Gene Summary

Gene:MS4A1; membrane spanning 4-domains A1
Aliases: B1, S7, Bp35, CD20, CVID5, MS4A2, LEU-16
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule which plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells. This family member is localized to 11q12, among a cluster of family members. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:B-lymphocyte antigen CD20
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MS4A1 (cancer-related)

Yang Q, Wang R, Wei B, et al.
Gene and microRNA Signatures Are Associated with the Development and Survival of Glioblastoma Patients.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(7):688-699 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to identify hub genes associated with the development of glioblastoma (GBM) by conducting a bioinformatic analysis. The raw gene expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and The Cancer Genome Atlas project. After the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, the functional enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted. Subsequently, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, molecular complex detection clusters, and transcriptional factor (TF)-miRNA-target regulatory network were constructed, respectively. Furthermore, the survival analysis of prognostic outcomes and genes was analyzed. In addition, the expression of key genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. A total of 884 DEGs, including 418 upregulated and downregulated genes, were identified between GBM and normal samples. The PPI network comprised a set of 3418 pairs involving 751 nodes, and

Liu C, Jiang YH, Zhao ZL, et al.
Knockdown of Histone Methyltransferase WHSC1 Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2729-2737 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is the most common malignancy of the salivary gland with a poor prognosis and survival. The present study aimed to investigate the role of histone methyltransferase WHSC1 in SACC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human SACC specimens were evaluated for WHSC1 expression by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effects of WHSC1 knockdown on SACC cells proliferation, cell cycle, clone and tumorsphere formation, and apoptosis as well as on the expression of related genes were examined. A xenograft mouse model of SACC was used to evaluate the in vivo effects of WHSC1 knockdown on SACC tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: WHSC1 expression was up-regulated in human SACC tissues (p<0.01). WHSC1 knockdown in SACC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, clone and tumorsphere formation (p<0.05). Cell distribution at the S and G
CONCLUSION: Knockdown of WHSC1 inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and affected tumorigenesis in SACC.

Heo SK, Noh EK, Jeong YK, et al.
Radotinib inhibits mitosis entry in acute myeloid leukemia cells via suppression of Aurora kinase A expression.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(5):1010428319848612 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aurora kinases play critical roles in regulating several processes pivotal for mitosis. Radotinib, which is approved in South Korea as a second-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia, inhibits the tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. However, the effects of radotinib on Aurora kinase expression in acute myeloid leukemia are not well studied. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of acute myeloid leukemia cells was increased by radotinib treatment. Radotinib significantly decreased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1, the key regulators of G2/M phase, and inhibited the expression of Aurora kinase A and Aurora kinase B in acute myeloid leukemia cells. In addition, radotinib decreased the expression and binding between p-Aurora kinase A and TPX2, which are required for spindle assembly. Furthermore, it reduced Aurora kinase A and polo-like kinase 1 phosphorylation and suppressed the expression of α-, β-, and γ-tubulin in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, radotinib significantly suppressed the key regulators of G2/M phase including cyclin B1 and Aurora kinase A in a xenograft animal model. Therefore, our results suggest that radotinib can abrogate acute myeloid leukemia cell growth both in vitro and in vivo and may serve as a candidate agent or a chemosensitizer for treating acute myeloid leukemia.

Zhang X, Zhou F
Successful conservative treatment of primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT type): A case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(16):e15331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] type) is a rare histological type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); therefore, this disease is challenging to diagnosis and treatment.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old (gravidity 2, parity 2) female was admitted complaining of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding for 2 months.
DIAGNOSES: An ultrasound revealed a slightly thickened endometrium. Histology revealed a dense lymphoid infiltrate in the endometrium, which was suggestive of an NHL. The atypical lymphocytes were positive for CD20 and BCL-2. Moreover, the PCR demonstrated monoclonal heavy chain gene rearrangement. Taken together, the diagnosis of primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT type) was established. According to Ann Arbor criteria, the disease was staged IEA.
INTERVENTIONS: Dilatation and curettage was performed, and no additional surgery or radiotherapy and chemotherapy was administered.
OUTCOMES: The patient was alive with no evidence of cancer for ≥41 months.
LESSONS: Primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT Type) is a very rare indolent tumor, and its prognosis seems to be good. Thus, conservative treatment and no further therapy were suggested based on the tumor biology.

Bonanno L, Zulato E, Pavan A, et al.
LKB1 and Tumor Metabolism: The Interplay of Immune and Angiogenic Microenvironment in Lung Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liver kinase B1 (

Dong F, Yang Q, Wu Z, et al.
Identification of survival-related predictors in hepatocellular carcinoma through integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108856 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patient survival time generally reflects the tumor progression and represents a key clinical parameter. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize the prognosis-associated molecular alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, copy-number changes, gene mutations, mRNA expression, and reverse phase protein arrays data in HCC samples profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were obtained. Tumors were then stratified into two groups based on the clinical outcome and identified genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic traits associated to HCC prognosis. We found that several copy number amplifications and deletions can discriminate HCC patients with poor prognosis from those with better prognosis. Mutated DNAH8 showed a worse prognosis-specific pattern and correlated with a reduced disease-free survival in HCC. By integrating RNA sequencing data, we found that HCC samples with poor prognosis are consistently associated with the up-regulation of cell cycle process, such as chromosome separation, DNA replication, cytokinesis, and etc. At the proteomic level, seven proteins were significantly enriched in samples with poor prognosis, including acetylated α-Tubulin, p62-LCK-ligand, ARID1 A, MSH6, B-Raf, Cyclin B1, and PEA15. Acetylated α-Tubulin was frequently expressed in HCC tissues and acted as a promising prognostic factor for HCC. These alterations lay a foundation for developing relevant therapeutic strategies and improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of HCC.

Liu S, Han Z, Trivett AL, et al.
Cryptotanshinone has curative dual anti-proliferative and immunotherapeutic effects on mouse Lewis lung carcinoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(7):1059-1071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality with very limited effective therapy. Screening of a variety of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for their capacity to inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells and to induce the in vitro maturation of human DCs led to the identification of cryptotanshinone (CT), a compound purified from the TCM Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Here, CT was shown to inhibit the proliferation of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells by upregulating p53, downregulating cyclin B1 and Cdc2, and, consequently, inducing G2/M cell-cycle arrest of LLC cells. In addition, CT promoted maturation of mouse and human DCs with upregulation of costimulatory and MHC molecules and stimulated DCs to produce TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-12p70, but not IL-10 in vitro. CT-induced maturation of DCs depended on MyD88 and also involved the activation of NF-κB, p38, and JNK. CT was effective in the treatment of LLC tumors and, when used in combination with low doses of anti-PD-L1, cured LLC-bearing mice with the induction of subsequent anti-LLC long-term specific immunity. CT treatment promoted T-cell infiltration and elevated the expression of genes typical of Th1 polarization in LLC tumor tissue. The therapeutic effect of CT and low doses of anti-PD-L1 was reduced by depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells. This paper provides the first report that CT induces immunological antitumor activities and may provide a new promising antitumor immunotherapeutic.

Tsagozis P, Augsten M, Zhang Y, et al.
An immunosuppressive macrophage profile attenuates the prognostic impact of CD20-positive B cells in human soft tissue sarcoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):927-936 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immune cells can regulate disease progression and response to treatment in multiple tumor types, but their activities in human soft tissue sarcoma are poorly characterized.
METHODS: Marker-defined immune cell subsets were characterized from a tumor microenvironmental perspective in two independent cohorts of human soft tissue sarcoma by multiplex IHC, quantitative PCR and/or bioinformatics.
RESULTS: B cell profiling revealed a prognostic role for CD20 protein (cohort 1, 33 patients) and MS4A1 gene expression (cohort 2, 265 patients). Multiplex IHC and gene correlation analysis supported a role in antigen presentation, immune cell differentiation and T cell activation. The prognostic role of MS4A1 expressing B cells was only observed in an IL10
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of CD20/MS4A1 expression in soft tissue sarcoma merits further attention as a promising candidate prognostic tool for survival, but not in patients with a pronounced immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are ubiquitous and polarized toward a protumoral phenotype. This provides a rationale for further studies on B cell function and immunotherapy targeting M2-polarized macrophages.

Raab M, Sanhaji M, Zhou S, et al.
Blocking Mitotic Exit of Ovarian Cancer Cells by Pharmaceutical Inhibition of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex Reduces Chromosomal Instability.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(4):363-375 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paclitaxel is a frontline drug for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, following paclitaxel-platinum based chemotherapy, tumor recurrence occurs in most ovarian cancer patients. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer and represents genetic variation fueling tumor adaptation to cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs. In this study, our Kaplan-Meier analysis including 263 ovarian cancer patients (stages I/II) revealed that high Polo-like kinase (PLK) 1 expression correlates with bad prognosis. To evaluate the role of PLK1 as potential cancer target within a combinatorial trial, we induced strong mitotic arrest in ovarian cancer cell lines by synergistically co-targeting microtubules (paclitaxel) and PLK1 (BI6727) followed by pharmaceutical inhibition of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC/C) using proTAME. In short- and long-term experiments, this triple treatment strongly activated apoptosis in cell lines and primary ovarian cells derived from cancer patients. Mechanistically, BI6727/paclitaxel/proTAME stabilize Cyclin B1 and trigger mitotic arrest, which initiates mitochondrial apoptosis by inactivation of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins, followed by activation of caspase-dependent effector pathways. This triple treatment prevented endoreduplication and reduced CIN, two mechanisms that are associated with aggressive tumors and the acquisition of drug resistance. This "two-punch strategy" (strong mitotic arrest followed by blocking mitotic exit) has important implications for developing paclitaxel-based combinatorial treatments in ovarian cancer.

Suh SS, Hong JM, Kim EJ, et al.
Antarctic freshwater microalga,
Int J Med Sci. 2019; 16(2):189-197 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammation triggered by the innate immune system is a strategy to protect organisms from the risk of environmental infection. However, it has recently become clear that inflammation can cause a variety of human diseases, including cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of the Antarctic freshwater microalgae,

Fisher RC, Bellamkonda K, Alex Molina L, et al.
Disrupting Inflammation-Associated CXCL8-CXCR1 Signaling Inhibits Tumorigenicity Initiated by Sporadic- and Colitis-Colon Cancer Stem Cells.
Neoplasia. 2019; 21(3):269-281 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysfunctional inflammatory pathways are associated with an increased risk of cancer, including colorectal cancer. We have previously identified and enriched for a self-renewing, colon cancer stem cell (CCSC) subpopulation in primary sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC) and a related subpopulation in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients defined by the stem cell marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Subsequent work demonstrated that CCSC-initiated tumors are dependent on the inflammatory chemokine, CXCL8, a known inducer of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion. Here, we use RNA interference to target CXCL8 and its receptor, CXCR1, to establish the existence of a functional signaling pathway promoting tumor growth initiated by sporadic and colitis CCSCs. Knocking down either CXCL8 or CXCR1 had a dramatic effect on inhibiting both in vitro proliferation and angiogenesis. Likewise, tumorigenicity was significantly inhibited due to reduced levels of proliferation and angiogenesis. Decreased expression of cycle cell regulators cyclins D1 and B1 along with increased p21 levels suggested that the reduction in tumor growth is due to dysregulation of cell cycle progression. Therapeutically targeting the CXCL8-CXCR1 signaling pathway has the potential to block sustained tumorigenesis by inhibiting both CCSC- and pCCSC-induced proliferation and angiogenesis.

He Y, Bouwstra R, Wiersma VR, et al.
Cancer cell-expressed SLAMF7 is not required for CD47-mediated phagocytosis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD47 is a prominent new target in cancer immunotherapy, with antagonistic antibodies currently being evaluated in clinical trials. For effective evaluation of this strategy it is crucial to identify which patients are suited for CD47-targeted therapy. In this respect, expression of the pro-phagocytic signal SLAMF7 on both macrophages and cancer cells was recently reported to be a requisite for CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that in fact SLAMF7 expression on cancer cells is not required and does not impact on CD47 antibody therapy. Moreover, SLAMF7 also does not impact on phagocytosis induction by CD20 antibody rituximab nor associates with overall survival of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma patients. In contrast, expression of CD47 negatively impacts on overall and progression free survival. In conclusion, cancer cell expression of SLAMF7 is not required for phagocytosis and, in contrast to CD47 expression, should not be used as selection criterion for CD47-targeted therapy.

Bhatt V, Khayati K, Hu ZS, et al.
Autophagy modulates lipid metabolism to maintain metabolic flexibility for
Genes Dev. 2019; 33(3-4):150-165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) promotes cancer cell proliferation but also leads to decreased metabolic plasticity in dealing with energy crises. Autophagy is a protective process involving self-cannibalization to maintain cellular energy homeostasis during nutrient deprivation. We developed a mouse model for

Zhao X, Reebye V, Hitchen P, et al.
Mechanisms involved in the activation of C/EBPα by small activating RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(18):3446-3457 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is generally accompanied by high mortality and low cure rate. CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (CEBPs) are transcriptional regulators that play a key role in maintaining liver function. Altered expression of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ occurs in many tumours including HCC. saRNAs are small double-stranded RNAs that enhance target gene expression at the transcriptional level. In this report, we activate CEPBA with saRNAs and suppress CEBPB with siRNAs in cells that represent three different degrees of HCC. We performed functional assays to investigate the effects of enhancing C/EBPα and its downstream targets, p21 and albumin across these lines. We also used Mass-spectrometry (MS) subsequent to a ChIP pull-down assay to characterise the components of the protein complex involved in regulating saRNA function. Putative saRNA interacting protein candidates that were identified by MS were knocked-down with siRNAs to investigate its impact on saRNA activity. We confirmed CEBPA-saRNA decreased proliferation and migration in the differentiated lines (HepG3/Hep3B). The undifferentiated line (PLCPRF5) showed saRNA-induced increase in CEBPA but with no loss in proliferation. This effect was reversed when CEBPB was suppressed with CEBPB-siRNA. When interrogating saRNA mode of action; three saRNA interacting proteins, CTR9, HnRNPA2/B1 and DDX5 were identified by MS. Targeted knock-down of these two proteins (by siRNA) abrogated saRNA activity. This study provides insight into how different HCC lines are affected by CEBPA-saRNAs and that endogenous abundance of CEBPB and saRNA accessory proteins may dictate efficacy of CEBPA-saRNA when used in a therapeutic context.

Ramírez-Rivera S, Bernal G
Music Is Capable of Inducing Changes in Gene Expression in Gastric Cancer Cells.
J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019; 50(1):175-180 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Music has recognized beneficial effects on cancer patients; however, very little is known about the molecular processes which produce these benefits. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of music on proliferation and gene expression in gastric cancer cells.
METHODS: AGS gastric cancer cells were exposed to metal and classical music, and subsequently cell proliferation and expression of genes associated with apoptosis and cell-cycle control were evaluated.
RESULTS: Proliferation of AGS cells increased when exposed to metal music, but not when exposed to classical music. Gene expression of caspase-3 and 8 and cyclin B1 increased in response to both musical genres; classical music repressed the expression of p53, and metal music repressed the expression of PUMA.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate music as a modulator of gene expression in a cancer cell line. Additional experiments are required to better understand the mechanisms of how different musical genres can induce changes in gene expression.

Wang L, Li H, Zhen Z, et al.
CXCL17 promotes cell metastasis and inhibits autophagy via the LKB1-AMPK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gene. 2019; 690:129-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
As an innovative CXC chemokine, CXCL17 has a mysterious clinical significance and modulating influence on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study examined the activity and mechanisms of CXCL17 on growth, autophagy, and metastasis of HCC. Upregulation of CXCL17 expression was observed in HCC, which is correlated with poorer histological stages and outcomes. Elevation of CXCL17 expression promoted proliferation, invasion, and migration and decreased LC-3B biosynthesis and p62 protein reduction, which are known to stimulate autophagy. However, silencing of CXCL17 inhibited the development of these cancerous phenotypes. Furthermore, AMPK was stimulated after knockdown of CXCL17. This stimulation, as well as stimulation of autophagy was caused by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), whose function is induced by knockdown CXCL17. Additionally, knockdown of CXCL17 enhanced nuclear translocation of LKB1. Altogether, these findings suggest that elevated CXCL17 expression in HCC promotes malignant reactions in malignant cells. Our research offers new evidence that chemokine CXCL17 reinforces malignant invasion and suppresses autophagy via the LKB1-AMPK pathway.

Tari K, Shamsi Z, Reza Ghafari H, et al.
The role of the genetic abnormalities, epigenetic and microRNA in the prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):261-267 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is increased proliferation of B-cells with peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement, which is usually observed in older people. Genetic mutations, epigenetic changes and miRs play a role in CLL pathogenesis. Del 11q, del l17q, del 6q, trisomy 12, p53 and IgVH mutations are the most important genetic changes in CLL. Deletion of miR-15a and miR-16a can increase bcl2 gene expression, miR-29 and miR-181 deletions decrease the expression of TCL1, and miR-146a deletion prevents tumor metastasis. Epigenetic changes such as hypo- and hypermethylation, ubiquitination, hypo- and hyperacetylation of gene promoters involved in CLL pathogenesis can also play a role in CLL. Expression of CD38 and ZAP70, presence or absence of mutation in IgVH and P53 mutation are among the factors involved in CLL prognosis. Use of monoclonal antibodies against surface markers of B-cells like anti-CD20 as well as tyrosine kinase inhibitors are the most important therapeutic approaches for CLL.

Kim KH, Cheong HJ, Lee MY, et al.
Bortezomib Is More Effective to Side Population of RPMI8226 Myeloma Cells than Classical Anti-myeloma Agents.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(1):127-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Cytotoxic chemotherapy-based treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) is not curative, and the disease eventually recurs. This is partially because although currently available anti-MM strategies are effective in targeting the bulk of tumor cells, they do not target the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cancer stem cells. This study investigated the prevalence and biological functions of side population (SP) cells in MM cell lines including RPMI8226, ARH77, MM.1R and IM 9.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flow cytometry-based Hoechst 33342 staining was used to evaluate the existence of SP cells. In addition, the ability of SP cells to regenerate the original population was determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of SP cells was heterogeneous. Most cell lines (ARH77, IM9, and MM.1R) contained fewer than 1% SP cells; however, RPMI8226 contained approximately 10% SP cells. Sorted SP cells showed a higher proliferative ability and clonogenicity than the MP in the RPMI8226 myeloma cell line. The activity of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), which is associated with high rates of proliferation, was higher in SP cells. However, the expression of specific surface markers such as cluster of differentiation (CD)138, CD34, CD38, CD19, CD20, and CD27 did not differ between SP and MP cells. Bortezomib was the only agent that significantly affected proliferation of both SP and MP cells.
CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated that the SP fraction of myeloma cells possessed clonogenic tumor-initiating potential and revealed new mechanisms of action for bortezomib on SP cells.

Jendoubi-Ferchichi M, Satouri L, Ghoul F, et al.
Phylogeny and Classification of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)16 and HPV18 Variants Based on E6 and L1 genes in Tunisian Women with Cervical Lesions
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(12):3361-3366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are the main etiological factors for cervical cancer. HPV16 and HPV18 are generally the most common forms associated with development of high-grade cervical lesions. This study was undertaken to identify intratypic variants of HPV16 and HPV18 among women with cervical lesions in Tunisia. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from cervical samples collected from 49 women. using a PureLinkTM Genomic DNA mini Kit (Invitrogen). E6 and L1 open reading frames (ORF) were amplified by PCR and viral DNA amplicons were subjected to automated sequencing using Big Dye Terminators technology (Applied Biosystems). The obtained sequences were analyzed using an appropriate software program to allow phylogenetic trees to be generated. Results: HPV16 and HPV18 were detected in 15 and 5 cases, respectively. HPV16 E6 sequences clustered with the European German lineage (A2) whereas one isolate diverged differently in the L1 region and clustered with the African sub-lineage (B1). HPV 18 E6 sequences clustered with the European sub-lineage (A1) but L1 sequences clustered as a new clade which diverged from A1-A5. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 sequences in women with cervical lesions in Tunisia is mainly related to European epidemiological conditions and point to the presence of recombinant HPV forms.

Belluti S, Orteca G, Semeghini V, et al.
Potent Anti-Cancer Properties of Phthalimide-Based Curcumin Derivatives on Prostate Tumor Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is commonly treated with chemotherapy, whose effect is less than satisfactory. This raised the need for novel agents for the treatment of prostate cancer. In the present study, five phthalimide-based curcumin derivatives were synthesized and completely characterized to assess improved stability, pharmacodynamics, and radical scavenging ability. To investigate the potential application in anti-cancer therapy, the anti-proliferative activity of the synthesized molecules was determined on aggressive prostate tumor cells. We demonstrated that the K3F21 derivative has increased potency compared to curcumin, in terms of GI50, anti-proliferative and anti-migrating activities. K3F21 inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of prostate cancer cells by altering the expression of key genes controlling cell proliferation, such as Cylins D1, B1 and B2, and apoptosis, among which Puma, Noxa, and Bcl-2 family members. Finally, the anti-cancer activity of K3F21 was demonstrated by the analysis of cancer-associated PI3K/AKT, ERK, and p38 signaling pathways.

Chen ZX, Zou XP, Yan HQ, et al.
Identification of putative drugs for gastric adenocarcinoma utilizing differentially expressed genes and connectivity map.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(2):1004-1015 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is a challenging disease with dim prognosis even after surgery; hence, novel treatments for GAC are in urgent need. The aim of the present study was to explore new potential compounds interfering with the key pathways related to GAC progression. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GAC and adjacent tissues were identified from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Genotype‑Tissue Expression (GTEx) database. Connectivity Map (CMap) was performed to screen candidate compounds for treating GAC. Subsequently, pathways affected by compounds were overlapped with those enriched by the DEGs to further identify compounds which had anti‑GAC potential. A total of 843 DEGs of GAC were identified. Via Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, 13 pathways were significantly enriched. Moreover, 78 compounds with markedly negative correlations with DEGs were revealed in CMap database (P<0.05 and Enrichment <0). Subpathways of cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways, and core genes of these compounds, cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and CDC6, were identified. This study further revealed seven compounds that may be effective against GAC; in particular methylbenzethonium chloride and alexidine have never yet been reported for GAC treatment. In brief, the candidate drugs identified in this study may provide new options to improve the treatment of patients with GAC. However, the biological effects of these drugs need further investigation.

Liu W, Ouyang S, Zhou Z, et al.
Identification of genes associated with cancer progression and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma: Analyses based on microarray from Oncomine and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(2):e00528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for approximately 40% of all lung cancer patients. There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression in LUAD and to identify useful biomarkers to predict prognosis.
METHODS: In this study, Oncomine database was used to identify potential genes contributed to cancer progression. Bioinformatics analysis including pathway enrichment and text mining was used to explain the potential roles of identified genes in LUAD. The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to analyze the association of gene expression with survival result.
RESULTS: Our results indicated that 80 genes were significantly dysregulated in LUAD according to four microarrays covering 356 cases of LUAD and 164 cases of normal lung tissues. Twenty genes were consistently and stably dysregulated by more than twofold. Ten of 20 genes had a relationship with overall survival or disease-free survival in a cohort of 516 LUAD patients, and 19 genes were associated with tumor stage, gender, age, lymph node, or smoking. Low expression of AGER and high expression of CCNB1 were specifically associated with poor survival.
CONCLUSION: Our findings implicate AGER and CCNB1 might be potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis targets for LUAD.

Suzuki H, Yamamoto E, Yamano HO, et al.
Integrated Analysis of the Endoscopic, Pathological and Molecular Characteristics of Colorectal Tumorigenesis.
Digestion. 2019; 99(1):33-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In addition to the well-characterized adenoma-carcinoma sequence, the serrated neoplasia pathway is now recognized as an alternative pathway for CRC development.
SUMMARY: Through analysis of the colonoscopic, pathological, and molecular features of colorectal tumors, we identified a novel microsurface structure characteristic of serrated lesions. The Type II-Open (Type II-O) pit pattern is highly specific to sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps), and Type-II-O-positive tumors frequently exhibit v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutation and 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) island hypermethylation. By screening DNA methylation associated with the development of serrated lesions, we detected methylation of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-related modular calcium binding 1 (SMOC1) in traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). Epigenetic silencing of SMOC1 is prevalent among TSAs but it is rarely observed in SSA/Ps, which suggests SMOC1 could be a useful diagnostic marker of serrated lesions. We also searched for epigenetic alterations associated with the growth pattern of colorectal tumors and found that methylation of neurotensin receptor 1 is associated with lateral and non-invasive tumor growth. Key Message: Through the summarized studies, we have been able to identify novel morphological and molecular features that could contribute to a better understanding of colorectal tumors and to improved clinical diagnosis.

Payandeh Z, Bahrami AA, Hoseinpoor R, et al.
The applications of anti-CD20 antibodies to treat various B cells disorders.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:2415-2426 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 (called CD20) is known as an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein which is expressed on the surface of all B-cells. CD20 is involved in the regulation of trans-membrane Ca

Liu F, Zu X, Xie X, et al.
Ethyl gallate as a novel ERK1/2 inhibitor suppresses patient-derived esophageal tumor growth.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(4):533-543 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ethyl gallate (EG) is a phenolic compound that is isolated from walnut kernels, euphorbia fischeriana, and galla rhois. It has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, EG's effects on esophageal cancer have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we report that EG is a novel ERK1/2 inhibitor that suppresses esophageal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. EG suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent esophageal cancer cell growth. The results of in vitro kinase assays and cell-based assays indicated that EG directly binds to and inhibits ERK1 and ERK2 activities and their downstream signaling. Additionally, EG's inhibitory effect on cell growth is resistant to the re-activation of ERK1/2. EG increased G2/M phase cell cycle by reducing the expression of cyclin A2 and cyclin B1. The compound also stimulated cellular apoptosis through the activation of caspases 3 and 7 and inhibition of BCL2 expression. Notably, EG inhibited patient-derived esophageal tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. These results indicate that EG is an ERK1/2 inhibitor that could be useful for treating esophageal cancer.

Chen Y, Liu Y, Zhou Y, You H
Molecular mechanism of LKB1 in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(2):1035-1044 [PubMed] Related Publications
The occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with a variety of oncogenes and tumor‑suppressor genes. As a tumor‑suppressor gene, the liver kinase B1 gene (LKB1, also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) is closely related to tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of LKB1 on the invasion and metastasis of CRC, and to explore its molecular mechanisms. By detecting the expression of LKB1 in CRC, we can provide a reference index for diagnosing the depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemistry results indicated that LKB1 expression was strongly positive in normal colon tissue and that it inhibited the production of CRC. Immunocytochemical staining showed that the expression of LKB1 was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma and mucinous adenocarcinoma tissues, and this reduced expression induced the invasion and metastasis of CRC. In the present study, LKB1 small interfering RNA (LKB1 siRNA) was transfected into LoVo cells to observe the effect of LKB1 on the invasion and metastasis of CRC. LKB1 silencing decreased the phosphorylation of AMP‑activated protein kinase (p‑AMPK) in its downstream pathway, which increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (p‑AKT) and promoted tumor cell proliferation, enhancing the migration and invasion of CRC. The present study also explored the role of metformin in the LKB1 signaling pathway. Metformin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of CRC by activating p‑AMPK, thereby inhibiting the activation of p‑AKT. These results suggest that LKB1 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of CRC by activating AMPK, negatively regulating the AKT signaling pathway and regulating gene expression. Mutation or deletion of LKB1 is expected to be a novel therapeutic target or clinical biomarker for the prevention of the invasion and metastasis of CRC.

Chen M, Yin X, Lu C, et al.
Mahanine induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell migration, invasion and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway in glioma cells and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 299:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are among the most frequent types of primary malignancies in the central nervous system. The main treatment for glioma includes surgical resection followed by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite the availability of several treatments, the average survival for patients with glioma at advanced stages still remains 16 months only. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for novel and more efficient drug candidates for the treatment of glioma. In the current study the anticancer activity of Mahanine was evaluated against a panel of glioma cells. The results revealed that Mahanine exerted significant anticancer effects on the glioma HS 683 cells with an IC

Li Q, Zhang Y, Jiang Q
MFAP5 suppression inhibits migration/invasion, regulates cell cycle and induces apoptosis via promoting ROS production in cervical cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 507(1-4):51-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer among female. Microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein, and is confirmed to be involved in cell signaling during microfibril assembly, elastinogenesis and cell survival. However, the role of MFAP5 in cervical cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. In the study, MFAP5 was over-expressed in human cervical cancers, and in different cervical cancer cell lines. Patients suffering from cervical cancer with low MFAP5 expression exhibited better survival rate. Suppressing MFAP5 in cervical cancer cells markedly reduced the cell proliferation, migration and invasion by modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related signaling pathway. In addition, MFAP5 knockdown induced large number of cells distributed in G2/M phase, along with reduced Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) expressions, and enhanced p21 and p53 levels. Moreover, apoptosis was highly induced by MFAP5 silence through reducing Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 expressions, and promoting Bax, cleaved Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) expressions in cervical cancer cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production levels were also higher in MFAP5-knockdown cells, along with Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Importantly, we found that MFAP5 knockdown-inhibited cervical cancer cell growth was dependent on ROS production. Finally, the depletion of MFAP5 prevented cervical cancer progression in vivo. In summary, our study identified a critical role played by MFAP5 in the progression of cervical cancer and the potential mechanisms by which exerted its effects, indicating that targeting MFAP5-related pathways could be conducive to the therapies for cervical cancer.

Djureinovic D, Dodig-Crnković T, Hellström C, et al.
Detection of autoantibodies against cancer-testis antigens in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 125:157-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are defined as proteins that are specifically expressed in testis or placenta and their expression is frequently activated in cancer. Due to their ability to induce an immune response, CTAs may serve as suitable targets for immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is reactivity against CTAs in the plasma of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients through the detection of circulating antibodies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To comprehensively analyze autoantibodies against CTAs the multiplexing capacities of suspension bead array technology was used. Bead arrays were created with 120 protein fragments, representing 112 CTAs. Reactivity profiles were measured in plasma samples from 133 NSCLC patients and 57 cases with benign lung diseases.
RESULTS: Altogether reactivity against 69 antigens, representing 81 CTAs, was demonstrated in at least one of the analyzed samples. Twenty-nine of the antigens (45 CTAs) demonstrated exclusive reactivity in NSCLC samples. Reactivity against cancer-testis antigen family 47; member A (CT47A) genes, P antigen family member 3 (PAGE3), variable charge X-linked (VCX), melanoma antigen family B1 (MAGEB1), lin-28 homolog B (LIN28B) and chromosome 12 open reading frame 54 (C12orf54) were only found in NSCLC patients at a frequency of 1%-4%. The presence of autoantibodies towards these six antigens was confirmed in an independent group of 34 NSCLC patients.
CONCLUSION: We identified autoantibodies against CTAs in the plasma of lung cancer patients. The reactivity pattern of autoantibodies was higher in cancer patients compared to the benign group, stable over time, but low in frequency of occurrence. The findings suggest that some CTAs are immunogenic and that these properties can be utilized as immune targets.

Liu A, Zeng S, Lu X, et al.
Overexpression of G2 and S phase-expressed-1 contributes to cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via regulating p53/FoxM1/CCNB1 pathway and predicts poor prognosis in bladder cancer.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 123:322-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer is one of the most common urogenital tumors worldwide. The specific function and molecular mechanism of GTSE1 in bladder cancer remain unknown. In the present study, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to identify GTSE1 expression in bladder cancer tissues and cells, and immunohistochemical assays were conducted to investigate GTSE1 expression in tissue microarray. Regression analyses explored the relationship between GTSE1 expression and pathological characteristics. A series of functional tests were performed to observe the effects of GTSE1 knockdown or overexpression, and the related mechanism was also performed. GTSE1 expression was significantly higher in bladder cancer tissues; overexpression of GTSE1 was positively associated with disease recurrence history, lymph node invasion, and progression. Patients with higher GTSE1 expression were more likely to experience shorter survival time, and GTSE1 expression served as a prognostic factor for the disease progression. Knockdown of GTSE1 obviously suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity whereas increasing GTSE1 led to the opposite trend, which suggested that GTSE1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. GTSE1 overexpression in bladder cancer might participate in the regulation of FoxM1/CCNB1 expression via the induction of the transfer of p53 to cytoplasm.

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