Gene Summary

Gene:SNRPF; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide F
Aliases: SMF, Sm-F, snRNP-F
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:small nuclear ribonucleoprotein F
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear
  • RNA Splicing
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • IGF2
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA Methylation
  • Newborns
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genome, Human
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Heterozygote
  • Cancer DNA
  • Autoantigens
  • Adolescents
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Base Sequence
  • Infant
  • snRNP Core Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Chromosome 12
  • Transfection
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Gene Expression
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Genomic Imprinting
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Sulfites
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Alleles
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Ovarian Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SNRPF (cancer-related)

Jadaliha M, Gholamalamdari O, Tang W, et al.
A natural antisense lncRNA controls breast cancer progression by promoting tumor suppressor gene mRNA stability.
PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(11):e1007802 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human genome encodes thousands of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes; the function of majority of them is poorly understood. Aberrant expression of a significant number of lncRNAs is observed in various diseases, including cancer. To gain insights into the role of lncRNAs in breast cancer progression, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analyses in an isogenic, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC/basal-like) progression cell lines using a 3D cell culture model. We identified significantly altered expression of 1853 lncRNAs, including ~500 natural antisense transcript (NATs) lncRNAs. A significant number of breast cancer-deregulated NATs displayed co-regulated expression with oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein-coding genes in cis. Further studies on one such NAT, PDCD4-AS1 lncRNA reveal that it positively regulates the expression and activity of the tumor suppressor PDCD4 in mammary epithelial cells. Both PDCD4-AS1 and PDCD4 show reduced expression in TNBC cell lines and in patients, and depletion of PDCD4-AS1 compromised the cellular levels and activity of PDCD4. Further, tumorigenic properties of PDCD4-AS1-depleted TNBC cells were rescued by exogenous expression of PDCD4, implying that PDCD4-AS1 acts upstream of PDCD4. Mechanistically, PDCD4-AS1 stabilizes PDCD4 RNA by forming RNA duplex and controls the interaction between PDCD4 RNA and RNA decay promoting factors such as HuR. Our studies demonstrate crucial roles played by NAT lncRNAs in regulating post-transcriptional gene expression of key oncogenic or tumor suppressor genes, thereby contributing to TNBC progression.

Kim SH, Cha MK, Kang CI, et al.
Pathogenic significance of hemorrhagic pneumonia in hematologic malignancy patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia: clinical and microbiological analysis.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019; 38(2):285-295 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hemorrhagic pneumonia (HP) is known as the clinical manifestation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection, while catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is the common clinical presentation of S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with SMB and to analyze clinical and microbiological characteristics of HP associated with SMB and CRBSI. SMB cases of patients with a hematologic malignancy were collected from 2006 through 2016. The overall 30-day mortality rate and mortality risk factors were assessed. The expression of major virulence-associated genes from S. maltophilia isolates, which included genes encoding type-1 fimbriae (smf-1), proteases (StmPr1 and StmPr2), and esterase (Smlt3773), from the blood of patients with HP and CRBSI was investigated. The phenotypic and genotypic traits were also compared. A total of 118 cases of SMB were included. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 61.0%. A multivariable analysis showed that HP was the most important risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR = 106.41; 95% CI = 5.18-2184.55). Although no statistical significance was observed in microbiological analysis, isolates from HP have a trend toward a higher protease activity (93.8% vs. 73.3%, P = 0.172). Clinical analysis showed that thrombocytopenia (P = 0.037) and prolonged neutropenia (P = 0.043) were significant factors associated with HP. Our data, which includes hematologic malignancy patients with SMB, suggest that HP is the significant risk factor for mortality and that the unique characteristics of patients and microbes contribute to the pathogenesis.

Amiri M, Basiri M, Eskandary H, et al.
Cytotoxicity of carboplatin on human glioblastoma cells is reduced by the concomitant exposure to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (50 Hz, 70 G).
Electromagn Biol Med. 2018; 37(3):138-145 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant brain cancer that causes high mortality in patients. GBM responds weakly to the common cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy and even surgery. Carboplatin is an alkylating agent widely used to treat cancer. However, resistance to this drug is a common problem in its use in cancer treatment. Concomitant exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) and carboplatin is one unexplored possibility for overcoming this resistance. Indeed, many lines of evidence show that EMF affects cancer cells and drug action. In this study, we evaluated the effect of concomitant administration of carboplatin and EMF (50 Hz, 70 G) and also concomitant administration of carboplatin and static magnetic field (SMF) (70 G) on human glioma cell line (U-87). The results showed that cotreatment reduced the efficiency of carboplatin in U-87 cells, by decreasing caspase-3 in comparison to drug groups. Overall, EMF reduced the apoptotic effect of carboplatin, possibly through a redox regulation mechanism. Therefore, we have to avoid coadministration of magnetic field (MF) and carboplatin in tumor area, because the MF decreased the toxicity of the drug. However, further studies are needed to reveal the action mechanism of this combination therapeutic method.

Burnett LC, LeDuc CA, Sulsona CR, et al.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) created from skin fibroblasts of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) retain the molecular signature of PWS.
Stem Cell Res. 2016; 17(3):526-530 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a syndromic obesity caused by loss of paternal gene expression in an imprinted interval on 15q11.2-q13. Induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from skin cells of three large deletion PWS patients and one unique microdeletion PWS patient. We found that genes within the PWS region, including SNRPN and NDN, showed persistence of DNA methylation after iPSC reprogramming and differentiation to neurons. Genes within the PWS minimum critical deletion region remain silenced in both PWS large deletion and microdeletion iPSC following reprogramming. PWS iPSC and their relevant differentiated cell types could provide in vitro models of PWS.

Sun X, Zhang H, Luo L, et al.
Comparative proteomic profiling identifies potential prognostic factors for human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(6):3131-3138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The identification of markers for disease diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes will have a great effect in improving patient management. Proteomic‑based approaches for biomarker discovery are promising strategies used in cancer research. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis on four patients including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and paired adjacent non‑cancerous renal tissues using label‑free quantitative proteomics and liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins. Among 3,061 identified non‑redundant proteins, we found that 210 proteins were differentially expressed (83 overexpressed and 127 underexpressed) in ccRCC tissue when compared with normal kidney tissues. Two most significantly dysregulated proteins (PCK1 and SNRPF) were chosen to be confirmed by western blotting. Pathway analysis of 210 differentially expressed proteins showed that dysregulated proteins are related to many cancer‑related biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and amino acid synthetic pathways. Online survival analysis indicated the prognostic value of these dysregulated proteins. In conclusion, we identified some potential diagnostic biomarkers for ccRCC and an in‑depth understanding of their involved biological pathways may help pave the way to discover new therapeutic strategies for ccRCC.

Sharma P, Bhunia S, Poojary SS, et al.
Global methylation profiling to identify epigenetic signature of gallbladder cancer and gallstone disease.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14687-14699 [PubMed] Related Publications
Promoter methylation in various tumor suppressor genes is reported to influence gallbladder carcinogenesis. Here, we aimed to identify methylation status in gallbladder cancer (GBC) by performing a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. The methylation status of 485,577 CpG sites were investigated using Illumina's Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array in 24 tissues (eight each of tumor, adjacent non-tumor, and gallstone). About 33,443 differentially methylated sites (DMRs) were obtained in the whole human genome, of which 24,188 (72 %) were hypermethylated and 9255 (28 %) were hypomethylated. The data also revealed that majority of the DMRs are localized on the proximal promoter region [Transcription start sites (TSS200, TSS1500) and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)] and first exon. Exclusion of first exon detected a total of 10,123 (79 %) hypermethylated and 2703 (21 %) hypomethylated sites. Comparative analysis of the later with our differential proteomics data resulted in identification of 7 hypermethylated or down-regulated (e.g., FBN1, LPP, and SOD3) and 61 hypomethylated or up-regulated markers (e.g., HBE1, SNRPF, TPD52) for GBC. These genes could be further validated on the basis of their methylation/expression status in order to identify their utility to be used as biomarker/s for early diagnosis and management of GBC.

Correa BR, de Araujo PR, Qiao M, et al.
Functional genomics analyses of RNA-binding proteins reveal the splicing regulator SNRPB as an oncogenic candidate in glioblastoma.
Genome Biol. 2016; 17(1):125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor. Currently, GBM has an extremely poor outcome and there is no effective treatment. In this context, genomic and transcriptomic analyses have become important tools to identify new avenues for therapies. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are master regulators of co- and post-transcriptional events; however, their role in GBM remains poorly understood. To further our knowledge of novel regulatory pathways that could contribute to gliomagenesis, we have conducted a systematic study of RBPs in GBM.
RESULTS: By measuring expression levels of 1542 human RBPs in GBM samples and glioma stem cell samples, we identified 58 consistently upregulated RBPs. Survival analysis revealed that increased expression of 21 RBPs was also associated with a poor prognosis. To assess the functional impact of those RBPs, we modulated their expression in GBM cell lines and performed viability, proliferation, and apoptosis assays. Combined results revealed a prominent oncogenic candidate, SNRPB, which encodes core spliceosome machinery components. To reveal the impact of SNRPB on splicing and gene expression, we performed its knockdown in a GBM cell line followed by RNA sequencing. We found that the affected genes were involved in RNA processing, DNA repair, and chromatin remodeling. Additionally, genes and pathways already associated with gliomagenesis, as well as a set of general cancer genes, also presented with splicing and expression alterations.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new insights into how RBPs, and specifically SNRPB, regulate gene expression and directly impact GBM development.

Wang WC, Lai YC
Genetic analysis results of mature cystic teratomas of the ovary in Taiwan disagree with the previous origin theory of this tumor.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 52:128-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The most accepted theory regarding mature cystic teratomas of the ovary is that they are of parthenogenetic origin from oocyte after the completion of first division. Our previous study demonstrated that the origin of mature cystic teratoma of the uterus is not related to the parthenogenetic process, but is most likely pluripotential stem cell or primordial germ cell before meiosis I. Further studies are needed to clarify the origin of benign mature cystic teratomas of the ovary in Taiwan. In the present study, we investigated the DNA profiles of 9 mature cystic teratomas of the ovary using short tandem repeat analysis with AmpFLSTR SGM Plus, Profiler PCR amplification kits. The methylation statuses of the HhaI sites in the SNRPN, H19DMR, and KvDMR regions were determined on methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. DNA profiling data from the 9 mature cystic teratomas of the ovary excluded parthenogenetic origin, as most of the 15 short tandem repeat loci were heterozygous on genotyping. There were varying degrees of hypermethylation of SNRPN gene and KvDMR locus in the presence of maternal uniparental disomy in all 9 mature cystic teratomas of the ovary. In light of these results, we further postulated that the origin of these mature cystic teratomas of the ovary is oogonia or primary oocyte before germinal vesicle stage failure of meiosis I.

MYC Regulates Expression of Pre-mRNA Splicing Machinery in Lymphoma.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(7):692 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC-mediated maintenance of proper mRNA splicing is essential for lymphomagenesis.

Jing J, Zhao Y, Wang C, et al.
Effect of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N on the proliferation of medulloblastoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3337-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spliceosome mutations have been reported in various types of cancer and a number of antitumor drugs have been observed to tightly bind to spliceosome components. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein‑associated polypeptide N (SNRPN) is a small ribonuclear protein and is a key spliceosome constituent. However, the role of SNRPN in human medulloblastoma remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of SNRPN on cell growth was investigated in vitro using the Daoy human medulloblastoma cell line. Lentivirus (Lv)-mediated short hairpin (sh) RNA was used to silence SNRPN expression, which was verified by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT and colony formation assays. Knockdown of SNRPN markedly reduced the proliferation and colony formation ability of Daoy medulloblastoma cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle distribution was altered when the Daoy cells were infected with Lv‑shSNRPN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of SNRPN on cell proliferation in medulloblastoma. The results indicate that SNRPN may be a potential novel target for the development of pharmacological therapeutics in human medulloblastoma.

Iacovelli S, Hug E, Bennardo S, et al.
Two types of BCR interactions are positively selected during leukemia development in the Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mouse model of CLL.
Blood. 2015; 125(10):1578-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common B-cell malignancy characterized by a highly variable course and outcome. The disease is believed to be driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signals generated by external antigens and/or cell-autonomous BCR interactions, but direct in vivo evidence for this is still lacking. To further define the role of the BCR pathway in the development and progression of CLL, we evaluated the capacity of different types of antigen/BCR interactions to induce leukemia in the Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mouse model. We show that cell autonomous signaling capacity is a uniform characteristic of the leukemia-derived BCRs and represents a prerequisite for CLL development. Low-affinity BCR interactions with autoantigens generated during apoptosis are also positively selected, suggesting that they contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In contrast, high-affinity BCR interactions are not selected, regardless of antigen form or presentation. We also show that the capacity of the leukemic cells to respond to cognate antigen correlates inversely with time to leukemia development, suggesting that signals induced by external antigen increase the aggressiveness of the disease. Collectively, these findings provide in vivo evidence that the BCR pathway drives the development and can influence the clinical course of CLL.

Lin T, Wan L, Qi X, et al.
A moderate static magnetic field enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the inhibition of Cdc2 and subsequent downregulation of survivin in human breast carcinoma cells.
Bioelectromagnetics. 2014; 35(5):337-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) exhibits its potent antitumor activity via membrane receptors on cancer cells without deleterious side effects for normal tissue. However, as many other cancer types, breast cancer cells develop a resistance to TRAIL. In the present study, we reported that exposure to 3.0 mT static magnetic field (SMF) mediated the sensitization of breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This effect was significantly reduced by the forced expression of survivin, suggesting the sensitization was mediated at least in part through the inhibition of survivin expression. In addition, SMF alone or in combination with TRAIL induced a cell cycle arrest within the G2 /M phase, and the reduction in the survivin protein level was associated with the downregulated expression of Cdc2, a cyclin B-dependent kinase that is necessary for the entry into the M phase. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SMF promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of Cdc2 and, subsequently, survivin. Of note, SMF did not sensitize untransformed human mammary epithelial cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, the combined treatment of SMF and TRAIL may offer an attractive strategy for safely treating resistant breast cancers.

Lin SJ, Chang KP, Hsu CW, et al.
Low-molecular-mass secretome profiling identifies C-C motif chemokine 5 as a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2013; 94:186-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cancer cell secretome profiling has been shown to be a promising strategy for identifying potential body fluid-accessible cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. However, very few reports have investigated low-molecular-mass (LMr) proteins (<15kDa) in the cancer cell secretome. In the present study, we applied tricine-SDS-gel-assisted fractionation in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to systemically identify LMr proteins in the secretomes of three nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines. We examined two NPC tissue transcriptome datasets to identify LMr genes/proteins that are highly upregulated in NPC tissues and also secreted/released from NPC cells, obtaining 35 candidates. We verified the overexpression of four targets (LSM2, SUMO1, RPL22, and CCL5) in NPC tissues by immunohistochemistry and demonstrated elevated plasma levels of two targets (S100A2 and CCL5) in NPC patients by ELISA. Notably, plasma CCL5 showed good power (AUC 0.801) for discriminating NPC patients from healthy controls. Additionally, functional assays revealed that CCL5 promoted migration of NPC cells, an effect that was effectively blocked by CCL5-neutralizing antibodies and maraviroc, a CCL5 receptor antagonist. Collectively, our data indicate the feasibility of the tricine-SDS-gel/LC-MS/MS approach for efficient identification of LMr proteins from cancer cell secretomes, and suggest that CCL5 is a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Both LMr proteome and cancer cell secretome represent attractive reservoirs for discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our present study provides evidence for the practicality of using the tricine-SDS-PAGE/LC-MS/MS approach for in-depth identification of LMr proteins from the NPC cell secretomes, leading to the discovery of CCL5 as a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC. We believe that the modified GeLC-MS/MS approach used here can be further applied to explore extremely low-abundance, extracellular LMr proteins with important biological functions in other cell lines and biospecimens.

Wang SL, Wang FF, Chen SL, et al.
Expression, localization and clinical application of exogenous Smith proteins D1 in gene transfected HEp-2 cells.
Int J Rheum Dis. 2013; 16(3):303-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To establish an improved substrate for an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) to detect anti-Sm antibody.
METHODS: Full-length Smith protein D1(Sm-D1) complementary DNA was obtained from human larynx carcinoma cell line HEp-2 by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the mammalian expression vector pEGFP-C1. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Sm-D1 was transfected into HEp-2 cells. The expression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transfected cells were confirmed by means of immunoblotting (IBT), confocal fluorescence microscopy and IIF analysis. Transfected HEp-2 cells were analyzed with reference serum and compared with untransfected HEp-2 cells by IIF.
RESULTS: Stable expression of the Sm-D1-GFP was maintained for more than ten generations. This Sm-D1-GFP showed the antigenicity of Sm-D1 with a characteristic phenotype in IIF.Six of 12 serum specimens from systemic lupus erythematosus contained both 29/28 and 13.5 kDa proteins and showed characteristic immunofluorescent patterns. The same phenomenon appeared in 3/6 serum samples which contained 29/28 kDa proteins only. Sera from 10 healthy donors did not react with HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 at 1:80 attenuant degrees. No alteration in expression, localization and morphology was observed when HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 interacted with the reference sera which could react with Ro/SSA, La/SSB, β2GP1, centromere, histone, and Scl-70 antibodies in routine IIF tests.
CONCLUSION: As a new kind of substrate of IIF, HEp-Sm-D1 can be used to detect anti-Sm antibodies. Transfected HEp-2 cells keep the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (IFANA) test and could potentially be used as substrate for routine IFANA detection.

Chung FH, Lee HH, Lee HC
ToP: a trend-of-disease-progression procedure works well for identifying cancer genes from multi-state cohort gene expression data for human colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65683 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Significantly expressed genes extracted from microarray gene expression data have proved very useful for identifying genetic biomarkers of diseases, including cancer. However, deriving a disease related inference from a list of differentially expressed genes has proven less than straightforward. In a systems disease such as cancer, how genes interact with each other should matter just as much as the level of gene expression. Here, in a novel approach, we used the network and disease progression properties of individual genes in state-specific gene-gene interaction networks (GGINs) to select cancer genes for human colorectal cancer (CRC) and obtain a much higher hit rate of known cancer genes when compared with methods not based on network theory. We constructed GGINs by integrating gene expression microarray data from multiple states--healthy control (Nor), adenoma (Ade), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and CRC--with protein-protein interaction database and Gene Ontology. We tracked changes in the network degrees and clustering coefficients of individual genes in the GGINs as the disease state changed from one to another. From these we inferred the state sequences Nor-Ade-CRC and Nor-IBD-CRC both exhibited a trend of (disease) progression (ToP) toward CRC, and devised a ToP procedure for selecting cancer genes for CRC. Of the 141 candidates selected using ToP, ∼50% had literature support as cancer genes, compared to hit rates of 20% to 30% for standard methods using only gene expression data. Among the 16 candidate cancer genes that encoded transcription factors, 13 were known to be tumorigenic and three were novel: CDK1, SNRPF, and ILF2. We identified 13 of the 141 predicted cancer genes as candidate markers for early detection of CRC, 11 and 2 at the Ade and IBD states, respectively.

Tripathi V, Shen Z, Chakraborty A, et al.
Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 controls cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of oncogenic transcription factor B-MYB.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(3):e1003368 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The long noncoding MALAT1 RNA is upregulated in cancer tissues and its elevated expression is associated with hyper-proliferation, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We demonstrate that MALAT1 levels are regulated during normal cell cycle progression. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses in normal human diploid fibroblasts reveal that MALAT1 modulates the expression of cell cycle genes and is required for G1/S and mitotic progression. Depletion of MALAT1 leads to activation of p53 and its target genes. The cell cycle defects observed in MALAT1-depleted cells are sensitive to p53 levels, indicating that p53 is a major downstream mediator of MALAT1 activity. Furthermore, MALAT1-depleted cells display reduced expression of B-MYB (Mybl2), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in G2/M progression, due to altered binding of splicing factors on B-MYB pre-mRNA and aberrant alternative splicing. In human cells, MALAT1 promotes cellular proliferation by modulating the expression and/or pre-mRNA processing of cell cycle-regulated transcription factors. These findings provide mechanistic insights on the role of MALAT1 in regulating cellular proliferation.

Quidville V, Alsafadi S, Goubar A, et al.
Targeting the deregulated spliceosome core machinery in cancer cells triggers mTOR blockade and autophagy.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(7):2247-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spliceosome is a large ribonucleoprotein complex that guides pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotic cells. Here, we determine whether the spliceosome could constitute an attractive therapeutic target in cancer. Analysis of gene expression arrays from lung, breast, and ovarian cancers datasets revealed that several genes encoding components of the core spliceosome composed of a heteroheptameric Sm complex were overexpressed in malignant disease as compared with benign lesions and could also define a subset of highly aggressive breast cancers. siRNA-mediated depletion of SmE (SNRPE) or SmD1 (SNRPD1) led to a marked reduction of cell viability in breast, lung, and melanoma cancer cell lines, whereas it had little effect on the survival of the nonmalignant MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. SNRPE or SNRPD1 depletion did not lead to apoptotic cell death but autophagy, another form of cell death. Indeed, induction of autophagy was revealed by cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and by an increase in both LC3 (MAP1LC3A) protein conversion and the amount of acidic autophagic vacuoles. Knockdown of SNRPE dramatically decreased mTOR mRNA and protein levels and was accompanied by a deregulation of the mTOR pathway, which, in part, explains the SNRPE-dependent induction of autophagy. These findings provide a rational to develop new therapeutic agents targeting spliceosome core components in oncology.

Weng MT, Lee JH, Wei SC, et al.
Evolutionarily conserved protein ERH controls CENP-E mRNA splicing and is required for the survival of KRAS mutant cancer cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(52):E3659-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers with Ras mutations represent a major therapeutic problem. Recent RNAi screens have uncovered multiple nononcogene addiction pathways that are necessary for the survival of Ras mutant cells. Here, we identify the evolutionarily conserved gene enhancer of rudimentary homolog (ERH), in which depletion causes greater toxicity in cancer cells with mutations in the small GTPase KRAS compared with KRAS WT cells. ERH interacts with the spliceosome protein SNRPD3 and is required for the mRNA splicing of the mitotic motor protein CENP-E. Loss of ERH leads to loss of CENP-E and consequently, chromosome congression defects. Gene expression profiling indicates that ERH is required for the expression of multiple cell cycle genes, and the gene expression signature resulting from ERH down-regulation inversely correlates with KRAS signatures. Clinically, tumor ERH expression is inversely associated with survival of colorectal cancer patients whose tumors harbor KRAS mutations. Together, these findings identify a role of ERH in mRNA splicing and mitosis, and they provide evidence that KRAS mutant cancer cells are dependent on ERH for their survival.

Ichikawa M, Arai Y, Haruta M, et al.
Meiosis error and subsequent genetic and epigenetic alterations invoke the malignant transformation of germ cell tumor.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(3):274-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs) that undergo epigenetic reprogramming. To explore the mechanisms of GCT formation, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphism array comparative genomic hybridization patterns and the methylation status of 15 tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, H19 and SNRPN, in 28 children with GCTs. Three GCTs with 25-26 segmental uniparental disomies (UPDs), heterozygous centromeric regions, and a highly methylated SNRPN DMR may have occurred through meiosis I error. Three other GCTs with whole UPD and homozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes may have occurred through endoreduplication of a haploid set in an ovum or testis. The other 22 GCTs had heterozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes and no or a small number of segmental or whole UPDs and may have developed from premeiotic PGCs before imprint erasure or a reestablishment of imprinting. Gain and amplification of 3p24-p22 and 20q13-q13, and loss and UPD of 1p36-p35, 4q21-q21, 5q11-q13, and 6q26-qter were found in five or more tumors. 1p36-p35 loss was frequent, and found in 19 tumors; RUNX3 residing at 1p36 was methylated in the promoter regions of 16 tumors. Two yolk sac tumors with many segmental UPDs or whole UPD of all chromosomes had gain of 20q13-q13 and loss of 1p36-p35, and seven or eight methylated TSGs. These genetic and epigenetic alterations may have caused malignant transformation because they were rarely found in teratomas with segmental or whole UPDs.

Roessler J, Ammerpohl O, Gutwein J, et al.
Quantitative cross-validation and content analysis of the 450k DNA methylation array from Illumina, Inc.
BMC Res Notes. 2012; 5:210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The newly released 450k DNA methylation array from Illumina, Inc. offers the possibility to analyze more than 480,000 individual CpG sites in a user friendly standardized format. In this study the relationship between the β-values provided by the Illumina, Inc. array for each individual CpG dinucleotide and the quantitative methylation levels obtained by pyrosequencing were analyzed. In addition, the representation of microRNA genes and imprinted loci on the Illumina, Inc. array was assessed in detail. Genomic DNA from 4 human breast cancer cell lines (IPH-926, HCC1937, MDA-MB-134, PMC42) and 18 human breast cancer specimens as well as 4 normal mammary epithelial fractions was analyzed on 450k DNA methylation arrays. The β-values for 692 individual CpG sites from 62 different genes were cross-validated using conventional quantitative pyrosequencing.
FINDINGS: The newly released 450k methylation array from Illumina, Inc. shows a high concordance with quantitative pyrosequencing if identical CpG sites are analyzed in cell lines (Spearman r = 0.88, p ≪ 0.0001), which is somewhat reduced in primary tumor specimens (Spearman r = 0.86, p ≪ 0.0001). 80.7% of the CpG sites show an absolute difference in methylation level of less than 15 percentage points. If different CpG sites in the same CpG islands are targeted the concordance is lower (r = 0.83 in cell lines and r = 0.7 in primary tumors). The number of CpG sites representing microRNA genes and imprinted loci is very heterogeneous (range: 1 - 70 CpG sites for microRNAs and 1 - 288 for imprinted loci).
CONCLUSIONS: The newly released 450k methylation array from Illumina, Inc. provides a genome-wide quantitative representation of DNA methylation aberrations in a convenient format. Overall, the congruence with pyrosequencing data is very good. However, for individual loci one should be careful to translate the β-values directly into percent methylation levels.

Herrmann A, Haake A, Ammerpohl O, et al.
Pipeline for large-scale microdroplet bisulfite PCR-based sequencing allows the tracking of hepitype evolution in tumors.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytosine methylation provides an epigenetic level of cellular plasticity that is important for development, differentiation and cancerogenesis. We adopted microdroplet PCR to bisulfite treated target DNA in combination with second generation sequencing to simultaneously assess DNA sequence and methylation. We show measurement of methylation status in a wide range of target sequences (total 34 kb) with an average coverage of 95% (median 100%) and good correlation to the opposite strand (rho = 0.96) and to pyrosequencing (rho = 0.87). Data from lymphoma and colorectal cancer samples for SNRPN (imprinted gene), FGF6 (demethylated in the cancer samples) and HS3ST2 (methylated in the cancer samples) serve as a proof of principle showing the integration of SNP data and phased DNA-methylation information into "hepitypes" and thus the analysis of DNA methylation phylogeny in the somatic evolution of cancer.

Fan H, Guo H, Zhang IY, et al.
The different HMGA1 expression of total population of glioblastoma cell line U251 and glioma stem cells isolated from U251.
Brain Res. 2011; 1384:9-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The high-mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein is a non-histone architectural nuclear factor and participates in diverse biological processes, including gene transcription, embryogenesis, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and even neoplastic transformation. In our study, glioma stem cells (GSCs) expressing the surface marker CD133 from human glioblastoma cell line U251 were isolated using MACS column and were analyzed using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). The different expression of HMGA1 was detected using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot at transcriptional and translational levels between U251 and isolated GSCs. The results show that GSCs were successfully isolated from U251 and cultured in serum-free medium (SMF). The percentage of GSCs in U251 was 0.32%±0.07%. HMGA1 expression was significantly higher in GSCs than in glioblastoma cells (P<0.05), up to 6.13±0.25-fold and 2.75±0.99-fold at transcriptional and translational levels, respectively. These results indicated HMGA1 is overexpressed in GSCs as compared to glioblastoma cell line U251, which points to the expression of HMGA1 being closely related to malignant proliferation, invasion, and differentiation of tumors from the prospective of tumor stem cells (TSCs). We conclude that HMGA1 may be a potential biomarker and rational therapeutic target for glioblastoma and GSC.

Lee SH, Appleby V, Jeyapalan JN, et al.
Variable methylation of the imprinted gene, SNRPN, supports a relationship between intracranial germ cell tumours and neural stem cells.
J Neurooncol. 2011; 101(3):419-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a diverse group of neoplasms all of which are generally believed to arise from germ cell progenitors (PGCs). Even those that form in the nervous system are likewise believed to be PGC-derived, despite being found a great distance from the normal location of germ cells. The primary evidence in favour of this model for the origins of intracranial GCTs is that they share molecular features with other GCTs. Those features include shared gene expression and a lack of methylation of imprinted genes, including SNRPN. Contrary to this model, we have proposed that endogenous neural stem cells of the brain are a more likely origin for these tumours. We show here that the lack of methylation of SNRPN that has previously been taken to indicate an origin for GCTs from PGCs is also seen in neural stem cells of mice and humans. We believe that, in the light of these and other recent observations, endogenous neural precursors of the brain are a more plausible origin for intracranial GCTs than are misplaced PGCs.

Dotan ZA, Dotan A, Ramon J, Avivi L
Aberrant allele-specific replication, independent of parental origin, in blood cells of cancer patients.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Allelic counterparts of biallelically expressed genes display an epigenetic symmetry normally manifested by synchronous replication, different from genes subjected to monoallelic expression, which normally are characterized by an asynchronous mode of replication (well exemplified by the SNRPN imprinted locus). Malignancy was documented to be associated with gross modifications in the inherent replication-timing coordination between allelic counterparts of imprinted genes as well as of biallelically expressed loci. The cancer-related allelic replication timing aberrations are non-disease specific and appear in peripheral blood cells of cancer patients, including those with solid tumors. As such they offer potential blood markers for non-invasive cancer test. The present study was aimed to gain some insight into the mechanism leading to the replication timing alterations of genes in blood lymphocytes of cancer patients.
METHODS: Peripheral blood samples derived from patients with prostate cancer were chosen to represent the cancerous status, and samples taken from patients with no cancer but with benign prostate hyperplasia were used to portray the normal status. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) replication assay, applied to phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood lymphocytes, was used to evaluate the temporal order (either synchronous or asynchronous) of genes in the patients' cells.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that: (i) the aberrant epigenetic profile, as delineated by the cancer status, is a reversible modification, evidenced by our ability to restore the normal patterns of replication in three unrelated loci (CEN15, SNRPN and RB1) by introducing an archetypical demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine; (ii) following the rehabilitating effect of demethylation, an imprinted gene (SNRPN) retains its original parental imprint; and (iii) the choice of an allele between early or late replication in the aberrant asynchronous replication, delineated by the cancer status, is not random but is independent of the parental origin.
CONCLUSION: The non-disease specific aberrant epigenetic profile displayed in peripheral blood cells of patients with a solid tumour (unlike genetic aberrations) can be reversed, by an epigenetic drug applied in vitro, to the normal. It appears that the cancerous status differentiates between two allelic counterparts in a non-random manner, but independent of the parental origin.

Shibui T, Higo Y, Tsutsui TW, et al.
Changes in expression of imprinted genes following treatment of human cancer cell lines with non-mutagenic or mutagenic carcinogens.
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(2):351-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
It remains possible that chemicals that act by mutagenic mechanisms as well as chemicals that do not induce gene mutations may affect epigenetic gene expression. To test the possibility, we investigated the ability of both types of chemicals to alter the expression of five imprinted genes, PEG3, SNRPN, NDN, ZAC and H19, using two human colon cancer cell lines and a human breast cancer cell line. The expression of imprinted genes was changed by some non-mutagenic and mutagenic carcinogens independent of their mutagenic activity. The genes most commonly exhibiting the changes in expression were SNRPN and PEG3. Alterations of the expression of NDN and ZAC were also observed in some conditions. Methylation-specific PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest the possibility that changes in the expression of SNRPN may be associated with DNA hypomethylation and histone acetylation of the promoters and euchromatinization of the heterochromatic domains of the promoters. Changes in expression of the imprinted genes, PEG3 and NDN, were also observed in cells immortalized by treatment of normal human fibroblasts with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide or aflatoxin B1. We previously demonstrated that expression of the cancer-related gene, INK4a, in these immortal cells was lost via epigenetic mechanisms. The results prove that, in cancer cells, some mutagenic or non-mutagenic carcinogens can epigenetically influence the transcription levels of imprinted genes and also suggest the possibility that some chemical carcinogens may have epigenetic carcinogenic effects in human cells.

Li Z, Pützer BM
Spliceosomal protein E regulates neoplastic cell growth by modulating expression of cyclin E/CDK2 and G2/M checkpoint proteins.
J Cell Mol Med. 2008; 12(6A):2427-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins are essential splicing factors. We previously identified the spliceosomal protein E (SmE) as a downstream effector of E2F1 in p53-deficient human carcinoma cells. Here, we investigated the biological relevance of SmE in determining the fate of cancer and non-tumourigenic cells. Adenovirus-mediated expression of SmE selectively reduces growth of cancerous cells due to decreased cell proliferation but not apoptosis. A similar growth inhibitory effect for SmD1 suggests that this is a general function of Sm-family members. Deletion of Sm-motifs reveals the importance of the Sm-1 domain for growth suppression. Consistently, SmE overexpression leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis and G2 arrest as shown by BrdU-incorporation and MPM2-staining. Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that growth arrest by SmE directly correlates with the reduction of cyclin E, CDK2, CDC25C and CDC2 expression, and up-regulation of p27Kip. Importantly, SmE activity was not associated with enhanced expression of other spliceosome components such as U1 SnRNP70, suggesting that the growth inhibitory effect of SmE is distinct from its pre-mRNA splicing function. Furthermore, specific inactivation of SmE by shRNA significantly increased the percentage of cells in S phase, whereas the amount of G2/M arrested cells was reduced. Our data provide evidence that Sm proteins function as suppressors of tumour cell growth and may have major implications as cancer therapeutics.

Dahl C, Guldberg P
A ligation assay for multiplex analysis of CpG methylation using bisulfite-treated DNA.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2007; 35(21):e144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is causally linked with a number of inherited syndromes and most sporadic cancers, and may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In this report, we describe an approach to simultaneous analysis of multiple CpG islands, where methylation-specific oligonucleotide probes are joined by ligation and subsequently amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) when hybridized in juxtaposition on bisulfite-treated DNA. Specificity of the ligation reaction is achieved by (i) using probes containing CpGpCpG (for methylated sequences) or CpApCpA (for unmethylated sequences) at the 3' ends, (ii) including three or more probes for each target, and (iii) using a thermostable DNA ligase. The external probes carry universal tails to allow amplification of multiple ligation products using a common primer pair. As proof-of-principle applications, we established duplex assays to examine the FMR1 promoter in individuals with fragile-X syndrome and the SNRPN promoter in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome or Angelman syndrome, and a multiplex assay to simultaneously detect hypermethylation of seven genes (ID4, APC, RASSF1A, CDH1, ESR1, HIN1 and TWIST1) in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. These data show that ligation of oligonucleotide probes hybridized to bisulfite-treated DNA is a simple and cost-effective approach to analysis of CpG methylation.

Tamura K, Furihata M, Tsunoda T, et al.
Molecular features of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells by genome-wide gene expression profiles.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(11):5117-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the most critical issues in prostate cancer clinic is emerging hormone-refractory prostate cancers (HRPCs) and their management. Prostate cancer is usually androgen dependent and responds well to androgen ablation therapy. However, at a certain stage, they eventually acquire androgen-independent and more aggressive phenotype and show poor response to any anticancer therapies. To characterize the molecular features of clinical HRPCs, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 25 clinical HRPCs and 10 hormone-sensitive prostate cancers (HSPCs) by genome-wide cDNA microarrays combining with laser microbeam microdissection. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis clearly distinguished expression patterns of HRPC cells from those of HSPC cells. In addition, primary and metastatic HRPCs from three patients were closely clustered regardless of metastatic organs. A supervised analysis and permutation test identified 36 up-regulated genes and 70 down-regulated genes in HRPCs compared with HSPCs (average fold difference > 1.5; P < 0.0001). We observed overexpression of AR, ANLN, and SNRPE and down-regulation of NR4A1, CYP27A1, and HLA-A antigen in HRPC progression. AR overexpression is likely to play a central role of hormone-refractory phenotype, and other genes we identified were considered to be related to more aggressive phenotype of clinical HRPCs, and in fact, knockdown of these overexpressing genes by small interfering RNA resulted in drastic attenuation of prostate cancer cell viability. Our microarray analysis of HRPC cells should provide useful information to understand the molecular mechanism of HRPC progression and to identify molecular targets for development of HRPC treatment.

Finn S, Smyth P, O'Regan E, et al.
Low-level genomic instability is a feature of papillary thyroid carcinoma: an array comparative genomic hybridization study of laser capture microdissected papillary thyroid carcinoma tumors and clonal cell lines.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007; 131(1):65-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Previous chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have demonstrated a low prevalence of aberrations, with the majority of tumors showing no evidence of chromosomal instability. The technique of CGH can be optimized, however, using array CGH and laser capture microdissection to ensure pure cell populations for analysis.
OBJECTIVE: To assess PTC using array CGH applied to laser capture microdissected tumor cells and pure cell cultures.
DESIGN: Well-characterized PTC (known ret/PTC and BRAF mutation status), including samples from 5 tumors with classic morphology, 3 follicular variant tumors, and 3 clonal PTC cell lines, were analyzed.
RESULTS: Copy gain and loss occurred in all of the tumor cases and cell lines examined. The most common recurrent aberrations involved gains on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 11, 15, 17, and 22, with recurrent deletions occurring on chromosomes 4, 18, and 19. Analysis of the data from the 8 tumor samples showed that amplifications of TP73 (1p36.33), SNRPN (15q12), and PDGFB (22q13.1) occurred exclusively in tumors with a wild type BRAF.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a higher prevalence of aberrations detected using array CGH allied to laser capture microdissection than previously described in the literature, and it appears that the combination of laser capture microdissection and arrayed clones optimizes studies utilizing CGH. Copy gain of PDGFB occurs in a subset of tumors showing no evidence of mutated BRAF or rearranged ret, suggesting that copy gain of PDGFB may underlie the increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor described recently in the literature.

Amiel A, Leopold L, Gronich N, et al.
The influence of different chromosomal aberrations on molecular cytogenetic parameters in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 167(2):145-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is the most common leukemia of adults in Western countries. The most frequent recurring chromosomal aberrations identified in B-CLL patients are trisomy 12 and deletions of 13q, 17p, and 11q. Cases with deletions of 11q and 17p have a poor prognosis, whereas cases with deletions in 13q have a favorable prognosis. It was previously shown that CLL patients with trisomy 12 and del(13)(q14) have a higher rate of asynchronous replication of normal structural genes when compared to those with normal karyotypes. We studied the replication pattern of the structural locus 21q22 and the imprinted gene SNRPN and its telomere (15qter) and the random aneuploidy of chromosomes 9 and 18 in CLL patients with trisomy 12 and deletions of 11q and 17p, and compared the results to those of CLL patients without these aberrations and to healthy controls. Random aneuploidy rate was higher in the group of patients with trisomy 12 as compared to all other groups. The replication pattern with higher asynchronous pattern was found in both aberration groups compared to the CLL patients without the aberrations and to the control group with involvement of 21q22 and 15qter, whereas the highest synchronous group was found in the 2 aberrations CLL patient groups compared to the other groups with the imprinted locus SNRPN. The existence and significance of chromosomal aberrations in CLL have a deleterious effect on the processes of cell cycle and gene replication and may have biological and prognostic implications.

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