Gene Summary

Gene:MDS1; myelodysplasia syndrome 1
Aliases: PRDM3, MDS1-EVI1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:myelodysplasia syndrome 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 3
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Apoptosis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Gene Expression
  • Karyotyping
  • MDS1 and EVI1 Complex Locus Protein
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Blast Crisis
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  • Base Sequence
  • Adolescents
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Repressor Proteins
  • FISH
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Messenger RNA
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit
  • Chromosome 21
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Leukaemia
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MDS1 (cancer-related)

Mittal N, Li L, Sheng Y, et al.
A critical role of epigenetic inactivation of miR-9 in EVI1
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ectopic Viral Integration site 1 (EVI1) upregulation is implicated in 10-25% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has an inferior outcome with current chemotherapy regimens. Here we report that EVI1 upregulation is associated with methylation of the miR-9 promoter and correlated with downregulation of miR-9 in human AML cell lines and bone marrow (BM) cells from pediatric patients. Reactivation of miR-9 by hypomethylating agents and forced expression of miR-9 in EVI1

Lu Y, Liang Y, Zheng X, et al.
EVI1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell features and chemo-/radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant EVI1 expression is frequently reported in cancer studies; however, its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been examined in detail. The aim of the present study is to investigate the involvement of EVI1 in progression and prognosis of NPC.
METHODS: RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were used to examine the expression of EVI1 in NPC tissues and cell lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was used to examine the amplification of EVI1 in NPC tissues. The biological effect of EVI1 was determined by both in vitro and in vivo studies. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm that EVI1 bind at E-cadherin andβ-catenin promoters. The ChIP, EMSA, and coimmunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry assays were used to analyze the EVI1 regulated proteins.
RESULTS: EVI1 expression level was up-regulated in NPC tissues and cell lines. EVI1 was amplificated in NPC tissues. We observed that EVI1 down-regulation decreased the cell proliferation and invasive capacity of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. EVI1, snail, and HDAC1 formed a co-repressor complex to repress E-cadherin expression and ultimately contributed to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in NPC cells. In another way, EVI1 directly bound at β-catenin promoter and activated its expression. β-catenin mediated EVI1's function on cancer stem cells (CSCs) properties. EVI1 up-regulation predicted unfavorable prognosis and contributed to chemo/radio-resistance in NPC cells. Finally, we constructed arsenic trioxide-loaded nanoparticles (ALNPs) and revealed that ALNPs exerted anti-tumor effect in NPC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that EVI1 played an oncogenic role in NPC growth and metastasis and that EVI1 might serve as a novel molecular target for the treatment of NPC.

Wu L, Wang T, He D, et al.
EVI‑1 acts as an oncogene and positively regulates calreticulin in breast cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):1645-1653 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ecotropic viral integration site‑1 (EVI‑1) is an important transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. Aberrant EVI‑1 expression has been reported to be a characteristic of multiple types of malignancies; however, very little is known about how EVI‑1 regulates breast cancer. Current knowledge of how target genes mediate the biological function of EVI‑1 remains limited. In the present study, overexpression of EVI‑1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and inhibited apoptosis in breast cancer. By contrast, silencing of EVI‑1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and enhanced apoptosis in breast cancer. In addition, the results also revealed that the aberrant expression of EVI‑1 regulates genes associated with the apoptotic pathway in breast cancer. Furthermore, EVI‑1 was also likely to target the promoter region of calreticulin (CRT) in vitro. It was concluded that EVI‑1 can affect epithelial mesenchymal transition‑associated genes by regulating the expression of CRT in breast cancer. The results revealed that EVI‑1 may be a potential effective therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Sorrentino A, Federico A, Rienzo M, et al.
PR/SET Domain Family and Cancer: Novel Insights from the Cancer Genome Atlas.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PR/SET domain gene family (PRDM) encodes 19 different transcription factors that share a subtype of the SET domain [Su(var)3-9, enhancer-of-zeste and trithorax] known as the PRDF1-RIZ (PR) homology domain. This domain, with its potential methyltransferase activity, is followed by a variable number of zinc-finger motifs, which likely mediate protein⁻protein, protein⁻RNA, or protein⁻DNA interactions. Intriguingly, almost all PRDM family members express different isoforms, which likely play opposite roles in oncogenesis. Remarkably, several studies have described alterations in most of the family members in malignancies. Here, to obtain a pan-cancer overview of the genomic and transcriptomic alterations of

Paredes R, Schneider M, Stevens A, et al.
EVI1 carboxy-terminal phosphorylation is ATM-mediated and sustains transcriptional modulation and self-renewal via enhanced CtBP1 association.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(15):7662-7674 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcriptional regulator EVI1 has an essential role in early hematopoiesis and development. However, aberrantly high expression of EVI1 has potent oncogenic properties and confers poor prognosis and chemo-resistance in leukemia and solid tumors. To investigate to what extent EVI1 function might be regulated by post-translational modifications we carried out mass spectrometry- and antibody-based analyses and uncovered an ATM-mediated double phosphorylation of EVI1 at the carboxy-terminal S858/S860 SQS motif. In the presence of genotoxic stress EVI1-WT (SQS), but not site mutated EVI1-AQA was able to maintain transcriptional patterns and transformation potency, while under standard conditions carboxy-terminal mutation had no effect. Maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cell clonogenic potential was profoundly impaired with EVI1-AQA compared with EVI1-WT, in particular in the presence of genotoxic stress. Exploring mechanistic events underlying these observations, we showed that after genotoxic stress EVI1-WT, but not EVI1-AQA increased its level of association with its functionally essential interaction partner CtBP1, implying a role for ATM in regulating EVI1 protein interactions via phosphorylation. This aspect of EVI1 regulation is therapeutically relevant, as chemotherapy-induced genotoxicity might detrimentally sustain EVI1 function via stress response mediated phosphorylation, and ATM-inhibition might be of specific targeted benefit in EVI1-overexpressing malignancies.

Lang WJ, Chen FY
The reciprocal link between EVI1 and miRNAs in human malignancies.
Gene. 2018; 672:56-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ecotropic virus integration site-1 (EVI1) is an oncogenic transcription factor which locus on chromosome 3(3q26.2). Alterations in EVI1 functions correspond with poor prognosis in different cancers, underscoring their status for the clinical cancer phenotype. MicroRNAs(MiR)are a class of small non-coding RNA sequences. They post-transcriptionally influence mRNA sequence through imperfect pairing with the 3'-UTR. Moreover, a growing body of studies showed that miRNAs could regulate initiation and progression of human malignancies. Current studies have been described that identifies numerous microRNAs that can be modulated by EVI1. Interestingly, the expression level of EVI1 can also be regulated by microRNAs, thus forming a reciprocal link. Recent understanding of the functional roles of EVI1, microRNAs, and their interactions in human cancers are summarized. This review will help to define a relationship between EVI1 and microRNAs in human malignancies and develop novel therapeutic strategies.

Han Q, Lu J, Wang J, et al.
H2AFY is a novel fusion partner of MECOM in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 222-223:9-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MECOM gene encoding a zinc finger protein that functions as a transcription factor, was located on chromosome 3q26, and rearrangements of MECOM often cause its overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We identified H2AFY as a novel fusion gene partner of MECOM in an elderly male AML patient with cryptic 3q26 rearrangement using the whole transcriptome sequencing, who carried out abnormal karyotype of 46,XY,t(3;5)(q27;q31),add(14)(p11). We validated the existence of the unreported H2AFY-MECOM fusion gene by RT-PCR and Sanger DNA sequencing, and detected mutations of NRAS and BCOR in this patient. In addition, we found abnormally elevated expression of MECOM in this patient by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). Further research is needed to investigate functional characterizations of this novel fusion in the development of AML.

Adams T, Fuchs D, Shadoan PK, et al.
Unexpected favorable outcome in a patient with high grade B-cell lymphoma with abnormalities of MYC, BCL6 and BCL2 loci.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 222-223:25-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
High grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBCL) by WHO 2016 classification requires rearrangements of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6, practically covering the so called "double-hit" or "triple hit" lymphomas. We report a case of HGBCL "triple-hit" lymphoma in a 64-year old female. Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies revealed complex karyotype including rearrangement of MYC to a novel, non-IG partner on chromosome 18, and rearrangement of BCL2, BCL6 and IGH as well as ins(3)(q21q27.3q25.1) among other abnormalities. FISH studies showed five copies of MYC and 3-8 copies of BCL2. Gene expression analysis by RNA sequencing showed that MYC, BCL2 and MECOM genes were overexpressed whereas BCL6 was under-expressed. BCL6 was fused to MBNL1 gene due to complex structural rearrangement. MYC was expressed in >70% of cells and BCL2 was diffusely but highly expressed by immunohistochemistry. No pathogenic mutations were identified by sequencing a 26-gene panel including TP53. The patient has unexpectedly been in complete remission for 12 months after diagnosis after intensive chemotherapy including DA-EPOCH regimen despite having HGBCL. The prognostication of HGBCL patients may further be improved by the sub-categorization of these lymphomas on the basis of more detailed genomic markers than merely the WHO 2016 classification.

Connelly JA, Mody RJ, Wu YM, et al.
Identification of novel
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018; 4(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by defective myelopoiesis and a high incidence of malignant transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). SCN patients who develop MDS/AML have excessive toxicities to traditional chemotherapy, and safer therapies are needed to improve overall survival in this population. In this report, we outline the use of a prospective integrative clinical sequencing trial (PEDS-MIONCOSEQ) in a patient with SCN and AML to help identify oncogenic targets for less toxic agents. Integrative sequencing identified two somatic

Shahrabi S, Behzad MM, Jaseb K, Saki N
Thrombocytopenia in leukemia: Pathogenesis and prognosis.
Histol Histopathol. 2018; 33(9):895-908 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukemias, a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders, are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and morphologic abnormalities of hematopoietic cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among leukemia types that can lead to hemorrhagic complications in patients. The purpose of this review article is to identify the conditions associated with the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. It can be stated that although translocations have been considered responsible for this complication in many studies, other factors such as bone marrow failure, genes polymorphism, a mutation in some transcription factors, and the adverse effects of treatment could be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. Considering the importance of thrombocytopenia in leukemias, it is hoped that the recognition of risk factors increasing the incidence of this complication in leukemic patients would be useful for prevention and treatment of this disorder.

Dzneladze I, Woolley JF, Rossell C, et al.
SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0191510 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID), a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression), and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values). In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

Qin YZ, Zhao T, Zhu HH, et al.
High EVI1 Expression Predicts Poor Outcomes in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Intermediate Cytogenetic Risk Receiving Chemotherapy.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:758-767 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate cytogenetic risk (ICR-AML) needs to be stratified. The abnormal gene expression might be prognostic, and its cutoff value for patient grouping is pivotal. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) transcripts were assessed in 191 adult ICR-AML patients at diagnosis who received chemotherapy only. MLL-PTD, WT1 transcript levels, FLT3-ITD, and NPM1 mutations were simultaneously evaluated, and 27 normal bone marrow samples were tested to define normal threshold. RESULTS The normal upper limit of EVI1 transcript levels was 8.0%. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that 1.0% (a 0.9-log reduction from the normal limit) was the EVI1 optimal cutoff value for significantly differentiating relapse (P=0.049). A total of 23 patients (12%) had EVI1 levels ≥1.0%. EVI1 ≥1.0% had no effect on CR achievement, whereas it was significantly associated with lower 2-year relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates in the entire cohort (P=0.0003, 0.0017, and 0.0009, respectively), patients with normal karyotypes (P=0.0032, 0.0047, and 0.0007, respectively), and FLT3-ITD (-) patients (all P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that EVI1 ≥1.0% was an independent adverse prognostic factor for RFS, DFS, and OS in the entire cohort. In addition, patients with EVI1 transcript levels between 1.0% and 8.0% had 2-year RFS rates similar to those with EVI1 ≥8.0%, and they both had significantly lower RFS rates than those with EVI1 <1.0% (P=0.0005 and 0.027). CONCLUSIONS High EVI1 expression predicts poor outcome in ICR-AML patients receiving chemotherapy. The optimal cutoff value for patient stratification is different from the normal limit.

Burillo-Sanz S, Morales-Camacho RM, Caballero-Velázquez T, et al.
MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia: Influence of the genetic partner in allo-HSCT response and prognostic factor of MLL 3' region mRNA expression.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 100(5):436-443 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: MLL gene is involved in more than 80 known genetic fusions in acute leukemia. To study the relevance of MLL partner gene and selected gene's expression, in this work, we have studied a cohort of 20 MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
METHODS: Twenty MLL-rearranged AML patients along with a control cohort of 138 AML patients are included in this work. By RT-PCR and sequencing, MLL genetic fusion was characterized, and relative gene expression quantification was carried out for EVI1, MEIS1, MLL-3', RUNX1, SETBP1, HOXA5, and FLT3 genes. Risk stratification and association of MLL genetic partner and gene expression to overall survival, in the context of received therapy, were performed.
RESULTS: MLLr cohort showed to have an OS more similar to intermediate-risk AML. Type of MLL genetic partner showed to be relevant in allo-HSCT response; having MLLT1 and MLLT3, a better benefit from it. Expression of MLL-3' region, EVI1 and FLT3, showed association with OS in patients undergoing allo-HSCT.
CONCLUSION: We show that the MLL genetic partner could have implications in allo-HSCT response, and we propose three genes whose expression could be useful for the prognosis of this leukemia in patients undergoing allo-HSCT: 3' region of MLL, EVI1, and FLT3.

Nayak KB, Sajitha IS, Kumar TRS, Chakraborty S
Ecotropic viral integration site 1 promotes metastasis independent of epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(2):18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The most indecipherable component of solid cancer is the development of metastasis which accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related mortalities. A developmental program termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has also been shown to play a critical role in promoting metastasis in epithelium-derived solid tumors. By analyzing publicly available microarray datasets, we observed that ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) correlates negatively with SLUG, a master regulator of EMT. This correlation was found to be relevant as we demonstrated that EVI1 binds to SLUG promoter element directly through the distal set of zinc fingers and downregulates its expression. Many studies have shown that the primary role of SLUG during EMT and EMT-like processes is the regulation of cell motility in most of the cancer cells. Knockdown of EVI1 in metastatic colon cancer cell and subsequent passage through matrigel not only increased the invading capacity but also induced an EMT-like morphological feature of the cells, such as spindle-shaped appearance and led to a significant reduction in the expression of the epithelial marker, E-CADHERIN and increase in the expression of the mesenchymal marker, N-CADHERIN. The cells, when injected into immunocompromised mice, failed to show any metastatic foci in distant organs however the ones with EVI1, metastasized in the intraperitoneal layer and also showed multiple micro metastatic foci in the lungs and spleen. These findings suggest that in colon cancer EVI1 is dispensable for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, however, is required for metastasis.

Kotaki R, Higuchi H, Ogiya D, et al.
Imbalanced expression of polycistronic miRNA in acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Hematol. 2017; 106(6):811-819 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-1 and miR-133 are clustered on the same chromosomal loci and are transcribed together as a single transcript that is positively regulated by ecotropic virus integration site-1 (EVI1). Previously, we described how miR-133 has anti-tumorigenic potential through repression of EVI1 expression. It has also been reported that miR-1 is oncogenic in the case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we show that expression of miR-1 and miR-133, which have distinct functions, is differentially regulated between AML cell lines. Interestingly, the expression of miR-1 and EVI1, which binds to the promoter of the miR-1/miR-133 cluster, is correlative. The expression levels of TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein that has been reported to increase the expression, but inhibits the activity, of miR-1, were not correlated with expression levels of miR-1 in AML cells. Taken together, our observations raise the possibility that the balance of polycistronic miRNAs is regulated post-transcriptionally in a hierarchical manner possibly involving EVI1, suggesting that the deregulation of this balance may play some role in AML cells with high EVI1 expression.

Ghasemian Sorbeni F, Montazersaheb S, Ansarin A, et al.
Molecular analysis of more than 140 gene fusion variants and aberrant activation of EVI1 and TLX1 in hematological malignancies.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(10):1605-1623 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions are observed in abnormal chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations in hematopoietic malignancies, especially leukemia subtypes. Hence, it is critical to obtain correct information about these rearrangements in order to apply proper treatment techniques. To identify abnormal molecular changes in patients with leukemia, we developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) protocol and investigated more than 140 gene fusions resulting from variations of 29 prevalent chromosomal rearrangements along with EVI1 and TLX1 oncogenic expression in the presence of optimized primers. The potential of the MRT-PCR method was approved by evaluating the available cell lines as positive control and confirmed by sequencing. Samples from 53 patients afflicted with hematopoiesis malignancies were analyzed. Results revealed at least one chromosomal rearrangement in 69% of acute myeloid leukemia subjects, 64% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia subjects, and 81% of chronic myeloid leukemia subjects, as well as a subject with hypereosinophilic syndrome. Also, five novel fusion variants were detected. Results of this study also showed that chromosomal rearrangements, both alone and in conjunction with other rearrangements, are involved in leukemogenesis. Moreover, it was found that EVI1 is a suitable hallmark for hematopoietic malignancies.

Yamato G, Yamaguchi H, Handa H, et al.
Clinical features and prognostic impact of PRDM16 expression in adult acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(11):800-809 [PubMed] Related Publications
High PRDM16 (also known as MEL1) expression is a representative marker of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with NUP98-NSD1 and is a significant predictive marker for poor prognosis in pediatric AML. However, the clinical features of adult AML with PRDM16 expression remain unclear. PRDM16 is highly homologous to MDS1/EVI1, which is an alternatively spliced transcript of MECOM (also known as EVI1). We investigated PRDM16 expression in 151 AML patients, with 47 (31%) exhibiting high PRDM16 expression (PRDM16/ABL1 ratio ≥ 0.010). High PRDM16 expression significantly correlated with DNMT3A (43% vs. 15%, P < 0.001) and NPM1 (43% vs. 21%, P = 0.010) mutations and partial tandem duplication of KMT2A (22% vs. 1%, P < 0.001). Remarkably, high-PRDM16-expression patients were frequent in the noncomplete remission group (48% vs. 21%, P = 0.002). Overall survival (OS) was significantly worse in high-PRDM16-expression patients than in low-PRDM16-expression patients (5-year OS, 18% vs. 34%; P = 0.002). This trend was observed more clearly among patients aged <65 years (5-year OS, 21% vs. 50%; P = 0.001), particularly in FLT3-ITD-negative patients in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (5-year OS, 25% vs. 59%; P = 0.009). These results suggest that high PRDM16 expression is a significant predictive marker for poor prognosis in adult AML patients, similar to pediatric AML patients.

Maicas M, Vázquez I, Alis R, et al.
The MDS and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) isoforms regulate their own transcription and have different roles in the transformation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017; 1860(6):721-729 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional activation of the EVI1 oncogene (3q26) leads to aggressive forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the mechanism of EVI1-mediated leukemogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Previously, by characterizing the EVI1 promoter, we have shown that RUNX1 and ELK1 directly regulate EVI1 transcription. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analysis of the EVI1 promoter region identified the presence of several EVI1 potential binding sites. Thus, we hypothesized that EVI1 could bind to these sites regulating its own transcription. In this study, we show that there is a functional interaction between EVI1 and its promoter, and that the different EVI1 isoforms (EVI1-145kDa, EVI1-Δ324 and MDS1-EVI1) regulate the transcription of EVI1 transcripts through distinct promoter regions. Moreover, we determine that the EVI1-145kDa isoform activates EVI1 transcription, whereas EVI1-Δ324 and MDS1-EVI1 act as repressors. Finally, we demonstrate that these EVI1 isoforms are involved in cell transformation; functional experiments show that EVI1-145kDa prolongs the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells; conversely, MDS1-EVI1 repressed hematopoietic stem and progenitor colony replating capacity. We demonstrate for the first time that EVI1 acts as a regulator of its own expression, highlighting the complex regulation of EVI1, and open new directions to better understand the mechanisms of EVI1 overexpressing leukemias.

Akhter A, Farooq F, Elyamany G, et al.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): Upregulation of BAALC/MN1/MLLT11/EVI1 Gene Cluster Relate With Poor Overall Survival and a Possible Linkage With Coexpression of MYC/BCL2 Proteins.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2018; 26(7):483-488 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular heterogeneity accounts for the variable and often poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The current risk stratification strategy in clinical practice is limited to karyotyping and limited molecular studies screening for genetic mutations such as FLT-3 and NPM1. There is opportunity to identify further molecular prognostic markers, which may also lay the groundwork for the development of novel targeted therapies. Complex molecular technologies require transition into widely available laboratory platforms, for better integration into routine clinical practice.
METHOD: In a defined subset (MYC/BCL2 or MYC/BCL2) of AML patients (n=20), we examined expression signature of several genes (n=12) of established prognostic value in AML. RNA expression and MYC/BCL2 protein pattern was correlated with 3 cytogenetic risk groups and overall survival.
RESULTS: K-means++ unsupervised clustering defined 2 distinct groups with high and low transcript levels of BAALC/MN1/MLLT11/EVI1/SOCS2 genes (>2.5-fold difference; P<0.001). This mRNA signature trended with higher prevalence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression (P<0.057) and poor overall survival (P<0.036), but did not correlate with conventional cytogenetic risk groups (P<0.084).
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study provides useful data, which may help further refine the prognostic scheme of AML patients outside conventional cytogenetic risk groups. It also presents some biological rationale for future studies to explore the use of novel agents targeting MYC and/or BCL2 genes in combination with conventional chemotherapy protocols for AML.

Wang H, Schaefer T, Konantz M, et al.
Prominent Oncogenic Roles of EVI1 in Breast Carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(8):2148-2160 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the EVI1 oncogene is associated typically with aggressive myeloid leukemia, but is also detectable in breast carcinoma where its contributions are unexplored. Analyzing a tissue microarray of 608 breast carcinoma patient specimens, we documented EVI1 overexpression in both estrogen receptor-positive (ER

Fenouille N, Bassil CF, Ben-Sahra I, et al.
The creatine kinase pathway is a metabolic vulnerability in EVI1-positive acute myeloid leukemia.
Nat Med. 2017; 23(3):301-313 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of the MECOM (also known as EVI1) proto-oncogene is deregulated by chromosomal translocations in some cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Here, through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of hematopoietic cells, we reveal that EVI1 overexpression alters cellular metabolism. A screen using pooled short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) identified the ATP-buffering, mitochondrial creatine kinase CKMT1 as necessary for survival of EVI1-expressing cells in subjects with EVI1-positive AML. EVI1 promotes CKMT1 expression by repressing the myeloid differentiation regulator RUNX1. Suppression of arginine-creatine metabolism by CKMT1-directed shRNAs or by the small molecule cyclocreatine selectively decreased the viability, promoted the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human EVI1-positive cell lines, and prolonged survival in both orthotopic xenograft models and mouse models of primary AML. CKMT1 inhibition altered mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, an effect that was abrogated by phosphocreatine-mediated reactivation of the arginine-creatine pathway. Targeting CKMT1 is thus a promising therapeutic strategy for this EVI1-driven AML subtype that is highly resistant to current treatment regimens.

Mateo F, Arenas EJ, Aguilar H, et al.
Stem cell-like transcriptional reprogramming mediates metastatic resistance to mTOR inhibition.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(19):2737-2749 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibitors of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) are currently used to treat advanced metastatic breast cancer. However, whether an aggressive phenotype is sustained through adaptation or resistance to mTOR inhibition remains unknown. Here, complementary studies in human tumors, cancer models and cell lines reveal transcriptional reprogramming that supports metastasis in response to mTOR inhibition. This cancer feature is driven by EVI1 and SOX9. EVI1 functionally cooperates with and positively regulates SOX9, and promotes the transcriptional upregulation of key mTOR pathway components (REHB and RAPTOR) and of lung metastasis mediators (FSCN1 and SPARC). The expression of EVI1 and SOX9 is associated with stem cell-like and metastasis signatures, and their depletion impairs the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. These results establish the mechanistic link between resistance to mTOR inhibition and cancer metastatic potential, thus enhancing our understanding of mTOR targeting failure.

Kuila N, Nayak KB, Halder A, et al.
Ecotropic viral integration site I regulates alpha1, 6-fucosyl transferase expression and blocks erythropoiesis in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2017; 58(8):1941-1947 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although BCR-ABL is the hallmark genetic abnormality of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), secondary molecular events responsible for the evolution of the disease to blast crisis are yet to be deciphered. Taking into account the significant association of ecotropic viral integration site I (EVI1) in CML drug resistance, it is necessary to decipher the other roles played by EVI1 in CML disease progression. In this regard, we cross-hybridized three microarray datasets and deduced a set of 11 genes that seems to be regulated by EVI1 in CML. We observed a strong correlation between EVI1 and alpha1, 6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) in the chronic phase of the disease and both of them were found to be up-regulated with the progression of the disease. Knockdown of EVI1 in a CML cell line not only down-regulated FUT8, but also rendered the cells towards erythroid differentiation. Our study shows the involvement of EVI1 and FUT8 axis in blocking erythropoiesis in CML.

Hofman IJF, van Duin M, De Bruyne E, et al.
RPL5 on 1p22.1 is recurrently deleted in multiple myeloma and its expression is linked to bortezomib response.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(8):1706-1714 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal region 1p22 is deleted in ⩾20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, suggesting the presence of an unidentified tumor suppressor. Using high-resolution genomic profiling, we delimit a 58 kb minimal deleted region (MDR) on 1p22.1 encompassing two genes: ectopic viral integration site 5 (EVI5) and ribosomal protein L5 (RPL5). Low mRNA expression of EVI5 and RPL5 was associated with worse survival in diagnostic cases. Patients with 1p22 deletion had lower mRNA expression of EVI5 and RPL5, however, 1p22 deletion status is a bad predictor of RPL5 expression in some cases, suggesting that other mechanisms downregulate RPL5 expression. Interestingly, RPL5 but not EVI5 mRNA levels were significantly lower in relapsed patients responding to bortezomib and; both in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients, bortezomib treatment could overcome their bad prognosis by raising their progression-free survival to equal that of patients with high RPL5 expression. In conclusion, our genetic data restrict the MDR on 1p22 to EVI5 and RPL5 and although the role of these genes in promoting MM progression remains to be determined, we identify RPL5 mRNA expression as a biomarker for initial response to bortezomib in relapsed patients and subsequent survival benefit after long-term treatment in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients.

Manachai N, Saito Y, Nakahata S, et al.
Activation of EVI1 transcription by the LEF1/β-catenin complex with p53-alteration in myeloid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 482(4):994-1000 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene is necessary for the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) through t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation. Imatinib, an ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is dramatically effective in CML patients; however, 30% of CML patients will need further treatment due to progression of CML to blast crisis (BC). Aberrant high expression of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) is frequently observed in CML during myeloid-BC as a potent driver with a CML stem cell signature; however, the precise molecular mechanism of EVI1 transcriptional regulation during CML progression is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate the transcriptional activity of EVI1 is dependent on activation of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1)/β-catenin complex by BCR-ABL with loss of p53 function during CML-BC. The activation of β-catenin is partly dependent on BCR-ABL expression through enhanced GSK3β phosphorylation, and EVI1 expression is directly enhanced by the LEF1/β-catenin complex bound to the EVI1 promoter region. Moreover, the loss of p53 expression is inversely correlated with high expression of EVI1 in CML leukemia cells with an aggressive phase of CML, and a portion of the activation mechanism of EVI1 expression is dependent on β-catenin activation through GSK3β phosphorylation by loss of p53. Therefore, we found that the EVI1 activation in CML-BC is dependent on LEF1/β-catenin activation by BCR-ABL expression with loss of p53 function, representing a novel selective therapeutic approach targeting myeloid blast crisis progression.

Wang HY, Rashidi HH
The New Clinicopathologic and Molecular Findings in Myeloid Neoplasms With inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2).
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016; 140(12):1404-1410 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: - Inv(3)(q21q26)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) is the most common form of genetic abnormality of the so-called 3q21q26 syndrome. Myeloid neoplasms with 3q21q26 aberrancies include acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and blast crisis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Recent advances on myeloid neoplasms with inv(3)/t(3;3) with regard to clinicopathologic features and novel molecular or genomic findings warrant a comprehensive review on this topic.
OBJECTIVE: - To review the clinicopathologic features and molecular as well as genomic alterations in myeloid neoplasms with inv(3)/t(3;3).
DATA SOURCES: - The data came from published articles in English-language literature.
CONCLUSIONS: - At the clinicopathologic front, recent studies on MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) have highlighted their overlapping clinicopathologic features with and similar overall survival to that of inv(3)/t(3;3)-harboring AML regardless of the percentage of myeloid blasts. On the molecular front, AML and MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) exhibit gene mutations, which affect the RAS/receptor tyrosine kinase pathway. Furthermore, functional genomic studies using genomic editing and genome engineering have shown that the reallocation of the GATA2 distal hematopoietic enhancer to the proximity of the promoter of ectopic virus integration site 1 (EVI1) without the formation of a new oncogenic fusion transcript is the molecular mechanism underlying these inv(3)/t(3;3) myeloid neoplasms. Although the AML and MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) are listed as a separate category of myeloid malignancies in the 2008 World Health Organization classification, the overlapping clinicopathologic features, similar overall survival, and identical patterns at the molecular and genomic levels between AML and MDS patients with inv(3)/t(3;3) may collectively favor a unification of AML and MDS with inv(3)/t(3;3) as AML or myeloid neoplasms with inv(3)/t(3;3) regardless of the blast count.

Choi EJ, Kim MS, Song SY, et al.
Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Frameshift Mutations in MECOM Gene is Frequent in Colorectal Cancers with High Microsatellite Instability.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2017; 23(1):145-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
MECOM gene, also known as EVI, encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in hematopoiesis, apoptosis, development and proliferation. In blood system, MECOM is considered an oncogene, but in solid tumors it has both oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities. Low frequent somatic mutations of MECOM have been detected in many cancers including colorectal cancers (CRC), but the mutation status with respect to the microsatellite instability (MSI) has not been studied. There is an A7 mononucleotide repeat in MECOM coding sequences that could be a mutation target in the cancers with MSI. We analyzed the A7 of MECOM in 79 CRCs with high MSI (MSI-H) and 65 microsatellite stable/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L) CRCs by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. Overall, we found MECOM frameshift mutations in 6 (7.6 %) CRCs with MSI-H, but not in MSS/MSI-L cancers (0/65) (p < 0.025). We also analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the MECOM frameshift mutation in 16 CRCs and found that four CRCs (25.0 %) harbored regional ITH of the frameshift mutations. Our data indicate that MECOM gene harbors both somatic frameshift mutations and mutational ITH, which together may be features of CRC with MSI-H.

Shen C, Chen MT, Zhang XH, et al.
The PU.1-Modulated MicroRNA-22 Is a Regulator of Monocyte/Macrophage Differentiation and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2016; 12(9):e1006259 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-22 (miR-22) is emerging as a critical regulator in organ development and various cancers. However, its role in normal hematopoiesis and leukaemogenesis remains unclear. Here, we detected its increased expression during monocyte/macrophage differentiation of HL-60, THP1 cells and CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and confirmed that PU.1, a key transcriptional factor for monocyte/macrophage differentiation, is responsible for transcriptional activation of miR-22 during the differentiation. By gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrated that miR-22 promoted monocyte/macrophage differentiation, and MECOM (EVI1) mRNA is a direct target of miR-22 and MECOM (EVI1) functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation. The miR-22-mediated MECOM degradation increased c-Jun but decreased GATA2 expression, which results in increased interaction between c-Jun and PU.1 via increasing c-Jun levels and relief of MECOM- and GATA2-mediated interference in the interaction, and thus promoting monocyte/macrophage differentiation. We also observed significantly down-regulation of PU.1 and miR-22 as well as significantly up-regulation of MECOM in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Reintroduction of miR-22 relieved the differentiation blockage and inhibited the growth of bone marrow blasts of AML patients. Our results revealed new function and mechanism of miR-22 in normal hematopoiesis and AML development and demonstrated its potential value in AML diagnosis and therapy.

Queisser A, Hagedorn S, Wang H, et al.
Ecotropic viral integration site 1, a novel oncogene in prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(11):1573-1584 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men in the western world. Mutations in tumor suppressor genes and in oncogenes are important for PCa progression, whereas the role of stem cell proteins in prostate carcinogenesis is insufficiently examined. This study investigates the role of the transcriptional regulator Ecotropic Viral Integration site 1 (EVI1), known as an essential modulator of hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell biology, in prostate carcinogenesis. We show that in healthy prostatic tissue, EVI1 expression is confined to the prostate stem cell compartment located at the basal layer, as identified by the stem cell marker CD44. Instead, in a PCa progression cohort comprising 219 samples from patients with primary PCa, lymph node and distant metastases, EVI1 protein was heterogeneously distributed within samples and high expression is associated with tumor progression (P<0.001), suggesting EVI1 induction as a driver event. Functionally, short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of EVI1 inhibited proliferation, cell cycle progression, migratory capacity and anchorage-independent growth of human PCa cells, while enhancing their apoptosis sensitivity. Interestingly, modulation of EVI1 expression also strongly regulated stem cell properties (including expression of the stem cell marker SOX2) and in vivo tumor initiation capacity. Further emphasizing a functional correlation between EVI1 induction and tumor progression, upregulation of EVI1 expression was noted in experimentally derived docetaxel-resistant PCa cells. Importantly, knockdown of EVI1 in these cells restored sensitivity to docetaxel, in part by downregulating anti-apoptotic BCL2. Together, these data indicate EVI1 as a novel molecular regulator of PCa progression and therapy resistance that may control prostate carcinogenesis at the stem cell level.

Bozzetti C, Türkmen S, Richter U, et al.
A Rare Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia with a t(2;3) Chromosomal Translocation Characterized by Thrombophilia and Chemoresistance.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2016; 56(1):64-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We hereby report a case of acute myeloid leukemia with translocation t(2;3) and involvement of the ectopic virus integration site-1 (EVI1) gene. Like most other 3q26-related disorders reported thus far, we describe a phenotype with elevated platelet counts and dysmegakaryopoesis. The clinical course of our patient was complicated by symptomatic thrombophilia and chemoresistance. In addition, our case exhibited FLT3 (Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3) internal tandem duplication. Although anagrelide was successful in controlling elevated platelet counts, allogeneic stem cell transplantation failed to overcome chemoresistance due to simultaneous graft-versus-host-disease and relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. Given the dismal outcome of our case and previously reported cases, we propagate the implementation of targeted therapies to newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia t(2;3). Preclinical models indicate drugs that plausibly target the EVI1-related molecular vulnerability as candidates for basket trials. Anagrelide exhibited a hopeful signal of activity in 3q26-related thrombocytosis and should be evaluated for implementation as supportive care.

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