Gene Summary

Gene:RAD17; RAD17 checkpoint clamp loader component
Aliases: CCYC, R24L, RAD24, HRAD17, RAD17SP
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad17, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This protein shares strong similarity with DNA replication factor C (RFC), and can form a complex with RFCs. This protein binds to chromatin prior to DNA damage and is phosphorylated by the checkpoint kinase ATR following damage. This protein recruits the RAD1-RAD9-HUS1 checkpoint protein complex onto chromatin after DNA damage, which may be required for its phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of this protein is required for the DNA-damage-induced cell cycle G2 arrest, and is thought to be a critical early event during checkpoint signaling in DNA-damaged cells. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode four distinct protein isoforms, have been reported. Two pseudogenes, located on chromosomes 7 and 13, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD17
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RAD17 (cancer-related)

Cheng J, Demeulemeester J, Wedge DC, et al.
Pan-cancer analysis of homozygous deletions in primary tumours uncovers rare tumour suppressors.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homozygous deletions are rare in cancers and often target tumour suppressor genes. Here, we build a compendium of 2218 primary tumours across 12 human cancer types and systematically screen for homozygous deletions, aiming to identify rare tumour suppressors. Our analysis defines 96 genomic regions recurrently targeted by homozygous deletions. These recurrent homozygous deletions occur either over tumour suppressors or over fragile sites, regions of increased genomic instability. We construct a statistical model that separates fragile sites from regions showing signatures of positive selection for homozygous deletions and identify candidate tumour suppressors within those regions. We find 16 established tumour suppressors and propose 27 candidate tumour suppressors. Several of these genes (including MGMT, RAD17, and USP44) show prior evidence of a tumour suppressive function. Other candidate tumour suppressors, such as MAFTRR, KIAA1551, and IGF2BP2, are novel. Our study demonstrates how rare tumour suppressors can be identified through copy number meta-analysis.

Yasuda Y, Sakai A, Ito S, et al.
Human RAD 17 Polymorphism at Codon 546 Is Associated with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.
Acta Med Okayama. 2017; 71(1):59-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human RAD17 acts as an activator of checkpoint signals in response to DNA damage. Here we evaluated the association of hRAD17 Leu546Arg (rs1045051), a missense single nucleotide polymorphism, with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption habits in 212 CRC patients and 1,142 cancer-free controls in a case-control study conducted in Japan. The results showed that the hRAD17 Leu/Arg genotype compared to the Leu/Leu genotypes was significantly associated with the protective effect on CRC risk with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.95, p=0.024], and the males with the Arg/Arg genotype had a greater risk of CRC compared to those with the Leu/Leu and Leu/Arg genotypes (OR=1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.40, p=0.04). In stratified studies, the protective effect of the Leu/Arg genotype on CRC risk was markedly higher in the light smokers (< 20 pack years) (OR=0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.94, p=0.024) and the rectal cancer patients (OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.31-0.78, p=0.003). The risk of the Arg/Arg genotype was associated with heavy smoking (≥ 20 pack-years) (OR=2.24, 95%CI 1.09-4.61, p=0.03). These findings suggest that the genetic variant of hRAD17 Leu546Arg polymorphism has a significant effect on CRC susceptibility in Japanese.

Mumbrekar KD, Bola Sadashiva SR, Kabekkodu SP, et al.
Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017; 97(1):118-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage-repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis.
RESULTS: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3'-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene-gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302).
CONCLUSIONS: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity outcomes after RT by acting individually (rs8193), by gene-gene interactions (MAT1A and CD44), and/or by the additive effects of risk alleles.

Srivas R, Shen JP, Yang CC, et al.
A Network of Conserved Synthetic Lethal Interactions for Exploration of Precision Cancer Therapy.
Mol Cell. 2016; 63(3):514-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An emerging therapeutic strategy for cancer is to induce selective lethality in a tumor by exploiting interactions between its driving mutations and specific drug targets. Here we use a multi-species approach to develop a resource of synthetic lethal interactions relevant to cancer therapy. First, we screen in yeast ∼169,000 potential interactions among orthologs of human tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and genes encoding drug targets across multiple genotoxic environments. Guided by the strongest signal, we evaluate thousands of TSG-drug combinations in HeLa cells, resulting in networks of conserved synthetic lethal interactions. Analysis of these networks reveals that interaction stability across environments and shared gene function increase the likelihood of observing an interaction in human cancer cells. Using these rules, we prioritize ∼10(5) human TSG-drug combinations for future follow-up. We validate interactions based on cell and/or patient survival, including topoisomerases with RAD17 and checkpoint kinases with BLM.

Leisegang M, Kammertoens T, Uckert W, Blankenstein T
Targeting human melanoma neoantigens by T cell receptor gene therapy.
J Clin Invest. 2016; 126(3):854-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In successful cancer immunotherapy, T cell responses appear to be directed toward neoantigens created by somatic mutations; however, direct evidence that neoantigen-specific T cells cause regression of established cancer is lacking. Here, we generated T cells expressing a mutation-specific transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) to target different immunogenic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) that naturally occur in human melanoma. Two mutant CDK4 isoforms (R24C, R24L) similarly stimulated T cell responses in vitro and were analyzed as therapeutic targets for TCR gene therapy. In a syngeneic HLA-A2-transgenic mouse model of large established tumors, we found that both mutations differed dramatically as targets for TCR-modified T cells in vivo. While T cells expanded efficiently and produced IFN-γ in response to R24L, R24C failed to induce an effective antitumor response. Such differences in neoantigen quality might explain why cancer immunotherapy induces tumor regression in some individuals, while others do not respond, despite similar mutational load. We confirmed the validity of the in vivo model by showing that the melan-A-specific (MART-1-specific) TCR DMF5 induces rejection of tumors expressing analog, but not native, MART-1 epitopes. The described model allows identification of those neoantigens in human cancer that serve as suitable T cell targets and may help to predict clinical efficacy.

Shen JP, Srivas R, Gross A, et al.
Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):35755-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function.

Valenti F, Ganci F, Fontemaggi G, et al.
Gain of function mutant p53 proteins cooperate with E2F4 to transcriptionally downregulate RAD17 and BRCA1 gene expression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(8):5547-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic instability (IN) is a common feature of many human cancers. The TP53 tumour suppressor gene is mutated in approximately half of human cancers. Here, we show that BRCA1 and RAD17 genes, whose derived proteins play a pivotal role in DNA damage repair, are transcriptional targets of gain-of-function mutant p53 proteins. Indeed, high levels of mutp53 protein facilitate DNA damage accumulation and severely impair BRCA1 and RAD17 expression in proliferating cancer cells. The recruitment of mutp53/E2F4 complex onto specific regions of BRCA1 and RAD17 promoters leads to the inhibition of their expression. BRCA1 and RAD17 mRNA expression is reduced in HNSCC patients carrying TP53 mutations when compared to those bearing wt-p53 gene. Furthermore, the analysis of gene expression databases for breast cancer patients reveals that low expression of DNA repair genes correlates significantly with reduced relapse free survival of patients carrying TP53 gene mutations. Collectively, these findings highlight the direct involvement of transcriptionally active gain of function mutant p53 proteins in genomic instability through the impairment of DNA repair mechanisms.

Eichenmüller M, Trippel F, Kreuder M, et al.
The genomic landscape of hepatoblastoma and their progenies with HCC-like features.
J Hepatol. 2014; 61(6):1312-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common childhood liver cancer and occasionally presents with histological and clinical features reminiscent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Identification of molecular mechanisms that drive the neoplastic continuation towards more aggressive HCC phenotypes may help to guide the new stage of targeted therapies.
METHODS: We performed comprehensive studies on genetic and chromosomal alterations as well as candidate gene function and their clinical relevance.
RESULTS: Whole-exome sequencing identified HB as a genetically very simple tumour (2.9 mutations per tumour) with recurrent mutations in ß-catenin (CTNNB1) (12/15 cases) and the transcription factor NFE2L2 (2/15 cases). Their HCC-like progenies share the common CTNNB1 mutation, but additionally exhibit a significantly increased mutation number and chromosomal instability due to deletions of the genome guardians RAD17 and TP53, accompanied by telomerase reverse-transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations. Targeted genotyping of 33 primary tumours and cell lines revealed CTNNB1, NFE2L2, and TERT mutations in 72.5%, 9.8%, and 5.9% of cases, respectively. All NFE2L2 mutations affected residues of the NFE2L2 protein that are recognized by the KEAP1/CUL3 complex for proteasomal degradation. Consequently, cells transfected with mutant NFE2L2 were insensitive to KEAP1-mediated downregulation of NFE2L2 signalling. Clinically, overexpression of the NFE2L2 target gene NQO1 in tumours was significantly associated with metastasis, vascular invasion, the adverse prognostic C2 gene signature, as well as poor outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the importance of CTNNB1 mutations and NFE2L2-KEAP1 pathway activation in HB development and defines loss of genomic stability and TERT promoter mutations as prominent characteristics of aggressive HB with HCC features.

Wang WL, Huang HC, Kao SH, et al.
Slug is temporally regulated by cyclin E in cell cycle and controls genome stability.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(9):1116-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional repressor Slug is best known to control epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promote cancer invasion/metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that Slug is temporally regulated during cell cycle progression. At G1/S transition, cyclin E-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 mediates the phosphorylation of Slug at Ser-54 and Ser-104, resulting in its ubiquitylation and degradation. Non-phosphorylatable Slug is markedly stabilized at G1/S transition compared with wild-type Slug and greatly leads to downregulation of DNA synthesis and checkpoint-related proteins, including TOP1, DNA Ligase IV and Rad17, reduces cell proliferation, delays S-phase progression and contributes to genome instability. Our results indicate that Slug has multifaceted roles in cancer progression by controlling both EMT and genome stability.

Islam MA, Thomas SD, Murty VV, et al.
c-Myc quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 induces extensive damage in both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of DNA.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(12):8521-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Quadruplex-forming DNA sequences are present throughout the eukaryotic genome, including in telomeric DNA. We have shown that the c-Myc promoter quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 selectively kills transformed cells (Sedoris, K. C., Thomas, S. D., Clarkson, C. R., Muench, D., Islam, A., Singh, R., and Miller, D. M. (2012) Genomic c-Myc quadruplex DNA selectively kills leukemia. Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 66-76). In this study, we show that Pu-27 induces profound DNA damage, resulting in striking chromosomal abnormalities in the form of chromatid or chromosomal breaks, radial formation, and telomeric DNA loss, which induces γ-H2AX in U937 cells. Pu-27 down-regulates telomeric shelterin proteins, DNA damage response mediators (RAD17 and RAD50), double-stranded break repair molecule 53BP1, G2 checkpoint regulators (CHK1 and CHK2), and anti-apoptosis gene survivin. Interestingly, there are no changes of DNA repair molecules H2AX, BRCA1, and the telomere maintenance gene, hTERT. ΔB-U937, where U937 cells stably transfected with deleted basic domain of TRF2 is partially sensitive to Pu-27 but exhibits no changes in expression of shelterin proteins. However, there is an up-regulation of CHK1, CHK2, H2AX, BRCA1, and survivin. Telomere dysfunction-induced foci assay revealed co-association of TRF1with γ-H2AX in ATM deficient cells, which are differentially sensitive to Pu-27 than ATM proficient cells. Alt (alternating lengthening of telomere) cells are relatively resistant to Pu-27, but there are no significant changes of telomerase activity in both Alt and non-Alt cells. Lastly, we show that this Pu-27-mediated sensitivity is p53-independent. The data therefore support two conclusions. First, Pu-27 induces DNA damage within both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of the genome. Second, Pu-27-mediated telomeric damage is due, at least in part, to compromise of the telomeric shelterin protein complex.

El-Saghire H, Vandevoorde C, Ost P, et al.
Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1073-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18-24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation.

Fredebohm J, Wolf J, Hoheisel JD, Boettcher M
Depletion of RAD17 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 15):3380-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy of advanced pancreatic cancer has mainly been gemcitabine-based for the past 15 years, with only limited effect. Recently, combination therapy that also targets checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) has become an attractive option. The central role of CHK1 in many DNA-damage response pathways, however, may result in undesired cytotoxicity in normal cells, causing side effects. We were searching for other target molecules of similar function that may be more specific and thus better suited for combination therapy. To this end a negative selection RNAi screen was performed in cell lines with small hairpin RNA molecules targeting over 10,000 genes. Genes that were found to be synthetically lethal with gemcitabine and whose proteins act upstream of CHK1 were characterised in more detail. In particular, the inhibition of RAD17 potentiated gemcitabine cytotoxicity in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and MiaPaca-2 and in the primary cell line JoPaca-1 that closely resembles primary tumour tissue. Further analysis showed that the synergistic effect of RAD17 knockdown and gemcitabine leads to forced mitotic entry of cells arrested in S phase by gemcitabine treatment, resulting in asymmetric DNA distribution during anaphase followed by DNA fragmentation and finally cell death by mitotic catastrophe. Our data suggest RAD17 as a novel target protein for gemcitabine combination therapy supplementing or complementing inhibition of CHK1. In contrast to CHK1, RAD17 knockdown by itself does not lead to abnormal DNA segregation, suggesting a more specific action.

Essabbani A, Garcia L, Zonetti MJ, et al.
Exon-skipping strategy by ratio modulation between cytoprotective versus pro-apoptotic clusterin forms increased sensitivity of LNCaP to cell death.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54920 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer the secreted form of clusterin (sCLU) has been described as an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased after therapeutic intervention, whereas, the nuclear protein form nCLU was reported to have pro-apoptotic properties.
METHODOLOGY: In order to provide new therapeutic approaches targeting CLU, we developed a strategy based on exon skipping by using a lentiviral construct to preferentially induce the nuclear spliced form of the protein. The molecular construct was transduced in LNCaP cells for testing the modulation of sensitivity of the transduced cells to pro-apoptotic stress.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We showed an increase of nCLU/sCLU expression ratio in the prostate cancer cell line "LNCaP" after lentiviral vector-U7 nCLU transduction. Moreover, we showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in nCLU-U7 LNCaP cells after treatment with cisplatin and after exposure to ionizing radiation compared to control cells. Finally, we showed that nCLU-U7 LNCaP cells exposure to UV-C significantly reduced an increase of cell death compared to control. Finally, we showed that modulating nCLU expression had profound impact on Ku70/Bax interaction as well as Rad17 expression which could be a key mechanism in sensitizing cells to cell death. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that increasing of nCLU/sCLU expression ratio by using an "on demand alternative splicing" strategy successfully increased sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of prostate cancer cells.

Weigman VJ, Chao HH, Shabalin AA, et al.
Basal-like Breast cancer DNA copy number losses identify genes involved in genomic instability, response to therapy, and patient survival.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(3):865-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with known expression-defined tumor subtypes. DNA copy number studies have suggested that tumors within gene expression subtypes share similar DNA Copy number aberrations (CNA) and that CNA can be used to further sub-divide expression classes. To gain further insights into the etiologies of the intrinsic subtypes, we classified tumors according to gene expression subtype and next identified subtype-associated CNA using a novel method called SWITCHdna, using a training set of 180 tumors and a validation set of 359 tumors. Fisher's exact tests, Chi-square approximations, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to evaluate differences in CNA by subtype. To assess the functional significance of loss of a specific chromosomal region, individual genes were knocked down by shRNA and drug sensitivity, and DNA repair foci assays performed. Most tumor subtypes exhibited specific CNA. The Basal-like subtype was the most distinct with common losses of the regions containing RB1, BRCA1, INPP4B, and the greatest overall genomic instability. One Basal-like subtype-associated CNA was loss of 5q11-35, which contains at least three genes important for BRCA1-dependent DNA repair (RAD17, RAD50, and RAP80); these genes were predominantly lost as a pair, or all three simultaneously. Loss of two or three of these genes was associated with significantly increased genomic instability and poor patient survival. RNAi knockdown of RAD17, or RAD17/RAD50, in immortalized human mammary epithelial cell lines caused increased sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor and carboplatin, and inhibited BRCA1 foci formation in response to DNA damage. These data suggest a possible genetic cause for genomic instability in Basal-like breast cancers and a biological rationale for the use of DNA repair inhibitor related therapeutics in this breast cancer subtype.

Bartkova J, Hamerlik P, Stockhausen MT, et al.
Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(36):5095-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure. Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in low- and high-grade human gliomas, and analyze the sources of such endogenous genotoxic stress. Based on analyses of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, normal astrocytes and clinical specimens from grade II astrocytomas (n=41) and grade IV GBM (n=60), we conclude that the DDR machinery is constitutively activated in gliomas, as documented by phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, 53BP1 foci and other markers. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoguanine) was high in some GBM cell lines and many GBM tumors, while it was low in normal brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low-oxygen culture conditions and in clinical specimens of both low- and high-grade tumors. The observed global checkpoint signaling, in contrast to only focal areas of overabundant p53 (indicative of p53 mutation) in grade II astrocytomas, are consistent with DDR activation being an early event in gliomagenesis, initially limiting cell proliferation (low Ki-67 index) and selecting for mutations of p53 and likely other genes that allow escape (higher Ki-67 index) from the checkpoint and facilitate tumor progression. Overall, these results support the potential role of the DDR machinery as a barrier to gliomagenesis and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.

Bric A, Miething C, Bialucha CU, et al.
Functional identification of tumor-suppressor genes through an in vivo RNA interference screen in a mouse lymphoma model.
Cancer Cell. 2009; 16(4):324-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) capable of stably suppressing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) can mimic tumor-suppressor-gene loss in mice. By selecting for shRNAs capable of accelerating lymphomagenesis in a well-characterized mouse lymphoma model, we identified over ten candidate tumor suppressors, including Sfrp1, Numb, Mek1, and Angiopoietin 2. Several components of the DNA damage response machinery were also identified, including Rad17, which acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that responds to oncogenic stress and whose loss is associated with poor prognosis in human patients. Our results emphasize the utility of in vivo RNAi screens, identify and validate a diverse set of tumor suppressors, and have therapeutic implications.

Padua MB, Hansen PJ
Changes in expression of cell-cycle-related genes in PC-3 prostate cancer cells caused by ovine uterine serpin.
J Cell Biochem. 2009; 107(6):1182-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hormonal-regulated serpin, ovine uterine serpin (OvUS), also called uterine milk protein (UTMP), inhibits proliferation of lymphocytes and prostate cancer (PC-3) cells by blocking cell-cycle progression. The present aim was to identify cell-cycle-related genes regulated by OvUS in PC-3 cells using the quantitative human cell-cycle RT(2) Profiler PCR array. Cells were cultured +/-200 microg/ml recombinant OvUS (rOvUS) for 12 and 24 h. At 12 h, rOvUS increased expression of three genes related to cell-cycle checkpoints and arrest (CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CCNG2). Also, 14 genes were down-regulated including genes involved in progression through S (MCM3, MCM5, PCNA), M (CDC2, CKS2, CCNH, BIRC5, MAD2L1, MAD2L2), G(1) (CDK4, CUL1, CDKN3) and DNA damage checkpoint and repair genes RAD1 and RBPP8. At 24 h, rOvUS decreased expression of 16 genes related to regulation and progression through M (BIRC5, CCNB1, CKS2, CDK5RAP1, CDC20, E2F4, MAD2L2) and G(1) (CDK4, CDKN3, TFDP2), DNA damage checkpoints and repair (RAD17, BRCA1, BCCIP, KPNA2, RAD1). Also, rOvUS down-regulated the cell proliferation marker gene MKI67, which is absent in cells at G(0). Results showed that OvUS blocks cell-cycle progression through upregulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and arrest genes and down-regulation of genes involved in cell-cycle progression.

Smalley KS, Lioni M, Dalla Palma M, et al.
Increased cyclin D1 expression can mediate BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E-mutated melanomas.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2008; 7(9):2876-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the response of melanoma cell lines to MEK and BRAF inhibitors. In the current study, we address whether dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and/or cyclin D1 contribute to the BRAF inhibitor resistance of melanoma cells. Mutational screening identified a panel of melanoma cell lines that harbored both a BRAF V600E mutation and a CDK4 mutation: K22Q (1205Lu), R24C (WM39, WM46, and SK-Mel-28), and R24L (WM902B). Pharmacologic studies showed that the presence of a CDK4 mutation did not alter the sensitivity of these cell lines to the BRAF inhibitor. The only cell line with significant BRAF inhibitor resistance was found to harbor both a CDK4 mutation and a CCND1 amplification. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed that CCND1 was amplified in 17% of BRAF V600E-mutated human metastatic melanoma samples, indicating the clinical relevance of this finding. As the levels of CCND1 amplification in cell lines are lower than those seen in clinical specimens, we overexpressed cyclin D1 alone and in the presence of CDK4 in a drug-sensitive melanoma line. Cyclin D1 overexpression alone increased resistance and this was enhanced when cyclin D1 and CDK4 were concurrently overexpressed. In conclusion, increased levels of cyclin D1, resulting from genomic amplification, may contribute to the BRAF inhibitor resistance of BRAF V600E-mutated melanomas, particularly when found in the context of a CDK4 mutation/overexpression.

Beretta GL, Gatti L, Cesare MD, et al.
The human homolog of fission yeast Rad17 is implicated in tumor growth.
Cancer Lett. 2008; 266(2):194-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad17 is a checkpoint protein critical for maintenance of genomic stability. Since the loss of checkpoint control is a common feature of tumor cells, we investigated the biological function of the human homolog hRAD17. Expression of hRAD17 in a fission yeast rad17 deleted strain reduced growth of yeast colonies and caused slower progression through cell cycle. Immunoprecipitated hRad17 exhibited exonuclease activity. hRAD17 delayed growth of NIH3T3 fibroblasts transformed by the H-ras oncogene in nude mice. Our results support that hRAD17, similarly to other human genes involved in checkpoint mechanisms, plays a role in control of tumor growth.

Kim JM, Kakusho N, Yamada M, et al.
Cdc7 kinase mediates Claspin phosphorylation in DNA replication checkpoint.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(24):3475-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cdc7 kinase is evolutionarily conserved and is involved in initiation and progression of DNA replication. However, roles of Cdc7 in checkpoint responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that deletion of the Cdc7 genes in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells abrogates hydroxyurea (HU)- or UV-induced activation of Chk1. HU-induced Chk1 activation is also impaired in human cancer cell lines in which Cdc7 is depleted by siRNA, and Cdc7-depleted cells are more sensitive to HU treatment. In contrast, ATR and Rad17 are relocated to chromatin in these cells following HU treatment, indicating that stalled DNA replication forks are detected normally. Cdc7-depleted cells exhibit defects in chromatin association and phosphorylation of Claspin, suggesting that Cdc7 exerts its effect at least partially through Claspin. Consistent with this prediction, Cdc7 interacts with and phosphorylates Claspin. We propose that Cdc7 is required for activation of the ATR-Chk1 checkpoint pathway through regulation of Claspin.

Zhao M, Begum S, Ha PK, et al.
Downregulation of RAD17 in head and neck cancer.
Head Neck. 2008; 30(1):35-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA repair genes play a critical role in maintaining genome stability and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often shows chromosomal instability. We examined the expression of human RAD17, a DNA damage cell cycle checkpoint gene, in primary head and neck cancer tissue.
METHODS: Significance analysis of microarrays was applied to expression array results examining more than 12,000 genes in 7 samples of primary HNSCC and 6 samples of normal control oral epithelial tissue. Additional confirmation was performed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these samples and western blot with an additional 12 primary HNSCC and 7 normal samples, followed by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and quantitative PCR at the RAD17 locus.
RESULTS: Multiple checkpoint and DNA repair genes were downregulated in primary head and neck tumor tissue compared with normal control epithelial tissue, including hRAD17. Its Z-score and fold change were -2.5 and 0.39, respectively. The results of normalized, quantitative RT-PCR showed decreased expression of hRAD17 mRNA in tumor tissue (mean value 0.2166) when compared with normal tissue (mean value 0.3957, p < .05). Western blot demonstrated undetectable expression of hRAD17 protein in primary tumor tissue (0/12), while there was strong expression of hRAD17 protein in normal oral mucosal tissue (6/7). To determine possible mechanisms of inactivation, the hRAD17 locus at 5q13 was analyzed using microsatellite markers, showing 70% LOH in 30 primary HNSCCs. Quantitative PCR showed that RAD17 DNA copy number was decreased in the majority of head and neck tumor tissue samples.
CONCLUSION: Loss of hRAD17 expression occurs frequently in HNSCC, is often due to genomic deletion, and may facilitate genomic instability in HNSCC.

Martínez N, Sánchez-Beato M, Carnero A, et al.
Transcriptional signature of Ecteinascidin 743 (Yondelis, Trabectedin) in human sarcoma cells explanted from chemo-naive patients.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2005; 4(5):814-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743; Yondelis, Trabectedin) is a marine anticancer agent that induces long-lasting objective remissions and tumor control in a subset of patients with pretreated/resistant soft-tissue sarcoma. Drug-induced tumor control is achievable in 22% of such patients, but there is no clear indication of the molecular features correlated with clinical sensitivity/resistance to ET-743. Nine low-passage, soft-tissue sarcoma cell lines, explanted from chemo-naive patients with different patterns of sensitivity, have been profiled with a cDNA microarray containing 6,700 cancer-related genes. The molecular signature of these cell lines was analyzed at baseline and at four different times after ET-743 exposure. The association of levels of TP53 mutation and TP73 expression with ET-743 sensitivity and cell cycle kinetics after treatment was also analyzed. Gene expression profile analysis revealed up-regulation of 86 genes and down-regulation of 244 genes in response to ET-743. The ET-743 gene expression signature identified a group of genes related with cell cycle control, stress, and DNA-damage response (JUNB, ATF3, CS-1, SAT, GADD45B, and ID2) that were up-regulated in all the cell lines studied. The transcriptional signature 72 hours after ET-743 administration, associated with ET-743 sensitivity, showed a more efficient induction of genes involved in DNA-damage response and apoptosis, such as RAD17, BRCA1, PAR4, CDKN1A, and P53DINP1, in the sensitive cell line group. The transcriptional signature described here may lead to the identification of ET-743 downstream mediators and transcription regulators and the proposal of strategies by which ET-743-sensitive tumors may be identified.

Hopkins KM, Wang X, Berlin A, et al.
Expression of mammalian paralogues of HRAD9 and Mrad9 checkpoint control genes in normal and cancerous testicular tissue.
Cancer Res. 2003; 63(17):5291-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human and mouse paralogues of the evolutionarily conserved mammalian HRAD9 and Mrad9 cell cycle checkpoint control genes have been isolated and called HRAD9B and Mrad9B, respectively. HRAD9B encodes a protein that is 414 amino acids long and is 55% similar and 35% identical to the HRAD9 gene product. The Mrad9B protein is 398 amino acids long and is 50% similar and 35% identical to its paralogue. We demonstrate that the encoded human protein is nuclear and can physically interact with checkpoint proteins HRAD1, HRAD9, HHUS1, and HHUS1B, much like HRAD9. Northern blot analysis to detect tissue specificity indicates that the human and mouse genes are expressed predominantly in the testis. The abundance of HRAD9B RNA, as judged by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, is very low in most testicular tumors, particularly those of germ cell origin, i.e., seminomas, relative to normal testis control, nonseminomas, or Leydig tumor cells. RNA levels corresponding to HRAD17, another checkpoint control gene, demonstrated a similar pattern, but in general, higher quantities of this message were detected in samples. Furthermore, normal/tumor tissue differences were not as dramatic or consistent from sample to sample, especially for the seminomas. Our results demonstrate for the first time that HRAD9 and Mrad9 are part of a gene family and reveal a new genetic element encoding a product that interacts with multiple, known cell cycle checkpoint control proteins. The findings also indicate that HRAD9B can serve as a biomarker in particular for testicular seminomas and might be causally related to the disease.

Sasaki H, Kobayashi Y, Yukiue H, et al.
Hrad17 expression in thymoma.
Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003; 51(3):81-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We used palindromic polymerase chain reaction-driven complementary deoxyribonucleic acid differential display to identify and isolate a gene, the human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint gene rad17 (Hrad17), from colon cancer tissue. The loss of checkpoint control in mammalian cells results in genomic instability, leading to the amplification, rearrangement, or loss of chromosomes--events associated with tumor progression. We hypothesized that the Hrad17 may be expressed in thymoma, especially in invasive thymoma. We attempted to determine the influence of Hrad17 expression on clinicopathological features for patients with thymoma who had undergone surgery.
METHODS: Expression of Hrad17 messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using a LightCycler in 38 thymomas and 10 adjacent histologically normal thymus samples from patients for whom follow-up data was available.
RESULTS: Hrad17 transcripts were detected in all 38 tumor samples (8.789 +/- 7.337) at levels significantly higher than those in normal thymus samples (1.908 +/- 2.267, p < 0.0001). No relationship was seen between Hrad17 gene expression and age, gender, or pathological thymoma subtypes. Hrad17 mRNA expression in invasive thymomas (stage II-IV, 10.067 +/- 5.293) was significantly higher than that in stage I thymomas (5.193 +/- 4.485, p = 0.0168). Immunohistochemistry showed that Hrad17 protein was highly expressed in invasive thymoma tumor tissue but not within the normal thymus tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Hrad17 was highly expressed in invasive thymoma.

Wang X, Wang L, Callister MD, et al.
Human Rad17 is phosphorylated upon DNA damage and also overexpressed in primary non-small cell lung cancer tissues.
Cancer Res. 2001; 61(20):7417-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spRAD17 gene is an essential component of the DNA damage and replication checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Cloning of the human homologue of spRAD17, hRAD17, indicated that it exhibits structural similarity with the replication accessory protein family, which include subunits of the Replication factor C complex. We have analyzed the phosphorylation status of hRad17 in response to DNA damaging agents. Our results showed that phosphorylation of hRad17 occurred immediately after UV and ionizing radiation treatment and reached peak level at approximately 3 h, suggesting that hRad17 may be a component of the DNA damage checkpoint. When primary tumor samples were analyzed, we observed that the majority (74%) of non-small cell lung carcinoma samples exhibited a significantly higher level of hRad17 expression compared with matched normal tissue controls. In contrast, hRad17 protein levels in a panel of primary colon carcinoma samples did not show an elevated level of expression compared with normal colon tissues. This observation suggests that the function of the hRAD17 gene may be involved in lung cancer development and may serve as a potential tumor marker.

Sasaki H, Chen LB, Auclair D, et al.
Overexpression of Hrad17 gene in non-small cell lung cancers correlated with lymph node metastasis.
Lung Cancer. 2001; 34(1):47-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
We used palindromic PCR-driven cDNA differential display technique to identify and isolate a gene, human homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint gene rad17, from colon cancer tissues. The loss of checkpoint control in mammalian cells results in genomic instability, leading to the amplification, rearrangement, or loss of chromosomes, events associated with tumor progression. We hypothesized that the Hrad17 may be expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We attempted to determine the influence of Hrad17 expression on clinicopathological features for patients with NSCLC who had undergone surgery. Expression of Hrad17 messenger RNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 102 non-small cell lung carcinomas and adjacent histologically normal lung samples from patients for whom follow up data were available. Hrad17 transcripts were detected in 26 (25.5%) of the tumor samples, although some of the paired normal lung samples showed weak expression. There was no relationship between Hrad17 gene expression and age, gender or T-status. About 13 of 31 (41.9%) NSCLC patients with Hrad17 overexpressions were node positive, on the other hand, 13 of 76 (18.3%) cases without Hrad17 overexpressions were node positive. Thus the expression of Hrad17 mRNA correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.0231) from NSCLC. Hrad17 protein was highly expressed at the advancing margin of the tumor of lung cancer tissue but not within the normal lung tissue by immunohistochemistry. Thus the expression of Hrad17 might correlate with more advanced NSCLC.

Kataoka A, Sadanaga N, Mimori K, et al.
Overexpression of HRad17 mRNA in human breast cancer: correlation with lymph node metastasis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2001; 7(9):2815-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A novel human gene, designated HRad17, was identified as the human homologue of the Rad17 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rad24 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, these genes play a critical role in maintaining genomic stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of HRad17 in human breast cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated HRad17 mRNA expression in 64 cases of human breast cancer by means of reverse-transcription-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The HRad17 mRNA was overexpressed in 35 cases (54.7%). Twenty-four (68.6%) of 35 cases with HRad17 overexpression in cancer tissues were node-positive, whereas only 8 (27.6%) of 29 cases without HRad17 overexpressions were node-positive. The expression of HRad17 mRNA correlated with both lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001) and high Ki67 labeling index (P = 0.006). Although not significantly different, expression of HRad17 mRNA tended to correlate with tumor size (P = 0.06) and expression of mutant p53 protein (P = 0.10). Furthermore, expression of HRad17 mRNA was an independent predictor of axillary lymph node metastasis as well as of lymphatic permeation by multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that HRad17 might be related to the development of lymph node metastasis in human breast cancers. Although its function still remains unclear, the expression of HRad17 mRNA could open up a new window for the diagnostic staging and treatment of human breast cancers.

Laes JF, Quan X, Ravoet M, et al.
Analysis of candidate genes included in the mammary cancer susceptibility 1 (Mcs1) region.
Mamm Genome. 2001; 12(3):199-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
The rat strain COP is resistant to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced mammary cancer, whereas the strain WF is susceptible. Using genetic linkage analysis of (WF x COP) F1 x WF backcrosses, LC Hsu, LA Shepel and co-workers showed that a region at the centromeric end of Chromosome (Chr) 2 (2q1) segregates with the sensitivity to mammary cancer development. The responsible locus was named Mcs1 (for mammary cancer susceptibility 1). We have developed the chromosome map of the 2q1 region by localizing 18 genes, 4 ESTs, and several anonymous markers, using radiation hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The region containing Mcs1 was delineated to 2q12-q14. Five of the genes (Mef2c, Map1b, Ccnh, Rasa, Rasgrf2) were assigned to this region and were shown to be expressed in the rat mammary glands, while three possible functional candidate genes, Pi3kr1, Rad17, and Naip, were excluded from the critical region. Since cyclin H, encoded by Ccnh, plays an important role in the control of the cell cycle and since the proteins encoded by Rasa and Rasgrf2 control the activity of the RAS oncoprotein, the corresponding genes appeared as both functional and positional Mcs1 candidates. RT-PCR experiments on RNA extracted from mammary glands of the two rat strains (COP, WF) was done. No amino acid sequence difference was found between the two strains. These results argue against the hypothesis that any of these three genes is Mcs1.

von Deimling F, Scharf JM, Liehr T, et al.
Human and mouse RAD17 genes: identification, localization, genomic structure and histological expression pattern in normal testis and seminoma.
Hum Genet. 1999 Jul-Aug; 105(1-2):17-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, the human orthologue to the cell cycle checkpoint genes rad17 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and RAD24 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), called HRAD17, has been isolated and localized to chromosome 4. Independently, we have isolated the HRAD17 transcript and mapped it to chromosome 5q13 between the CCNB1 and BTF2p44cen genes. Furthermore, we have identified the complete exon-intron structure of HRAD17. The gene is organized into 14 exons, the translation initiation site lies within exon 2, and the stop codon within exon 14. Two further HRAD17 pseudogenes, HRAD17P1 and HRAD17P2, were identified on chromosomes 7p21 and 13q14.3, respectively, encompassing exons 3-14 and bearing 84% and 93% homology, respectively. Additionally, we have isolated the coding region of the mouse orthologue, Mrad17, and mapped it on chromosome 13 between Ccnb1 and Btf2p44, the same two genes between which it maps in human. The predicted Mrad17 polypeptide encompasses 687 amino acids and shows 89% similarity to HRAD17. Both genes are most highly expressed in testis compared to all other tissues, as shown by Northern blot hybridization. Histological studies, based on in situ hybridization with radioactively labeled antisense HRAD17 riboprobes, showed a strong expression within the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubuli in normal testis whereas in testicular tumors (seminomas) only weak, diffuse signals were seen. In light of the known function of the yeast orthologue at meiotic and mitotic checkpoints, as well as the strong expression in testis and weak expression in seminomas, we suggest a putative involvement of HRAD 17 in testicular tumorigenesis.

Bao S, Chang MS, Auclair D, et al.
HRad17, a human homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint gene rad17, is overexpressed in colon carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 1999; 59(9):2023-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Using the palindromic PCR-cDNA display method, we have cloned a novel gene overexpressed by human colon carcinoma relative to normal colon. Among normal tissues examined, only testis expresses it at a high level. Sequence analysis revealed its extensive homology with checkpoint genes rad17 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and RAD24 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This novel gene designated as hRad17 is localized to chromosome 5q12,13.1, a region known to be deleted in a variety of human cancers. Promoter region and one pseudogene of hRad17 have been identified. Whereas the increased expression of hRad17 by human colon carcinomas may be related to the known resistance of these cells to DNA-damaging agents during therapy, the deletion of hRad17 in a variety of cancers may predispose them to increased rate of mutation and heightened sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, including radiation and anticancer drugs.

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