Gene Summary

Gene:RRM1; ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1
Aliases: R1, RR1, RIR1
Summary:This gene encodes the large and catalytic subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. A pool of available deoxyribonucleotides is important for DNA replication during S phase of the cell cycle as well as multiple DNA repair processes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RRM1 (cancer-related)

Cao Y, Zhang G, Wang P, et al.
Clinical significance of UGT1A1 polymorphism and expression of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A in gastric cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Individualized therapeutic regimen is a recently intensively pursued approach for targeting diseases, in which the search for biomarkers was considered the first and most important. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate whether the UGT1A1, ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A genes are underlying biomarkers for gastric cancer, which, to our knowledge, has not been performed.
METHODS: Ninety-eight tissue specimens were collected from gastric cancer patients between May 2012 and March 2015. A multiplex branched DNA liquidchip technology was used for measuring the mRNA expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A. Direct sequencing was performed for determination of UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, correlations between gene expressions, polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated.
RESULTS: The expressions of TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 were significantly associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of age, gender and family history of gastric cancer, but not with differentiation, growth patterns, metastasis and TNM staging in patients with gastric cancer. No clinical characteristics were correlated with the expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1 and TOP2A. Additionally, patients carrying G allele at -211 of UGT1A1 were predisposed to developing tubular adenocarcinoma, while individuals carrying 6TAA or G allele respectively at *28 or -3156 of UGT1A1 tended to have a local invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: The UGT1A1 polymorphism may be useful to screen the risk population of gastric cancer, while TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 may be potential biomarkers for prognosis and chemotherapy guidance.

Koide R, Kulkeaw K, Tanaka Y, et al.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist StemRegenin 1 Promotes the Expansion of Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cell Line, NB4.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3635-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: StemRegenin 1 (SR1), an antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), reportedly promotes expansion of hematopoietic stem cells but its effect on leukemia cells is unclear. This study focused on the role of SR1 in leukemia cell proliferation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: AHR expression was compared in the cell lines Jurkat, Kasumi-1, NB4 and K562, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Highly AHR-expressing NB4 cells were cultured with SR1 for 2 and 4 days, and evaluated for viability and gene expression. DNA microarray was also performed.
RESULTS: The viability of NB4 cells treated with 1.5 μM SR1 increased at day 4. Expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) was up-regulated, while that of BCL2 associated X protein (BAX) was down-regulated at day 2. Increased cyclin D1 (CCND1), CCND2 and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) expressions were observed at day 4. Global gene expression profiles showed up-regulation of splice variant-related genes and down-regulation of inflammation-related genes.
CONCLUSION: SR1 promotes the expansion of NB4 cells in vitro, implying the need for caution regarding in vivo use of R1.

Zhao HB, Zhang XF, Shi F, et al.
Comparison of the expression of human equilibrative nucleotide transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) genes in seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the variability in the expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. hENT1 and RRM1 mRNA expression levels in natural killer (NK) cells and seven non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, and Jurket) were studied using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the results were compared using the Student t-test. mRNA expression of hENT1 was detectable in YTS, SNK-6, Jeko-1, ly-1, Raji, Karpas, Jurket, and NK cells, which revealed variability in gene expression. There were significant differences in the mRNA expression values of hENT1 (P = 0.021) and RRM1 (P = 0.002) compared to those in NK cells. mRNA expression of both hENT1 and RRM1 was closely associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell proliferation. Differential expression analysis of hENT1 and RRM1 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines may provide novel drug leads for precision medicine.

Matsuda Y, Yamauchi T, Hosono N, et al.
Combination of panobinostat with ponatinib synergistically overcomes imatinib-resistant CML cells.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):1029-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The major mechanism of imatinib (IM) resistance of CML is the reactivation of ABL kinase either through BCR-ABL gene amplification or mutation. We investigated the cytotoxicity of a pan-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ponatinib, and a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, panobinostat, against IM-resistant CML cells in vitro. Two different IM-resistant cell lines, K562/IM-R1 and Ba/F3/T315I were evaluated in comparison with their respective, parental cell lines, K562 and Ba/F3. K562/IM-R1 overexpressed BCR-ABL due to gene amplification. Ba/F3/T315I was transfected with a BCR-ABL gene encoding T315I-mutated BCR-ABL. Ponatinib inhibited the growth of both K562/IM-R1 and Ba/F3/T315I as potently as it inhibited their parental cells with an IC50 of 2-30 nM. Panobinostat also similarly inhibited the growth of all of the cell lines with an IC50 of 40-51 nM. This was accompanied by reduced histone deacetylase activity, induced histone H3 acetylation, and an increased protein level of heat shock protein 70, which suggested disruption of heat shock protein 90 chaperone function for BCR-ABL and its degradation. Importantly, the combination of ponatinib with panobinostat showed synergistic growth inhibition and induced a higher level of apoptosis than the sum of the apoptosis induced by each agent alone in all of the cell lines. Ponatinib inhibited phosphorylation not only of BCR-ABL but also of downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, protein kinase B, and ERK1/2 in both K562/IM-R1 and Ba/F3/T315I, and the addition of panobinostat to ponatinib further inhibited these phosphorylations. In conclusion, panobinostat enhanced the cytotoxicity of ponatinib towards IM-resistant CML cells including those with T315I-mutated BCR-ABL.

Ashour AE, Ahmed AF, Kumar A, et al.
Thymoquinone inhibits growth of human medulloblastoma cells by inducing oxidative stress and caspase-dependent apoptosis while suppressing NF-κB signaling and IL-8 expression.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 416(1-2):141-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. The transcription factor NF-κB is overexpressed in human MB and is a critical factor for MB tumor growth. NF-κB is known to regulate the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), the chemokine that enhances cancer cell growth and resistance to chemotherapy. We have recently shown that thymoquinone (TQ) suppresses growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in part by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. Here we sought to extend these studies in MB cells and show that TQ suppresses growth of MB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, causes G2M cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis. TQ significantly increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while pretreatment of MB cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) abrogated TQ-induced cell death and apoptosis, suggesting that TQ-induced cell death and apoptosis are oxidative stress-mediated. TQ inhibitory effects were associated with inhibition of NF-κB and altered expression of its downstream effectors IL-8 and its receptors, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, X-IAP, and FLIP, as well as the pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R1, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl-xS, and cytochrome c. TQ-triggered apoptosis was substantiated by up-regulation of the executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7, as well as cleavage of the death substrate poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. Interestingly, pretreatment of MB cells with NAC or the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk abrogated TQ-induced apoptosis, loss of cyclin B1 and NF-κB activity, suggesting that these TQ-mediated effects are oxidative stress- and caspase-dependent. These findings reveal that TQ induces both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in MB cells, and suggest its potential usefulness in the treatment of MB.

Saber MM, Galal MA, Ain-Shoka AA, Shouman SA
Combination of metformin and 5-aminosalicylic acid cooperates to decrease proliferation and induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The link between inflammation and cancer has been confirmed by the use of anti-inflammatory therapies in cancer prevention and treatment. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was shown to decrease the growth and survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Studies also revealed that metformin induced apoptosis in several cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We investigated the combinatory effect of 5-ASA and metformin on HCT-116 and Caco-2 CRC cell lines. Apoptotic markers were determined using western blotting. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by RT-PCR. Inflammatory transcription factors and metastatic markers were measured by ELISA.
RESULTS: Metformin enhanced CRC cell death induced by 5-ASA through significant increase in oxidative stress and activation of apoptotic machinery. Moreover, metformin enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of 5-ASA by decreasing the gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and TNF-α and its receptors; TNF-R1 and TNF-R2. Significant inhibition of activation of NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors, and their downstream targets was also observed. Metformin also enhanced the inhibitory effect of 5-ASA on MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzyme activity, indicating a decrease in metastasis.
CONCLUSION: The current data demonstrate that metformin potentiates the antitumor effect of 5-ASA on CRC cells suggesting their potential use as an adjuvant treatment in CRC.

Zhang Q, Sun T, Kang P, et al.
Combined analysis of rearrangement of ALK, ROS1, somatic mutation of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and mRNA expression of ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and their clinical significance.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(3):583-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The assessment of single gene such as ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, and ROS1 is now widely applied in therapeutic decisions of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of our study was to concurrently analyze these genes and evaluate their clinical significance in patients with NSCLC.
METHODS: Rearrangement of ALK and ROS1 was analyzed in 120 patients using FISH assays. Somatic mutation of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and mRNA expression of ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR were examined by liquidchip platform in 350 patients . Data on clinical features were obtained from medical records of 119 patients, and the follow-up was conducted in 106 patients who received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
RESULTS: We identified 5.0% ALK rearrangements, 1.7% ROS1 rearrangements, 36.6% EGFR mutations, 8.9% KRAS mutations, 0% BRAF mutations, and 4.0% PIK3CA mutations. Double or coexisting mutations were identified in 13 patients. Significant correlations were observed among EGFR, KRAS mutation, ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR expression, and clinical features, especially histology (P < 0.05). Significant cross-correlations were observed in some pairs of genes (P < 0.05). Patients with low RRM1 expression had a better progression-free survival (PFS) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, EGFR-mutated patients with low RRM1 expression or patients with both ERCC1 and RRM1 low expression had a better PFS (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Combined analysis of these commonly studied genes may promote the individual treatment in NSCLC. RRM1 may be a prognostic and predictive biomarker for PFS in patients with NSCLC who received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and combining EGFR mutation and RRM1 expression or combining ERCC1 and RRM1 expression can enhance prognostic and predictive power for PFS.

Fan P, Liu L, Yin Y, et al.
MicroRNA-101-3p reverses gemcitabine resistance by inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase M1 in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 373(1):130-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is among the most lethal malignancies and resistance to chemotherapy prevents the therapeutic outcome. MicroRNAs provide a novel therapeutic strategy. Here, the established and primary human PDA cell lines PANC-1, AsPC-1, MIA-PaCa2, AsanPaCa, BxPC-3 and three gemcitabine-resistant subclones were examined. A gene expression profiling revealed that the ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) was upregulated in gemcitabine-resistant cells, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunostaining. Inhibition of RRM1 by lipotransfection of siRNA reduced its expression and reversed gemcitabine resistance. The expression of RRM1 correlated to gemcitabine resistance in vitro and was higher in malignant patient pancreas tissue compared to non-malignant pancreas tissue. By microRNA expression profiling, we identified microRNA-101-3p as top-downregulated candidate. Lipotransfection of microRNA-101-3p mimics inhibited the expression of RRM1, reduced the luciferase activity of its 3'UTR and sensitized for gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity. These results underline the relevance of microRNA-101-3p-driven regulation of RRM1 in drug resistance and suggest the co-delivery of microRNA-101-3p and gemcitabine for more effective therapy outcome.

Heo SJ, Jung I, Lee CK, et al.
A randomized phase II trial of ERCC1 and RRM1 mRNA expression-based chemotherapy versus docetaxel/carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(3):539-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the selection of first-line chemotherapy based on ERCC1 and RRM1 mRNA expression levels would improve clinical outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental and control arms; the experimental arm received gemcitabine/carboplatin (GC) if ERCC1 and RRM1 expression was low, gemcitabine/vinorelbine (GV) if ERCC1 was high and RRM1 was low, docetaxel/carboplatin (DC) if ERCC1 was low and RRM1 was high, and docetaxel/vinorelbine (DV) if both were high. In the control arm, patients received DC.
RESULTS: This study was prematurely terminated after the futility analysis of 43 progression-free survival (PFS) events. A total of 55 patients (n = 26 in the experimental arm, n = 29 in the control arm) were evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Nineteen (73.1%) patients were assigned to receive GC, 0 (0.0%) to GV, 4 (15.4%) to DC, and 3 (11.5%) to DV in the experimental arm. The overall response rates were 42.3 and 48.3% in the experimental and control arms, respectively, which were not statistically different (P = 0.657). The median PFS was 5.2 months in the experimental arm and 5.4 months in the control arm (P = 0.286). The median overall survival was 17.4 months in the experimental arm and 12.6 months in the control arm (P = 0.638). The occurrence of grade 3 or higher neutropenia (69.2 vs. 93.1%, P = 0.035) and febrile neutropenia (3.8 vs. 24.1%, P = 0.054) was more common in the control arm.
CONCLUSION: ERCC1 and RRM1 mRNA expression-based chemotherapy did not improve clinical outcomes in advanced NSCLC (NCT01648517).

Skirnisdottir I, Seidal T, Åkerud H
The relationship of the angiogenesis regulators VEGF-A, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 to p53 status and prognostic factors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma in FIGO-stages I-II.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):998-1006 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic effect of the angiogenesis regulators VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and VEGF-A for recurrent disease and disease-free survival (DFS), and their relation to the apoptosis regulator p53, in 131 patients with FIGO-stages I-II with epithelial ovarian cancer. For the detection of positivity of the markers the techniques of tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used. In tumors the frequency of positive staining for VEGF-R1 was 19%, for VEGF-R2 and VEGF-A, it was 77 and 70%, respectively. Positivity for p53 was detected in 25% of tumors. The total number of recurrences in the complete series was 34 out of 131 (26%) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 68%. Positive staining for VEGF-A (P=0.030), VEGF-R2 (P=0.011) and p53 (P=0.015) was found more frequently in type II tumors than in type I tumors. Patients with VEGF-R1 negative tumors had worse (P=0.021) DFS compared to patients with VEGF-R1 positive tumors. In two multivariate Cox analyzes with DFS as endpoint, FIGO-stage (HR=3.8), VEGF-R2 status (HR=0.4) and p53 status (HR=2.3), all were significant and independent prognostic factors. When the variables VEGF-R2 and p53 were replaced with the new variable VEGF-R2+p53-/other three combinations in one group, it was found that patients from that subgroup had 86% reduced risk of dying in disease (HR=0.24). Findings above, confirmed relationship between VEGF-R2 and VEGF-A and p53, respectively, with regard to recurrent disease and survival. Some findings from the present study are different from results from previous studies on the regulation of angiogenesis. Despite many trials with anti-angiogenic agents in the front line of ovarian cancer have shown to be positive for progression-free survival, no one has demonstrated an impact on overall survival. Therefore, one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research, is to discover predictive and prognostic biomarkers.

Cousin FJ, Jouan-Lanhouet S, Théret N, et al.
The probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a new adjuvant for TRAIL-based therapy in colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7161-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, which activates the extrinsic death pathway. TRAIL is pro-apoptotic on colon cancer cells, while not cytotoxic towards normal healthy cells. However, its clinical use is limited by cell resistance to cell death which occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cells. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are also known to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In accordance, we have shown that food grade dairy propionibacteria induce intrinsic apoptosis of colon cancer cells, via the production and release of SCFA (propionate and acetate) acting on mitochondria. Here, we investigated possible synergistic effect between Propionibacterium freudenreichii and TRAIL. Indeed, we hypothesized that acting on both extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways may exert a synergistic pro-apoptotic effect. Whole transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that propionibacterial supernatant or propionibacterial metabolites (propionate and acetate), in combination with TRAIL, increased pro-apoptotic gene expression (TRAIL-R2/DR5) and decreased anti-apoptotic gene expression (FLIP, XIAP) in HT29 human colon cancer cells. The revealed synergistic pro-apoptotic effect, depending on both death receptors (TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5) and caspases (caspase-8, -9 and -3) activation, was lethal on cancer cells but not on normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), and was inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. Finally, milk fermented by P. freudenreichii induced HT29 cells apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL cytotoxic activity, as did P. freudenreichii DMEM culture supernatants or its SCFA metabolites. These results open new perspectives for food grade P. freudenreichii-containing products in order to potentiate TRAIL-based cancer therapy in colorectal cancer.

Tomonari T, Takeishi S, Taniguchi T, et al.
MRP3 as a novel resistance factor for sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7207-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 μM (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 μM (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 μM) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells.

Coskunpinar E, Yildiz P, Aynaci E, et al.
Investigation of some DNA repair genes association in non small cell lung cancer.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015; 61(8):57-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2, also known as ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RRM2 gene and also Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RRM1 gene. RRM1 is a gene important in determining tumor phenotype, but also induced the expression of PTEN tumor suppressor gene, cell migration, invasion and metastasis formation, and play a preventive role. ERCC2 DNA repair mechanism is associated in more than 20 genes involved in the NER pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate rs13181 ERCC2 (T>G) (Lys751Gln), rs12806698 RRM1 (-269C>A) and rs6759180 (located in the 5'UTR) RRM2 (10126436G>A) gene polymorphisms by using real time PCR technique in patients with NSCLC. 193 NSCLC cases and 141 healthy control cases were included in this study. A significant difference was found between rs12806698 RRM1 genotype distributions (*p: 0.034) and were determined increases the risk of disease approximately 3.044 times AA genotype having (*p: 0.014 OR: 3.044, 95%CI: 1.205-7,688). A significant difference was found between rs6759180 RRM2 genotype distributions (*p: 0.033) and were determined increases the risk of disease approximately 3.49 times GG genotype having (p: 0,009 OR: 3, 49, %95CI:1.291-9,482). It was found significant difference in serum 8-OHdG levels between patients and controls (*p: 0001).

Grossi F, Dal Bello MG, Salvi S, et al.
Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase Subunit-2 and Thymidylate Synthase Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Resected Stages I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:302649 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Biomarkers can help to identify patients with early-stages or locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have high risk of relapse and poor prognosis. To correlate the expression of seven biomarkers involved in DNA synthesis and repair and in cell division with clinical outcome, we consecutively collected 82 tumour tissues from radically resected NSCLC patients. The following biomarkers were investigated using IHC and q
RT-PCR: excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), ribonucleotide reductase subunits M1 and M2 (RRM1 and RRM2), subunit p53R2, thymidylate synthase (TS), and class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3). Gene expression levels were also validated in an available NSCLC microarray dataset. Multivariate analysis identified the protein overexpression of RRM2 and TS as independent prognostic factors of shorter overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours. For all of the biomarkers except TUBB3, the OS trends relative to the gene expression levels were in agreement with those relative to the protein expression levels. The NSCLC microarray dataset showed RRM2 and TS as biomarkers significantly associated with OS. This study suggests that high expression levels of RRM2 and TS might be negative prognostic factors for resected NSCLC patients.

Ang C, Miura JT, Gamblin TC, et al.
Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 350 hepatocellular carcinomas identifies potential novel therapeutic options.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 113(1):55-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effective therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are limited. Molecular profiling of HCC was performed to identify novel therapeutic targets.
METHODS: 350 HCC samples were evaluated using a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ), including gene sequencing, amplification, and protein expression.
RESULTS: EGFR, TOPO1, PD-1, TOP2A, SPARC, and c-Met were overexpressed in 25-83% of samples. Decreased expression of RRM1,TS, PTEN, and MGMT occurred in 31-82% of samples. TP53 was mutated in 30%, CTNNB1 in 20%, and BRCA2 in 18%; other gene mutation rates were <5%. TP53-mutated tumors showed significantly higher TOPO2A (90% vs. 38%, P < 0.0001) and TS (56% vs. 29%, P = 0.0139) expression. CTNNB1-mutated tumors had significantly higher AR (56% vs. 21%, P = 0.0017), SPARC (61% vs. 29%, P = 0.0135), PDL1 (29% vs. 0%, P = 0.0256) expression, and BRCA2 mutations (50% vs. 6%, P = 0.0458). Metastases exhibited significantly higher infiltration by PD-1+ lymphocytes (79% vs. 50%, P = 0.047) and TS (31% vs. 14%, P < 0.0003) than primary HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplatform profiling reveals molecular heterogeneity in HCC and identifies potential therapies including tyrosine kinase, PI3 kinase, or PARP inhibitors for molecular subtypes. Chemotherapy may benefit some tumors. CTNNB1-mutated tumors may respond to multi-target inhibition. These limited and preliminary data require clinical validation.

Sun L, Lu J, Niu Z, et al.
A Potent Chemotherapeutic Strategy with Eg5 Inhibitor against Gemcitabine Resistant Bladder Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Development of resistance to gemcitabine is a major concern in bladder cancer therapy, and the mechanism remains unclear. Eg5 has been recently identified as an attractive target in cancer chemotherapy, so novel targeted chemotherapy with Eg5 inhibitor is expected to improve the anticancer effect in gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer. In this research, RT112-Gr cells were 350-fold less sensitive to gemcitabine than the parental cell lines, while KU7-Gr cells were 15-fold less sensitive to gemcitabine than the parental cell lines. Human OneArray Microarray analysis was performed to obtain broad spectrum information about the genes differentially expressed in RT112 and RT112-Gr cells. The anti-proliferative activity of S(MeO)TLC, an Eg5 inhibitor, was analyzed in RT112-Gr cell lines using a cell viability assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo using subcutaneous xenograft tumor model. According to the result of Human OneArray GeneChip, RRM1 and RRM2 were up-regulated, while there was no significant change in Eg5. Trypan blue staining confirmed that in S(MeO)TLC and Gemcitabine combining S(MeO)TLC group cell viability were significantly decreased in RT112-Gr cells as compared with other groups. S(MeO)TLC and S(MeO)TLC+gemcitabine groups prominently suppressed tumor growth in comparison with other groups' in vivo. There were no significant differences in S(MeO)TLC and gemcitabine+S(MeO)TLC group in the effect of inhibition of bladder cancer in vivo and in vitro. Our data collectively demonstrated that S(MeO)TLC represents a novel strategy for the treatment of gemcitabine resistant bladder cancer.

Mlak R, Krawczyk P, Ciesielka M, et al.
The relationship between RRM1 gene polymorphisms and effectiveness of gemcitabine-based first-line chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patient.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(9):915-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy with platinum compounds and gemcitabine is frequently used in first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in which tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR or ALK) cannot be administered. Unfortunately, less than half of the patients achieve the benefit from chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is an analog of deoxycytidine (pyrimidine antimetabolite) with antitumor activity. The excess of deoxycytidine synthesized by RRM1 enzyme activity may be a cause of competitive displacement of gemcitabine, which reduces the efficacy of this cytostatic. The aim of this study was to determine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the RRM1 promoter (-37C>A, -524C>T) and the effectiveness of first-line chemotherapy based on platinum compounds and gemcitabine in NSCLC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: SNPs were determined by SNaPshot PCR(®) in DNA isolated from peripheral blood of 91 NSCLC patients.
RESULTS: The median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer in carriers of AA (-37C>A) as well as CC (-524C>T) genotype of RRM1 compared to patients with other genotypes (10.5 vs 3.5 months, p = 0.0437; HR = 2.17, 95 % CI 1.02-4.62 and 10.5 vs 3.5 months, p = 0.0343; HR = 2.12, 95 % CI 1.06-4.27). In addition, the CC genotype carriers (-37C>A) showed a significant increase in the risk of shortening overall survival (OS) in comparison to patients with AA or AC genotypes (9.5 vs 18 months, p = 0.0193; HR = 2.13, 95 % CI 1.13-4.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Presence of rare AA (-37C>A) and CC (-524C>T) genotypes of the RRM1 may be favorable predictive factors for chemotherapy with platinum compounds and gemcitabine in NSCLC patients.

Kuijten MM, Hannah Degeling M, Chen JW, et al.
Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:17220 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

Pu F, Qiao J, Xue S, et al.
GRPR-targeted Protein Contrast Agents for Molecular Imaging of Receptor Expression in Cancers by MRI.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:16214 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is differentially expressed on the surfaces of various diseased cells, including prostate and lung cancer. However, monitoring temporal and spatial expression of GRPR in vivo by clinical MRI is severely hampered by the lack of contrast agents with high relaxivity, targeting capability and tumor penetration. Here, we report the development of a GRPR-targeted MRI contrast agent by grafting the GRPR targeting moiety into a scaffold protein with a designed Gd(3+) binding site (ProCA1.GRPR). In addition to its strong binding affinity for GRPR (Kd = 2.7 nM), ProCA1.GRPR has high relaxivity (r1 = 42.0 mM(-1)s(-1) at 1.5 T and 25 °C) and strong Gd(3+) selectivity over physiological metal ions. ProCA1.GRPR enables in vivo detection of GRPR expression and spatial distribution in both PC3 and H441 tumors in mice using MRI. ProCA1.GRPR is expected to have important preclinical and clinical implications for the early detection of cancer and for monitoring treatment effects.

El-Deiry WS, Vijayvergia N, Xiu J, et al.
Molecular profiling of 6,892 colorectal cancer samples suggests different possible treatment options specific to metastatic sites.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(12):1726-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) carries a poor prognosis with an overall 5-year survival of 13.1%. Therapies guided by tumor profiling have suggested benefit in advanced cancer. We used a multiplatform molecular profiling (MP) approach to identify key molecular changes that may provide therapeutic options not typically considered in mCRC. We evaluated 6892 mCRC referred to Caris Life Sciences by MP including sequencing (Sanger/NGS), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in-situ hybridization (ISH). mCRC metastases to liver, brain, ovary or lung (n = 1507) showed differential expression of markers including high protein expression of TOPO1 (52%) and/or low RRM1 (57%), TS (71%) and MGMT (39%), suggesting possible benefit from irinotecan, gemcitabine, 5FU/capecitabine and temozolomide, respectively. Lung metastases harbored a higher Her2 protein expression than the primary colon tumors (4% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.028). Brain and lung metastases had higher KRAS mutations than other sites (65% vs 59% vs 47%, respectively, p = 0.07, <0.01), suggesting poor response to anti-EGFR therapies. BRAF-mutated CRC (n = 455) showed coincident high protein expression of RRM1 (56%), TS (53%) and low PDGFR (22%) as compared with BRAF wild-type tumors. KRAS-mutated mCRC had higher protein expression of c-MET (47% vs. 36%) and lower MGMT (56% vs. 63%), suggesting consideration of c-MET inhibitors and temozolomide. KRAS-mutated CRC had high TUBB3 (42% vs. 33%) and low Her2 by IHC (0.5%) and HER2 by FISH (3%, p <0.05). CRC primaries had a lower incidence of PIK3CA and BRAF mutations in rectal cancer versus colon cancer (10% and 3.3%, respectively). MP of 6892 CRCs identified significant differences between primary and metastatic sites and among BRAF/KRAS sub-types. Our findings are hypothesis generating and need to be examined in prospective studies. Specific therapies may be considered for different actionable targets in mCRC as revealed by MP.

Lafuente-Sanchis A, Zúñiga Á, Galbis JM, et al.
Prognostic value of ERCC1, RRM1, BRCA1 and SETDB1 in early stage of non-small cell lung cancer.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(8):798-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, 40 % of early-stage NSCLC patients relapse in the 2 years following resection, suggesting a mis-staging in this group of patients who are not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Although different biomarkers, such as ERCC1, RRM1 and BRCA1 have been found to present prognostic value in advanced NSCLC patients, in early-stage NSCLC patients its relevance remains unclear. Moreover, SETDB1 has been recently proposed as a bona fide oncogene in lung tumourigenesis and related with metastasis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prognostic value of ERCC1, RRM1, BRCA1 and SETDB1 expression levels in NSCLC patients at stage I.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: ERCC1, RRM1, BRCA1 and SETDB1 expression at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in fresh-frozen tumor and normal adjacent lung tissue samples from 64 stage I NSCLC patients. Later, significant association between gene expression levels, clinicopathological characteristics and patient's disease-free survival was assessed.
RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant correlation between gene expression and gender, age, histological type or smoking status. Univariate followed by multivariate Cox analysis showed that higher levels of BRCA1 and SETDB1 expression were significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival in stage I NSCLC patients.
CONCLUSION: Our study finds that ERCC1 and RRM1 are not independent prognostic factors of recurrence in stage I NSCLC patients. By contrast, BRCA1 and SETDB1 stand out as the most significant prognostic markers in this group of patients, appearing as promising tools to predict tumor recurrence in early-stage NSCLC patients.

He P, Liu Y, Qi J, et al.
Prohibitin promotes apoptosis of promyelocytic leukemia induced by arsenic sulfide.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2286-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic sulfide (As4S4), an oral form of arsenic agent, has been shown to have similar efficacy and safety to intravenous arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The aim of the present study was to identify proteins modulated by As4S4 and to determine their involvement in the apoptotic pathway. We used comparative proteomic analysis to screen and identify the proteins that were differentially expressed with As4S4 treatment. Prohibitin (PHB) was selected for its diverse role and its increased expression in the cells treated with As4S4. To examine whether PHB play a functional role, two clones of PHB-knockdown and PHB-overexpression were generated by transfection of NB4-R1 with vectors containing PHB gene sequences. In comparison with parental NB4-R1 cells, PHB overexpression showed an increase in baseline apoptosis and an enhanced response in As4S4-induced apoptosis. PML-RARα fusion protein was found to be reduced with PHB-overexpression, and following As4S4 treatment, a greater reduction of promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα) fusion protein was seen in PHB-overexpression than that in parental cells. Consistently, PHB knockdown presented with a significant reduction in As4S4-induced apoptosis and a lesser degree of PML-RARα degradation. The results indicate the antitumor activity of PHB in promoting apoptosis of APL cells.

Jung AC, Ray AM, Ramolu L, et al.
Caveolin-1-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma primary tumors display increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition and prometastatic properties.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):41884-901 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Distant metastases arise in 20-30% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in the 2 years following treatment. Therapeutic options are limited and the outcome of the patients is poor. The identification of predictive biomarkers of patient at risk for distant metastasis and therapies are urgently needed. We previously identified a clinical subgroup, called "R1" characterized by high propensity for rapid distant metastasis. Here, we showed that "R1" patients do not or at very low level express caveolin-1 (Cav1). Low or no expression of Cav1 is of bad prognosis. Disappearance of Cav1 enables cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is associated with enhanced migration and invasion. Our study uncovered a new target, α5β1 integrin. Targeting α5β1 integrins might not only prevent metastasis of HNSCC but also delay the development of the primary tumor by reducing tumor cell viability. Cav1 detection might be taken into consideration in the future in the clinic not only to identify patients at high risk of metastasis but also to select patient who might benefit from an anti-integrin therapy.

Yoon KA, Woo SM, Hong EK, et al.
Cytidine Deaminase as a Molecular Predictor of Gemcitabine Response in Patients with Biliary Tract Cancer.
Oncology. 2015; 89(6):345-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is regarded as the standard treatment for biliary tract cancer (BTC). Potential biomarkers for gemcitabine response include the activities of cytidine deaminase (CDA), human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1). Here, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their encoding genes were associated with the efficacy of gemcitabine chemotherapy in treating BTC.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 11 SNPs in the CDA, hENT1, DCK, human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3), and RRM1 genes in 80 patients with unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent BTC who were treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.
RESULTS: After the results were adjusted for clinical predictors, the variant allele of rs1048977 in the CDA gene was associated with tumor response in a dominant model (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.93; p = 0.039). No significant association was detected between the 11 SNPs and grade 3/4 toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the polymorphism of CDA may be a potential predictive marker for the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with BTC.

Oelmann E, Stein H, Berdel WE, Herbst H
Expression of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-1 Receptors Type 1 and Type 2 in Hodgkin Lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138747 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signaling through the IL-1-receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), IL-1 is required for initiation and maintenance of diverse activities of the immune system. A second receptor, IL-1R2, blocks IL-1 signal transduction. We studied expression of IL-1beta, IL-1R1, and IL-1R2 in 17 Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) by in situ hybridization (ISH). IL-1beta expressing cells, morphologically consistent with endothelial cells and fibroblasts, occurred in all HL tissues with elevated transcript levels in areas of active fibrosis. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of all cases expressed low IL-1R1 transcript levels in some tumor cells, and high levels of IL-1R2 in large proportions of HRS cells. Only few bystander cells showed low levels of IL-1R1 and IL-1R2 RNA. Supernatants of 4 out of 7 HL-derived cell lines contained soluble IL-1R2 protein at high levels. HL patient sera carried variably amounts of IL-1R2 protein with significantly increased titers in patients with active disease compared to patients in complete remission and control individuals without HL. Western blots and co-immunoprecipitations showed binding of the IL-1R2 to the intracellular IL-1R-accessory protein (IL-1IRAcP). These data suggest functions of the IL-1R2 as a "decoy-receptor" sequestrating paracrine IL-1 extracellularly and intracellularly by engaging IL-1IRAcP, thus depriving IL1-R1 molecules of their extracellular and intracellular ligands. Expression of IL1-R2 by HRS cells seems to contribute to local and systemic modulation of immune function in HL.

Duru AD, Sutlu T, Wallblom A, et al.
Deletion of Chromosomal Region 8p21 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib and Is Associated with Upregulated Decoy TRAIL Receptor Expression in Patients with Multiple Myeloma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of the chromosomal region 8p21 negatively effects survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we aimed to identify the immunological and molecular consequences of del(8)(p21) with regards to treatment response and bortezomib resistance. In patients receiving bortezomib as a single first line agent without any high-dose therapy, we have observed that patients with del(8)(p21) responded poorly to bortezomib with 50% showing no response while patients without the deletion had a response rate of 90%. In vitro analysis revealed a higher resistance to bortezomib possibly due to an altered gene expression profile caused by del(8)(p21) including genes such as TRAIL-R4, CCDC25, RHOBTB2, PTK2B, SCARA3, MYC, BCL2 and TP53. Furthermore, while bortezomib sensitized MM cells without del(8)(p21) to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis, in cells with del(8)(p21) bortezomib failed to upregulate the pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 which are located on the 8p21 region. Also expressing higher levels of the decoy death receptor TRAIL-R4, these cells were largely resistant to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis. Corroborating the clinical outcome of the patients, our data provides a potential explanation regarding the poor response of MM patients with del(8)(p21) to bortezomib treatment. Furthermore, our clinical analysis suggests that including immunomodulatory agents such as Lenalidomide in the treatment regimen may help to overcome this negative effect, providing an alternative consideration in treatment planning of MM patients with del(8)(p21).

Dorman SN, Baranova K, Knoll JH, et al.
Genomic signatures for paclitaxel and gemcitabine resistance in breast cancer derived by machine learning.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(1):85-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasingly, the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy agents for breast cancer has been related to changes in the genomic profile of tumors. We investigated correspondence between growth inhibitory concentrations of paclitaxel and gemcitabine (GI50) and gene copy number, mutation, and expression first in breast cancer cell lines and then in patients. Genes encoding direct targets of these drugs, metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and those previously associated with chemoresistance to paclitaxel (n = 31 genes) or gemcitabine (n = 18) were analyzed. A multi-factorial, principal component analysis (MFA) indicated expression was the strongest indicator of sensitivity for paclitaxel, and copy number and expression were informative for gemcitabine. The factors were combined using support vector machines (SVM). Expression of 15 genes (ABCC10, BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, BMF, FGF2, FN1, MAP4, MAPT, NFKB2, SLCO1B3, TLR6, TMEM243, TWIST1, and CSAG2) predicted cell line sensitivity to paclitaxel with 82% accuracy. Copy number profiles of 3 genes (ABCC10, NT5C, TYMS) together with expression of 7 genes (ABCB1, ABCC10, CMPK1, DCTD, NME1, RRM1, RRM2B), predicted gemcitabine response with 85% accuracy. Expression and copy number studies of two independent sets of patients with known responses were then analyzed with these models. These included tumor blocks from 21 patients that were treated with both paclitaxel and gemcitabine, and 319 patients on paclitaxel and anthracycline therapy. A new paclitaxel SVM was derived from an 11-gene subset since data for 4 of the original genes was unavailable. The accuracy of this SVM was similar in cell lines and tumor blocks (70-71%). The gemcitabine SVM exhibited 62% prediction accuracy for the tumor blocks due to the presence of samples with poor nucleic acid integrity. Nevertheless, the paclitaxel SVM predicted sensitivity in 84% of patients with no or minimal residual disease.

Xu XL, Zhang YP, Fang Y, et al.
The genotype of ribonucleotidereductase M1 -269C > A is associated with the response to platinum-based chemotherapy and as a prognostic biomarker in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015; 11 Suppl 1:C49-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Genetic polymorphisms of ribonucleotidereductase M1 (RRM1) was a DNA repair gene, which may affect patients' response to platinum-based chemotherapy or gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. We retrospectively assessed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of RRM1 can be used to predict overall survival (OS), progression free survival and response in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based regimens as first-line chemotherapy.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The genotypes of four tagSNPs (RRM1 -316C > A, RRM1 -269C > A, RRM1 -702G > A and RRM1 -585T > G) were determined by SNaPshot detection technology and sequencing approaches in 184 advanced NSCLC patients by using peripheral blood.
RESULTS: The overall response rate for 178 patients was 40.2% and the disease control rate was 90.2%. In patients who had ever smoked, a significant correlation was observed between the genotype of RRM1 -269C > A and response (P = 0.046). There was a significant difference in response according to the genotype of RRM1 -702G > A (P = 0.043). Using Log-rank test, we found that patients with the allelotype (CC) of RRM1 -269C > A had a shorter OS (P = 0.006) than the allelotype (CA + AA).
CONCLUSION: The genotype of RRM1 -269C > A was significantly associated with platinum-based chemotherapy sensitivity in smoking patients and can be used to predict OS in advanced NSCLC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy or gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. And the genotype of RRM1 -702G > A can serve as a biomarker for chemotherapy sensitivity in advanced NSCLC patients.

Geng P, Li J, Wang N, et al.
Genetic association between TRAIL-R1 Thr209Arg and cancer susceptibility.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10382 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We aimed to determine the indecisive association between tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) Thr209Arg polymorphism and inherited susceptibility to cancer. A meta-analysis combining data on 9,517 individuals was performed to assess the association between TRAIL-R1 Thr209Arg and cancer incidence. The summary ORs with 95% CI calculated with the fixed effects model suggested that Thr209Arg was not significantly associated with cancer susceptibility (homozygous model: OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88-1.09; heterozygous model: OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87-1.04; allele frequency model: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05; dominant model: OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.05; recessive model: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92-1.10). Stratified analysis by ethnicity and cancer type yielded similar null associations. These statistical data suggest that Thr209Arg in exon 4 of the TRAIL-R1 gene may not represent a modifier of susceptibility to cancer.

Tokunaga Y, Liu D, Nakano J, et al.
Potent effect of adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting ribonucleotide reductase large subunit M1 on cell viability and chemotherapeutic sensitivity to gemcitabine in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(16):2480-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (RRM1) is the main enzyme responsible for synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides used during DNA synthesis. It is also a cellular target for gemcitabine (GEM). Overexpression of RRM1 is reportedly associated with resistance to GEM and the poor prognosis for many types of malignant tumours. Aim of the present study is to establish gene therapy against RRM1-overexpressing tumours.
METHOD: An adenoviral vector that encoded a short hairpin siRNA targeting the RRM1 gene (Ad-shRRM1) was constructed. Two RRM1-overexpressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines, MAC10 and RERF-LC-MA, were used. Finally, a human tumour xenograft model in nude mice was prepared by subcutaneously implanting tumours derived from RERF-LC-MA cells.
RESULTS: Ad-shRRM1 effectively downregulated RRM1 mRNA and protein in both types of NSCLC cells and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells as detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (p<0.005). Caspase 3/7 analysis revealed that transfection with Ad-RRM1 increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in culture containing either type of RRM1-overexpressing cell (p<0.001). Treatment with Ad-shRRM1 exerted a potent antitumour effect against the RRM1-overexpressing RERF-LC-MA xenografts (p<0.05). Furthermore, Ad-shRRM1-mediated inhibition of RRM1 specifically increased sensitivity to gemcitabine of each type of RRM1-overexpressing tumour cell. Combination treatment with Ad-shRRM1 and GEM exerted significantly greater inhibition on cell proliferation than Ad-shRRM1 or GEM treatment alone.
CONCLUSION: RRM1 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shRRM1 had strong antitumour effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against NSCLC cells that overexpressed RRM1. Combination therapy with Ad-shRRM1 and GEM may become a new treatment option for patients with NSCLC.

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