Gene Summary

Gene:SNAI2; snail family transcriptional repressor 2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the Snail family of C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors. The encoded protein acts as a transcriptional repressor that binds to E-box motifs and is also likely to repress E-cadherin transcription in breast carcinoma. This protein is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and has antiapoptotic activity. Mutations in this gene may be associated with sporatic cases of neural tube defects. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:zinc finger protein SNAI2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • p53 Protein
  • Transcription
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Twist-Related Protein 1
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Taiwan
  • snail family transcription factors
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Movement
  • Transfection
  • Breast Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Brain Tumours
  • RHOA
  • Cadherins
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromosome 8
  • RT-PCR
  • Down-Regulation
  • Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Vimentin
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • MicroRNAs
  • Lung Cancer
  • RNA Interference
  • Transcription Factors
  • Phenotype
  • Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SNAI2 (cancer-related)

Lu J, Xu Y, Wei X, et al.
Emodin Inhibits the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug Signaling Pathway.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:6253280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Despite the anticancer capabilities of emodin observed in many cancers, including EOC, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. A crucial link has been discovered between the acquisition of metastatic traits and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study aimed to determine whether emodin could inhibit the EMT of EOC cells and explore the underlying mechanism. The CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that emodin effectively repressed the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration in A2780 and SK-OV-3 cells. The Western blot showed that emodin upregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Claudin) while it downregulated mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin) and transcription factor (Slug) in a dose-dependent fashion. After transfection of siRNA-Slug, both Slug and N-cadherin were downregulated in EOC cells while E-cadherin was upregulated, which was intensified by emodin. Besides, emodin decreased the expression of ILK, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin, and Slug. Transfection of siRNA-ILK also achieved the same effects, which was further strengthened by following emodin treatment. Nevertheless, SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3β, could reverse the effects of emodin except for ILK expression. These findings suggest that emodin inhibited the EMT of EOC cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug signaling pathway.

Li X, Zhang G, Wang Y, et al.
Loss of periplakin expression is associated with the tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 87:366-374 [PubMed] Related Publications
Periplakin (PPL), a member of the plakin protein family, has been reported to be down-expressed in urothelial carcinoma. The role of PPL in human colorectal cancer, however, remains largely unknown. Also little is known about the contribution of PPL to the malignant property of colorectal cancer and the intracellular function of PPL. In this study, we demonstrated that PPL was apparently down-expressed in colon carcinomas compared with normal and para-carcinoma tissues, which was correlated with the tumor size. Enforced expression of PPL in HT29 cells inhibited its proliferation evidenced by decreased expression of phosphorylated ERK and PCNA. Furthermore, PPL overexpression could reduce metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HT29 cells, with decreased expression of N-cadherin, Snail, Slug and α-SMA while increased expression of E-cadherin. On the contrary, the PPL knockdown could promote the cell proliferation, migratory, invasive and EMT ability of HT29 cells. Moreover, enforced expression of PPL induced G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, with decreased cyclin D1, p-Rb and increased expression of p27(kib), which could be reversed by PPL knockdown. In addition, PPL overexpression inhibited the growth of colon cancer allograft in vivo. Taken together, acted as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer progression, PPL could be a new biomarker or potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

Zhang H, Mai Q, Chen J
MicroRNA-210 is increased and it is required for dedifferentiation of osteosarcoma cell line.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(3):267-275 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor and is prevalent in adolescents. In clinical studies, miR-210 has been reported to be tightly correlated to the poor prognosis of OS. Nevertheless, its roles in OS have not been fully elucidated. In view of the central role played by OS stem cells (OSCs) in the malignant progression of OS, this study investigated the influence of miR-210 on the formation of OSCs. Our previous findings suggested that the microenvironment of bone, abundant TGF-β1 and hypoxia, could induce OS cells to dedifferentiate into OSCs. In this study, we found that miR-210 participated in the dedifferentiation of OS cells into OSCs, and inhibiting it significantly suppressed the formation of OSCs. Further results suggested that miR-210 promoted the expression of TGF-β1 and its downstream effectors Snail1 and Slug which were highly elevated in the process of OS dedifferentiation. Additionally, the target gene of miR-210 was also investigated. It was found that NFIC was significantly reduced by miR-210 treatment and also during OS dedifferentiation. Therefore, this study suggested that miR-210 promoted OS cells dedifferentiation and uncovered its role in the malignant progress of OS.

Wu K, Shen B, Jiang F, et al.
TRPP2 Enhances Metastasis by Regulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(6):2203-2215 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Surgery and chemotherapy treatments of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HLSCC) may fail due to metastasis, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role. TRPP2, a nonselective cation channel, is expressed in various cell types and participates in many biological processes. Here, we show that TRPP2 enhanced metastasis by regulating EMT.
METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, western blotting, Ca2+ imaging, transwell and wound healing assays to investigate TRPP2 expression levels in HLSCC tissue, and the role of TRPP2 in invasion and metastasis of a human laryngocarcinoma cell line (Hep2 cell).
RESULTS: We found that TRPP2 protein expression levels were significantly increased in HLSCC tissue; higher TRPP2 levels were associated with decreased patient survival time and degree of differentiation and advanced clinical stage. Knockdown of TRPP2 by transfection with TRPP2 siRNA markedly suppressed ATP-induced Ca2+ release, wound healing, and cell invasion in Hep2 cells. Moreover, TRPP2 siRNA significantly decreased vimentin expression but increased E-cadherin expression in Hep2 cells. In the EMT signalling pathway, TRPP2 siRNA significantly decreased Smad4, STAT3, SNAIL, SLUG and TWIST expression in Hep2 cells.
CONCLUSION: We revealed a previously unknown function of TRPP2 in cancer development and a TRPP2-dependent mechanism underlying laryngocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis. Our results suggest that TRPP2 may be used as a biomarker for evaluating patient prognosis and as a novel therapeutic target in HLSCC.

Lu KH, Chen PN, Hsieh YH, et al.
3-Hydroxyflavone inhibits human osteosarcoma U2OS and 143B cells metastasis by affecting EMT and repressing u-PA/MMP-2 via FAK-Src to MEK/ERK and RhoA/MLC2 pathways and reduces 143B tumor growth in vivo.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2016; 97:177-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many natural flavonoids have cytostatic and apoptotic properties; however, we little know whether the effect of synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone on metastasis and tumor growth of human osteosarcoma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 3-hydroxyflavone suppresses human osteosarcoma cells metastasis and tumor growth. 3-hydroxyflavone, up to 50 μM without cytotoxicity, inhibited U2OS and 143B cells motility, invasiveness and migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and also impaired cell adhesion to gelatin. 3-hydroxyflavone significantly reduced p-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) Tyr397, p-FAK Tyr925, p-steroid receptor coactivator (Src), p-mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK)1/2, p-myosin light chain (MLC)2 Ser19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Ras homolog gene family (Rho)A and fibronectin expressions. 3-hydroxyflavone also affected the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by down-regulating expressions of Vimentin and α-catenin with activation of the transcription factor Slug. In nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that 3-hydroxyflavone reduced 143B tumor growth and lung metastasis. 3-hydroxyflavone possesses the anti-metastatic activity of U2OS and 143B cells by affecting EMT and repressing u-PA/MMP-2 via FAK-Src to MEK/ERK and RhoA/MLC2 pathways and suppresses 143B tumor growth in vivo. This may lead to clinical trials of osteosarcoma chemotherapy to confirm the promising result in the future.

Wei S, Wang L, Zhang L, et al.
ZNF143 enhances metastasis of gastric cancer by promoting the process of EMT through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12813-12821 [PubMed] Related Publications
The zinc finger protein 143 (ZNF143) is a transcription factor, which regulates many cell cycle-associated genes. ZNF143 expressed strongly in multiple solid tumors. However, the influence of ZNF143 on gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the ZNF143 mRNA level in GC tissues and cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein expression of ZNF143 in GC cells, and the signaling pathway proteins were detected by Western blotting. Transwell assay and wound healing assay were performed to explore the effects of ZNF143 for the migration ability of GC cells in vitro. We also performed the tail vein injection in nude mice with GC cells to explore the impact of ZNF143 on GC metastasis in vivo. ZNF143 was overexpressed in specimens of GC compared with adjacent normal tissues and increased more significantly in GC tissues of patients who had lymph node metastasis. Ectopic overexpression of ZNF143 enhanced GC migration, whereas ZNF143 knockdown suppressed this effect in vitro. In vivo, ZNF143 knockdown reduced distant metastasis of GC cells in nude mice. In addition, overexpression of ZNF143 reduced the expression of epithelial cell marker (E-cadherin) and induced the expression of mesenchymal cell marker (N-cadherin,Vimentin), Snail and Slug. We also found that ZNF143 enhanced GC cell migration by promoting the process of EMT through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In general, our findings show that ZNF143 expressed strongly in GC and enhanced migration of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. It is conceivable that ZNF143 could be a therapeutic genetic target for GC treatment.

Park SY, Choi M, Park D, et al.
AEG-1 promotes mesenchymal transition through the activation of Rho GTPases in human glioblastoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2641-2646 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite growing evidence indicating that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays pivotal roles in tumor progression in various types of human cancers including brain tumors; to date, its role in the regulation of mesenchymal transition is not clear in glioblastoma. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of AEG-1 to stress fiber formation and then the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics of glioblastoma cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in normal immortalized primary human fetal astrocytes (IM-PHFAs) and glioblastoma cells revealed that overexpression of AEG-1 increased expression of mesenchymal markers including N-cadherin and two mesenchymal transition‑inducing transcription factors ZEB1 and Slug but decreased epithelial markers E-cadherin and ZO-1. In addition, knockdown of AEG-1 suppressed invasive ability and migration of glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of AEG-1 also induced stress fiber formation and activated the Rho GTPase signaling pathways in glioblastoma cells. Consistently, treatment with an RhoA inhibitor decreased AEG-1-mediated stress fiber formation in glioblastoma cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that AEG-1 promotes mesenchymal transition in glioblastoma through the regulation of the Rho signaling pathway, resulting in tumor invasion, a primary characteristic of malignant brain tumors.

Kobayashi K, Matsumoto H, Matsuyama H, et al.
Clinical significance of CD44 variant 9 expression as a prognostic indicator in bladder cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2852-2860 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD44, a major surface receptor for hyaluronic acid, has multiple isoforms and represents a major cancer stem cell marker for various epithelial tumors. CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) was correlated with recurrence and metastasis in gastric and colon cancer. We examined its role in invasion and as a biomarker for the basal muscle invasive molecular subtype showing worse prognosis, and for tumor progression in high risk (pT1/high grade) non‑muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs). CD44v9, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 98 pathologically confirmed specimens (36 muscle and 62 high‑risk non‑muscle) and correlated to clinical outcome. In vitro analysis was performed using two human bladder cancer cell lines (HT1376 and 5637). The CD44v9 high‑expressing group exhibited significantly lower progression‑free and cancer‑specific survival rates in both muscle (P=0.0349 and 0.0382, respectively) and non‑muscle (P=0.0002 and 0.0079) invasive patients. CD44v9 expression was significantly correlated with CK5/6 (P<0.001), colocalizing at the muscle invasion front but distinctly separated from CK20 in non‑muscle invasion. CD44 and CD44v9 siRNA knockdown demonstrated significantly lower Matrigel invasion ability and significantly shorter migration distance (all P<0.01). CD44 and CD44v9 knockdown increased E‑cadherin and decreased N‑cadherin, snail, and slug epithelial‑mesenchymal transition marker protein expression. Thus, higher CD44v9 expression was associated with worse prognosis, likely impacting invasion and migration via the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition. Together, these findings suggest that CD44v9 expression might be a useful predictive biomarker in basal‑type muscle and high-risk NMIBC.

Wu J, Wang D
Long noncoding RNA TCF7 promotes invasiveness and self-renewal of human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Hum Cell. 2017; 30(1):23-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common solid tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the major histological subtype and accounts for about 80 % cases of lung cancer cases. Recently, lncRNA lncTCF7 was identified, which is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors and liver cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the role of lnTCF7 in NSCLC remains largely unknown. In this study, Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated the critical role of lncTCF7 in promoting invasion and self-renewal in NSCLC cells. We showed that lncTCF7 increased slug expression to promote the invasive capability of NSCLC cells and upregulated EpCAM expression to promote the self-renewal. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the potential role of lncTCF7 upregulation in NSCLC metastasis and suggest a promising potential to suppress lncTCF7 for NSCLC patients.

Zuo HD, Wu Yao W
The role and the potential regulatory pathways of high expression of forkhead box C1 in promoting tumor growth and metastasis of basal-like breast cancer.
J BUON. 2016 Jul-Aug; 21(4):818-825 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of high forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) in vitro and vivo and the underlying regulatory mechanism.
METHODS: The lentivirus vector with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing consistently high levels of FOXC1 (FOXC1-MDA-MB-231) were established. The parental MDA-MB-231 cells served as controls. Western blot analysis was used to determine the FOXC1 expression. The invasion capability was tested using the Trans-well assay. The tumorigenicity and the pulmonary metastatic ability were determined in mice in vivo. Histopathology and microarray processing and analysis were performed, and the various pathways involved and the related genes were analyzed.
RESULTS: The invasion ability of FOXC1-MDA-MB-231 cells was enhanced significantly (p<0.01). Pulmonary metastases were observed in vivo in 3 of 5 mice administered FOXC1-MDA-MB-231 cells through tail vein injection. However, no pulmonary metastatic lesions were observed with MDA-MB-231 cells. The average tumor volume was larger in the mice injected with FOXC1-MDA-MB-231 than in the control mice (p<0.05). The expression of Ki-67 in the FOXC1-MDA-MB-231 injected mice was higher than in the control mice. Ten of the most gene-enriched pathways and the critical genes (IL-6 and SNAI2) were found to be related to BLBC.
CONCLUSION: Elevated expression of FOXC1 enhanced the invasion ability of BLCB cells in vitro and promoted tumor growth and metastatic ability in vivo. This function may be regulated by many gene-enriched pathways and some critical genes.

Kondratyeva LG, Sveshnikova AA, Grankina EV, et al.
Downregulation of expression of mater genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 in pancreatic cancer cells stimulated with TGFβ1 epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016; 469(1):257-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We show characteristic morphological changes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program fulfillment in PANC1 cell line stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results support downregulation of E-cadherin protein. We show 5- and 28-fold increase in SNAI1 and SNAI2 expression levels and 25- and 15-fold decrease in CDH1 and KRT8 expression levels, respectively, which confirms the EMT-program fulfillment. We demonstrate downregulation of expression of pancreatic master genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 (2-, 5-, and 4-fold, respectively) and absence of significant changes in HES1, NR5A2, and GATA6 expression levels in the cells stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results indicate the absence of induction of expression of PTF1A, PDX1, HNF1b, NEUROG3, RPBJL, NKX6.1, and ONECUT1 genes, which are inactive in PANC1 cell line after the EMT stimulated by TGFβ1.

Yin H, Wang Y, Chen W, et al.
Drug-resistant CXCR4-positive cells have the molecular characteristics of EMT in NSCLC.
Gene. 2016; 594(1):23-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
High expression of Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is important in tumor invasion, metastasis, drug-resistance and maintenance of stemness in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore studied the molecular characteristics of drug-resistant CXCR4-positive cells on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for the future identification of the tumor cells with the properties of both EMT and stemness. EMT RT(2) Profier PCR Array was performed to determine the expression levels of mRNA genes in A549 with TGF-β1 induced EMT (A549/TGF-β1) and gefitinib-resistant CXCR4-positive cells (A549/GR). TCGA database on the cBio Cancer Genomics Portal website and Gene Network Central (GNC) Pro Tutorial were used to analyze their clinical relevance and pathway interactions. CXCR4 was up-regulated both in TGF-β induced EMT cells and in gefitinib-resistant cells. In 84 mRNA genes related to EMT, 17 mRNA genes were up-regulated in CXCR4-positive population of A549/GR when compared to those in CXCR4 negative fraction, while 66 mRNA genes were up-regulated during TGF-β induced EMT. ITGA5, BMP7, MMP3, VIM, RGS2, ZEB2, TCF3, SNAI2, VCAN, PLEK2, WNT5A, COL3A1, SPARC and FOXC2 were doubly up-regulated during the two biological processes. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the doubly up-regulated ITGA5, RGS2, SNAI2 and PLEK2 mRNA genes were related to poor overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients (P=9.291e-6, 0.0090, 3.81e-7 and 0.0013, respectively). In GNC analysis, SNAI2 mRNA gene but not ITGA5, RGS2 and PLEK2 was dependent on the signaling pathway of CXCR4. The molecular characteristics of drug-resistant CXCR4-positive cells have a crosstalk with EMT, which has the potential to find the marker with prognostic value on multiple signaling pathways in NSCLC.

Jin L, Yi J, Gao Y, et al.
MiR-630 inhibits invasion and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016; 48(9):810-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is among the most aggressive malignancies and has a high incidence in China. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that regulate multiple tumorigenic processes, including proliferation, invasion, metastasis and prognosis. Using miRNA expression profiling analysis, we found that miR-630 was markedly down-regulated in three ESCC tissue samples compared with that in paired normal esophageal tissues. Differential miR-630 expression was subsequently confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. To determine whether miR-630 down-regulation could be considered as a diagnostic indicator and adverse prognostic factor, we investigated the association between miR-630 and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with ESCC. It was found that decreased miR-630 expression was associated with poor overall survival in these patients. In addition, we also explored the biological function of miR-630 by targeting Slug and investigated the correlation between miR-630 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression in vivo and in vitro Ectopic miR-630 expression could inhibit proliferation, invasion and metastasis, whereas miR-630 knockdown induced proliferation, invasion, metastasis and EMT traits. Overall, our study supports a role for miR-630 as a critical novel modulator in ESCC.

Colditz J, Rupf B, Maiwald C, Baniahmad A
Androgens induce a distinct response of epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors in human prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 421(1-2):139-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) is a major target of prostate cancer (PCa) therapy. However, prolonged androgen deprivation results eventually in castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) with metastasis and poor survival. Emerging evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may facilitate castration-resistance and cancer metastasis in PCa. The human androgen-dependent, castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC) cell line LNCaP and the CRPC cell line C4-2 are often used as a model system for human PCa. However, the role of the AR and the effect of AR antagonist (antiandrogen) treatment on the RNA expression of key factors of EMT including the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) DRAIC in PCa cells remain elusive. Although as expected the established AR target genes PSA and FKBP5 are strongly induced by androgens in both cell lines, both E-cadherin and vimentin mRNA levels are upregulated by androgens in LNCaP but not in C4-2 cells by short- and long-term treatments. The mRNA levels of E-cadherin and vimentin remain unchanged by antiandrogen treatment in both cell lines. The expression of transcription factors that regulate EMT including Slug, Snail and ZEB1 and the lncRNA DRAIC were affected by androgen treatment in both cell lines. The mRNA level of Slug is upregulated by androgens and interestingly downregulated by antiandrogens in both cell lines. On the other hand, ZEB1 mRNA levels are strongly upregulated by androgens but remain unchanged by antiandrogens. In contrast, Snail mRNA levels are repressed by androgen treatment similar to DRAIC RNA levels. However, while antiandrogen treatment seems not to change Snail mRNA levels, antiandrogen treatments induce DRAIC RNA levels. Moreover, despite the strong upregulation of Zeb1 mRNA, no significant increase of the ZEB1 protein was observed indicating that despite androgen upregulation, posttranscriptional regulation of EMT controlling transcription factors occurs. SLUG protein was enhanced in both cell lines by androgens and reduced by antiandrogens. Taken together, our data suggest that the ligand-activated AR regulates the expression of several EMT key factors and antiandrogens counteract AR activity only on selected genes.

Yang L, Wang T, Zhang J, et al.
Expression of BTBD7 in primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and correlation with Slug and prognosis.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(2):179-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BTB/POZ domain-containing protein 7 (BTBD7) is recognized as a regulatory gene that regulates epithelial cell dynamics and branching morphogenesis. It is also reported for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules and involved in the process of invasion and metastasis of lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Slug is a transcriptional factor of EMT which plays a crucial role in the process of primary salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). However, the role of BTBD7 in SACC and the correlation with Slug have not been identified. This study investigated the expression of BTBD7 and correlation with Slug, as well as the prognostic significance of BTBD7 in SACC.
METHODS: The expression of BTBD7 and Slug were examined in ACC-LM and ACC-83 cell lines and immunohistochemically in paraffin embedded tissue specimens from 66 primary SACC patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between BTBD7 expression and Slug expression and the prognostic significance of BTBD7 expression.
RESULTS: BTBD7 protein expression was initially verified in ACC-LM and ACC-83 cell lines. The positive rate of BTBD7 expression was 62.1% in SACC to 20% in normal salivary tissues comparatively. BTBD7 expression was significantly correlated with Slug expression in SACC (P< 0.05). Increased BTBD7 expression was significantly associated with the TNM stage, tissue typing, distant metastasis and patients' poor clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive expression of BTBD7 in SACC could play an important role in the development of cancer and may serve as a favorable predictor for diagnosis and poor prognosis of patients.

Chiang KC, Hsu SY, Lin SJ, et al.
PTEN Insufficiency Increases Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis In Vitro and In Vivo in a Xenograft Zebrafish Model.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3997-4005 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) insufficiency is commonly found in breast cancer patients with metastasis. We investigated the mechanisms by which PTEN affects breast cancer metastatic behavior.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Migration and invasion assay, western blot, immunofluorescent staining and zebrafish animal model were applied.
RESULTS: We showed that PTEN insufficiency induced an increase in MCF-7 cell migration and invasion through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was triggered by up-regulation of the EMT-inducing transcriptional factors Zeb1, Zeb2, Snail, Slug and Twist. Simultaneously, E-cadherin expression was inhibited and P-cadherin was up-regulated. Further, WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) and lipocalin-2 (LCN2) expressions were increased after PTEN knockdown in MCF-7 cells, which also exhibited increased filamentous actin (F-actin) synthesis and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. We further showed that PTEN knockdown in MCF-7 cells could increase cell migration in the xenograft zebrafish model.
CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal new therapeutic targets for breast cancer patients with PTEN insufficiency.

Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, et al.
Gene/protein expression of CAPN1/2-CAST system members is associated with ERK1/2 kinases activity as well as progression and clinical outcome in human laryngeal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13185-13203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence indicates the involvement of calpains (CAPNs), a family of cysteine proteases, in cancer development and progression, as well as the insufficient response to cancer therapies. The contribution of CAPNs and regulatory calpastatin (CAST) and ERK1/2 kinases to aggressiveness, disease course, and outcome in laryngeal cancer remains elusive. This study was aimed to evaluate the CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 enzyme system mRNA/protein level and to investigate whether they can promote the dynamic of tumor growth and prognosis. The mRNA expression of marker genes was determined in 106 laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of corresponding proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. SLUG expression, as indicator of pathological advancement was determined using IHC staining. Significant increases of CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 levels of mRNA/protein were noted in SCLC compared to NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, a higher level of CAPN1 and ERK1 genes was related to larger tumor size, more aggressive and deeper growth according to TFG scale and SLUG level (p < 0.05). There were also relationships of CAPN1/2 and ERK1 with incidences of local/nodal recurrences (p < 0.05). An inverse association for CAPN1/2, CAST, and ERK1/2 transcripts was determined with regard to overall survival (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher CAPN1 and phospho-ERK1 protein level was related to higher grade and stage (p < 0.05) and was found to promote worse prognosis. This is the first study to show that activity of CAPN1/2- CAST-ERK1/2 axis may be an indicator of tumor phenotype and unfavorable outcome in SCLC.

Vishnoi K, Mahata S, Tyagi A, et al.
Human papillomavirus oncoproteins differentially modulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 5-FU-resistant cervical cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13137-13154 [PubMed] Related Publications
Etiological role of viral proteins E6 and E7 of high-risk HPV in cervical carcinogenesis is well established. However, their contribution in chemoresistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that leads to advanced metastatic lesions and chemoresistance is poorly defined. In the present study, contribution of viral oncoproteins in acquisition of EMT character during onset of chemoresistance was assessed. A chemoresistant cell line (SiHaCR) was developed from an established HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell line, SiHa, by escalating selection pressure of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Expression of Survivin, ABCG2, Snail, Slug, Twist, and Vimentin was examined in SiHa and SiHaCR cells by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting assays. Mesenchymal phenotype in SiHaCR cells was confirmed by assessment of migration and invasion potentials. SiHaCR cells displayed elevated level of functional and molecular markers associated with chemoresistance (Survivin, ABCG2) and EMT (Snail, Slug, Twist, Vimentin) and reduced E-cadherin. SiHaCR also showed increased levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 transcripts. Specific silencing of HPV16 E6, but not E7 using corresponding siRNA, demonstrated a differential involvement of HPV oncogenes in manifestation of EMT. HPV16 E6 silencing resulted in reduction of Slug and Twist expression. However, the expression of Snail and Vimentin was only marginally affected. In contrast, there was an increase in the expression of E-cadherin. A reduced migration and invasion capabilities were observed only in E6-silenced SiHaCR cells, which further confirmed functional contribution of HPV16 E6 in manifestation of EMT. Taken together, our study demonstrated an active involvement of HPV16 E6 in regulation of EMT, which promotes chemoresistance in cervical cancer.

Jagadish N, Gupta N, Agarwal S, et al.
Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) promotes the survival and tumor growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13101-13110 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we demonstrated the association of sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with breast cancer. Among breast cancer, 15 % of the cancers are diagnosed as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) based on hormone receptor status and represent an important clinical challenge because of lack of effective available targeted therapy. Therefore, in the present investigation, plasmid-based small hairpin (small hairpin RNA (shRNA)) approach was used to ablate SPAG9 in aggressive breast cancer cell line model (MDA-MB-231) in order to understand the role of SPAG9 at molecular level in apoptosis, cell cycle, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling. Our data in MDA-MB-231 cells showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in membrane blebbing, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidyl serine surface expression, and caspase activation. SPAG9 depletion also resulted in cell cycle arrest in G0-G1 phase and induced cellular senescence. In addition, in in vitro and in vivo xenograft studies, ablation of SPAG9 resulted in upregulation of p21 along with pro-apoptotic molecules such as BAK, BAX, BIM, BID, NOXA, AIF, Cyto-C, PARP1, APAF1, Caspase 3, and Caspase 9 and epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Also, SPAG9-depleted cells showed downregulation of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK1, CDK4, CDK6, BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, cIAP2, MCL1, GRP78, SLUG, SNAIL, TWIST, vimentin, N-cadherin, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, SMA, and β-catenin. Collectively, our data suggests that SPAG9 promotes tumor growth by inhibiting apoptosis, altering cell cycle, and enhancing EMT signaling in in vitro cells and in vivo mouse model. Hence, SPAG9 may be a potential novel target for therapeutic use in TNBC treatment.

Wu Q, Wang X, Liu J, et al.
Nutlin-3 reverses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gemcitabine-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1325-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nutlin-3, a small molecule regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, targets the interaction between p53 and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) thereby promoting stabilization of p53 and subsequent p53‑dependent induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nutlin‑3 plays a critical role in regulating tumor cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Although these studies identified various biological functions of Nutlin‑3, our understanding of the exact molecular mechanisms of Nutlin‑3‑mediated antitumor activity remains incomplete. In this study, we elucidated a role of Nutlin‑3 in reversing the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gemcitabine-resistant (GR) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We assessed the effect of Nutlin‑3 treatment on cell growth, migration, and invasion in both parental HCC cells and GR HCC cells. Moreover, we detected the expression of EMT markers in GR HCC cells treated with Nutlin‑3 by real‑time RT‑PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that Nutlin-3 inhibited cell migration and invasion in the GR HCC cells. Additionally, Nutlin‑3 treatment increased E-cadherin protein levels, but decreased the protein levels of vimentin, Snail and Slug in the GR HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that Smad2 was highly expressed in the GR HCC cells compared with their parental HCC cells, and Nutlin-3 treatment downregulated Smad2 expression in the GR HCC cells. Depletion of Smad2 retarded cell migration and regulated the expression of EMT markers in GR HCC cells similarly to Nutlin‑3 treatment. Our findings highlight an important role of Nutlin‑3 in reversing EMT in GR cells through regulation of Smad2 expression, suggesting that Nutlin-3 could be a potential agent for the treatment of HCC patients with gemcitabine resistance.

Huang C, Wen B
Phenotype transformation of immortalized NCM460 colon epithelial cell line by TGF-β1 is associated with chromosome instability.
Mol Biol Rep. 2016; 43(10):1069-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) within tumor microenvironment has a pivotal function in cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, and hence this study was to observe the malignant transformation induced by TGF-β1 in an immortalized colon epithelial cell line NCM460 for better understanding the mechanisms of colon carcinogenesis. Immortalized colon epithelial cell line NCM460 was used as the model of this study, and was treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for different time. Then, immunofluorescence was performed to observe the change of phenotype hallmarks including adherent junction protein E-cadherin, cytoskeleton protein vimentin, and tight junction marker ZO-1, western blotting analysis was performed to detect the expression of the above three markers and two transcription factors (Snail and Slug) involved in the transformation by TGF-β1. In addition, chromosome instability (CHI) including analysis of DNA-ploid was detected by flow cytometry. Our results revealed significant loss or reduction of ZO-1 and E-cadherin, and robust emergence of vimentin in the cell line NCM460 after a 15-, 20-, and 25-day treatment with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1. Interestingly, 20 and 25 days after stimulation with 5 ng/ml TGF-β1, expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1 revealed a pattern roughly similar to that of 10 ng/ml TGF-β1, especially, both expressions was vanished and vimentin expression was dramatically increased at days 25 after TGF-β1 stimulation. After a stimulation with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 for 15, 20, and 25 days, the levels of Snail and Slug expression in the cells were significantly up-regulated, compared with the cells treated with TGF-β1 inhibitor LY364947, PBS or balnk control (P < 0.01). Our results found that many abnormal mitotic patterns including lagging chromosomes and anaphase bridges in NCM460 cells were induced by TGF-β1 after its stimulation for 15, 20, and 25 days. Very few mitotic cells with treatment of PBS for 15, 20 and 25 days were non-diploid whose DNA content was greater or less than 4 N, but these cells were significantly increased after exposure to TGF-β1 for 15, 20, and 25 days, which was associated with the induction of hypo-diploid, hyper-diploid, and poly-diploid (P < 0.05).These data indicate that TGF-β1 induces a phenotypic transformation of normal colon epithelium similar to its pro-tumoral behaviors in TME, involving in alteration of chromosome stability.

Ma D, Jing X, Shen B, et al.
Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor negatively regulates the metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):827-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Frequent metastasis and recurrence are the main reasons for the poor prognosis of PC patients. Thus, the discovery of new biomarkers and wider insights into the mechanisms involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis is crucial. In the present study, we report that leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) suppresses tumorigenesis and metastasis of PC cells both in vitro and in vivo. LIFR expression was significantly lower in PC tissues and was associated with local invasion (P=0.047), lymph node metastasis (P=0.014) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.002). Overexpression of LIFR significantly suppressed PC cell colony formation (P=0.005), migration (P=0.003), invasion (P=0.010) and wound healing ability (P=0.013) in vitro, while opposing results were observed after LIFR was silenced. Furthermore, animal xenograft and metastasis models confirm that the in vivo results were consistent with the outcomes in vitro. Meanwhile, LIFR inhibited the expression of β-catenin, vimentin and slug and induced the expression of E-cadherin, suggesting that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulation pathway may underlie the mechanism. These results indicate that LIFR negatively regulates the metastasis of PC cells.

Yang L, Zhou Q, Chen X, et al.
Activation of the FAK/PI3K pathway is crucial for AURKA-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in laryngeal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):819-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and the main cause of death is metastasis. Overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) plays an important role in the metastasis of LSCC. However, the mechanism by which AURKA promotes the metastasis of LSCC is poorly understood. Recent accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be one of the mechanisms of tumor metastasis. In the present study, we studied whether AURKA may induce EMT to promote the metastasis of LSCC. CCK-8 and plate colony-formation assays were carried out to show that AURKA significantly promoted the proliferation of Hep2 cells. Immunofluorescence staining and western blotting showed that EMT-related proteins changed in a time-dependent manner along with the alteration of AURKA, with decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and slug and increased expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, downregulation of the expression of AURKA inhibited FAK/PI3K pathway activity. Inhibition of the FAK/PI3K pathway caused less mesenchymal-like characteristics and reduced the mobility, migration and invasion of Hep2 cells. In conclusion, AURKA may induce EMT to promote metastasis via activation of the FAK/PI3K pathway in LSCC. Those regulatory factors may present new diagnostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for LSCC.

Zhang L, Yan L, Cao M, et al.
SPAG9 promotes endometrial carcinoma cell invasion through regulation of genes related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(3):312-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) on proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present authors' previous study demonstrated that SPAG9 is highly expressed in endometrial cancer tissues. They analyzed correlation between the levels of SPAG9 and mRNA of EMT-related genes in endometrial carcinoma tissue by using quantitative real-time PCR. They induced EMT process in ECC endometrial cancer cell lines by TGF-beta1 treatment and spheroids formation assay, and analyzed SPAG9 expression as well as correlation with EMT-related genes. In addition, they performed SPAG9 gene silencing in KLE and ECC endometrial cancer cells and evaluated the expression of genes involved in EMT, using real time PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, colony formation, and transwell assays were employed to evaluate the functional role of SPAG9 in endometrial cancer.
RESULTS: The results showed that SPAG9 expression was positively correlated with Slug and N-cadherin (NcaD) in human endometrial cancer tissues. The expression of SPAG9 in ECC cells with TGF-β1 treatment and spheroids formation was increased, which was correlated with EMT-related genes. SPAG9 knockdown significantly inhibited cell growth and proliferation and reduced the motility and invasion of endometrial cancer cells. These phenotypes may partly be explained by decreased expression of EMT-related genes, including Twist, Slug, and Vimentin, after SPAG9 depletion.
CONCLUSIONS: SPAG9 may be required for cellular invasion and migration in endometrial cancer through regulation of EMT-related genes.

Yoon JH, Choi WS, Kim O, et al.
Gastrokine 1 inhibits gastric cancer cell migration and invasion by downregulating RhoA expression.
Gastric Cancer. 2017; 20(2):274-285 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether GKN1, a gastric tumor suppressor, contributes to the progression of gastric cancer by regulating RhoA expression.
METHODS: We analyzed the expression of GKN1, RhoA, miR-185, and miR-34a in 35 gastric cancer tissues, and compared their expression with T category and TNM stage. Cell migration and invasion, as well as the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins, were assessed in GKN1- and RhoA small interfering RNA (siRhoA)-transfected and recombinant-GKN1-treated AGS and MKN1 gastric cancer cells.
RESULTS: Expression of RhoA protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased in 15 (42.9 %) and 17 (48.6 %) of 35 gastric cancer tissues respectively, and was associated with higher T category and TNM stage. GKN1 expression was significantly decreased in 27 gastric cancers (77.1 %) with a higher T category, and was inversely correlated with RhoA mRNA expression. In AGS and MKN1 cells, GKN1 expression increased miR-185 and miR-34a expression and reduced RhoA mRNA and protein expression. A positive relationship between GKN1 and miR-34a and miR-185 expression and an inverse relationship between miR-34a and RhoA expression were observed in gastric cancer tissues. Cell migration and invasiveness were markedly decreased in GKN1- and siRhoA-transfected cells. GKN1 expression and silencing of RhoA decreased the expression of the proteins Snail, Slug, and vimentin. Furthermore, miR-185 and miR-34a silencing in MKN1 cells transfected with GKN1 stimulated cell migration and invasion, and increased the expression of EMT-related proteins.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that GKN1 may inhibit gastric cancer cell migration and invasion by downregulating RhoA expression in a miR-185- and miR-34a-dependent manner.

Sugimoto M, Kohashi K, Itsumi M, et al.
Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Rhabdoid Features.
Pathobiology. 2016; 83(6):277-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the association of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) displaying rhabdoid features and morphologically mesenchymal characteristics with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and to clarify the expression of EMT markers.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Slug, ZEB1, ZEB2 and Twist1) using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 18 cases of clear cell RCC (ccRCC) with rhabdoid features and 74 ccRCC cases with Fuhrman grade 1-3 (G1 to G3).
RESULTS: In ccRCCs with rhabdoid features, low E-cadherin and high vimentin expression were found. In G1 to G3 ccRCCs, low E-cadherin expression and high expression of vimentin, ZEB1 and ZEB2 were found. There was no significant difference in the immunoexpression of E-cadherin and vimentin between the two ccRCC groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The rhabdoid features may histologically and biologically be associated with EMT in ccRCC. There is a possibility that in G1 to G3 ccRCCs showing epithelial structures, other cell-cell adhesion mechanisms apart from E-cadherin adhesion may continue to work, and that ccRCC with rhabdoid features may be caused by an inactivation or loss of these mechanisms.

Yi C, Li BB, Zhou CX
Bmi-1 expression predicts prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related factors.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 22:38-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is known for its high propensity to invade and metastasize. Bmi-1 acts as an oncogene by controlling cell cycle and self-renewal of adult stem cells, and its overexpression correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis in several cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in cancer metastasis. A key step in EMT is the down-regulation of E-cadherin that can be repressed by the transcriptional factors, such as Snail and Slug. In the present study, we investigated Bmi-1, Snail, Slug, and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemistry in 102 patients with AdCC and analyzed statistically whether their expression correlated with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was also performed in 22 tumor tissues and the adjacent noncancerous tissues to confirm Bmi-1 status in AdCCs. Our data demonstrated significant associations between the tumor metastasis and the expression of Bmi-1, Snail, Slug, and E-cadherin. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 was not only correlated with the overexpression of Snail and Slug but also indicated an unfavorable metastasis-free survival and served as a high-risk marker for AdCC. In addition, Bmi-1 messenger RNA level was found much higher in AdCC tissues than in the adjacent noncancerous salivary gland tissues. Our results suggest that Bmi-1 may play a crucial role in AdCC progression by interaction with EMT-related markers and predict poor survival.

Shin S, Go RE, Kim CW, et al.
Effect of benzophenone-1 and octylphenol on the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway in estrogen receptor expressing ovarian cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2016; 93:58-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process in embryonic development and cancer progression and metastasis. EMT is influenced by 17β-estradiol (E2), an endogenous estrogen. Benzophenone-1 (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, BP-1) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) because they can exhibit estrogenic properties. In this study, we examined whether BP-1 and OP can lead to EMT of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). A wound healing assay and western blot assay were conducted to show the effect of BP-1 and OP on the migration of BG-1 cells and protein expression of EMT-related genes. BP-1 (10(-6) M) and OP (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced the migration capability of BG-1 cells by reducing the wounded area in the cell monolayer relative to the control, similar to E2 (10(-9) M). However, when BG-1 cells were co-treated with ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, the uncovered area was maintained at the level of the control. N-cadherin, snail, and slug were increased by BP-1 and OP while E-cadherin was reduced compared to the control. However, this effect was also restored by co-treatment with ICI 182,780. Taken together, these results indicate that BP-1 and OP, the potential EDCs, may have the ability to induce ovarian cancer metastasis via regulation of the expression of EMT markers and migration of ER-expressing BG-1 ovarian cancer cells.

Stasikowska-Kanicka O, Wągrowska-Danilewicz M, Danilewicz M
Immunohistochemical Study EMT-Related Proteins in HPV-, and EBV-Negative Patients with Sinonasal Tumours.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(4):781-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process in which the epithelial cells, transform to mesenchymal cells via multiple biochemical modifications. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression of EMT-related proteins: Slug, E-cadherin and fibronectin, in 41 cases of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP), 33 cases of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNC), and 22 cases of normal mucosa as a control. In all cases negative viral status was previously confirmed using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical method. The immunoexpression of Slug and fibronectin were significantly increased in the SNC group as compared to SIPs and control cases. The immunoexpresssion of Slug was also higher in SIPs as compared to controls. The immunoexpression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in SNCs group as compared with SIPs and controls, but no statistically significant difference in E-cadherin immunoexpression was noted between SIPs and control cases. There were statistically significant negative correlations between immunoexpression of Slug vs E-cadherin, E-cadherin vs fibronectin and positive correlation between Slug vs fibronectin in SNC. Statistically significant correlation between Slug and fibronectin immunoexpression in SIPs was also found. In conclusion, our findings suggest that relationships between Slug, E-cadherin and fibronectin could potentially point to EMT in the sinonasal cancer. Lack of correlation between EMT-related proteins in tested SIPs could reflect a benign nature of those cases.

Chiang KC, Yeh TS, Chen SC, et al.
The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)₂D₃), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC.

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