multivariate logistic regression analysis, a significant association between PRKCI overexpression and presence of lymph node metastasis was found, which was independent of T-stage of the primary tumors (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that PRKCI is an attractive target in the 3q26 amplicon and that it may serve as a molecular marker for metastasis and occult advanced tumor stages in ESCC.

Weisser M, Haferlach C, Haferlach T, Schnittger S
Feasibility of using the combined MDS-EVI1/EVI1 gene expression as an alternative molecular marker in acute myeloid leukemia: a report of four cases.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 177(1):64-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
To establish an additional marker for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the expression level of the combined MDS1-EVI1 and EVI1 gene was quantified by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in four AML cases at initial presentation and as a follow-up marker during anti-leukemic therapy. Quantification of the MDS1-EVI1/EVI1 gene expression correlated closely to the clinical course of the disease in all four cases. A hematologic complete remission was accompanied by a reduction of MDS1-EVI1/ EVI1 expression levels of at least 2 log while persistent leukemia was reflected by an MDS1-EVI1/ EVI1 expression in the range of the primary diagnostic sample. After achieving a complete cytomorphologic remission, three patients relapsed after 154, 210, and 280 days, respectively. Molecular relapse was detected on the basis of increasing expression levels of MDS1-EVI/EVI 29, 36, and 93 days before hematologic manifestation. In conclusion, the combined MDS-EVI1/EVI1 gene may serve as an alternative MRD marker in AML, especially in samples where other specific markers are lacking.

Lennon PA, Abruzzo LV, Medeiros LJ, et al.
Aberrant EVI1 expression in acute myeloid leukemias associated with the t(3;8)(q26;q24).
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 177(1):37-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
EVI is a proto-oncogene that is activated in acute myeloid leukemia with chromosomal rearrangements that map to chromosome 3q26. We previously reported the clinicopathologic features of five cases of acute myeloid leukemia carrying t(3;8)(q26;q24). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we demonstrate in the current study that the breakpoint on chromosome 3 is at EVI1/MDS1, and the breakpoint on chromosome 8 is just distal to the PVT1 oncogene homolog, a C-MYC activator in mice. The breakpoint on chromosome 8 was detected between the components of the LSI MYC dual-color break-apart rearrangement probe. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay showed expression of EVI1 in all four cases analyzed, and DNA sequence analysis confirmed the findings. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay also demonstrated the expression of PVT1 and C-MYC in all four cases assessed. Western blot analysis detected EVI1 in one case analyzed. We conclude that the t(3;8)(q26;q24) results in deregulated EVI1 expression, similar to other balanced or unbalanced chromosomal translocations involving chromosome 3q26.

Senyuk V, Sinha KK, Li D, et al.
Repression of RUNX1 activity by EVI1: a new role of EVI1 in leukemogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(12):5658-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurring chromosomal translocations observed in human leukemia often result in the expression of fusion proteins that are DNA-binding transcription factors. These altered proteins acquire new dimerization properties that result in the assembly of inappropriate multimeric transcription complexes that deregulate hematopoietic programs and induce leukemogenesis. Recently, we reported that the fusion protein AML1/MDS1/EVI1 (AME), a product of a t(3;21)(q26;q22) associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia, displays a complex pattern of self-interaction. Here, we show that the 8th zinc finger motif of MDS1/EVI1 is an oligomerization domain involved not only in interaction of AME with itself but also in interactions with the parental proteins, RUNX1 and MDS1/EVI1, from which AME is generated. Because the 8th zinc finger motif is also present in the oncoprotein EVI1, we have evaluated the effects of the interaction between RUNX1 and EVI1 in vitro and in vivo. We found that in vitro, this interaction alters the ability of RUNX1 to bind to DNA and to regulate a reporter gene, whereas in vivo, the expression of the isolated 8th zinc finger motif of EVI1 is sufficient to block the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells, leading to cell death. As EVI1 is not detected in normal bone marrow cells, these data suggest that its inappropriate expression could contribute to hematopoietic transformation in part by a new mechanism that involves EVI1 association with key hematopoietic regulators, leading to their functional impairment.

Nanjundan M, Nakayama Y, Cheng KW, et al.
Amplification of MDS1/EVI1 and EVI1, located in the 3q26.2 amplicon, is associated with favorable patient prognosis in ovarian cancer.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(7):3074-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased copy number involving chromosome 3q26 is a frequent and early event in cancers of the ovary, lung, head and neck, cervix, and BRCA1 positive and basal breast cancers. The p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3KCA) and protein kinase Ciota (PKCiota) have previously been shown as functionally deregulated by 3q copy number increase. High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization of 235 high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancers using contiguous bacterial artificial chromosomes across 3q26 delineated an approximately 2 Mb-wide region at 3q26.2 encompassing PDCD10 to MYNN (chr3:168722613-170908630). Ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI1) and myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS1) are located at the center of this region, and their DNA copy number increases are associated with at least 5-fold increased RNA transcript levels in 83% and 98% of advanced ovarian cancers, respectively. Moreover, MDS1/EVI1 and EVI1 protein levels are increased in ovarian cancers and cancer cell lines. EVI1 and MDS1/EVI1 gene products increased cell proliferation, migration, and decreased transforming growth factor-beta-mediated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter activity in ovarian epithelial cells. Intriguingly, the increases in EVI1 DNA copy number and MDS1/EVI1 transcripts are associated with improved patient outcomes, whereas EVI1 transcript levels are associated with a poor patient survival. Thus, the favorable patient prognosis associated with increased DNA copy number seems to be as a result of high-level expression of the fusion transcript MDS1/EVI1. Collectively, these studies suggest that MDS1/EVI1 and EVI1, previously implicated in acute myelogenous leukemia, contribute to the pathophysiology of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Epling-Burnette PK, Bai F, Painter JS, et al.
Reduced natural killer (NK) function associated with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and reduced expression of activating NK receptors.
Blood. 2007; 109(11):4816-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with potential for progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We compared natural killer (NK) cytolytic function in 48 MDS patients with 37 healthy donors and found reduced activity in the patient population (K562 cytolysis, 19% +/- 21% SD versus 40% +/- 17%) (P < .001). NK cytotoxicity in MDS patients was reduced against 3 disparate tumor targets with differential activating receptor requirement, suggesting global defects in NK function. Reduced NK function in MDS was significantly associated with higher International Prognostic Score (P = .01), abnormal karyotype (P = .05), the presence of excess blasts (P = .01), and age-adjusted bone marrow hypercellularity (P = .04). MDS patients had a display of the activating receptor NKp30, and NKG2D down-regulation closely correlated with impaired NK function (P = .001). NKG2D ligands (MICA and MICB) were expressed on CD34(+) cells from bone marrow of 30% of MDS patients and a leukemic cell line derived from an MDS patient (MDS1). Collectively, these findings suggest that impairment of NK cytolytic function derives in part from reduced activating NK receptors such as NKG2D in association with disease progression. Evasion of NK immunosurveillance may have importance for MDS disease progression.

Shackelford D, Kenific C, Blusztajn A, et al.
Targeted degradation of the AML1/MDS1/EVI1 oncoprotein by arsenic trioxide.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(23):11360-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been found to be an effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia patients and is being tested for treating other hematologic malignancies. We have previously shown that AML1/MDS1/EVI1 (AME), a fusion gene generated by a t(3;21)(q26;q22) translocation found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia during blast phase, myelodysplastic syndrome, or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), impairs hematopoiesis and eventually induces an AML in mice. Both fusion partners of AME, AML1 and MDS1/EVI1, encode transcription factors and are also targets of a variety of genetic abnormalities in human hematologic malignancies. In addition, aberrant expression of ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) has also been found in solid tumors, such as ovarian and colon cancers. In this study, we examined whether ATO could target AME and related oncoproteins. We found that ATO used at therapeutic levels degrades AME. The ATO treatment induces differentiation and apoptosis in AME leukemic cells in vitro as well as reduces tumor load and increases the survival of mice transplanted with these cells. We further found that ATO targets AME via both myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS1) and EVI1 moieties and degrades EVI1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and MDS1 in a proteasome-independent manner. Our results suggest that ATO could be used as a part of targeted therapy for AME-, AML1/MDS1-, MDS1/EVI1-, and EVI1-positive human cancers.

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