Gene Summary

Gene:NOD2; nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2
Summary:This gene is a member of the Nod1/Apaf-1 family and encodes a protein with two caspase recruitment (CARD) domains and six leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). The protein is primarily expressed in the peripheral blood leukocytes. It plays a role in the immune response to intracellular bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by recognizing the muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derived from them and activating the NFKB protein. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Crohn disease and Blau syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NOD2 (cancer-related)

Bishayee K, Habib K, Sadra A, Huh SO
Targeting the Difficult-to-Drug CD71 and MYCN with Gambogic Acid and Vorinostat in a Class of Neuroblastomas.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 53(1):258-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous cancer, a substantial portion overexpresses CD71 (transferrin receptor 1) and MYCN. This study provides a mechanistically driven rationale for a combination therapy targeting neuroblastomas that doubly overexpress or have amplified CD71 and MYCN. For this subset, CD71 was targeted by its natural ligand, gambogic acid (GA), and MYCN was targeted with an HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat. A combination of GA and vorinostat was then tested for efficacy in cancer and non-cancer cells.
METHODS: Microarray analysis of cohorts of neuroblastoma patients indicated a subset of neuroblastomas overexpressing both CD71 and MYCN. The viability with proliferation changes were measured by MTT and colony formation assays in neuroblastoma cells. Transfection with CD71 or MYCN along with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect expression changes. For pathway analysis, gene ontology (GO) and Protein-protein interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the potential mechanisms of GA and vorinostat in treated cells.
RESULTS: For both GA and vorinostat, their pathways were explored for specificity and dependence on their targets for efficacy. For GA-treated cells, the viability/proliferation loss due to GA was dependent on the expression of CD71 and involved activation of caspase-3 and degradation of EGFR. It relied on the JNK-IRE1-mTORC1 pathway. The drug vorinostat also reduced cell viability/proliferation in the treated cells and this was dependent on the presence of MYCN as MYCN siRNA transfection led to a blunting of vorinostat efficacy and conversely, MYCN overexpression improved the vorinostat potency in those cells. Vorinostat inhibition of MYCN led to an increase of the pro-apoptotic miR183 levels and this, in turn, reduced the viability/proliferation of these cells. The combination treatment with GA and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell survival in the MYCN and CD71 overexpressing tumor cells. The same treatment had no effect or minimal effect on HEK293 and HEF cells used as models of non-cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: A combination therapy with GA and vorinostat may be suitable for MYCN and CD71 overexpressing neuroblastomas.

Song Y, Park IS, Kim J, Seo HR
Actinomycin D inhibits the expression of the cystine/glutamate transporter xCT via attenuation of CD133 synthesis in CD133
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 309:108713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the most frequently occurring types of cancer with high mortality rate. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently metastasizes to lung, portal vein, and portal lymph nodes and most HCCs show strong resistance to conventional anticancer drugs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for resistance to therapies. Hence, recent advancements in the use of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) are rapidly gaining recognition as an efficient and organized means for developing antitumor agents. We aimed to use a non-target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) approach to specifically target α-fetoprotein (AFP)

Kumar KJS, Vani MG, Hsieh HW, et al.
Antcin-A Modulates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Inhibits Migratory and Invasive Potentials of Human Breast Cancer Cells via p53-Mediated miR-200c Activation.
Planta Med. 2019; 85(9-10):755-765 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antcin-A (ATA) is a steroid-like phytochemical isolated from the fruiting bodies of a precious edible mushroom

Xie R, Okita Y, Ichikawa Y, et al.
Role of the kringle-like domain in glycoprotein NMB for its tumorigenic potential.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2237-2246 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) is highly expressed in many types of malignant tumors and thought to be a poor prognostic factor in those cancers, including breast cancer. Glycoprotein NMB is a type IA transmembrane protein that has a long extracellular domain (ECD) and a short intracellular domain (ICD). In general, the ECD of a protein is involved in protein-protein or protein-carbohydrate interactions, whereas the ICD is important for intracellular signaling. We previously reported that GPNMB contributes to the initiation and malignant progression of breast cancer through the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM) in its ICD. Furthermore, we showed that the tyrosine residue in hemITAM is involved in induction of the stem-like properties of breast cancer cells. However, the contribution of the ECD to its tumorigenic function has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we focused on the region, the so-called kringle-like domain (KLD), that is conserved among species, and made a deletion mutant, GPNMB(ΔKLD). Enhanced expression of WT GPNMB induced sphere and tumor formation in breast epithelial cells; in contrast, GPNMB(ΔKLD) lacked these activities without affecting its molecular properties, such as subcellular localization, Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylation at least in overexpression experiments, and homo-oligomerization. Additionally, GPNMB(ΔKLD) lost its cell migration promoting activity, even though it reduced E-cadherin expression. Although the interaction partner binding to KLD has not yet been identified, we found that the KLD of GPNMB plays an important role in its tumorigenic potential.

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Zhang Q, Lu Y, Xu X, et al.
MR molecular imaging of HCC employing a regulated ferritin gene carried by a modified polycation vector.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:3189-3201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Iwanishi M, Kusakabe T, Azuma C, et al.
Clinical characteristics in two patients with partial lipodystrophy and Type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a novel heterozygous missense mutation in the insulin receptor gene.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019; 152:79-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The present report aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics in a girl at the age of 12 and her mother with partial lipodystrophy and Type A insulin resistance syndrome.
METHODS: We examined fat distribution in the patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. We performed genetic analysis to examine the causal gene for lipodystrophy and insulin resistance.
RESULTS: Both patients had partial lipodystrophy and a novel heterozygous missense mutation (Asn
CONCLUSIONS: This case might help to understand the mechanisms insulin receptor dysfunction that cause lipodystrophy.

Mussetti A, Pellegrinelli A, Cieri N, et al.
PD-L1, LAG3, and HLA-DR are increasingly expressed during smoldering myeloma progression.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(7):1713-1720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that represents the final stage of a continuum of clinical conditions that start from monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), then transits in the more advance, but still asymptomatic, smoldering MM (SMM), with a final evolution in symptomatic MM. To investigate SMM microenvironment modifications, we studied 16 patients diagnosed at our hospital. Eight of them (group A) developed MM within 2 years from diagnosis while the others (group B) had stable SMM. Samples were bone marrow biopsies at diagnosis and after 2 years (± 4 months) and were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis. Firstly, we found a significant increase in both CD4+ cells (11 vs 17%, p < 0.01) and CD8+ cells (15 vs 18%, p < 0.01) between diagnosis and at follow-up samples (whole cohort). This was associated to an increase in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio (0.74 vs 0.93, p < 0.01). Secondly, we discovered an increased expression of T cell inhibitory molecules during SMM evolution. In fact, plasma cell PD-L1 and microenvironment cell LAG3 expression increased from 1 to 12% (p = 0.03) and 4 to 10% (p = 0.04), respectively, from diagnosis to follow-up. Also, plasma cells and microenvironment cells HLA-DR expression augmented during SMM evolution from 7 to 10% (p = 0.04) and 29 to 39% (p = 0.01), respectively. When comparing group A vs group B, we found an increased CD68-KP1+ cell infiltration in favor of group B at diagnosis (23 vs 28%, p = 0.01) and a greater plasma cell infiltration at follow-up (50 vs 26%, p < 0.01). Our findings suggest how immune escape mechanisms appear earlier during multiple myeloma evolution, and that LAG3 could be a possible immunologic target in this setting.

Xing R, Zhou Y, Yu J, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing reveals novel tandem-duplication hotspots and a prognostic mutational signature in gastric cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2037 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide analysis of genomic signatures might reveal novel mechanisms for gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis. Here, we analysis structural variations (SVs) and mutational signatures via whole-genome sequencing of 168 GCs. Our data demonstrates diverse models of complex SVs operative in GC, which lead to high-level amplification of oncogenes. We find varying proportion of tandem-duplications (TDs) among individuals and identify 24 TD hotspots involving well-established cancer genes such as CCND1, ERBB2 and MYC. Specifically, we nominate a novel hotspot involving the super-enhancer of ZFP36L2 presents in approximately 10% GCs from different cohorts, the oncogenic role of which is further confirmed by experimental data. In addition, our data reveal a mutational signature, specifically occurring in noncoding region, significantly enriched in tumors with cadherin 1 mutations, and associated with poor prognoses. Collectively, our data suggest that TDs might serve as an important mechanism for cancer gene activation and provide a novel signature for stratification.

Sun LJ, Dong J, Gao F, et al.
Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Report of two cases.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(17):e15327 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor (ISFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor derived from dendritic mesenchymal cells expressing CD34 antigens, which are widely distributed in human connective tissues.
PATIENT CONCERNS: In two case reports, we describe a 61-year-old woman and a 42-year-old man who present with intracranial malignant SFTs. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of head revealed that the largest size is about 3.3 × 3.0 cm in left occipital part and 4.0 × 3.0 cm in right skull base.
DIAGNOSIS: Postoperative pathological results demonstrated that all of two cases are SFT. Case one: Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated a strong immunoreaction for cluster of differentiation (CD)34, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Vimentin (Vim). Case two: The tumor was distinctively positive for Bcl-2, but not for CD34 and Vim.
INTERVENTIONS: One of the two patients recurred 6 years after the first tumor resection. After the recurrence, two gamma knife treatments were given, and another operation was performed about five years later. In one case, only tumor resection was performed.
OUTCOMES: Case one: The postoperative neurological status was substantially improved and regular follow-up examinations for 6 months postsurgery have shown that the patient is currently disease-free. Case two: The patient achieved a good outcome, with no epilepsy or other neurological symptoms experienced on a regular 6-month follow-up. The patient is currently disease free.
LESSONS: Imaging findings can be used to assist the diagnosis. The diagnostic method is pathology, and total surgical resection is the most effective treatment. The main treatment methods were total resection, supplemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy if necessary.

Kim E, Lisby A, Ma C, et al.
Promotion of growth factor signaling as a critical function of β-catenin during HCC progression.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. β-catenin is widely thought to be a major oncogene in HCC based on the frequency of mutations associated with aberrant Wnt signaling in HCC patients. Challenging this model, our data reveal that β-catenin nuclear accumulation is restricted to the late stage of the disease. Until then, β-catenin is primarily located at the plasma membrane in complex with multiple cadherin family members where it drives tumor cell survival by enhancing the signaling of growth factor receptors such as EGFR. Therefore, our study reveals the evolving nature of β-catenin in HCC to establish it as a compound tumor promoter during the progression of the disease.

Song W, Gu Y, Lu S, et al.
LncRNA TRERNA1 facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by dimethylating H3K9 in the CDH1 promoter region via the recruitment of the EHMT2/SNAI1 complex.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12621 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma development, however, as a crucial driver of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis, their functions in tumour metastasis remain largely unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The lncRNA TRERNA1 expression levels were detected in HCC by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The function of TRERNA1 was examined by wound-healing assays, transwell assays and tail vein injection experiments. The potential regulatory mechanisms of TRERNA1 on its target genes were explored by ChIP, RIP, IP and WB assays.
RESULTS: Elevated TRERNA1 levels promoted HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. TRERNA1 recruited EHMT2 to dimethylate H3K9 in the CDH1 promoter region. Furthermore, EHMT2 bound to SNAI1 to suppress CDH1 expression in HCC cells. After inhibiting TRERNA1, the expression level of CDH1 was restored and was involved in the regulation of the EHMT2/SNAI1 complex. The level of TRERNA1 was positively correlated with tumour metastasis and was negatively correlated with the expression of CDH1 in HCC tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, the current study reveals that TRERNA1 promotes cell metastasis and the invasion of HCC via the recruitment of EHMT2 and/or the EHMT2/SNAI1 complex to suppress CDH1. These data identify a novel mechanism that regulates TRERNA1 in metastatic HCC and provides a potential targeted therapy for HCC patients.

Hou H, Yu X, Cong P, et al.
Six2 promotes non-small cell lung cancer cell stemness via transcriptionally and epigenetically regulating E-cadherin.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12617 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The roles and related mechanisms of six2 in regulating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells progression are unclear. This work aimed to explore the roles of six2 in NSCLC cell stemness.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis was used to examine the correlation between six2 expression and the survival of NSCLC patients. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot were performed to detect six2 expression in clinical samples. Moreover, transwell migration, tumour spheroid formation and in vivo tumour formation assays were used to examine the effects of six2 on NSCLC cell progression. Additionally, methylation analysis was carried out to measure E-cadherin methylation level in different cells. Finally, cell viability assay was performed to explore the effects of six2 on chemotherapeutic sensitivity of NSCLC cells.
RESULTS: Lung cancer patients with a higher six2 expression level displayed a shorter overall survival. Six2 expression was higher in lung cancer tissues than in normal adjacent tissues. Additionally, six2 knockdown suppressed NSCLC cell stemness. Mechanistically, six2 overexpression inhibited epithelial marker E-cadherin expression via stimulating its promoter methylation. And E-cadherin knockdown rescued six2 knockdown-induced decrease of NSCLC cancer cell stemness. Notably, six2 knockdown enhanced cisplatin sensitivity in parental NSCLC cells and attenuated cisplatin resistance in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that six2 facilitates NSCLC cell stemness and attenuates chemotherapeutic sensitivity via suppressing E-cadherin expression.

Autenshlyus AI, Golovanova AV, Studenikina AA, et al.
Personalized Approach to Assessing mRNA Expression of Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein and Immunohistochemical Markers in Diseases of the Breast.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2019; 484(1):59-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biopsy material of patients with malignant and benign breast diseases was examined. HRG mRNA expression was detected in 70% of cases in biopsy material obtained from patients with nonspecific invasive carcinoma and in 66.7% of cases in biopsy material of patients with benign breast diseases. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed expression of collagen II, the beta-1 integrin, and E-cadherin-markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The use of RT-qPCR combined with immunohistochemical study made it possible to identify atypical cells, which can be regarded as precancerous changes, in individual patients.

Hu C, Li M, Guo T, et al.
Anti-metastasis activity of curcumin against breast cancer via the inhibition of stem cell-like properties and EMT.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152740 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with potent chemopreventive and anti-cancer efficacy.
PURPOSE: To explore the potential anti-metastasis efficacy of curcumin in breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs), which are increasingly considered to be the origin of the recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer.
METHODS: A CCK8 assay was performed to evaluate cell viability, and a colony formation assay was conducted to determine cell proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 adherent cells. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to detect the effect of curcumin on cell migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mammospheres were cultured with serum free medium (SFM) for three generations and the BCSC surface marker CD44
RESULTS: Curcumin exhibited anti-proliferative and colony formation inhibiting activities in both the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It also suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. The CD44
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the inhibitor effects of curcumin on breast cancer cells may be related to resistance to cancer stem-like characters and the EMT process. These data indicate that curcumin could function as a type of anti-metastasis agent for breast cancer.

Holland BC, Sood A, Delfino K, et al.
Age and sex have no impact on expression levels of markers of immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoint pathways in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):991-997 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Advanced age and female sex have been associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A reduced immune response has been implicated as a mechanism. The objective of our study was to analyze the expression patterns of various cellular proteins active in bladder cancer immune pathways, and assess the correlation between age, sex, and the expression of these immune markers.
METHODS: We obtained surgical tissue samples from equally distributed male/female patients with/without lymph node metastasis who had undergone radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder (n = 50). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3 (cluster of differentiation), CD4, CD8, CD56, LAG-3 (lymphocyte-activation gene), TIM-3 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain), PD-1 (programmed death) and PD-L1 molecules was performed and scored by a single pathologist (high versus low). Spearman's correlation and Chi square tests investigated the association between age, sex, and IHC results.
RESULTS: Mean age at surgery was 67 years (range 50-78 years); all patients were Caucasians. The following percent of patients scored high for a stain: 18% CD3, 10% CD4, 0% CD8, 0% CD56, 20% LAG-3, 4% TIM-3, 0% PD-1 and 0% PD-L1. There was no association between patients' age, sex, and the expression of any of the immune markers (p > 0.05 for all).
CONCLUSIONS: The association between advanced age, female sex, and worse outcomes in bladder cancer may be independent of the immune pathways active in the disease that we examined in this study.

Wang Y, Yu W, Zhu J, et al.
Anti-CD166/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells have displayed outstanding performance in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. However, their efficacy against solid tumors has been largely limited.
METHODS: In this study, human osteosarcoma cell lines were prepared, flow cytometry using antibodies against CD166 was performed on different cell samples. CD166-specific T cells were obtained by viral gene transfer of corresponding DNA plasmids and selectively expanded using IL-2 and IL-15. The ability of CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells to kill CD166
RESULTS: CD166 was selectively expressed on four different human osteosarcoma cell lines, indicating its role as the novel target for CAR-T cell therapy. CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells killed osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro; the cytotoxicity correlated with the level of CD166 expression on the tumor cells. Intravenous injection of CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells into mice resulted in the regression of the tumor with no obvious toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, the data suggest that CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells may serve as a new therapeutic strategy in the future clinical practice for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Drapkin BJ, Farago AF
Unexpected Synergy Reveals New Therapeutic Strategy in SCLC.
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2019; 40(5):295-297 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA damage repair (DDR) inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) have each individually shown modest clinical activity in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Recently, Sen and colleagues (Cancer Discov. 2019; demonstrated that DDR inhibition can activate the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) innate immune pathway, providing strong rationale for combining DDR inhibition and ICB to treat SCLC.

Wang L, Yang G, Zhao D, et al.
CD103-positive CSC exosome promotes EMT of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: role of remote MiR-19b-3p.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is characterized by a highly metastatic potential. The stromal communication between stem cells and cancer cells critically influences metastatic dissemination of cancer cells.
METHODS: The effect of exosomes isolated from cancer stem cells (CSCs) of CCRCC patients on the progress of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung metastasis of CCRCC cells were examined.
RESULTS: CSCs exosomes promoted proliferation of CCRCC cells and accelerated the progress of EMT. Bioactive miR-19b-3p transmitted to cancer cells by CSC exosomes induced EMT via repressing the expression of PTEN. CSCs exosomes derived from CCRCC patients with lung metastasis produced the strongest promoting effect on EMT. Notably, CD103
CONCLUSIONS: CSC exosomes transported miR-19b-3p into CCRCC cells and initiated EMT promoting metastasis. CD103

Wang X, Yang J, Guo G, et al.
Novel lncRNA-IUR suppresses Bcr-Abl-induced tumorigenesis through regulation of STAT5-CD71 pathway.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), defined as the transcripts longer than 200 nt without protein-coding capacity, have been found to be aberrantly expressed in diverse human diseases including cancer. A reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 generates the chimeric Bcr-Abl oncogene, which is associated with several hematological malignancies. However, the functional relevance between aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemia remains obscure.
METHODS: LncRNA cDNA microarray was used to identify novel lncRNAs involved in Bcr-Abl-mediated cellular transformation. To study the functional relevance of novel imatinib-upregulated lncRNA (IUR) family in Abl-induced tumorigenesis, Abl-transformed cell survival and xenografted tumor growth in mice was evaluated. Primary bone marrow transformation and in vivo leukemia transplant using lncRNA-IUR knockdown (KD) transgenic mice were further conducted to corroborate the role of lncRNA-IUR in Abl-induced tumorigenesis. Transcriptome RNA-seq, Western blot, RNA pull down and RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP) were employed to determine the mechanisms by which lncRNA-IUR-5 regulates Bcr-Abl-mediated tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: We identified a conserved lncRNA-IUR family as a key negative regulator of Bcr-Abl-induced tumorigenesis. Increased expression of lncRNA-IUR was detected in both human and mouse Abl-transformed cells upon imatinib treatment. In contrast, reduced expression of lncRNA-IUR was observed in the peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from Bcr-Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients compared to normal subjects. Knockdown of lncRNA-IUR remarkably promoted Abl-transformed leukemic cell survival and xenografted tumor growth in mice, whereas overexpression of lncRNA-IUR had opposite effects. Also, silencing murine lncRNA-IUR promoted Bcr-Abl-mediated primary bone marrow transformation and Abl-transformed leukemia cell survival in vivo. Besides, knockdown of murine lncRNA-IUR in transgenic mice provided a favorable microenvironment for development of Abl-mediated leukemia. Finally, we demonstrated that lncRNA-IUR-5 suppressed Bcr-Abl-mediated tumorigenesis by negatively regulating STAT5-mediated expression of CD71.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that lncRNA-IUR may act as a critical tumor suppressor in Bcr-Abl-mediated tumorigenesis by suppressing the STAT5-CD71 pathway. This study provides new insights into functional involvement of lncRNAs in leukemogenesis.

Kleo K, Dimitrova L, Oker E, et al.
Identification of ADGRE5 as discriminating MYC target between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MYC is a heterogeneously expressed transcription factor that plays a multifunctional role in many biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. It is also associated with many types of cancer including the malignant lymphomas. There are two types of aggressive B-cell lymphoma, namely Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and a subgroup of diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which both carry MYC translocations and overexpress MYC but both differ significantly in their clinical outcome. In DLBCL, MYC translocations are associated with an aggressive behavior and poor outcome, whereas MYC-positive BL show a superior outcome.
METHODS: To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated the different modes of actions of MYC in aggressive B-cell lymphoma cell lines subdivided into three groups: (i) MYC-positive BL, (ii) DLBCL with MYC translocation (DLBCLpos) and (iii) DLBCL without MYC translocation (DLBCLneg) for control. In order to identify genome-wide MYC-DNA binding sites a chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was performed. In addition, ChIP-Seq for H3K4me3 was used for determination of genomic regions accessible for transcriptional activity. These data were supplemented with gene expression data derived from RNA-Seq.
RESULTS: Bioinformatics integration of all data sets revealed different MYC-binding patterns and transcriptional profiles in MYC-positive BL and DLBCL cell lines indicating different functional roles of MYC for gene regulation in aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Based on this multi-omics analysis we identified ADGRE5 (alias CD97) - a member of the EGF-TM7 subfamily of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors - as a MYC target gene, which is specifically expressed in BL but not in DLBCL regardless of MYC translocation.
CONCLUSION: Our study describes a diverse genome-wide MYC-DNA binding pattern in BL and DLBCL cell lines with and without MYC translocations. Furthermore, we identified ADREG5 as a MYC target gene able to discriminate between BL and DLBCL irrespectively of the presence of MYC breaks in DLBCL. Since ADGRE5 plays an important role in tumor cell formation, metastasis and invasion, it might also be instrumental to better understand the different pathobiology of BL and DLBCL and help to explain discrepant clinical characteristics of BL and DLBCL.

Sadahiro S, Suzuki T, Tanaka A, et al.
Induction of CD3+ and FoxP3+ T Cells in Left-sided Colorectal Tumors After UFT/LV Chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1997-2005 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are mainly used for right-sided, microsatellite instability-high colorectal tumors. In this study, the effects of oral uracil-tegafur plus leucovorin (UFT/LV) chemotherapy on the gene expressions of four immunotherapy targets and the amounts of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were investigated.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 260 patients with stage II or stage III colorectal cancer were analyzed. Gene expression and amount of TILs were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (CRT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemical staining, respectively.
RESULTS: Expression of CTLA4 and LAG3 in tumor tissues was significantly increased after UFT/LV chemotherapy, but only in left-sided tumors. The percentage of high-TIL, high-CD3 and high-FoxP3 patients in the UFT/LV group was significantly higher than that in the control group, only in left-sided tumors.
CONCLUSION: The increase in TILs count, especially of CD3+ T cells and FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, after UFT/LV chemotherapy were specific to left-sided colorectal cancers.

Wang HF, Wang SS, Zheng M, et al.
Hypoxia promotes vasculogenic mimicry formation by vascular endothelial growth factor A mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12600 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of hypoxia in vasculogenic mimicry (VM) of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and the underlying mechanism involved.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, wound healing, transwell invasion, immunofluorescence and tube formation assays were performed to measure the effect of hypoxia on migration, invasion, EMT and VM of SACC cells, respectively. Then, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR were used to detect the effect of hypoxia on VE-cadherin and VEGFA expression. And pro-vasculogenic mimicry effect of VEGFA was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and Western blot. Moreover, the levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD44 and ALDH1 were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence in SACC cells treated by exogenous VEGFA or bevacizumab. Finally, CD31/ PAS staining was performed to observe VM and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the levels of VEGFA and HIF-1α in 95 SACC patients. The relationships between VM and clinicopathological variables, VEGFA or HIF-1α level were analysed.
RESULTS: Hypoxia promoted cell migration, invasion, EMT and VM formation, and enhanced VE-cadherin and VEGFA expression in SACC cells. Further, exogenous VEGFA markedly increased the levels of N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD44 and ALDH1, and inhibited the expression of E-cadherin, while the VEGFA inhibitor reversed these changes. In addition, VM channels existed in 25 of 95 SACC samples, and there was a strong positive correlation between VM and clinic stage, distant metastases, VEGFA and HIF-1α expression.
CONCLUSIONS: VEGFA played an important role in hypoxia-induced VM through regulating EMT and stemness, which may eventually fuel the migration and invasion of SACC.

Lee JL, Roh SA, Kim CW, et al.
Clinical assessment and identification of immuno-oncology markers concerning the 19-gene based risk classifier in stage IV colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(11):1341-1354 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic profiling of tumors has contributed to the understanding of colorectal cancer (CRC), facilitating diagnosis, prognosis and selection of treatments, including targeted regimens. A report suggested that a 19-gene-based risk classifier (TCA19) was a prognostic tool for patients with stage III CRC. The survival outcomes in patients with stage IV CRC are still poor and appropriate selection of targeted therapies and immunotherapies is challenging.
AIM: To assess clinical implication of TCA19 in patients with stage IV CRC, and to identify TCA19 with involvement in immune-oncology.
METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records of 60 patients with stage IV CRC was conducted, assessing clinicopathological variables and progression-free survival (PFS). TCA19 gene expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in matched normal and tumor tissues taken from the study cohort. Expression of potential immune-oncology regulatory proteins and targets was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, immunofluorescence staining in tissues from a validation cohort of 10 patients, and in CRC cell lines co-cultured with monocyte
RESULTS: In the patients with TCA19 score higher than the median, the PFS rates of eight patients who received the targeted regimens were significantly higher than the PFS rates of four patients who received 5-fluorouracil-based regimen (
CONCLUSION: The TCA19 score might be prognostic for target-regimen-specific PFS in stage IV CRC. Down-regulation of SLAMF7 and up-regulation of TREM1 occur in primary and metastatic tumor tissues.

Noviello M, Manfredi F, Ruggiero E, et al.
Bone marrow central memory and memory stem T-cell exhaustion in AML patients relapsing after HSCT.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The major cause of death after allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is disease relapse. We investigated the expression of Inhibitory Receptors (IR; PD-1/CTLA-4/TIM-3/LAG-3/2B4/KLRG1/GITR) on T cells infiltrating the bone marrow (BM) of 32 AML patients relapsing (median 251 days) or maintaining complete remission (CR; median 1 year) after HSCT. A higher proportion of early-differentiated Memory Stem (T

Hsieh SL, Hsieh S, Lai PY, et al.
Carnosine Suppresses Human Colorectal Cell Migration and Intravasation by Regulating EMT and MMP Expression.
Am J Chin Med. 2019; 47(2):477-494 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide found in the vertebrate skeletal muscles that is usually obtained through the diet. To investigate the mechanism by which carnosine regulates the migration and intravasation of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, we used cultured HCT-116 cells as an experimental model in this study. We examined HCT-116 cell migratory and intravasive abilities and expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) after carnosine treatment. The results showed that both migration and invasion were inhibited in cells treated with carnosine. We found significant decreases in Twist-1 protein levels and increases in E-cadherin protein levels in HCT-116 cells after carnosine exposure. Although plasminogen activator (uPA) and MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels were decreased, TIMP-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased. Furthermore, the cytosolic levels of phosphorylated I

Ding N, Zou Z, Sha H, et al.
iRGD synergizes with PD-1 knockout immunotherapy by enhancing lymphocyte infiltration in gastric cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1336 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Poor infiltration of activated lymphocytes into tumors represents a fundamental factor limiting the therapeutic effect of adoptive cell immunotherapy. A tumor-penetrating peptide, iRGD, has been widely used to deliver drugs into tumor tissues. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that iRGD could also facilitate the infiltration of lymphocytes in both 3D tumor spheroids and several xenograft mouse models. In addition, combining iRGD modification with PD-1 knockout lymphocytes reveals a superior anti-tumor efficiency. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the binding of iRGD to neuropilin-1 results in tyrosine phosphorylation of the endothelial barrier regulator VE-cadherin, which plays a role in the opening of endothelial cell contacts and the promotion of transendothelial lymphocyte migration. In summary, these results demonstrate that iRGD modification could promote tumor-specific lymphocyte infiltration, and thereby overcome the bottleneck associated with adoptive immune cell therapy in solid tumors.

Xiang Y, Zhang L, Huang Y, et al.
Microarray-based data mining reveals key genes and potential therapeutic drugs for Cadmium-induced prostate cell malignant transformation.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019; 68:141-147 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence showed that Cadmium (Cd) can accumulate in the body and damage cells, resulting in cancerigenesis of the prostate with complex mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed to explore the possible key genes, pathways and therapeutic drugs using bioinformatics methods. Microarray-based data were retrieved and analyzed to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Cd-treated prostate cells and controls. Then, functions of the DEGs were annotated and hub genes were screened. Next, key genes were selected from the hub genes via validation in a prostate cancer cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Afterward, potential drugs were further predicted. Consequently, a gene expression profile, GSE9951, was retrieved. Then, 361 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated DEGs were screened out, which were enriched in various pathways. Among the DEGs, seven hub genes (HSPA5, HSP90AB1, RHOA, HSPD1, MAD2L1, SKP2, and CCT2) were dysregulated in prostate cancer compared to normal controls, and two of them (HSPD1 and CCT2) might influence the prostate cancer prognosis. Lastly, ionomycin was predicted to be a potential agent reversing Cd-induced prostate cell malignant transformation. In summary, the present study provided novel evidence regarding the mechanisms of Cd-induced prostate cell malignant transformation, and identified ionomycin as a potential small molecule against Cd toxicity.

Wang Y, Shi L, Li J, et al.
Long-term cadmium exposure promoted breast cancer cell migration and invasion by up-regulating TGIF.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019; 175:110-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cadmium (Cd) is a known human carcinogen. Previous studies have demonstrated that Cd exposure promoted migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not yet been clearly addressed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TG-interacting factor (TGIF) was involved in long-term Cd exposure-induced migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer cells were continuously exposed to Cd for eight weeks. Western blot and qRT-PCR assays were performed to measure the expression of protein and mRNA. Migration and invasion assays were performed to assess the migratory and invasive ability of human breast cancer cells. Our data indicated that long-term Cd exposure obviously increased the expression of TGIF protein and mRNA in human breast cancer cells. Long-term Cd exposure increased the ability of migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells, which could be inhibited by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TGIF. We also observed that the long-term Cd exposure-induced up-regulation of MMP2 mRNA expression was modulated by TGIF. In conclusion, our findings suggested that TGIF/MMP2 signaling axis might be involved in malignant progression stimulated by long-term Cd exposure in human breast cancer.

Tiong KL, Yeang CH
MGSEA - a multivariate Gene set enrichment analysis.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(1):145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) is a powerful tool to identify enriched functional categories of informative biomarkers. Canonical GSEA takes one-dimensional feature scores derived from the data of one platform as inputs. Numerous extensions of GSEA handling multimodal OMIC data are proposed, yet none of them explicitly captures combinatorial relations of feature scores from multiple platforms.
RESULTS: We propose multivariate GSEA (MGSEA) to capture combinatorial relations of gene set enrichment among multiple platform features. MGSEA successfully captures designed feature relations from simulated data. By applying it to the scores of delineating breast cancer and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) subtypes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets of CNV, DNA methylation and mRNA expressions, we find that breast cancer and GBM data yield both similar and distinct outcomes. Among the enriched functional categories, subtype-specific biomarkers are dominated by mRNA expression in many functional categories in both cancer types and also by CNV in many functional categories in breast cancer. The enriched functional categories belonging to distinct combinatorial patterns are involved different oncogenic processes: cell proliferation (such as cell cycle control, estrogen responses, MYC and E2F targets) for mRNA expression in breast cancer, invasion and metastasis (such as cell adhesion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)) for CNV in breast cancer, and diverse processes (such as immune and inflammatory responses, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and EMT) for mRNA expression in GBM. These observations persist in two external datasets (Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) for breast cancer and Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) for GBM) and are consistent with knowledge of cancer subtypes. We further compare the characteristics of MGSEA with several extensions of GSEA and point out the pros and cons of each method.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the utility of MGSEA by inferring the combinatorial relations of multiple platforms for cancer subtype delineation in three multi-OMIC datasets: TCGA, METABRIC and REMBRANDT. The inferred combinatorial patterns are consistent with the current knowledge and also reveal novel insights about cancer subtypes. MGSEA can be further applied to any genotype-phenotype association problems with multimodal OMIC data.

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