Research IndicatorsGraph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
Numbers shown below represent number of publications held in OncomiRDB database for Oncogenic and Tumor-Suppressive MicroRNAs.
|Tissue||Target Gene(s)||Regulator(s)||MIRLET7B Function in Cancer||Effect|
|CCND1 (1)||inhibit cell proliferation (1)|
induce apoptosis (1)
inhibit cell cycle progression (1)
inhibit anchorage-independent cell growth (1)
-hepatocellular carcinoma (1)
|inhibit cell proliferation (1)|
induce apoptosis (1)
-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (1)
Source: OncomiRDB Wang D. et al. Bioinformatics 2014, 30(15):2237-2238.
miRBase, University of Manchester
Annotated database entry including the location and sequence of the mature miRNA sequence.
miRCancer, East Carolina University
Search miRCancer for let-7b associations with cancer and associated genes.
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MIRLET7B (cancer-related)
Huang Z, Gan J, Long Z, et al.Targeted delivery of let-7b to reprogramme tumor-associated macrophages and tumor infiltrating dendritic cells for tumor rejection.
Biomaterials. 2016; 90:72-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Both tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDCs) are important components in the tumor microenvironment that mediate tumor immunosuppression and promote cancer progression. Targeting these cells and altering their phenotypes may become a new strategy to recover their anti-tumor activities and thereby restore the local immune surveillance against tumor. In this study, we constructed a nucleic acid delivery system for the delivery of let-7b, a synthetic microRNA mimic. Our carrier has an affinity for the mannose receptors on TAMs/TIDCs and is responsive to the low-pH tumor microenvironment. The delivery of let-7b could reactivate TAMs/TIDCs by acting as a TLR-7 agonist and suppressing IL-10 production in vitro. In a breast cancer mouse model, let-7b delivered by this system efficiently reprogrammed the functions of TAMs/TIDCs, reversed the suppressive tumor microenvironment, and inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, this strategy, designed based upon TAMs/TIDCs-targeting delivery and the dual biological functions of let-7b (TLR-7 ligand and IL-10 inhibitor), may provide a new approach for cancer immunotherapy.
Sun X, Xu C, Tang SC, et al.Let-7c blocks estrogen-activated Wnt signaling in induction of self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(4):83-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Let-7 miRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression through their roles in maintaining differentiation and normal development. However, there is little research focusing on the effects of let-7 on Wnt-activated self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells. By analyzing the expression levels of let-7 family members in clinical tissues, we found that higher expression levels of let-7b and let-7c were correlated with better clinical prognosis of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)α-positive breast tumor. Further, we found that only let-7c was inversely correlated with ERα expression, and there is corelationship between let-7c and Wnt signaling in clinical tissues. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1 sorting and mammosphere formation assays showed that let-7c inhibited the self-renewal of stem cells in ERα-positive breast cancer. Let-7c decreased ERα expression through directly binding to the 3'UTR (untranslated region), and let-7c inhibited the estrogen-induced activation of Wnt signaling. Depletion of ERα abolished let-7c functions in stem cell signatures, which further confirmed that let-7c inhibited estrogen-induced Wnt activity through decreasing ERα expression. Taken together, our findings identified a biochemical and functional link between let-7c with ERα/Wnt signaling in breast cancer stem cells.
Yang C, Sun C, Liang X, et al.Integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(4):90-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most common deadly disease. Emerging evidences suggest that abnormal epigenetic modulation via mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) might be involved in the tumorigenesis. To explore novel therapeutic target of NSCLC, a more detailed mRNAs and miRNA expression profiling study is needed. High-quality total RNA including miRNA was isolated from NSCLC tissue and para-carcinoma tissue and used for RNA and small RNA sequencing. Results were analyzed bioinformatically and validated using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. A total of 3530 genes (1977 up-regulated and 1553 down-regulated) and 211 miRNAs (171 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated) were differentially expressed (DE) in NSCLC tissue versus adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, 157 novel miRNAs were predicted in our samples. Of these, 918 significant miRNA-mRNA pairs were identified, consisting of 100 miRNAs and 443 mRNAs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that most of the target genes were enriched in the terms of plasma membrane, binding, and multiple biological-molecular signaling processes. Pathway analysis of these miRNA signatures highlights their critical roles in calcium signaling pathway. Using qRT-PCR, the expression of several DE genes (KRAS and RBM5) and miRNAs (miR-1-5p, let-7b-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-1290, miR-149-5p, chr8_28846, chrX_31594, and chr9_29897) were confirmed. The integrative analysis based on mRNA and miRNA profiling may provide more potential molecular for the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC.
Damanakis AI, Eckhardt S, Wunderlich A, et al.MicroRNAs let7 expression in thyroid cancer: correlation with their deputed targets HMGA2 and SLC5A5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(6):1213-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Thyroid cancer (TC), the most common endocrine malignancy, increases its incidence worldwide. MicroRNAs have been shown to be abnormally expressed in tumors and could represent valid diagnostic markers for patients affected by TC. Our aim was to analyze the expression of tumorsuppressor hsa-let7b-5p and hsa-let7f-5p, together with their predicted targets SLC5A5 (NIS) and HMGA2, in papillary (PTC), follicular (FTC) and anaplastic (ATC).
METHODS: 8 FTC, 14 PTC, 12 ATC and three normal thyroid tissue samples were analyzed for the expression of pre-let7b, hsa-let7b-5p and hsa-let7f-5p as SLC5A5 and HMGA2 by RT-qPCR. Data were analyzed by REST 2008.
RESULTS: FTC patients showed a significant down-regulation of hsa-let7b-5p and its precursor. hsa-let7f-5p was overexpressed, and SLC5A5 was strongly suppressed. HMGA2 was overexpressed, reflecting no correlation with its regulatory let7 miRNAs. PTC samples were characterized by up-regulation of hsa-let7b-5p, its precursor and hsa-let7f-5p. SLC5A5 was strongly suppressed in comparison with normal thyroid tissue. HMGA2 was overexpressed, as shown in FTC, also. ATC samples showed a similar miRNAs profile as PTC. In contrast with FTC and PTC, these patients showed a stable or up-regulated SLC5A5 and HMGA2.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of HMGA2 is not correlated with the regulatory let7 miRNAs. Interestingly, SLC5A5 was down-regulated in FTC and PTC. Its expression could be modulated by hsa-let-7f-5p. ATC showed a loss of SLC5A5/hsa-let7f-5p correlation. SLC5A5, in ATC, needs further investigation to clarify the genetic/epigenetic mechanism altering its expression.
Jin K, Su KK, Li T, et al.Hepatic Premalignant Alterations Triggered by Human Nephrotoxin Aristolochic Acid I in Canines.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016; 9(4):324-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aristolochic acid I (AAI) existing in plant drugs from Aristolochia species is an environmental human carcinogen associated with urothelial cancer. Although gene association network analysis demonstrated gene expression profile changes in the liver of human TP53 knock-in mice after acute AAI exposure, to date, whether AAI causes hepatic tumorigenesis is still not confirmed. Here, we show that hepatic premalignant alterations appeared in canines after a 10-day AAI oral administration (3 mg/kg/day). We observed c-Myc oncoprotein and oncofetal RNA-binding protein Lin28B overexpressions accompanied by cancer progenitor-like cell formation in the liver by AAI exposure. Meanwhile, we found that forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was robustly phosphorylated, thereby shuttling into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Furthermore, utilizing microarray and qRT-PCR analysis, we confirmed that microRNA expression significantly dysregulated in the liver treated with AAI. Among them, we particularly focused on the members in let-7 miRNAs and miR-23a clusters, the downstream of c-Myc and IL6 receptor (IL6R) signaling pathway linking the premalignant alteration. Strikingly, when IL6 was added in vitro, IL6R/NF-κB signaling activation contributed to the increase of FOXO1 phosphorylation by the let-7b inhibitor. Therefore, it highlights the new insight into the interplay of the network in hepatic tumorigenesis by AAI exposure, and also suggests that anti-premalignant therapy may be crucial for preventing AAI-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.
PURPOSE: To correlate the differentially expressed miRNAs with clinico-pathological features in uveal melanoma (UM) tumors harbouring chromosomal 3 aberrations among South Asian Indian cohort.
METHODS: Based on chromosomal 3 aberration, UM (n = 86) were grouped into monosomy 3 (M3; n = 51) and disomy 3 (D3; n = 35) by chromogenic in-situ hybridisation (CISH). The clinico-pathological features were recorded. miRNA profiling was performed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) UM samples (n = 6) using Agilent, Human miRNA microarray, 8x15KV3 arrays. The association between miRNAs and clinico-pathological features were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. miRNA-gene targets were predicted using Target-scan and MiRanda database. Significantly dys-regulated miRNAs were validated in FFPE UM (n = 86) and mRNAs were validated in frozen UM (n = 10) by qRT-PCR. Metastasis free-survival and miRNA expressions were analysed by Kaplen-Meier analysis in UM tissues (n = 52).
RESULTS: Unsupervised analysis revealed 585 differentially expressed miRNAs while supervised analysis demonstrated 82 miRNAs (FDR; Q = 0.0). Differential expression of 8 miRNAs: miR-214, miR-149*, miR-143, miR-146b, miR-199a, let7b, miR-1238 and miR-134 were studied. Gene target prediction revealed SMAD4, WISP1, HIPK1, HDAC8 and C-KIT as the post-transcriptional regulators of miR-146b, miR-199a, miR-1238 and miR-134. Five miRNAs (miR-214, miR146b, miR-143, miR-199a and miR-134) were found to be differentially expressed in M3/ D3 UM tumors. In UM patients with liver metastasis, miR-149* and miR-134 expressions were strongly correlated.
CONCLUSION: UM can be stratified using miRNAs from FFPE sections. miRNAs predicting liver metastasis and survival have been identified. Mechanistic linkage of de-regulated miRNA/mRNA expressions provide new insights on their role in UM progression and aggressiveness.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in various biological processes by regulating their target genes. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits melanoma tumor growth by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) signaling. To examine the effect of EGCG on miRNA expression in melanoma cells, we performed miRNA microarray analysis. We showed that EGCG up-regulated miRNA-let-7b expression through 67LR in melanoma cells. The EGCG-induced up-regulation of let-7b led to down-regulation of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), a target gene related to tumor progression. 67LR-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) signaling pathway activation was involved in the up-regulation of let-7b expression induced by EGCG. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of miRNA regulation by EGCG.
Pang Y, Wang C, Wang J, et al.Fe₃O₄@Ag magnetic nanoparticles for microRNA capture and duplex-specific nuclease signal amplification based SERS detection in cancer cells.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2016; 79:574-80 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A functionalized Fe3O4@Ag magnetic nanoparticle (NP) biosensor for microRNA (miRNA) capture and ultrasensitive detection in total RNA extract from cancer cells was reported in this paper. Herein, Raman tags-DNA probes modified Fe3O4@Ag NPs were designed both as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) SERS and duplex-specific nuclease signal amplification (DSNSA) platform. Firstly, target miRNAs were captured to the surface of Fe3O4@Ag NPs through DNA/RNA hybridization. In the presence of endonuclease duplex specific nuclease (DSN), one target miRNA molecule could rehybrid thousands of DNA probes to trigger the signal-amplifying recycling. Base on the superparamagnetic of Fe3O4@Ag NPs, target miRNA let-7b can be captured, concentrated and direct quantified within a PE tube without any PCR preamplification treatment. The detection limit was 0.3fM (15 zeptomole, 50μL), nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than conventional fluorescence based DSN biosensors for miRNA(∼100fM), even single-base difference between the let-7 family members can be discriminated. The result provides a novel proposal to combine the perfect single-base recognition and signal-amplifying ability of the endonuclease DSN with cost-effective SERS strategy for miRNA point-of-care (POC) clinical diagnostics.
PURPOSE: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a common pediatric cancer. The study aimed to uncover the mechanisms of RB progression and identify novel therapeutic biomarkers.
METHODS: The miRNA expression profile GSE7072, which includes three RB samples and three healthy retina samples, was used. After data normalization using the preprocessCore package, differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRs) were selected by the limma package. The targets of the DE-miRs were predicted based on two databases, followed by construction of the miRNA-target network. Pathway enrichment analysis was conducted for the targets of the DE-miRNAs using DAVID. The CTD database was used to predict RB-related genes, followed by clustering analysis using the pvclust package. The correlation network of DE-miRs was established. MiRNA expression was validated in another data set, GSE41321.
RESULTS: In total, 24 DE-miRs were identified whose targets were correlated with the cell cycle pathway. Among them, hsa-miR-373, hsa-miR-125b, and hsa-miR-181a were highlighted in the miRNA-target regulatory network; 14 DE-miRs, including hsa-miR-373, hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-18a, hsa-miR-25, hsa-miR-20a, and hsa-let-7 (a, b, c), were shown to distinguish RB from healthy tissue. In addition, hsa-miR-25, hsa-miR-18a, and hsa-miR-20a shared the common target BCL2L11; hsa-let-7b and hsa-miR-125b targeted the genes CDC25A, CDK6, and LIN28A. Expression of three miRNAs in GSE41321 was consistent with that in GSE7072.
CONCLUSIONS: Several critical miRNAs were identified in RB progression. Hsa-miR-373 might regulate RB invasion and metastasis, hsa-miR-181a might involve in the CDKN1B-mediated cell cycle pathway, and hsa-miR-125b and hsa-let-7b might serve as tumor suppressors by coregulating CDK6, CDC25A, and LIN28A. The miRNAs hsa-miR-25, hsa-miR-18a, and hsa-miR-20a might exert their function by coregulating BCL2L1.
Ozcan O, Kara M, Yumrutas O, et al.MTUS1 and its targeting miRNAs in colorectal carcinoma: significant associations.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6637-45 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Deregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, determining miRNA targets of genes that play critical role in the malignant transformation is very important. Here, expression levels of tumor suppressor microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) and its regulatory miRNAs were reported. Predicted and validated targets of MTUS1 gene was determined by a computational approach. Expressions of MTUS1 and miRNAs were determined by using 96.96 Dynamic Array™ integrated fluidic circuit (Fluidigm). As a result, MTUS1 levels were found to be diminished in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of CRC patients compared to controls. Also, several of MTUS1 targeting miRNAs were found to be upregulated in CRC samples (miR-373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, 19a-3p, -20a-5p, -181a-5p, -184, -181d-5p, -372-3p, 27b-3p, 98-5p, -let-7i-5p, -let-7d-5p, -let-7g-5p, -let-7b-5p, and -let-7c-5p). Of these miRNAs, miR-135b-5p, -373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, 19a-3p showed marked expression levels. In contrast, expression levels of let-7a-5p, 7e-5p, 7f-5p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, and 125b-5p were found to be downregulated in CRC tissues. Accordingly, some of the overexpressed miRNAs especially the miR-135b-5p, -373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, and 19a-3p may play key roles in CRC pathophysiology through MTUS1. In contrast, let-7a-5p, 7e-5p, 7f-5p, miR-125a-5p, and 125b-5p may play important roles in CRC carcinogenesis independent from the MTUS1. In conclusion, MTUS1 targeting miRNAs may play key roles in the development of CRC by downregulating tumor suppressor MTUS1.
Dai X, Fan W, Wang Y, et al.Combined Delivery of Let-7b MicroRNA and Paclitaxel via Biodegradable Nanoassemblies for the Treatment of KRAS Mutant Cancer.
Mol Pharm. 2016; 13(2):520-33 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In the present study, we synthesized a novel cationic copolymer composed of polyethylene glycol 5000 (PEG5K), vitamin E (VE), and diethylenetriamine (DET) at 1:4:20 molar ratio. The resulting PEG5K-VE4-DET20 copolymer formed nanoassemblies when mixed with the neutral PEG5K-VE4 copolymer at 1:8 weight ratio, which were investigated as the nanocarriers for combined delivery of paclitaxel and let-7b mimic. We found that the PEG5K-VE4-DET20 nanoassemblies could entrap paclitaxel for an extended period and burst release the drug in the presence of cathepsin B, demonstrating the biodegradability of the copolymers. At N/P ratio of 12:1, the PEG5K-VE4-DET20 nanoassemblies formed stable polyplexes with let-7b mimic, which were efficiently taken up by tumor cells and underwent endosomal escape. In non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells that harbor mutant KRAS, paclitaxel and let-7b mimic-loaded nanoassemblies (N-PTX/let-7b) markedly potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel, induced apoptosis, and diminished the invasiveness of tumor cells. In mice bearing subcutaneous A549 xenografts, intravenous administration of N-PTX/let-7b retarded tumor growth more efficaciously than Taxol. Our study demonstrates the promise of the PEG5K-VE4-DET20 nanoassemblies for concurrent delivery of hydrophobic drugs and miRNA mimics.
Fei BY, Wang XY, Fang XDMicroRNA-143 replenishment re-sensitizes colorectal cancer cells harboring mutant, but not wild-type, KRAS to paclitaxel treatment.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5829-35 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) global incidence is one of the highest among cancers. The KRAS gene has been shown as a robust biomarker for poor prognosis and drug resistance. MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) and let-7 are families of tumor suppressor microRNAs that are often downregulated in CRC, especially with coexistent KRAS mutations. In order to evaluate if miR-143 and/or let-7b replenishment would re-sensitize CRC cells to paclitaxel treatment, we investigated in effect of miR-143 and let-7b replenishments on sensitivity to paclitaxel treatment in KRAS mutant LoVo and wild-type SW48 CRC cell lines. Our results showed that miR-143, but not let-7b, increased sensitization of KRAS mutant tumor cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, transfection of miR-143, but not let-7b, mimic negatively regulated the expression of mutant but not wild-type KRAS. Combination of miR-143 mimic and paclitaxel induced the onset of apoptosis, and reverted in vitro metastatic properties (migration and invasion) in KRAS mutant tumor cells. MiR-143 thus can be used as a chemosensitizer for the treatment of KRAS mutant tumors and warrants further investigations in in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo models.
High-throughput methods have been used to explore the mechanisms by which androgen-sensitive prostate cancer (ASPC) develops into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, it is difficult to interpret cryptic results by routine experimental methods. In this study, we performed systematic and integrative analysis to detect key miRNAs that contribute to CRPC development. From three DNA microarray datasets, we retrieved 11 outlier microRNAs (miRNAs) that had expression discrepancies between ASPC and CRPC using a specific algorithm. Two of the miRNAs (miR-125b and miR-124) have previously been shown to be related to CRPC. Seven out of the other nine miRNAs were confirmed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis. MiR-210, miR-218, miR-346, miR-197, and miR-149 were found to be over-expressed, while miR-122, miR-145, and let-7b were under-expressed in CRPC cell lines. GO and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that miR-218, miR-197, miR-145, miR-122, and let-7b, along with their target genes, were found to be involved in the PI3K and AKT3 signaling network, which is known to contribute to CRPC development. We then chose five miRNAs to verify the accuracy of the analysis. The target genes of each miRNA were altered significantly upon transfection of specific miRNA mimics in the C4-2 CRPC cell line, which was consistent with our pathway analysis results. Finally, we hypothesized that miR-218, miR-145, miR-197, miR-149, miR-122, and let-7b may contribute to the development of CRPC through the influence of Ras, Rho proteins, and the SCF complex. Further investigation is needed to verify the functions of the identified novel pathways in CRPC development.
Rachagani S, Macha MA, Menning MS, et al.Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression during pancreatic cancer development and progression in a genetically engineered KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre mouse (KC) model.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(37):40295-309 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in various cancers, including pancreatic cancer (PC). Due to the lack of tissue samples from early-stages of PC, the stage-specific alteration of miRNAs during PC initiation and progression is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile and their processing machinery during PC progression using the KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mouse model. At 25 weeks, the miRNA microarray analysis revealed significant downregulation of miR-150, miR-494, miR-138, miR-148a, miR-216a, and miR-217 and upregulation of miR-146b, miR-205, miR-31, miR-192, and miR-21 in KC mice compared to controls. Further, expression of miRNA biosynthetic machinery including Dicer, Exportin-5, TRKRA, and TARBP2 were downregulated, while DGCR8 and Ago2 were upregulated in KC mice. In addition, from 10 to 50 weeks of age, stage-specific expression profiling of miRNA in KC mice revealed downregulation of miR-216, miR-217, miR-100, miR-345, miR-141, miR-483-3p, miR-26b, miR-150, miR-195, Let-7b and Let-96 and upregulation of miR-21, miR-205, miR-146b, miR-34c, miR-1273, miR-223 and miR-195 compared to control mice. Interestingly, the differential expression of miRNA in mice also corroborated with the miRNA expression in human PC cell lines and tissue samples; ectopic expression of Let-7b in CD18/HPAF and Capan1 cells resulted in the downregulation of KRAS and MSST1 expression. Overall, the present study aids an understanding of miRNA expression patterns during PC pathogenesis and helps to facilitate the identification of promising and novel early diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of multiple myeloma (MM) is reported to play a role in the biology of disease. In this study, we found that the extracellular BM microenvironment in MM contains a unique miRNA signature detectable by miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, which is partially represented in the peripheral blood. Eleven miRNAs were significantly decreased in both BM and serum of MM patients in comparison with controls. Evaluation of these miRNAs in plasma of a separate cohort of MM patients and controls confirmed significantly aberrant levels of let-7a, let-7b, let-7i, miR-15b, miR-16, and miR-20a in both serum and plasma. We then studied the myeloma precursor diseases and found that a subset of the MM miRNAs exhibited aberrant expression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma. miRNA analysis of enriched CD138(+) plasma cells from MM and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance found that most of the validated MM BM signature miRNAs were significantly decreased in MM plasma cells. Gene expression profiling indicated that multiple targets of the decreased miRNAs found increased expression in MM plasma cells, including ATF2, HRAS, HDAC4, TGFB1, TGFBR1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. The findings suggest that these miRNAs are detectable in aberrant levels in the peripheral blood of patients with plasma cell proliferation and may play a role in aberrant plasma cell proliferation and disease progression.
Wu Z, Eguchi-Ishimae M, Yagi C, et al.HMGA2 as a potential molecular target in KMT2A-AFF1-positive infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(5):818-29 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in infants is an intractable cancer in childhood. Although recent intensive chemotherapy progress has considerably improved ALL treatment outcome, disease cure is often accompanied by undesirable long-term side effects, and efficient, less toxic molecular targeting therapies have been anticipated. In infant ALL cells with KMT2A (MLL) fusion, the microRNA let-7b (MIRLET7B) is significantly downregulated by DNA hypermethylation of its promoter region. We show here that the expression of HMGA2, one of the oncogenes repressed by MIRLET7B, is reversely upregulated in infant ALL leukaemic cells, particularly in KMT2A-AFF1 (MLL-AF4) positive ALL. In addition to the suppression of MIRLET7B, KMT2A fusion proteins positively regulate the expression of HMGA2. HMGA2 is one of the negative regulators of CDKN2A gene, which encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A) . The HMGA2 inhibitor netropsin, when combined with demethylating agent 5-azacytidine, upregulated and sustained the expression of CDKN2A, which resulted in growth suppression of KMT2A-AFF1-expressing cell lines. This effect was more apparent compared to treatment with 5-azacytidine alone. These results indicate that the MIRLET7B-HMGA2-CDKN2A axis plays an important role in cell proliferation of leukaemic cells and could be a possible molecular target for the therapy of infant ALL with KMT2A-AFF1.
Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. We studied the involvement of miRNAs located on chromosomes 11q and 22q that participate in the most common translocation in ES. Of these, we focused on 3 that belong to the let-7 family.We studied the expression levels of let-7a, and let-7b and detected a significant correlation between low expression of let-7b and increased risk of relapse. let-7 is known to be a negative regulator of the RAS oncogene. Indeed, we detected an inverse association between the expression of let-7 and RAS protein levels and its downstream target p-ERK, following transfection of let-7 mimics and inhibitors. Furthermore, we identified let-7 as a negative regulator of HIF-1α and EWS-FLI-1. Moreover, we were able to show that HIF-1α directly binds to the EWS-FLI-1 promoter. Salirasib treatment in-vitro resulted in the reduction of cell viability, migration ability, and in the decrease of cells in S-phase. A significant reduction in tumor burden and in the expression levels of both HIF-1α and EWS-FLI-1 proteins were observed in mice after treatment.Our results support the hypothesis that let-7 is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates RAS, also in ES, and that HIF-1α may contribute to the aggressive metastatic behavior of ES. Moreover, the reduction in the tumor burden in a mouse model of ES following Salirasib treatment, suggests therapeutic potential for this RAS inhibitor in ES.
Zhu JY, Zhang W, Ren JG, et al.Characterization of Endothelial Microparticles Induced by Different Therapeutic Drugs for Infantile Hemangioma.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015; 66(3):261-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are complex vesicular structures with great significance in vascular pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of therapeutic drugs for infantile hemangioma, a common vascular tumor of infancy, on the biochemical features of EMPs. We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells to propranolol (Pro), dexamethasone (Dex), or rapamycin (Rap). Compared with controls, Pro and Rap dramatically augmented EMP release, whereas Dex significantly suppressed EMP generation. Drug-stimulated EMPs could inherit but tended to lose specific endothelial surface antigens from their parental cells. On the one hand, markedly distinct messenger RNA expression patterns were observed within and between drug-stimulated endothelial cells and derived EMPs. On the other hand, Rap-treated endothelial cells and Pro-induced EMPs displayed downregulation of multiple angiogenesis-related molecules at messenger RNA level compared with corresponding controls. Meanwhile, among tested angiogenesis-associated microRNAs, twelve microRNAs were downregulated in drug-induced EMPs, whereas only let-7b and miR-133a were markedly upregulated. Collectively, these data may indicate selective and distinctive package of biomolecules into EMPs depending on specific drugs. Our findings may provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of pharmacological therapy for infantile hemangioma.
OBJECTIVES: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is increasing in incidence. Fine needle aspiration is the gold standard for diagnosis, but results can be indeterminate. Identifying tissue and serum biomarkers, like microRNA, is therefore desirable. We sought to identify miRNA that is differentially expressed in the serum of patients with PTC.
METHODS: Serum miRNA was quantified in 31 female thyroidectomy patients: 13 with benign disease and 18 with PTC. qPCR results were compared for significant fold-changes in 175 miRNAs, against a pooled control.
RESULTS: 128 miRNA qualified for analysis. There were identifiable fold-changes in miRNA levels between benign and control, and between PTC and control. There were statistically significant fold changes in the level of four miRNAs between benign and PTC: hsa-miR-146a-5p and hsa-miR-199b-3p were down-regulated, while hsa-let7b-5p and hsa-miR-10a-5p were up-regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA is differentially expressed in the serum of patients with PTC. Serum miRNA has the potential to aid in thyroid cancer diagnosis.
Chen Z, Wang D, Gu C, et al.Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015; 40(2):541-8 [PubMed
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Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.
Kiss O, Tőkés AM, Vranic S, et al.Expression of miRNAs in adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 467(5):551-62 [PubMed
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Despite their similar histomorphologic appearance, adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast and salivary glands (bACCs and sACCs, respectively) are clinically and pathologically diverse. We studied the expression levels of 18 microRNAs (miRNAs) in bACCs and sACCs and control normal breast and salivary gland tissues (bNs and sNs, respectively) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues. miRNAs showing significant differences between the study groups were selected for target prediction. Increased expression of miR-17 and miR-20a was found in bACCs compared with bNs (p(miR-17) = 0.017 and p(miR-20a) = 0.024, respectively), while the expression level of let-7b and miR-193b was lower in sACCs compared with normal sNs (p let-7b = 0.032 and p(miR-193b) = 0.023, respectively). Expression of miR-23b and miR-27b differed between normal breast and normal salivary gland tissue (p(miR-23b) = 0.007 and p(miR-27b) = 0.024, respectively), but not between bACCs and sACCs. The potential target mRNAs CCND1 and BCL2 were identified as reported targets of let-7b, miR-193b, miR-17, and miR-20a. Expression of their corresponding proteins cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 was studied by immunohistochemistry. We found both proteins overexpressed in bACCs as well as sACCs in comparison with corresponding normal tissues. However, expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 proteins was not significantly different between bACCs and sACCs or between bNs and sNs. Although no differences in miRNA levels were found between bACCs and sACCs, in both organs, miRNA expression level was highly different between tumor tissue and control tissue.
Hung CH, Hu TH, Lu SN, et al.Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis of early hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis B virus.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(3):714-20 [PubMed
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Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process that evolves from cirrhosis or dysplastic nodule (DN), and eventually leads to overt hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Differentiation between early HCC and DN is an important issue in the clinical setting. This study aims to investigate the potential of circulating microRNA (miRNA) levels in the diagnosis of early HCC. RNA was extracted from sera of 30 chronic hepatitis B patients with pathologically proven DN and 120 age- and sex-matched patients with early HCC. Paired samples were collected from ten patients with DN who developed overt HCC in the follow-up. A panel of ten cancer-associated miRNAs was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serum levels of miR-16, miR-122, miR-221, let-7b and miR-15b were significantly lower in patients with DN than in the HCC group. When DN progressed to overt HCC, serum miR-122, miR-let-7b and miR-15b levels increased significantly (p = 0.046, 0.043 and 0.044, respectively). As a single marker, α-fetoprotein (AFP) and miR-122 as well as let-7b had the similar performance for differentiate HCC from DN. As limited to subjects with normal AFP, let-7b resulted in a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 50% in separating HCC and DN with a cutoff value of 3.5 (p = 0.001). In conclusion, miR-122 and let-7b, which are upregulated in the serum of early-HCC patients, can be useful markers for differentiating early HCC from DN in chronic hepatitis B patients.
The mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing due to the unsatisfactory specificity and sensitivity of the existing screening methods. Previous studies have focused on the role of miRNAs as CRC biomarkers. However, few studies have examined the miRNA profiles at each stage. The objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that distinguish CRC patients from normal people to prevent the misdiagnosis of patients with certain stages of CRC. We performed miRNA profiling of 1547 human miRNAs by qRT-PCR in CRC patients with stage II and stage III disease. The statistical analyses showed that there were 96 miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in CRC relative to normal tissues (P<0.05). There were 28 dysregulated miRNAs associated with separate or combined stages II and III disease. There were 25 downregulated miRNAs, including the following: miR-1, -145, -145*, -137, -363, -143, -4770, -490-5p, -9, -144*, -99a, -99b, -23b, -143*, -100, -768-3p, -24-1*, -125a-5p, -30e*, -574-3p, -126, let-7b, miR-1979, -374b, and -140-3p. We found an upregulation of miR-203, 182, and 96. Our results demonstrated that the expression of miR-1 and miR-374b was significantly decreased in each stage and may function as a biomarker of CRC. Furthermore, 20 miRNAs were dysregulated both in stage II disease without lymph node or distant metastasis and in stage II-III tumors but not in stage III tumors. Only miR-4794 was involved exclusively with stage II tumors, and there were 19 miRNAs that were dysregulated only in stage III disease with lymph node metastasis and in stage II-III disease. There were only 6 miRNAs that were uniquely dysregulated in stage III. Our results indicate that miRNA expression may be valuable in the clinic. However, large prospective studies are required to confirm the role of miRNAs. This study provides a new model for analyzing novel CRC biomarkers by considering more clinical factors.
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by inherent resistance to chemotherapy. Earlier studies demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) might be involved in the chemosensitivity of cancers. MicroRNA let-7, a putative tumor suppressor, is dysregulated in many cancers. Our study aims to investigate the exact role of let-7 in chemotherapy sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in RCC.
METHODS: The clinical significance of let-7b and let-7c expression in surgically resected specimens was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation assay and colony formation assay were used to assess the survival of 786-O cells treated with let-7b or let-7c combined with 5-FU. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Akt2 and caspase-7. Luciferase assay was used to detect the direct binding of let-7b and let-7c to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Akt2.
RESULTS: Expression of let-7b and let-7c was significantly decreased in 32 paired clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissue specimens and the dysregulation of let-7b was associated with pathological grade. Transfection of let-7b or let-7c combined with 5-FU inhibited proliferation and potentiated the antitumor efficacies of 5-FU at tolerated concentration. let-7b and let-7c suppressed the luciferase activity of reporter plasmid containing the 3'-UTR of Akt2. Overexpression of let-7b and let-7c reduced Akt2 expression, and Akt2 inhibition enhanced the sensitivity to 5-FU by affecting apoptotic pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of let-7b and let-7c was frequently decreased in clear cell renal cell carcinoma tissues. The dysregulation of let-7b and let-7c may be involved in chemoresistance of RCC cells to 5-FU by down-regulating Akt2.
KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. Let-7 is a family of tumor suppressor microRNAs that are frequently suppressed in solid tumors, where KRAS mutations are highly prevalent. In this study, we investigated the potential use of let-7 as a chemosensitizer. We found that let-7b repletion selectively sensitized KRAS mutant tumor cells to the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Transfection of let-7b mimic downregulated the expression of mutant but not wild-type KRAS. Combination of let-7b mimic with paclitaxel or gemcitabine diminished MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling concurrently, triggered the onset of apoptosis, and reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in KRAS mutant tumor cells. In addition, let-7b repletion downregulated the expression of β-tubulin III and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2, two proteins known to mediate tumor resistance to paclitaxel and gemcitabine, respectively. Let-7 may represent a new class of chemosensitizer for the treatment of KRAS mutant tumors.
Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide. Targeted therapeutics, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib, have recently emerged as clinical alternatives for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the development of therapeutic resistance is a major challenge, resulting in low 5-year survival rates. Due to their ability to act as tumor suppressors, microRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive candidates as adjuvant therapeutics for the treatment of NSCLC. In this study, we examine the ability of 2 tumor suppressor miRNAs, let-7b and miR-34a to sensitize KRAS;TP53 mutant non-small cell lung cancer cells to the action of erlotinib. Treatment with these miRNAs, individually or in combination, resulted in synergistic potentiation of the anti-proliferative effects of erlotinib. This effect was observed over a wide range of miRNA and erlotinib interactions, suggesting that let-7b and miR-34a target oncogenic pathways beyond those inhibited by EGFR. Combinatorial treatment with let-7b and miR-34a resulted in the strongest synergy with erlotinib, indicating that these miRNAs can effectively target multiple cellular pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to erlotinib. Together, our findings indicate that NSCLC cells can be effectively sensitized to erlotinib by supplementation with tumor suppressor miRNAs, and suggest that the use of combinations of miRNAs as adjuvant therapeutics for the treatment of lung cancer is a viable clinical strategy.
Mäki-Jouppila JH, Pruikkonen S, Tambe MB, et al.MicroRNA let-7b regulates genomic balance by targeting Aurora B kinase.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(6):1056-70 [PubMed
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The let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and disease pathogenesis. In cancer, loss-of-function of let-7 miRNAs has been linked to tumorigenesis via increased expression of target oncogenes. Excessive proliferation rate of tumor cells is often associated with deregulation of mitotic proteins. Here, we show that let-7b contributes to the maintenance of genomic balance via targeting Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Our results indicate that let-7b binds to Aurora B kinase 3'UTR reducing mRNA and protein expression of the kinase. In cells, excess let-7b induced mitotic defects characteristic to Aurora B perturbation including increased rate of polyploidy and multipolarity, and premature SAC inactivation that leads to forced exit from chemically induced mitotic arrest. Moreover, the frequency of aneuploid HCT-116 cells was significantly increased upon let-7b overexpression compared to controls. Interestingly, together with a chemical Aurora B inhibitor, let-7b had an additive effect on polyploidy induction in HeLa cells. In breast cancer patients, reduced let-7b expression was found to be associated with increased Aurora B expression in grade 3 tumors. Furthermore, let-7b was found downregulated in the most aggressive forms of breast cancer determined by clinicopathological parameters. Together, our findings suggest that let-7b contributes to the fidelity of cell division via regulation of Aurora B. Moreover, the loss of let-7b in aggressive tumors may drive tumorigenesis by up-regulation of Aurora B and other targets of the miRNA, which further supports the role of let-7b in tumor suppression.
Successful treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a challenge due to the desmoplastic microenvironment that promotes both tumor growth and metastasis and forms a barrier to chemotherapy. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is implicated in initiation and progression of PDAC and also contributes to desmoplasia. While Hh levels are increased in pancreatic cancer cells, levels of tumor suppressor miR-let7b, which targets several genes involved in PDAC pathogenesis, is downregulated. Therefore, our overall objective was to inhibit Hh pathway and restore miR-let7b simultaneously for synergistically treating PDAC. miR-let7b and Hh inhibitor GDC-0449 could inhibit the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, HPAF-II, T3M4, and MIA PaCa-2), and there was synergistic effect when miR-let7b and GDC-0449 were coformulated into micelles using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl- 2-carboxyl-propylenecarbonate-graft-dodecanol-graft-tetraethylene-pentamine) (mPEG-b-PCC-g-DC-g-TEPA). This copolymer self-assembled into micelles of <100 nm and encapsulated hydrophobic GDC-0449 into its core with 5% w/w drug loading and allowed complex formation between miR-let7b and its cationic pendant chains. Complete polyplex formation with miRNA was observed at the N/P ratio of 16/1. Almost 80% of GDC-0449 was released from the polyplex in a sustained manner in 2 days. miRNA in the micelle formulation was stable for up to 24 h in the presence of serum and high uptake efficiency was achieved with low cytotoxicity. This combination therapy effectively inhibited tumor growth when injected to athymic nude mice bearing ectopic tumor generated using MIA PaCa-2 cells compared to micelles carrying GDC-0449 or miR-let7b alone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed decreased tumor cell proliferation with increased apoptosis in the animals treated with miR-let7b and GDC-0449 combination.
Tian Y, Hao S, Ye M, et al.MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 458(2):307-12 [PubMed
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We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin.
Weingart MF, Roth JJ, Hutt-Cabezas M, et al.Disrupting LIN28 in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors reveals the importance of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway as a therapeutic target.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(5):3165-77 [PubMed
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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is among the most fatal of all pediatric brain tumors. Aside from loss of function mutations in the SMARCB1 (BAF47/INI1/SNF5) chromatin remodeling gene, little is known of other molecular drivers of AT/RT. LIN28A and LIN28B are stem cell factors that regulate thousands of RNAs and are expressed in aggressive cancers. We identified high-levels of LIN28A and LIN28B in AT/RT primary tumors and cell lines, with corresponding low levels of the LIN28-regulated microRNAs of the let-7 family. Knockdown of LIN28A by lentiviral shRNA in the AT/RT cell lines CHLA-06-ATRT and BT37 inhibited growth, cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis. Suppression of LIN28A in orthotopic xenograft models led to a more than doubling of median survival compared to empty vector controls (48 vs 115 days). LIN28A knockdown led to increased expression of let-7b and let-7g microRNAs and a down-regulation of KRAS mRNA. AT/RT primary tumors expressed increased mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway activity, and the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) decreased AT/RT growth and increased apoptosis. These data implicate LIN28/RAS/MAP kinase as key drivers of AT/RT tumorigenesis and indicate that targeting this pathway may be a therapeutic option in this aggressive pediatric malignancy.