Gene Summary

Gene:TGFBI; transforming growth factor beta induced
Aliases: CSD, CDB1, CDG2, CSD1, CSD2, CSD3, EBMD, LCD1, BIGH3, CDGG1
Summary:This gene encodes an RGD-containing protein that binds to type I, II and IV collagens. The RGD motif is found in many extracellular matrix proteins modulating cell adhesion and serves as a ligand recognition sequence for several integrins. This protein plays a role in cell-collagen interactions and may be involved in endochondrial bone formation in cartilage. The protein is induced by transforming growth factor-beta and acts to inhibit cell adhesion. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple types of corneal dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TGFBI (cancer-related)

Martínez-Aguilar J, Clifton-Bligh R, Molloy MP
Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype.

Hung MS, Chen IC, You L, et al.
Knockdown of Cul4A increases chemosensitivity to gemcitabine through upregulation of TGFBI in lung cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3187-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cullin 4A (Cul4A) promotes oncogenesis through overexpression and then ubiquitination‑mediated proteolysis of tumor suppressors in various types of cancers. Transforming growth factor β‑induced (TGFBI) has been implicated as a tumor suppressor, which enhances gemcitabine chemosensitivity in lung cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the association of TGFBI and Cul4A and the mechanism by which Cul4A regulates TGFBI. In addition, we also evaluated the therapeutic value of Cul4A RNAi using adenoviral transfection of Cul4A RNAi in nude mouse xenograft models. We observed that knockdown of Cul4A was associated with increased sensitivity to gemcitabine through upregulation of TGFBI in lung cancer cells. Cul4A regulated TGFBI through direct interaction and then ubiquitin‑mediated protein degradation. In the nude mouse xenograft models, adenoviral transfection of Cul4A RNAi in combination with gemcitabine chemotherapy inhibited lung cancer tumor growth. As the result, combination of Cul4A RNAi with chemotherapy may provide a new approach to lung cancer treatment.

Kong Y, Si L, Li Y, et al.
Analysis of mTOR Gene Aberrations in Melanoma Patients and Evaluation of Their Sensitivity to PI3K-AKT-mTOR Pathway Inhibitors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(4):1018-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: mTOR is a validated target in cancer. It remains to be determined whether melanoma patients bearing mTOR mutation could be selected for treatment with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 412 melanoma samples were included. Gene aberrations in all exons of mTOR were detected by Sanger sequencing and confirmed by using Agilent's SureSelect Target Enrichment System. HEK293T cells stably expressing mTOR mutants were constructed by using transcription activator-like effector nucleases technique. Function of mTOR mutants and in vitro sensitivity of gain-of-function mTOR mutations to PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors were analyzed.
RESULTS: The overall incidence of somatic nonsynonymous mutations of mTOR was 10.4% (43/412). mTOR nonsynonymous mutations were relatively more frequent in acral (11.0%) and mucosal (14.3%) melanomas than in chronic sun-induced damage (CSD; 6.7%) and non-CSD (3.4%) melanomas. Of the 43 cases with mTOR mutations, 41 different mutations were detected, affecting 25 different exons. The median survival time for melanoma patients with mTOR nonsynonymous mutation was significantly shorter than that for patients without mTOR nonsynonymous mutation (P = 0.028). Transient expression of mTOR mutants in HEK293T cells strongly activated the mTOR-p70S6K pathway. In HEK293T cells with stable expression of H1968Y or P2213S mTOR mutants, LY294002 and AZD5363 showed higher potency than temsirolimus or BYL719 in inhibiting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: mTOR nonsynonymous mutations are frequent in melanoma patients. mTOR nonsynonymous mutation may predict a worse prognosis of melanoma. Clinical trials with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors may be beneficial for melanoma patients with specific mTOR mutations.

Wang Y, Huang L, Wu S, et al.
Bioinformatics Analyses of the Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0139285 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to identify the expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore its potential correlation with the progression of NSCLC.
METHODS: Gene expression profile GSE39345 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Twenty healthy controls and 32 NSCLC samples before chemotherapy were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Then pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed and protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. Particularly, VEGF genes and the VEGF signaling pathway were analyzed. The sub-network was constructed followed by functional enrichment analysis.
RESULTS: Total 1666 up-regulated and 1542 down-regulated DEGs were identified. The down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in the pathways associated with cancer. VEGFA and VEGFB were found to be the initiating factor of VEGF signaling pathway. In addition, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), VEGFA and VEGFB associated sub-network, kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), fibronectin 1 (FN1), transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were found to interact with at least two of the three hub genes. The DEGs in this sub-network were mainly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: EGFR, KDR, FN1, TGFBI and PCNA may interact with VEGFA to play important roles in NSCLC tumorigenesis. These genes and corresponding proteins may have the potential to be used as the targets for either diagnosis or treatment of patients with NSCLC.

Ryk C, Koskela LR, Thiel T, et al.
Outcome after BCG treatment for urinary bladder cancer may be influenced by polymorphisms in the NOS2 and NOS3 genes.
Redox Biol. 2015; 6:272-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-treatment is an established treatment for bladder cancer, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder-cancer (NMIBC)-patients failing to respond to BCG-treatment have worse prognosis than those undergoing immediate radical cystectomy and identification of patients at risk for BCG-failure is of high priority. Several studies indicate a role for nitric oxide (NO) in the cytotoxic effect that BCG exerts on bladder cancer cells. In this study we investigated whether NO-synthase (NOS)-gene polymorphisms, NOS2-promoter microsatellite (CCTTT)n, and the NOS3-polymorphisms-786T>C (rs2070744) and Glu298Asp (rs1799983), can serve as possible molecular markers for outcome after BCG-treatment for NMIBC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All NMIBC-patients from a well-characterized population based cohort were analyzed (n=88). Polymorphism data were combined with information from 15-years of clinical follow-up. The effect of BCG-treatment on cancer-specific death (CSD), recurrence and progression in patients with varying NOS-genotypes were studied using Cox proportional hazard-models and log rank tests.
RESULTS: BCG-treatment resulted in significantly better survival in patients without (Log rank: p=0.006; HR: 0.12, p=0.048), but not in patients with a long version ((CCTTT)n ≧13 repeats) of the NOS2-promoter microsatellite. The NOS3-rs2070744(TT) and rs1799983(GG)-genotypes showed decreased risk for CSD (Log rank(TT): p=0.001; Log rank(GG): p=0.010, HR(GG): 0.16, p=0.030) and progression (Log rank(TT): p<0.001, HR(TT): 0.05, p=0.005; Log rank(GG): p<0.001, HR(GG): 0.10, p=0.003) after BCG-therapy compared to the other genotypes. There was also a reduction in recurrence in BCG-treated patients that was mostly genotype independent. Analysis of combined genotypes identified a subgroup of 30% of the BCG-treated patients that did not benefit from BCG-treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the investigated polymorphisms influence patient response to BCG-treatment and thus may serve as possible markers for identification of BCG-failures.

Giaccone G, Bazhenova LA, Nemunaitis J, et al.
A phase III study of belagenpumatucel-L, an allogeneic tumour cell vaccine, as maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(16):2321-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment options after first-line chemotherapy are limited in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Belagenpumatucel-L is a therapeutic vaccine comprised of 4 transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-antisense gene-modified, irradiated, allogeneic NSCLC cell lines that may be useful for maintenance after initial treatment.
METHODS: Stage III/IV NSCLC patients who did not progress after platinum-based chemotherapy were randomised 1:1 to receive maintenance belagenpumatucel-L or placebo. Patients were eligible for randomisation between one and four months from the end of induction chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival.
RESULTS: This phase III trial enrolled 270 patients in the belagenpumatucel-L arm and 262 in the control arm. Belagenpumatucel-L was well tolerated with no serious safety concerns. There was no difference in survival between the arms (median survival 20.3 versus 17.8months with belagenpumatucel-L versus placebo, respectively; hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, p=0.594). There were also no differences in progression-free survival (4.3months versus 4.0 for belagenpumatucel-L vs placebo, respectively; HR 0.99, p=0.947). A prespecified Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the time elapsed between randomisation and the end of induction chemotherapy had a significant impact on survival (p=0.002) and that prior radiation was a positive prognostic factor (median survival 28.4months with belagenpumatucel-L versus 16.0months with placebo; HR 0.61, p=0.032).
CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall trial did not meet its survival endpoint, improved survival for belagenpumatucel-L is suggested in patients who were randomised within 12weeks of completion of chemotherapy and in those who had received prior radiation. Further studies of belagenpumatucel-L in NSCLC are warranted.

Han B, Cai H, Chen Y, et al.
The role of TGFBI (βig-H3) in gastrointestinal tract tumorigenesis.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: TGFβ-induced (TGFBI/βig-H3) is a protein inducible by TGFβ1 and secreted by many types of cells. It binds to collagen, forms part of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and interacts with integrins on cell surfaces. In this study, we investigated the role of TGFBI in tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Patient serum TGFBI levels were determined by ELISA. TGFBI transgenic and gene knockout mice and TGFBI-overexpressing liver cells were used for mechanistic studies.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that patients with cholangiocarcinomas, hepatic carcinomas or gastric carcinomas presented significantly elevated serum TGFBI levels, and the excess TGFBI was derived from the tumor masses. TGFBI overexpression in mice resulted in increased incidence of spontaneous tumors and N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver tumor nodules, compared to that in wild type (WT) mice, while TGFBI knockout mice were comparable to WT controls in these 2 aspects. TGFBI promoted the survival of Aml-12 liver cells with DNA damage after irradiation, and augmented their post-irradiation proliferation. It activated the FAK/AKT/AKT1S1/PRS6/EIF4EBP pathway, which is known to modulate cell survival and proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TGFBI functions as a promoter of certain gastrointestinal tract cancers. It provides a survival advantage to cells with DNA damage. Over a long time span, this advantage could translate into increased tumor risks.

Ma S, Johnson D, Ashby C, et al.
SPARCoC: a new framework for molecular pattern discovery and cancer gene identification.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0117135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is challenging to cluster cancer patients of a certain histopathological type into molecular subtypes of clinical importance and identify gene signatures directly relevant to the subtypes. Current clustering approaches have inherent limitations, which prevent them from gauging the subtle heterogeneity of the molecular subtypes. In this paper we present a new framework: SPARCoC (Sparse-CoClust), which is based on a novel Common-background and Sparse-foreground Decomposition (CSD) model and the Maximum Block Improvement (MBI) co-clustering technique. SPARCoC has clear advantages compared with widely-used alternative approaches: hierarchical clustering (Hclust) and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). We apply SPARCoC to the study of lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA), an extremely heterogeneous histological type, and a significant challenge for molecular subtyping. For testing and verification, we use high quality gene expression profiling data of lung ADCA patients, and identify prognostic gene signatures which could cluster patients into subgroups that are significantly different in their overall survival (with p-values < 0.05). Our results are only based on gene expression profiling data analysis, without incorporating any other feature selection or clinical information; we are able to replicate our findings with completely independent datasets. SPARCoC is broadly applicable to large-scale genomic data to empower pattern discovery and cancer gene identification.

Zhu J, Chen X, Liao Z, et al.
TGFBI protein high expression predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(1):702-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced (TGFBI) serves as a linker protein and plays a role in the activation of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, differentiation and inflammation. High expression levels of the human TGFBI gene are correlated with numerous human malignancies. In order to explore the roles of TGFBI in the tumor progression of colorectal cancer, colorectal cancer specimens from 115 patients with strict follow-up were selected for the analysis of TGFBI by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between TGFBI expression and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated. In the colorectal cancer tissues, TGFBI was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and stroma and scarcely in the nucleus. TGFBI expression in the cytoplasm and stroma was not found to be associated with age, gender, tumor histopathological grading, PT category and tumor location (P > 0.05 for each). However, high TGFBI expression in the cytoplasm and stroma correlated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and Dukes stage (P < 0.05 for each). The survival rate was significantly lower in patients with high TGFBI expression than in those with low TGFBI expression. Furthermore, we found that tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging (HR: 2.963; 95% CI: 1.573-1.664; P = 0.000), differentiation (HR: 1.574; 95% CI: 1.001-2.476; P = 0.049) and high TGFBI cytoplasmic expression (HR: 3.332; 95% CI: 1.410-7.873; P = 0.000) proved to be independent prognostic factors for survival in colorectal cancer. In conclusion, TGFBI plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers and it is an independent poor prognostic factor for colorectal cancer patients.

Vad-Nielsen J, Nielsen AL
Beyond the histone tale: HP1α deregulation in breast cancer epigenetics.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(2):189-200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) encoded from the CBX5-gene is an evolutionary conserved protein that binds histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at position lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3), a hallmark for heterochromatin, and has an essential role in forming higher order chromatin structures. HP1α has diverse functions in heterochromatin formation, gene regulation, and mitotic progression, and forms complex networks of gene, RNA, and protein interactions. Emerging evidence has shown that HP1α serves a unique biological role in breast cancer related processes and in particular for epigenetic control mechanisms involved in aberrant cell proliferation and metastasis. However, how HP1α deregulation plays dual mechanistic functions for cancer cell proliferation and metastasis suppression and the underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet comprehensively described. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of HP1α as a new sight of epigenetics in proliferation and metastasis of human breast cancer. This highlights the importance of addressing HP1α in breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

Ozawa D, Yokobori T, Sohda M, et al.
TGFBI Expression in Cancer Stromal Cells is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Hematogenous Recurrence in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2016; 23(1):282-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. To improve prognoses in patients with ESCC, we evaluated the potential of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBI), which is overexpressed in ESCC, as a therapeutic candidate.
METHODS: We examined the clinical significance of TBFBI in 102 ESCC samples using real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical studies were conducted to examine the localization of TGFBI. Knockdown of TGFBI in cocultured fibroblasts was performed to determine the roles of TGFBI in migration and invasion.
RESULTS: The level of TGFBI in ESCC tissues was higher than that in normal tissues. The high TGFBI expression group (n = 16) had higher TGFB1 expression and more frequent hematogenous recurrence than the low-expression group (n = 86). High TGFBI expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients with ESCC. TGFBI was mainly localized in stromal cells of ESCC. Moreover, suppression of TGFBI in fibroblasts inhibited the migration and invasion capacity of TE8 ESCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: High TGFBI expression in ESCC tissues could be a powerful biomarker of poor prognosis and hematogenous recurrence. TGFBI in stromal cells might be a promising molecular target for ESCC treatment.

Rudra-Ganguly N, Lowe C, Mattie M, et al.
Discoidin domain receptor 1 contributes to tumorigenesis through modulation of TGFBI expression.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. The receptor is activated upon binding to its ligand, collagen, and plays a crucial role in many fundamental processes such as cell differentiation, adhesion, migration and invasion. Although DDR1 is expressed in many normal tissues, upregulated expression of DDR1 in a variety of human cancers such as lung, colon and brain cancers is known to be associated with poor prognosis. Using shRNA silencing, we assessed the oncogenic potential of DDR1. DDR1 knockdown impaired tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Microarray analysis of tumor cells demonstrated upregulation of TGFBI expression upon DDR1 knockdown, which was subsequently confirmed at the protein level. TGFBI is a TGFβ-induced extracellular matrix protein secreted by the tumor cells and is known to act either as a tumor promoter or tumor suppressor, depending on the tumor environment. Here, we show that exogenous addition of recombinant TGFBI to BXPC3 tumor cells inhibited clonogenic growth and migration, thus recapitulating the phenotypic effect observed from DDR1 silencing. BXPC3 tumor xenografts demonstrated reduced growth with DDR1 knockdown, and the same xenograft tumors exhibited an increase in TGFBI expression level. Together, these data suggest that DDR1 expression level influences tumor growth in part via modulation of TGFBI expression. The reciprocal expression of DDR1 and TGFBI may help to elucidate the contribution of DDR1 in tumorigenesis and TGFBI may also be used as a biomarker for the therapeutic development of DDR1 specific inhibitors.

Chen B, Chen X, Wu X, et al.
Disruption of microRNA-21 by TALEN leads to diminished cell transformation and increased expression of cell-environment interaction genes.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 356(2 Pt B):506-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-21 is dysregulated in many cancers and fibrotic diseases. Since miR-21 suppresses several tumor suppressor and anti-apoptotic genes, it is considered a cancer therapeutic target. Antisense oligonucleotides are commonly used to inhibit a miRNA; however, blocking miRNA function via an antagomir is temporary, often only achieves a partial knock-down, and may be complicated by off-target effects. Here, we used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to disrupt miR-21 in cancerous cells. Individual deletion clones were screened and isolated without drug selection. Sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR identified clones with no miR-21 expression. The loss of miR-21 led to subtle but global increases of mRNAs containing miR-21 target sequences. Cells without miR-21 became more sensitive to cisplatin and less transformed in culture and in mouse xenografts. In addition to the increase of PDCD4 and PTEN protein, mRNAs for COL4A1, JAG1, SERPINB5/Maspin, SMAD7, and TGFBI - all are miR-21 targets and involved in TGFβ and fibrosis regulation - were significantly upregulated in miR-21 knockout cells. Gene ontology and pathway analysis suggested that cell-environment interactions involving extracellular matrix can be an important miR-21 pathogenic mechanism. The study also demonstrates the value of using TALEN-mediated microRNA gene disruption in human pathobiological studies.

Borrego-Diaz E, Powers BC, Azizov V, et al.
A potential regulatory loop between Lin28B:miR‑212 in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(6):2421-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lin28 is a family of RNA binding proteins and microRNA regulators. Two members of this family have been identified: Lin28A and Lin28B, which are encoded by genes localized in different chromosomes but share a high degree of sequence identity. The role of Lin28B in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is not well understood. Lin28B is expressed in all grades of prostatic carcinomas and prostate cancer cell lines, but not in normal prostate tissue. In this study we found that Lin28B co-localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the DU145 AIPC. The expression of Lin28B protein positively correlated with the expression of the c-Myc protein in the prostate cancer cell lines and silencing of Lin28B also correlated with a lower expression of the c-Myc protein, but not with the downregulation of c-Myc messenger RNA (mRNA) in the DU145 AIPC cells. We hypothesized that Lin28B regul-ates the expression of c-Myc protein by altering intermediate c-Myc suppressors. Therefore, a microRNA profile of DU145 cells was performed after Lin28B siRNA silencing. Nineteen microRNAs were upregulated and eleven microRNAs were downregulated. The most upregulated microRNAs were miR-212 and miR-2278. Prior reports have found that miR-212 is suppressed in prostate cancer. We then ran TargetScan software to find potential target mRNAs of miR-212 and miR-2278, and it predicted Lin28B mRNA as a potential target of miR-212, but not miR-2278. TargetScan also predicted that c-Myc mRNA is not a potential target of miR-212 or miR-2278. These observations suggest that Lin28B:miR-212 may work as a regulatory loop in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Furthermore, we report a predictive 2-fold symmetric model generated by the superposition of the Lin28A structure onto the I-TASSER model of Lin28B. This structural model of Lin28B suggests that it shows unique microRNA binding characteristics. Thus, if Lin28B were to bind miRNAs in a manner similar to Lin28A, conformational changes would be necessary to prevent steric clashes in the C-terminal and linker regions between the CSD and ZNF domains.

Januchowski R, Zawierucha P, Ruciński M, Zabel M
Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in drug‑resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(5):1981-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) development leads to resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Microarray methods can provide information regarding new candidate genes that can play a role in resistance to cytostatic drugs. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence drug resistance by inhibiting the penetration of the drug into cancer tissue as well as increased apoptosis resistance. In the present study, we report changes in the ECM and related gene expression pattern in methotrexate-, cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, vincristine-, topotecan- and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the W1 ovarian cancer cell line. The resistant variants of the W1 cell line were generated by stepwise selection of cells with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Genome U219 Array Strips were used for hybridizations. Independent t-tests were used to determinate the statistical significance of results. Genes whose expression levels were higher than the assumed threshold (upregulated, >5-fold and downregulated, <5-fold) were visualized using the scatter plot method, selected and listed in the tables. Among the investigated genes, expression of 24 genes increased, expression of 14 genes decreased and expression of three genes increased or decreased depending on the cell line. Among the increased genes, expression of 10 increased very significantly, >20-fold. These genes were: ITGB1BP3, COL3A1, COL5A2, COL15A1, TGFBI, DCN, LUM, MATN2, POSTN and EGFL6. The expression of seven genes decreased very significantly: ITGA1, COL1A2, LAMA2, GPC3, KRT23, VIT and HMCN1. The expression pattern of ECM and related genes provided the preliminary view into the role of ECM components in cytostatic drug resistance of cancer cells. The exact role of the investigated genes in drug resistance requires further investigation.

Zhu M, Chen Q, Liu X, et al.
lncRNA H19/miR-675 axis represses prostate cancer metastasis by targeting TGFBI.
FEBS J. 2014; 281(16):3766-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide and there is a lack of effective treatment options for advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer. Currently, limited knowledge is available concerning the role of long non-coding RNAs in prostate cancer metastasis. In this study, we found that long non-coding RNA H19 (H19) and H19-derived microRNA-675 (miR-675) were significantly downregulated in the metastatic prostate cancer cell line M12 compared with the non-metastatic prostate epithelial cell line P69. Upregulation of H19 in P69 and PC3 cells significantly increased the level of miR-675 and repressed cell migration; however, ectopic expression of H19 in M12 cells could not increase the level of miR-675 and therefore had no effect on cell migration. Furthermore, we found that the expression level of either H19 or miR-675 in P69 cells was negatively associated with the expression of transforming growth factor β induced protein (TGFBI), an extracellular matrix protein involved in cancer metastasis. Dual luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-675 directly bound with 3'UTR of TGFBI mRNA to repress its translation. Taken together, we show for the first time that the H19-miR-675 axis acts as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasis, which may have possible diagnostic and therapeutic potential for advanced prostate cancer.

Januchowski R, Zawierucha P, Ruciński M, et al.
Extracellular matrix proteins expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:365867 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect drug resistance by preventing the penetration of the drug into cancer cells and increased resistance to apoptosis. This study demonstrates alterations in the expression levels of ECM components and related genes in cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, topotecan-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Genome Array Strips were used for hybridisations. The genes that had altered expression levels in drug-resistant sublines were selected and filtered by scatter plots. The genes that were up- or downregulated more than fivefold were selected and listed. Among the investigated genes, 28 genes were upregulated, 10 genes were downregulated, and two genes were down- or upregulated depending on the cell line. Between upregulated genes 12 were upregulated very significantly--over 20-fold. These genes included COL1A2, COL12A1, COL21A1, LOX, TGFBI, LAMB1, EFEMP1, GPC3, SDC2, MGP, MMP3, and TIMP3. Four genes were very significantly downregulated: COL11A1, LAMA2, GPC6, and LUM. The expression profiles of investigated genes provide a preliminary insight into the relationship between drug resistance and the expression of ECM components. Identifying correlations between investigated genes and drug resistance will require further analysis.

Fang H, Liu J, Guo D, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of putative tumor suppressor TGFBI in human leukemias.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2014; 127(9):1645-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Both in vitro and in vivo data have demonstrated the TGFBI gene functions as a putative tumor suppressor and is frequently downregulated in human tumors of different histological types. The hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter, as one of the main regulatory mechanisms, is associated with TGFBI silencing. In this study, we used a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) method to evaluate the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in human leukemias.
METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR approaches were performed to define the TGFBI expression and promoter methylation in human leukemia cell lines and clinical samples. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leukemia patients, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed by the MSP method.
RESULTS: Hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter occurred in leukemia cell lines and demethylation treatment reexpressed TGFBI at a substantially increased level in most of leukemia cell lines tested. Furthermore, a much higher level of CpG island methylation and a significantly lower TGFBI expression were also identified in clinical leukemia samples.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest an important role of promoter methylation in regulating TGFBI expression in leukemia, which provides a useful diagnostic marker for clinical management of human leukemias.

Jiang SS, Huang SF, Huang MS, et al.
Dysregulation of the TGFBI gene is involved in the oncogenic activity of the nonsense mutation of hepatitis B virus surface gene sW182*.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1842(7):1080-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nonsense mutations of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface (S) gene have been reported to have oncogenic potential. We have previously identified several transforming nonsense mutations of the HBV S gene from hepatocarcinoma (HCC) patients. Among them, the sW182* mutant (the stop codon for tryptophan 182) showed the most potent oncogenicity in a mouse xenograft model using stably transfected mouse fibroblast cells. This study is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to the oncogenic activity of the sW182* mutant. A gene expression microarray in combination with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed differentially expressed gene sets in the sW182* cells, including those related to cell-cycle regulation, deoxyribonucleic acid repair, and genome instability. Of the differentially expressed genes, the transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) gene was further validated to be dysregulated in the sW182* cells. This dysregulation was accompanied by hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter. The level of cyclin D1, a negatively regulated TGFBI target, was highly elevated in the sW182* mutant cells, which is consistent with the potent oncogenicity. Furthermore, frequent abnormal mitosis and multinucleation were observed in the mutant cells. Exogenous expression of TGFBI alleviated the oncogenic activity of the sW182* cells. In human HBV-related HCC cancerous tissue, expression of TGFBI was downregulated in 25 of the 55 (45%) patients examined, suggesting that TGFBI dysregulation could occur in HBV-related HCC development in some cases. These results suggest that dysregulation of TGFBI is involved in the oncogenic activity of the sW182* mutant of the hepatitis B virus S gene.

Lauden L, Siewiera J, Boukouaci W, et al.
TGF-β-induced (TGFBI) protein in melanoma: a signature of high metastatic potential.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(6):1675-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins can be key elements in tumor growth and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta-inducible (TGFBI) protein is a secreted ECM component that can have dual function in cancer, acting as tumor suppressor or promoter. Although TGFBI is expressed in human melanoma cells, the exact role it might have in melanoma metastasis remains elusive. Assessing the expression and secretion of TGFBI, we show that human metastatic melanomas express and secrete significantly higher amounts of TGFBI, compared with nevus lesions and primary melanoma tumors. Intravenous injection of highly metastatic human melanoma cells expressing shRNA that targets TGFBI assigns a critical role for TGFBI in the formation of melanoma distal metastases in nude mice. In vivo assays demonstrate that TGFBI silencing does not interfere with melanoma cells' dissemination to distal sites but rather with their proliferation and outgrowth within new microenvironment. In line, TGFBI silencing increases melanoma cells motility/invasion/extravasation in vitro but interferes with their progression through the cell cycle, drastically reducing their proliferation. Furthermore, we show that TGFBI is a regulator of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases in melanoma. Collectively, our data describe a mechanism of melanoma metastatic outgrowth via promotion of growth/survival by the ECM protein TGFBI.

Karlan BY, Dering J, Walsh C, et al.
POSTN/TGFBI-associated stromal signature predicts poor prognosis in serous epithelial ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 132(2):334-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular prognosticators and therapeutic targets for high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) using genetic analyses driven by biologic features of EOC pathogenesis.
METHODS: Ovarian tissue samples (n = 172; 122 serous EOCs, 30 other EOCs, 20 normal/benign) collected prospectively from sequential patients undergoing gynecologic surgery were analyzed using RNA expression microarrays. Samples were classified based on expression of genes with potential relevance in ovarian cancer. Gene sets were defined using Rosetta Similarity Search Tool (ROAST) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Gene copy number variations were identified by array comparative genomic hybridization.
RESULTS: No distinct subgroups of EOC could be identified by unsupervised clustering, however, analyses based on genes correlated with periostin (POSTN) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) yielded distinct subgroups. When 95 high-grade serous EOCs were grouped by genes based on ANOVA comparing ESR1/WT1 and POSTN/TGFBI samples, overall survival (OS) was significantly shorter for 43 patients with tumors expressing genes associated with POSTN/TGFBI compared to 52 patients with tumors expressing genes associated with ESR1/WT1 (median 30 versus 49 months, respectively; P = 0.022). Several targets with therapeutic potential were identified within each subgroup. BRCA germline mutations were more frequent in the ESR1/WT1 subgroup. Proliferation-associated genes and TP53 status (mutated or wild-type) did not correlate with survival. Findings were validated using independent ovarian cancer datasets.
CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct molecular subgroups of high-grade serous EOCs based on POSTN/TGFBI and ESR1/WT1 expressions were identified with significantly different OS. Specific differentially expressed genes between these subgroups provide potential prognostic and therapeutic targets.

Turtoi A, Blomme A, Debois D, et al.
Organized proteomic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer liver metastases and implications for therapies.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(3):924-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Tumor heterogeneity is a major obstacle for developing effective anticancer treatments. Recent studies have pointed to large stochastic genetic heterogeneity within cancer lesions, where no pattern seems to exist that would enable a more structured targeted therapy approach. Because to date no similar information is available at the protein (phenotype) level, we employed matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) image-guided proteomics and explored the heterogeneity of extracellular and membrane subproteome in a unique collection of eight fresh human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) liver metastases. Monitoring the spatial distribution of over 1,000 proteins, we found unexpectedly that all liver metastasis lesions displayed a reproducible, zonally delineated pattern of functional and therapeutic biomarker heterogeneity. The peritumoral region featured elevated lipid metabolism and protein synthesis, the rim of the metastasis displayed increased cellular growth, movement, and drug metabolism, whereas the center of the lesion was characterized by elevated carbohydrate metabolism and DNA-repair activity. From the aspect of therapeutic targeting, zonal expression of known and novel biomarkers was evident, reinforcing the need to select several targets in order to achieve optimal coverage of the lesion. Finally, we highlight two novel antigens, LTBP2 and TGFBI, whose expression is a consistent feature of CRC liver metastasis. We demonstrate their in vivo antibody-based targeting and highlight their potential usefulness for clinical applications.
CONCLUSION: The proteome heterogeneity of human CRC liver metastases has a distinct, organized pattern. This particular hallmark can now be used as part of the strategy for developing rational therapies based on multiple sets of targetable antigens.

Hodi FS, Corless CL, Giobbie-Hurder A, et al.
Imatinib for melanomas harboring mutationally activated or amplified KIT arising on mucosal, acral, and chronically sun-damaged skin.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(26):3182-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Amplifications and mutations in the KIT proto-oncogene in subsets of melanomas provide therapeutic opportunities.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter phase II trial of imatinib in metastatic mucosal, acral, or chronically sun-damaged (CSD) melanoma with KIT amplifications and/or mutations. Patients received imatinib 400 mg once per day or 400 mg twice per day if there was no initial response. Dose reductions were permitted for treatment-related toxicities. Additional oncogene mutation screening was performed by mass spectroscopy.
RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled (24 evaluable). Eight patients (33%) had tumors with KIT mutations, 11 (46%) with KIT amplifications, and five (21%) with both. Median follow-up was 10.6 months (range, 3.7 to 27.1 months). Best overall response rate (BORR) was 29% (21% excluding nonconfirmed responses) with a two-stage 95% CI of 13% to 51%. BORR was significantly greater than the hypothesized null of 5% and statistically significantly different by mutation status (7 of 13 or 54% KIT mutated v 0% KIT amplified only). There were no statistical differences in rates of progression or survival by mutation status or by melanoma site. The overall disease control rate was 50% but varied significantly by KIT mutation status (77% mutated v 18% amplified). Four patients harbored pretreatment NRAS mutations, and one patient acquired increased KIT amplification after treatment.
CONCLUSION: Melanomas that arise on mucosal, acral, or CSD skin should be assessed for KIT mutations. Imatinib can be effective when tumors harbor KIT mutations, but not if KIT is amplified only. NRAS mutations and KIT copy number gain may be mechanisms of therapeutic resistance to imatinib.

Lee MJ, Heo SC, Shin SH, et al.
Oncostatin M promotes mesenchymal stem cell-stimulated tumor growth through a paracrine mechanism involving periostin and TGFBI.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(8):1869-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncostatin M, a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, has been implicated in tumorigenesis of human prostate cancer. In the current study, we demonstrate that oncostatin M promotes human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell-stimulated tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft transplantation model of the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3M-luc-C6, a PC3M cell line expressing the luciferase gene. Conditioned medium derived from oncostatin M-treated mesenchymal stem cells stimulated adhesion of PC-3M-luc-C6 cells. We identified TGFBI and periostin, extracellular matrix proteins implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis, as oncostatin M-induced secreted proteins in mesenchymal stem cells. Treatment with oncostatin M stimulated secretion of periostin and TGFBI from mesenchymal stem cells in a time-dependent manner. Immunodepletion of TGFBI and periostin from conditioned medium derived from oncostatin M-treated mesenchymal stem cells resulted in abrogation of adhesion of PC-3M-luc-C6 cells stimulated by oncostatin M-conditioned medium. In addition, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of TGFBI and periostin resulted in abrogation of cell adhesion stimulated by oncostatin M-conditioned medium. These results suggest that mesenchymal stem cell-derived TGFBI and periostin play a key role in tumorigenesis by stimulating adhesion of prostate cancer cells.

Kaiser MF, Johnson DC, Wu P, et al.
Global methylation analysis identifies prognostically important epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in multiple myeloma.
Blood. 2013; 122(2):219-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Outcome in multiple myeloma is highly variable and a better understanding of the factors that influence disease biology is essential to understand and predict behavior in individual patients. In the present study, we analyzed combined genomewide DNA methylation and gene expression data of patients treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial. We used these data to identify epigenetically repressed tumor suppressor genes with prognostic relevance in myeloma. We identified 195 genes with changes in methylation status that were significantly associated with prognosis. Combining DNA methylation and gene expression data led to the identification of the epigenetically regulated tumor modulating genes GPX3, RBP1, SPARC, and TGFBI. Hypermethylation of these genes was associated with significantly shorter overall survival, independent of age, International Staging System score, and adverse cytogenetics. The 4 differentially methylated and expressed genes are known to mediate important tumor suppressive functions including response to chemotherapy (TGFBI), interaction with the microenvironment (SPARC), retinoic acid signaling (RBP1), and the response to oxidative stress (GPX3), which could explain the prognostic impact of their differential methylation. Assessment of the DNA methylation status of the identified genes could contribute to the molecular characterization of myeloma, which is prerequisite for an individualized treatment approach.

Zhu J, Nie S, Wu J, Lubman DM
Target proteomic profiling of frozen pancreatic CD24+ adenocarcinoma tissues by immuno-laser capture microdissection and nano-LC-MS/MS.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(6):2791-804 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular heterogeneity of solid tumors represents a common problem in mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis of tissue specimens. Combining immuno-laser capture microdissection (iLCM) and mass spectrometry (MS) provides a means to study proteins that are specific for pure cell subpopulations in complex tissues. CD24, as a cell surface marker for detecting pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs), is directly correlated with the development and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Herein, we describe an in-depth proteomic profiling of frozen pancreatic CD24(+) adenocarcinoma cells from early stage tumors using iLCM and LC-MS/MS and a comparison with CD24(-) cells dissected from patient-matched adjacent normal tissues. Approximately 40 nL of tissue was procured from each specimen and subjected to tandem MS analysis in triplicate. A total of 2665 proteins were identified, with 375 proteins in common that were significantly differentially expressed in CD24(+) versus CD24(-) cells by at least a 2-fold change. The major groups of the differentially overexpressed proteins are involved in promoting tumor cell migration and invasion, immune escape, and tumor progression. Three selected candidates relevant to mediating immune escape, CD59, CD70, and CD74, and a tumor promoter, TGFBI, were further validated by immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarrays. These proteins showed significantly increased expression in a large group of clinical pancreatic adenocarcinomas but were negative in all normal pancreas samples. The significant coexpression of these proteins with CD24 suggests that they may play important roles in the progression of pancreatic cancer and could serve as promising prognosis markers and novel therapeutic targets for this deadly disease.

Han T, Shang D, Xu X, Tian Y
Gene expression profiling of the synergy of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and paclitaxel against renal cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol. 2012; 10:183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common kidney cancers and is highly resistant to chemotherapy. We previously demonstrated that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) could significantly increase the susceptibility of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to paclitaxel (PTX) treatment in vitro, and showed the synergy of DAC and PTX against RCC. The purpose of this study is to investigated the gene transcriptional alteration and investigate possible molecular mechanism and pathways implicated in the synergy of DAC and PTX against RCC.
METHODS: cDNA microarray was performed and coupled with real-time PCR to identify critical genes in the synergistic mechanism of both agents against RCC cells. Various patterns of gene expression were observed by cluster analysis. IPA software was used to analyze possible biological pathways and to explore the inter-relationships between interesting network genes.
RESULTS: We found that lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1), transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI), C-X-C motif ligand 5 (CXCL5) and myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene (c-myc) may play a pivotal role in the synergy of DAC and PTX. The PI3K/Akt pathway and other pathways associated with cyclins, DNA replication and cell cycle/mitotic regulation were also associated with the synergy of DAC and PTX against RCC.
CONCLUSION: The activation of PI3K/Akt-LEF1/β-catenin pathway could be suppressed synergistically by two agents and that PI3K/Akt-LEF1/β-catenin pathway is participated in the synergy of two agents.

Ween MP, Oehler MK, Ricciardelli C
Transforming growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein (TGFBI)/(βig-H3): a matrix protein with dual functions in ovarian cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(8):10461-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBI, also known as βig-H3 and keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions including diabetes, corneal dystrophy and tumorigenesis. Many reports indicate that βig-H3 functions as a tumor suppressor. Loss of βig-H3 expression has been described in several cancers including ovarian cancer and promoter hypermethylation has been identified as an important mechanism for the silencing of the TGFBI gene. Our recent findings that βig-H3 is down-regulated in ovarian cancer and that high concentrations of βig-H3 can induce ovarian cancer cell death support a tumor suppressor role. However, there is also convincing data in the literature reporting a tumor-promoting role for βig-H3. We have shown βig-H3 to be abundantly expressed by peritoneal cells and increase the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells by promoting cell motility, invasion, and adhesion to peritoneal cells. Our findings suggest that βig-H3 has dual functions and can act both as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor microenvironment. This article reviews the current understanding of βig-H3 function in cancer cells with particular focus on ovarian cancer.

Yazdan P, Haghighat Z, Guitart J, Gerami P
Epithelioid and fusiform blue nevus of chronically sun-damaged skin, an entity distinct from the epithelioid blue nevus of the Carney complex.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2013; 37(1):81-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) was first described in patients with Carney complex (CNC) and subsequently shown to also occur sporadically. Over 50% of patients with CNC harbor mutations in the gene PRKAR1A, which codes for protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1α (R1α) involved in the signaling pathway regulating melanogenesis and melanocytic proliferation. Immunohistochemical expression of R1α has been shown to be absent in the majority of pigmented epithelioid melanocytomas and all CNC-associated EBNs but present in melanomas and other melanocytic nevi. We have observed several examples of EBN occurring in chronically sun-damaged (CSD) skin with a predominance of epithelioid morphology but also containing a component of fusiform and conventional blue nevus cells, which we have termed epithelioid and fusiform blue nevus of CSD skin. Several of these cases demonstrated notable pleomorphism and nuclear atypia with rare mitotic activity raising concern for the possibility of melanoma; however, the clinical outcomes, detailed histologic review, and molecular results were most consistent with a benign melanocytic neoplasm. We report our clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization experience with this distinct entity of epithelioid and fusiform blue nevus and demonstrate that it is a unique subtype of blue nevus occurring on CSD skin with a higher frequency of an associated conventional blue nevus component compared with EBN and without association with CNC or loss of R1α expression typically found in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma and CNC-associated EBN. We also postulate that the epithelioid pattern may represent a subclone of the conventional blue nevus component induced by chronic UV damage.

Li B, Wen G, Zhao Y, et al.
The role of TGFBI in mesothelioma and breast cancer: association with tumor suppression.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:239 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor β induced (TGFBI) product, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, has been implicated as a putative tumor suppressor in recent studies. Our previous findings revealed that expression of TGFBI gene is down-regulated in a variety of cancer cell lines and clinical tissue samples. In this study, ectopic expression of TGFBI was used to ascertain its role as a tumor suppressor and to determine the underlying mechanism of mesothelioma and breast cancer.
METHODS: Cells were stably transfected with pRc/CMV2-TGFBI and pRc/CMV2-empty vector with Lipofectamine Plus. Ectopic expression of TGFBI was quantified by using quantitative PCR and Western-blotting. Characterization of cell viability was assessed using growth curve, clonogenic survival and soft agar growth. The potential of tumor formation was evaluated by an in vivo mouse model. Cell cycle was analyzed via flow cytometry. Expressions of p21, p53, p16 and p14 were examined using Western-blotting. Senescent cells were sorted by using a Senescence β-Galactosidase Staining Kit. Telomerase activity was measured using quantitative telomerase detection kit.
RESULTS: In this study, an ectopic expression of TGFBI in two types of cancer cell lines, a mesothelioma cell line NCI-H28 and a breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to have reduced the cellular growth, plating efficiency, and anchorage-independent growth. The tumorigenicity of these cancer cell lines as determined by subcutaneous inoculation in nude mice was similarly suppressed by TGFBI expression. Likewise, TGFBI expression reduced the proportion of S-phase while increased the proportion of G1 phase in these cells. The redistribution of cell cycle phase after re-expression of TGFBI was correspondent with transiently elevated expression of p21 and p53. The activities of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and telomerase were enhanced in TGFBI-transfected cells.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results imply that TGFBI plays a suppressive role in the development of mesothelioma and breast cancer cells, possibly through inhibitions of cell proliferation, delaying of G1-S phase transition, and induction of senescence.

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