Gene Summary

Gene:KAT6B; lysine acetyltransferase 6B
Aliases: qkf, MORF, MOZ2, GTPTS, MYST4, ZC2HC6B, querkopf
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a histone acetyltransferase and component of the MOZ/MORF protein complex. In addition to its acetyltransferase activity, the encoded protein has transcriptional activation activity in its N-terminal end and transcriptional repression activity in its C-terminal end. This protein is necessary for RUNX2-dependent transcriptional activation and could be involved in brain development. Mutations have been found in patients with genitopatellar syndrome. A translocation of this gene and the CREBBP gene results in acute myeloid leukemias. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone acetyltransferase KAT6B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • Translocation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • RNA Interference
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Genotype
  • Retroperitoneal Neoplasms
  • Phenotype
  • Mutation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Leiomyoma
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 10
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Acetylation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Genetic Variation
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Epigenetics
  • Gene Deletion
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Replication
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • FISH
  • Histones
  • proto-oncogene protein Pbx3
  • Mediator Complex
  • Karyotyping
  • Transfection
  • Phosphorylation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • HMGA Proteins
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Uterine Cancer
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KAT6B (cancer-related)

Ordulu Z
Fibroids: Genotype and Phenotype.
Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 59(1):25-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroids represent a major public health care problem as the most prevalent pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age and as the leading cause of gynecologic surgeries in the United States. The recent advances in the genomic technologies including genome-wide association studies and high-throughput sequencing provide insight into their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Understanding the molecular basis of fibroids may facilitate development of effective targeted treatment options of this very common disease.

Simó-Riudalbas L, Pérez-Salvia M, Setien F, et al.
KAT6B Is a Tumor Suppressor Histone H3 Lysine 23 Acetyltransferase Undergoing Genomic Loss in Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(18):3936-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent efforts to sequence human cancer genomes have highlighted that point mutations in genes involved in the epigenetic setting occur in tumor cells. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis, where little is known about the genetic events related to its development. Herein, we have identified the presence of homozygous deletions of the candidate histone acetyltransferase KAT6B, and the loss of the corresponding transcript, in SCLC cell lines and primary tumors. Furthermore, we show, in vitro and in vivo, that the depletion of KAT6B expression enhances cancer growth, while its restoration induces tumor suppressor-like features. Most importantly, we demonstrate that KAT6B exerts its tumor-inhibitory role through a newly defined type of histone H3 Lys23 acetyltransferase activity.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, Heim S
Fusion of the genes EWSR1 and PBX3 in retroperitoneal leiomyoma with t(9;22)(q33;q12).
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0124288 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retroperitoneal leiomyoma is a rare benign smooth muscle tumor almost exclusively found in women and with histopathological features similar to uterine leiomyomas. The pathogenesis of retroperitoneal leiomyoma is unclear and next to nothing is known about the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of the tumor. We present here a retroperitoneal leiomyoma with a t(9;22)(q33;q12) as the sole karyotypic aberration. The translocation resulted in an EWSR1-PBX3 fusion gene in which exon 9 of EWSR1 (nucleotide 1320 accession number NM_013986 version 3) was in-frame fused to exon 5 of PBX3 (nucleotide 824 accession number NM_006195 version 5). The EWSR1-PBX3 fusion transcript codes for a 529 amino acids long chimeric EWSR1-PBX3 protein which contains the N-terminal transactivation part of EWSR1 and the homeodomain of PBX3. The present study, together with our previous finding of a retroperitoneal leiomyoma with t(10;17)(q22;q21) as the sole karyotypic aberration and a KAT6B-KANSL1 fusion gene, indicates that retroperitoneal leiomyomas may be characterized by fusion genes coding for chimeric proteins. However, cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity exists in these tumors and it is too early to tell how many and which different pathways lead to retroperitoneal leiomyomagenesis.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, Heim S
Novel KAT6B-KANSL1 fusion gene identified by RNA sequencing in retroperitoneal leiomyoma with t(10;17)(q22;q21).
PLoS One. 2015; 10(1):e0117010 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retroperitoneal leiomyoma is a rare type of benign smooth muscle tumor almost exclusively found in women and with histopathological features similar to uterine leiomyomas. The pathogenesis of retroperitoneal leiomyoma is unclear and next to nothing is known about the cytogenetics and molecular genetics of the tumor. Here we present the first cytogenetically analyzed retroperitoneal leiomyoma. It had a t(10;17)(q22;q21) as the sole chromosomal abnormality. Using RNA-Sequencing and the 'grep' command to search the fastq files of the sequence data we found that the translocation resulted in fusion of the genes KAT6B (10q22) with KANSL1 (17q21). RT-PCR together with direct (Sanger) sequencing verified the presence of a KAT6B-KANSL1 fusion transcript. No reciprocal KANSL1-KAT6B transcript was amplified suggesting that it was either absent or unexpressed. The KAT6B-KANSL1 fusion transcript consists of exons 1 to 3 of KAT6B and exons 11 to 15 of KANSL1, is 3667 bp long, has a 1398 bp long open reading frame, and codes for a 466 amino acid residue protein. The corresponding KAT6B-KANSL1 protein contains the NEMM domain (including the linker histone H1/H5, domain H15) of KAT6B and the PEHE domain of KANSL1. The function of the fusion protein might be regulation of transcription with an affinity for chromatin (linker histone H1/H5) and interaction with the HAT domain of KAT8 (PEHE domain). The tumor expressed HMGA2 and HMGA1 even though 12q14-15 and 6p looked normal by G-banding analysis. The tumor also expressed MED12 in the absence of exon 2 mutations. Overall, the data show that the examined retroperitoneal leiomyoma resembles a subset of uterine leiomyomas in terms of histology and genetics.

Leal MF, Mazzotti TK, Calcagno DQ, et al.
Deregulated expression of Nucleophosmin 1 in gastric cancer and its clinicopathological implications.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014; 14:9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The process of gastric carcinogenesis still remains to be elucidated. The identification of genes related to this process may help to reduce mortality rates through early diagnosis and the development of new anticancer therapies. Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) acts in ribosome biogenesis, centrosome duplication, maintenance of genomic stability, and embryonic development. Recently, NPM1 has been implicated in the tumorigenesis processes. Here, we evaluated NPM1 gene and protein expression in gastric tumors and in corresponding non-neoplastic gastric samples.
METHODS: NPM1 protein expression was determined by Western blot in 17 pairs of gastric tumors and corresponding non-neoplastic gastric tissue. The protein immunoreactivity was observed in 12 tumor samples. mRNA expression was evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 22 pairs of gastric tumors and in matched non-neoplastic gastric tissue.
RESULTS: NPM1 protein expression was significantly reduced in gastric cancer samples compared to matched non-neoplastic gastric samples (P = 0.019). The protein level of NPM1 was reduced at least 1.5-fold in 35% of tumors compared to paired non-neoplastic gastric tissue. However, NPM1 immunoreactivity was detected in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells, including in intestinal metaplastic, gastritis and inflammatory cells. NPM1 was mainly expressed in nucleus and nucleolus subcellular compartments. The staining intensity and the percentage of immunoreactive cells varied among the studied cases. The NPM1 mRNA level was reduced at least 1.5-fold in 45.5% of samples and increased in 27.3% of samples. An inverse correlation between protein and mRNA expression was detected (r = -0.509, P = 0.037). Intestinal-type gastric cancer presented higher mRNA levels than diffuse-type (P = 0.026). However, reduced NPM1 protein expression was associated with intestinal-type gastric cancer compared to matched non-neoplastic gastric samples (P = 0.018). In addition, tumors from patients with known distant metastasis presented reduced NPM1 protein levels compared to tumors from patients without distant metastasis (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Although the expression of NPM1 is heterogeneous in gastric tumors, our results suggest that NPM1 down-regulation may have a role in gastric carcinogenesis and may help in the selection of anticancer treatment strategies.

He W, Zhang MG, Wang XJ, et al.
KAT5 and KAT6B are in positive regulation on cell proliferation of prostate cancer through PI3K-AKT signaling.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(12):2864-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone modifications play important roles in the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and genes involved in histone modifications are seemed as ideal targets for treatment of PCa patients. However, clinical trials have shown that those existing drugs exert the minimal antitumor activity and excess adverse effects on PCa patients. Therefore, it is of great interest to figure out novel specific biomarkers to guide the development of new drugs. In present study, an RNAi screening with 44 genes involved in histone modifications was applied to a PCa cell line, Du145. The results showed that nine genes were in positive regulation of Du145 cell growth. Then four selected genes (KAT2B, KAT5, KAT6B and HDAC1) were found to exert this effect by a gene-specific manner when silenced. And then KAT5 or KAT6B silenced cells were subjected to DNA microarray analysis. The common differentially expressed genes were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and found that PDEF signaling, EIF2 signaling and PI3K signaling was suppressed following by KAT5 or KAT6B silencing. Subsequent immunoblotting assay showed that AKT signaling was inhibited, which suggested that KAT5 or KAT6B regulates cancer cell growth through PI3K-AKT signaling. Together with our published data [31] that AURKA inhibitoin increased drug sensitivity of DU145, our work demonstrated the underlying mechanism that how the acetylation enzyme regulates cancer cells survial and might provide potential therapeutic targets for prostate cancer patients in future epigenetic drug development.

Lynch H, Wen H, Kim YC, et al.
Can unknown predisposition in familial breast cancer be family-specific?
Breast J. 2013 Sep-Oct; 19(5):520-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic predisposition plays a key role in the development of familial breast cancer. In spite of strong familial clustering of the disease and extensive efforts made during the past decade; however, progress has been slow in identifying genetic predisposition for the majority of familial breast cancer families. The question arises therefore as to whether current approaches are adequate in identifying the unknown genetic predisposition. We analyzed eight members of a BRCA1-, BRCA2-, p53-, and PTEN-negative breast cancer family, of which five had breast cancer, one is an obligate gene carrier, and two were unaffected. We sequenced the entire coding region of the genome for each member using exome sequencing to identify nonsynonymous variants. We identified 55 nonsynonymous germline variants affecting 49 genes in multiple members of the family, of which 22 are predicted to have damaging effects. We validated 20 of the 22 selected variants in the family by Sanger sequencing. Two variants in KAT6B, an acetal transferase gene, were identified in six family members of which five were affected with breast cancer and one is the unaffected obligate carrier. We further examined the presence of the identified variants in a cohort of 40 additional breast cancer cases from 22 familial breast cancer families, but none of the 22 variants was detected in these cases. Sequencing the entire coding exons in KAT6B detects no variants in these cases. Our results show that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be rich in an affected family, but the predisposition can be family-specific. As such, it will be difficult to detect them by applying population-based approach. Our study supports the concept that focusing on each affected family will be required to determine the genetic predisposition for many familial breast cancer families whose genetic dispositions remain unknown.

Schoenmakers EF, Bunt J, Hermers L, et al.
Identification of CUX1 as the recurrent chromosomal band 7q22 target gene in human uterine leiomyoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(1):11-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyomas are benign solid tumors of mesenchymal origin which occur with an estimated incidence of up to 77% of all women of reproductive age. The majority of these tumors remains symptomless, but in about a quarter of cases they cause leiomyoma-associated symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, menorrhagia-induced anemia, and impaired fertility. As a consequence, they are the most common indication for pre-menopausal hysterectomy in the USA and Japan and annually translate into a multibillion dollar healthcare problem. Approximately 40% of these neoplasms present with recurring structural cytogenetic anomalies, including del(7)(q22), t(12;14)(q15;q24), t(1;2)(p36;p24), and anomalies affecting 6p21 and/or 10q22. Using positional cloning strategies, we and others previously identified HMGA1, HMGA2, RAD51L1, MORF, and, more recently, NCOA1 as primary target (fusion) genes associated with tumor initiation in four of these distinct cytogenetic subgroups. Despite the fact that the del(7)(q22) subgroup is the largest among leiomyomas, and was first described more than twenty years ago, the 7q22 leiomyoma target gene still awaits unequivocal identification. We here describe a positional cloning effort from two independent uterine leiomyomas, containing respectively a pericentric and a paracentric chromosomal inversion, both affecting band 7q22. We found that both chromosomal inversions target the cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) gene on chromosomal band 7q22.1 in a way which is functionally equivalent to the more frequently observed del(7q) cases, and which is compatible with a mono-allelic knock-out scenario, similar as was previously described for the cytogenetic subgroup showing chromosome 14q involvement.

Leal MF, Calcagno DQ, Demachki S, et al.
Clinical implication of 14-3-3 epsilon expression in gastric cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(13):1531-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate for the first time the protein and mRNA expression of 14-3-3ε in gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: 14-3-3ε protein expression was determined by western blotting, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in gastric tumors and their matched non-neoplastic gastric tissue samples.
RESULTS: Authors observed a significant reduction of 14-3-3ε protein expression in gastric cancer (GC) samples compared to their matched non-neoplastic tissue. Reduced levels of 14-3-3ε were also associated with diffuse-type GC and early-onset of this pathology. Our data suggest that reduced 14-3-3ε may have a role in gastric carcinogenesis process.
CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that the reduced 14-3-3ε expression in GC and investigation of 14-3-3ε interaction partners may help to elucidate the carcinogenesis process.

Mishima Y, Miyagi S, Saraya A, et al.
The Hbo1-Brd1/Brpf2 complex is responsible for global acetylation of H3K14 and required for fetal liver erythropoiesis.
Blood. 2011; 118(9):2443-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The histone acetyltransferases (HATs) of the MYST family include TIP60, HBO1, MOZ/MORF, and MOF and function in multisubunit protein complexes. Bromodomain-containing protein 1 (BRD1), also known as BRPF2, has been considered a subunit of the MOZ/MORF H3 HAT complex based on analogy with BRPF1 and BRPF3. However, its physiologic function remains obscure. Here we show that BRD1 forms a novel HAT complex with HBO1 and regulates erythropoiesis. Brd1-deficient embryos showed severe anemia because of impaired fetal liver erythropoiesis. Biochemical analyses revealed that BRD1 bridges HBO1 and its activator protein, ING4. Genome-wide mapping in erythroblasts demonstrated that BRD1 and HBO1 largely colocalize in the genome and target key developmental regulator genes. Of note, levels of global acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) were profoundly decreased in Brd1-deficient erythroblasts and depletion of Hbo1 similarly affected H3K14 acetylation. Impaired erythropoiesis in the absence of Brd1 accompanied reduced expression of key erythroid regulator genes, including Gata1, and was partially restored by forced expression of Gata1. Our findings suggest that the Hbo1-Brd1 complex is the major H3K14 HAT required for transcriptional activation of erythroid developmental regulator genes.

Leal MF, Calcagno DQ, Borges da Costa Jde F, et al.
MYC, TP53, and chromosome 17 copy-number alterations in multiple gastric cancer cell lines and in their parental primary tumors.
J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011; 2011:631268 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We evaluated whether MYC, TP53, and chromosome 17 copy-number alterations occur in ACP02, ACP03, and AGP01 gastric cancer cell lines and in their tumor counterpart. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC and TP53 genes and for chromosome 17 was applied in the 6th, 12th, 60th, and 85th passages of the cell lines and in their parental primary tumors. We observed that three and four MYC signals were the most common alterations in gastric cell lines and tumors. ACP02 presented cells with two copies of chr17 and loss of one copy of TP53 more frequently than ACP03 and AGP01. Only ACP03 and AGP01 presented clonal chr17 trisomy with three or two TP53 copies. The frequency of MYC gain, TP53 loss, and chromosome 17 trisomy seems to increase in gastric cell lines compared to their parental tumors. Our findings reveal that these cell lines retain, in vitro, the genetic alterations presented in their parental primary tumors.

van Rijk A, Sweers M, Huys E, et al.
Characterization of a recurrent t(1;2)(p36;p24) in human uterine leiomyoma.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009; 193(1):54-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common neoplasms in women of reproductive age. Approximately 40% of these neoplasms show recurring structural cytogenetic anomalies, including del(7)(q22), t(12;14)(q15;q24), t(1;2)(p36;p24), and anomalies affecting 6p21 or 10q22. Using positional cloning strategies, we and others had previously identified HMGA1, HMGA2, RAD51L1, and MYST4 (previously referred to as MORF); as primary target (fusion) genes associated with tumor development in three of these distinct cytogenetic subgroups. Here, we report the positional cloning of a single, recurrent, leiomyoma-associated anomaly, t(1;2)(p36;p24). Molecular characterization of the reciprocal breakpoint intervals showed that that AJAP1 (alias SHREW1) and NPHP4 flank the breakpoint on chromosome 1 and that ITSN2 and NCOA1 flank the breakpoint on chromosome 2. Detailed analysis of the breakpoint regions revealed that in this particular case the translocation was associated with a 27-bp deletion on chromosome 1 and a 136-bp duplication on chromosome 2. No breakpoint-spanning (fusion) genes were identified. In silico prediction of transcription factor binding sites, however, indicated the presence of several such sites in the respective breakpoint regions, and major changes therein as a result of the t(1;2)(p36;p24) under investigation. We postulate that transcriptional deregulation of one or more of these breakpoint-flanking genes may contribute to the development of human uterine leiomyomas.

Murati A, Gervais C, Carbuccia N, et al.
Genome profiling of acute myelomonocytic leukemia: alteration of the MYB locus in MYST3-linked cases.
Leukemia. 2009; 23(1):85-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(8;16)(p11;p13) is a rare translocation involved in de novo and therapy-related myelomonocytic and monocytic acute leukemia. It fuses two genes encoding histone acetyltransferases (HATs), MYST3 located at 8p11 to CREBBP located at 16p13. Variant translocations involve other HAT-encoding genes such as EP300, MYST4, NCOA2 or NCOA3. MYST3-linked acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) share specific clinical and biological features and a poor prognosis. Because of its rarity, the molecular biology of MYST3-linked AMLs remains poorly understood. We have established the genome and gene expression profiles of a multicentric series of 61 M4/M5 AMLs including 18 MYST3-linked AMLs by using array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) (n=52) and DNA microarrays (n=44), respectively. We show that M4/5 AMLs have a variety of rare genomic alterations. One alteration, a gain of the MYB locus, was found recurrently and only in the MYST3-linked AMLs (7/18 vs 0/34). MYST3-AMLs have also a specific a gene expression profile, which includes overexpression of MYB, CD4 and HOXA genes. These features, reminiscent of T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), suggest the targeting of a common T-myeloid progenitor.

Pezo RC, Gandhi SJ, Shirley LA, et al.
Single-cell transcription site activation predicts chemotherapy response in human colorectal tumors.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(13):4977-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Candidate gene and pathway approaches, and unbiased gene expression profiling, have identified marker signatures predictive of tumor phenotypes, such as drug sensitivity and invasive or metastatic potential. However, application of such information to evaluation of tumors in the clinic is limited by cell heterogeneity in the tumor. We have developed a novel method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that can detect transcriptional activation of individual genes at their site in single cells in the interphase nucleus. A major obstacle in the treatment of colorectal cancer is relative insensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Here, we have developed a sensitive approach to predict relative sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU, using FISH with probes targeted to nascent mRNAs to measure the number of individual cells with active transcription sites for a panel of candidate genes. These results reveal that the transcriptional status of four key genes, thymidylate synthase (TYMS), MORF-related gene X (MRGX), Bcl2-antagonist/killer (BAK), and ATPase, Cu(2+) transporting beta polypeptide (ATP7B), can accurately predict response to 5-FU. As proof of principle, we show that this transcriptional profile is predictive of response to 5-FU in a small number of patient colon tumor tissues. This approach provides a novel ability to identify and characterize unique minor cell populations in the tumor that may exhibit relative resistance to chemotherapy.

Yang XJ, Ullah M
MOZ and MORF, two large MYSTic HATs in normal and cancer stem cells.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(37):5408-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes of the human monocytic leukemia zinc-finger protein MOZ (HUGO symbol, MYST3) and its paralog MORF (MYST4) are rearranged in chromosome translocations associated with acute myeloid leukemia and/or benign uterine leiomyomata. Both proteins have intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and are components of quartet complexes with noncatalytic subunits containing the bromodomain, plant homeodomain-linked (PHD) finger and proline-tryptophan-tryptophan-proline (PWWP)-containing domain, three types of structural modules characteristic of chromatin regulators. Although leukemia-derived fusion proteins such as MOZ-TIF2 promote self-renewal of leukemic stem cells, recent studies indicate that murine MOZ and MORF are important for proper development of hematopoietic and neurogenic progenitors, respectively, thereby highlighting the importance of epigenetic integrity in safeguarding stem cell identity.

Avvakumov N, Côté J
Functions of myst family histone acetyltransferases and their link to disease.
Subcell Biochem. 2007; 41:295-317 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MYST family of histone acetyltransferases is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is responsible for the majority of acetylation events. These enzymes are exclusively found in multisubunit protein complexes, which structure is also very well conserved. Recent studies have shed light on the precise functions of these HAT complexes. They play critical roles in gene-specific transcription regulation, DNA damage response and repair, as well as DNA replication. Such roles in basic nuclear functions suggest that alteration of these MYST HAT complexes could lead to malfunctioning cells, leading to cell death, uncontrolled growth and/or disease. Indeed, many of these enzymes and their associated factors have been implicated in several forms of cancers. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on MYST HAT complexes, their functions and link to human diseases.

Bartuma H, Hallor KH, Panagopoulos I, et al.
Assessment of the clinical and molecular impact of different cytogenetic subgroups in a series of 272 lipomas with abnormal karyotype.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007; 46(6):594-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Conventional lipomas harbor karyotypic changes that could be subdivided into four, usually mutually exclusive, categories: rearrangement, in particular through translocations, of chromosome bands 12q13-15, resulting in deregulation of the HMGA2 gene, loss of material from or rearrangement of chromosome 13, supernumerary ring or giant marker chromosomes, and aberrations of chromosome band 6p21. In the present study, 272 conventional lipomas, two-thirds of them deep-seated, with acquired clonal chromosome changes were assessed with regard to karyotypic and clinical features. A nonrandom distribution of breakpoints and imbalances could be confirmed, with 83% of the cases harboring one or more of the previously known cytogenetic hallmarks. Correlation with clinical features revealed that lipomas with rings/giant markers were larger, occurred in older patients, were more often deep-seated, and seemed to have an increased tendency to recur locally, compared with tumors with other chromosome aberrations. The possible involvement of the HMGA2 gene in cases that did not show any of the characteristic cytogenetic changes was further evaluated by locus-specific metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RT-PCR, revealing infrequent cryptic disruption of the gene but abundant expression of full length or truncated transcripts. By FISH, we could also show that breakpoints in bands 10q22-23 do not affect the MYST4 gene, whereas breakpoints in 6p21 or 8q11-12 occasionally target the HMGA1 or PLAG1 genes, respectively, also in conventional lipomas.

Troke PJ, Kindle KB, Collins HM, Heery DM
MOZ fusion proteins in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Biochem Soc Symp. 2006; (73):23-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
MOZ (monocytic leukaemia zinc finger protein; also known as ZNF220 or MYST3) is a member of the MYST family of protein acetyltransferases. Chromosomal translocations involving the MOZ gene are associated with AML (acute myeloid leukaemia), suggesting that it has a role in haematopoiesis. Recurrent reciprocal translocations fuse the MOZ gene [or the gene encoding MORF (MOZ-related factor); also known as MYST4] to genes encoding the nuclear receptor co-activators CBP [CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein)-binding protein], p300 or the p160 protein TIF2 (transcription intermediary factor 2). The resulting fusion proteins can transform haematopoietic progenitors in vitro, and induce myeloproliferative disease in mice. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects indicate that MOZ fusion proteins interfere with the activities of transcription factors such as nuclear receptors, p53 and Runx proteins. Our studies suggest that subverting the function of cellular CBP and p300 proteins may play a key role in this process. Here we review the recent progress in understanding the role of MOZ fusion proteins in the aetiology of AML.

Zhang YM, Tung CH, He J, et al.
Construction of a novel chimera consisting of a chelator-containing Tat peptide conjugated to a morpholino antisense oligomer for technetium-99m labeling and accelerating cellular kinetics.
Nucl Med Biol. 2006; 33(2):263-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The attempt to target the limited copies of messenger RNA (mRNA) in vivo with radiolabeled nucleobase oligomers as antisense probes is challenging. Selecting an antisense molecule with superior properties, enhancing the cellular kinetics, and improving the radiolabeling chemistry would be the reasonable approach to accomplish this goal. The present study reports a method to construct a chimera of phosphorodiamidate morpholino nucleobase oligomer (MORF) covalently conjugated to a peptide containing a cell membrane transduction Tat peptide and an N(2)S(2) chelator for technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiolabeling (N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF). The radiolabeling properties and cellular kinetics of (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF were measured. As hypothesized, the preparation of (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF could be achieved by an instant one-step method with labeling efficiency greater than 95%, and the (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF showed distinct properties in cell culture from those of a control, the same MORF sequence without Tat but with mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG(3)) as chelator for (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-MAG(3)-MORF). (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF achieved maximum accumulation of about 35% within 2 h, while (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-MORF showed lower and steadily increasing accumulations but of less than 1% in 24 h. These preliminary results demonstrated that the proposed chimera has properties for easy labeling, and (99m)Tc-N(2)S(2)-Tat-MORF prepared by this method possesses enhanced cellular kinetics and merits further investigation for in vivo mRNA targeting.

Kindle KB, Troke PJ, Collins HM, et al.
MOZ-TIF2 inhibits transcription by nuclear receptors and p53 by impairment of CBP function.
Mol Cell Biol. 2005; 25(3):988-1002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) include fusions of the genes encoding the acetyltransferase MOZ or MORF with genes encoding the nuclear receptor coactivator TIF2, p300, or CBP. Here we show that MOZ-TIF2 acts as a dominant inhibitor of the transcriptional activities of CBP-dependent activators such as nuclear receptors and p53. The dominant negative property of MOZ-TIF2 requires the CBP-binding domain (activation domain 1 [AD1]), and coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescent resonance energy transfer experiments show that MOZ-TIF2 interacts with CBP directly in vivo. The CBP-binding domain is also required for the ability of MOZ-TIF2 to extend the proliferative potential of murine bone marrow lineage-negative cells in vitro. We show that MOZ-TIF2 displays an aberrant nuclear distribution and that cells expressing this protein have reduced levels of cellular CBP, leading to depletion of CBP from PML bodies. In summary, our results indicate that disruption of the normal function of CBP and CBP-dependent activators is an important feature of MOZ-TIF2 action in AML.

Moore SD, Herrick SR, Ince TA, et al.
Uterine leiomyomata with t(10;17) disrupt the histone acetyltransferase MORF.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(16):5570-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benign uterine leiomyomata are the most common tumors in women of reproductive age. One recurring chromosomal aberration in uterine leiomyomata is rearrangement of 10q22. Chromosome 10 breakpoints were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to intervals ranging from 8.9 to 72.1 kb within the third intron of MORF (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein-related factor or MYST4) in four uterine leiomyomata tested. Additional Southern hybridization experiments confirmed that the breakpoint lies within the third intron and narrowed the interval to 2.1 kb in one uterine leiomyomata. MORF is a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferase and previously has been found rearranged in some types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This is the first instance in which disruption of a histone acetyltransferase has been reported in another tumor type. The breakpoints in uterine leiomyomata would fall in the NH2-terminal portion of the protein between a conserved domain found in histones H1 and H5 and the PHD zinc fingers, the CH2CH zinc finger, or the CoA binding site, which is distinct from the breakpoints reported in AML. Mapping of the 17q21 breakpoint by fluorescence in situ hybridization within a specific region in three tumors revealed several positional candidates including GCN5L2, a gene with histone acetyltransferase activity similar to those fused to MORF in AML. Of note, two of three uterine leiomyomata were of the cellular subtype. Involvement of MORF in four uterine leiomyomata with chromosomal rearrangements involving 10q22 and 17q21 suggests a role for this histone acetyltransferase and altered chromatin regulation in uterine mesenchymal neoplasia.

He J, Liu G, Gupta S, et al.
Amplification targeting: a modified pretargeting approach with potential for signal amplification-proof of a concept.
J Nucl Med. 2004; 45(6):1087-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Conventional nuclear medicine imaging with large radiolabeled molecules such as antitumor antibodies suffers from slow localization and clearance. Pretargeting is under active investigation as an alternative using either (strept)avidin/biotin, bispecific antibodies, or oligomers. However, only the use of oligomers such as phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (MORFs) in pretargeting offers the potential of signal amplification at the target. Amplification targeting is a multistep procedure with the potential to greatly improve target localization of radioactivity (and eventually drugs) through the intermediate use of polymers conjugated with multiple copies of oligomers.
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to prove the concept in vivo in tumored mice of amplfication targeting.
METHODS: Nude mice bearing LS174T tumors received in order: the anti-CEA antibody MN14 conjugated with MORF, a polymer conjugated with multiple copies of complementary MORFs (cMORFs), and, finally, (99m)Tc-MORF.
RESULTS: In tumored animals, dual radiolabels ((99m)Tc and (111)In) were used to demonstrate that, after 18 h, about 25% of antibody MORFs in tumor were targeted with polymeric cMORFs and, after 3 h, about 12% of the polymeric cMORFs in tumor were targeted with (99m)Tc-MORF. Therefore, hybridization in tumor in both cases (i.e., polymeric cMORF to antibody MORF and radiolabeled MORF to polymeric cMORF) was surprisingly efficient given the barriers to targeting in vivo and the competition between targeting and clearance. Moles of radiolabeled MORF accumulating in tumor were more than tripled for study animals receiving all 3 injections compared with control animals not receiving the antibody or the polymer. Furthermore, MORF expression (on antibody) and cMORF expression (on polymer) were rapidly lost in normal organs such as liver, spleen, and kidneys but not in tumor, thus improving the target-to-nontarget ratios.
CONCLUSION: Although signal amplification has not yet been convincingly demonstrated and amplification targeting will require further studies for optimization, the concept has now been shown to be feasible.

Murati A, Adélaïde J, Mozziconacci MJ, et al.
Variant MYST4-CBP gene fusion in a t(10;16) acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2004; 125(5):601-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a novel fusion of the MYST4 and CBP genes in an acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)-M4 patient exhibiting t(10;16)(q22;p13) and t(11;17)(q23;q21). The t(10;16)(q22;p13) resulted in a rearrangement, where MYST4-CBP and CBP-MYST4 chimaeric transcripts were products of in-frame fusions of MYST4 exon 17 to CBP exon 6 and CBP exon 4 to MYST4 exon 18 respectively. The potential resulting chimaeric proteins showed similarities with MYST3-CBP, MYST3-P300 and MYST3-NCOA2 putative fusion proteins found in other cases of AML.

Yang XJ
The diverse superfamily of lysine acetyltransferases and their roles in leukemia and other diseases.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2004; 32(3):959-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acetylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues, or N(epsilon)-lysine acetylation, is an important post-translational modification known to occur in histones, transcription factors and other proteins. Since 1995, dozens of proteins have been discovered to possess intrinsic lysine acetyltransferase activity. Although most of these enzymes were first identified as histone acetyltransferases and then tested for activities towards other proteins, acetyltransferases only modifying non-histone proteins have also been identified. Lysine acetyltransferases form different groups, three of which are Gcn5/PCAF, p300/CBP and MYST proteins. While members of the former two groups mainly function as transcriptional co-activators, emerging evidence suggests that MYST proteins, such as Esa1, Sas2, MOF, TIP60, MOZ and MORF, have diverse roles in various nuclear processes. Aberrant lysine acetylation has been implicated in oncogenesis. The genes for p300, CBP, MOZ and MORF are rearranged in recurrent leukemia-associated chromosomal abnormalities. Consistent with their roles in leukemogenesis, these acetyltransferases interact with Runx1 (or AML1), one of the most frequent targets of chromosomal translocations in leukemia. Therefore, the diverse superfamily of lysine acetyltransferases executes an acetylation program that is important for different cellular processes and perturbation of such a program may cause the development of cancer and other diseases.

Vizmanos JL, Larráyoz MJ, Lahortiga I, et al.
t(10;16)(q22;p13) and MORF-CREBBP fusion is a recurrent event in acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 36(4):402-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, it was shown that t(10;16)(q22;p13) fuses the MORF and CREBBP genes in a case of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M5a, with a complex karyotype containing other rearrangements. Here, we report a new case with the MORF-CREBBP fusion in an 84-year-old patient diagnosed with AML M5b, in which the t(10;16)(q22;p13) was the only cytogenetic aberration. This supports that this is a recurrent pathogenic translocation in AML.

Kojima K, Kaneda K, Yoshida C, et al.
A novel fusion variant of the MORF and CBP genes detected in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome with t(10;16)(q22;p13).
Br J Haematol. 2003; 120(2):271-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) with t(10;16)(q22;p13), in which novel fusion transcripts of the MORF and CBP genes were detected. In one MORF-CBP fusion transcript, exon 15 of the MORF gene was fused in frame with exon 5 of the CBP gene. In a reciprocal CBP-MORF transcript, exon 4 of the CBP gene was fused in frame with exon 16 of the MORF gene. This is the first reported case of t-MDS associated with t(10;16), and provides molecular evidence that the novel MORF-CBP and/or CBP-MORF fusion protein(s) might play an important role in the development of t-MDS.

Panagopoulos I, Fioretos T, Isaksson M, et al.
Fusion of the MORF and CBP genes in acute myeloid leukemia with the t(10;16)(q22;p13).
Hum Mol Genet. 2001; 10(4):395-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CBP gene at 16p13 fuses to MOZ and MLL as a result of the t(8;16)(p11;p13) in acute (myelo)monocytic leukemias (AML M4/M5) and the t(11;16)(q23;p13) in treatment-related AML, respectively. We show here that a novel t(10;16)(q22;p13) in a childhood AML M5a leads to a MORF-CBP chimera. RT-PCR using MORF forward and CBP reverse primers amplified a MORF-CBP fusion in which nucleotide 3103 of MORF was fused in-frame with nucleotide 284 of CBP. Nested RT-PCR with CBP forward and MORF reverse primers generated a CBP-MORF transcript in which nucleotide 283 of CBP was fused in-frame with nucleotide 3104 of MORF. Genomic analyses revealed that the breaks were close to Alu elements in intron 16 of MORF and intron 2 of CBP and that duplications had occurred near the breakpoints. A database search using MORF cDNA enabled us to construct an exon-intron map of the MORF gene. The MORF-CBP protein retains the zinc fingers, two nuclear localization signals, the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain, a portion of the acidic domain of MORF and the CBP protein downstream of codon 29. Thus, the part of CBP encoding the RARA-binding domain, the CREB-binding domain, the three Cys/His-rich regions, the bromodomain, the HAT domain and the Glu-rich domains is present. In the reciprocal CBP-MORF, part of the acidic domain and the C-terminal Ser- and Met-rich regions of MORF are likely to be driven by the CBP promoter. Since both fusion transcripts were present, their exact role in the leukemogenic process remains to be elucidated.

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