Research IndicatorsGraph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: TGFBR1 (cancer-related)
Liang S, Hu J, Xie Y, et al.A polyethylenimine-modified carboxyl-poly(styrene/acrylamide) copolymer nanosphere for co-delivering of CpG and TGF-β receptor I inhibitor with remarkable additive tumor regression effect against liver cancer in mice.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:6753-6762 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer immunotherapy based on nanodelivery systems has shown potential for treatment of various malignancies, owing to the benefits of tumor targeting of nanoparticles. However, induction of a potent T-cell immune response against tumors still remains a challenge. In this study, polyethylenimine-modified carboxyl-styrene/acrylamide (PS) copolymer nano-spheres were developed as a delivery system of unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) receptor I inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy. TGF-β receptor I inhibitors (LY2157299, LY) were encapsulated to the PS via hydrophobic interaction, while CpG oligodeoxynucleotides were loaded onto the PS through electrostatic interaction. Compared to the control group, tumor inhibition in the PS-LY/CpG group was up to 99.7% without noticeable toxicity. The tumor regression may be attributed to T-cell activation and amplification in mouse models. The results highlight the additive effect of CpG and TGF-β receptor I inhibitors co-delivered in cancer immunotherapy.
Li J, Yu Q, Fu S, et al.A novel genetic score model of UGT1A1 and TGFB pathway as predictor of severe irinotecan-related diarrhea in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(7):1621-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: UGT1A1*28/*6 as predictors of severe irinotecan-related diarrhea (SIRD) were duplicated by many studies. However, some patients of lower risk genotype (UGT1A1*1/*1) still suffered SIRD and the extremely low frequency of UGT1A1*6/*6 limited its clinical usage. Previous studies proved that the transforming growth factor (TGFB) family may have some effect on MTX-induced mucositis. However, the associations between TGFB gene variants and SIRD have never been reported so far. Our aim was to improve the predictive value of UGT1A1 gene variants on SIRD.
METHODS: Six SNPs (TGFB1 rs1800469; TGFBR1 rs10733710, rs334354 and rs6478974; TGFBR2 rs3087465; UGT1A1*6) and UGT1A1*28 were selected for genotyping in 160 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with irinotecan in a prospective multicenter trial (NCT01282658).
RESULTS: UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28, rs1800469 and rs3087465 were all associated with SIRD (p = 0.026, 0.014, 0.047 and 0.045 respectively). A novel genetic score model (with a cut off value of 1.5) based on them was created to predict SIRD (OR = 11.718; 95 % CI 2.489-55.157, p = 0.002). In patients of gene score > 1.5, the risk of SIRD was much higher (23.5 vs. 2.8 %, p = 2.24E-04) and continued in the first 6 cycles of chemotherapy, while in patients with gene score ≤1.5, the risk was much lower and none of them suffered SIRD after the first cycle of chemotherapy (p = 0.0003).
CONCLUSIONS: The novel genetic score model improved the predictive value of UGT1A1 on SIRD. If validated, it will provide valuable information for clinical use of irinotecan.
Mutational processes and signatures that drive early tumorigenesis are centrally important for early cancer prevention. Yet, to date, biomarkers and risk factors for polyps (adenomas) that inordinately and rapidly develop into colon cancer remain poorly defined. Here, we describe surprisingly high mutational profiles through whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis in 2 of 4 pairs of benign colorectal adenoma tissue samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustered transcriptomic analysis of a further 7 pairs of adenomas reveals distinct mutational signatures regardless of adenoma size. Transitional single nucleotide substitutions of C:G>T:A predominate in the adenoma mutational spectrum. Strikingly, we observe mutations in the TGF-β pathway and CEA-associated genes in 4 out of 11 adenomas, overlapping with the Wnt pathway. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals a nearly 5-fold increase in CEA levels in 23% of adenoma samples with a concomitant loss of TGF-β signaling. We also define a functional role by which the CEA B3 domain interacts with TGFBR1, potentially inactivating the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β signaling. Our study uncovers diverse mutational processes underlying the transition from early adenoma to cancer. This has broad implications for biomarker-driven targeting of CEA/TGF-β in high-risk adenomas and may lead to early detection of aggressive adenoma to CRC progression.
Tepper SR, Zuo Z, Khattri A, et al.Growth factor expression mediates resistance to EGFR inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Oral Oncol. 2016; 56:62-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy is frequently used in the treatment of advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, constitutive or acquired resistance is common and underlying resistance mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the expression levels of growth factors (GF) in tumor-associated stroma and tumor from HNSCC patients and determined the influence of GFs on EGFR inhibitor efficacy in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Chicago HNC Genomic Cohort (CHGC) was queried for GF and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression. Viability assays were used to evaluate the effect of EGFR inhibition (gefitinib), GF treatment, or both in HNSCC cell lines. Caspase-based assays were used to measure apoptotic activity. Expression of RTKs was determined and correlated with GF treatment effects.
RESULTS: Amphiregulin (AREG), transforming growth factor (TGFβ1), insulin like growth factor (IGF1), fibroblast growth factors (FGF1/FGF2) and the corresponding RTKs were highly expressed in 30-50% of HNSCC, and expression was usually concurrent. While EGFR inhibition was markedly efficacious in HNC cell lines (HN5/HN13/H400/SCC61), co-treatment with most GFs increased viability up to 100%. Only TGFβ1 treatment was additive to EGFR inhibition. GFs also reduced apoptotic effects of EGFR inhibition. RTK expression showed strong positive correlation with respective GF treatment effect for IGF1-IGF1R, less strong for HGF-MET/AREG-EGFR and a moderate negative correlation for TGFβ1-TGFBR1/2.
CONCLUSION: High expression of GFs/RTKs occurs in HNSCC. Co-expression is common. GF expression contributes to EGFR inhibition resistance in our model system, and may be a common mechanism of constitutive or acquired resistance to EGFR inhibition in HNSCC.
Zhou J, Jain S, Azad AK, et al.Notch and TGFβ form a positive regulatory loop and regulate EMT in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
Cell Signal. 2016; 28(8):838-49 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the mechanisms that regulate EMT in EOC are not fully understood. Here, we report that activation of Notch1 induces EMT in EOC cells as evidenced by downregulation of E-cadherin and cytokeratins, upregulation of Slug and Snail, as well as morphological changes. Interestingly, activation of Notch1 increases TGFβ/Smad signaling by upregulating the expression of TGFβ and TGFβ type 1 receptor. Time course experiments demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) decreases TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads at late, but not at early, timepoints. These results suggest that Notch activation plays a role in sustaining TGFβ/Smad signaling in EOC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch by DAPT decreases TGFβ induction of Slug and repression of E-cadherin and knockdown of Notch1 decreases TGFβ-induced repression of E-cadherin, indicating that Notch is required, at least in part, for TGFβ-induced EMT in EOC cells. On the other hand, TGFβ treatment increases the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 and Notch target gene HES1 in EOC cells. Functionally, the combination of Notch1 activation and TGFβ treatment is more potent in promoting motility and migration of EOC cells than either stimulation alone. Taken together, our results indicate that Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop and cooperatively regulate EMT and promote EOC cell motility and migration.
The present study identified differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) between pancreatic cancer (PC) tissues and normal tissues, and assessed genetic factors associated with the pathogenesis of PC. The mRNA expression microarray dataset, GSE16515, containing 52 samples, including 16 paired tumor and normal tissue samples, and 20 tumor samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Raw data were normalized and DEGs were identified. Subsequently, clustering was performed, protein‑protein interaction networks were drawn, and functional and pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs were performed. Copy number variations of DEGs were also identified. A total of 1,765 DEGs between PC and normal tissues were identified, including 1,312 upregulated and 453 downregulated DEGs. Upregulated DEGs were associated with the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic and intracellular transport, whereas downregulated DEGs were associated with the response to organic substances and hormone stimulus. The pancreatic cancer pathway was connected to three DEGs, namely transforming growth factor β1 (TGFB1), TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), which had 2, 3 and 5 CNVs, respectively. These results indicated the important roles of TGFB1, TGFBR1 and EGF in the pathogenesis of PC. These genes may be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PC.
Downregulation of a predominantly hepatocyte-specific miR-122 is associated with human liver cancer metastasis, whereas miR-122-deficient mice display normal liver function. Here we show a functional conservation of miR-122 in the TGFβ pathway: miR-122 target site is present in the mouse but not human TGFβR1, whereas a noncanonical target site is present in the TGFβ1 5'UTR in humans and other primates. Experimental switch of the miR-122 target between the receptor TGFβR1 and the ligand TGFβ1 changes the metastatic properties of mouse and human liver cancer cells. High expression of TGFβ1 in human primary liver tumours is associated with poor survival. We identify over 50 other miRNAs orthogonally targeting ligand/receptor pairs in humans and mice, suggesting that these are evolutionarily common events. These results reveal an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA-mediated gene regulation underlying species-specific physiological or pathological phenotype and provide a potentially valuable strategy for treating liver-associated diseases.
BACKGROUND: Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), a light chain subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I complex, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, whether it is expressed in different epithelial-type ovarian tumours remains unknown. This study was performed to examine the expression of B2M in different histopathological types of ovarian tumours, to explore the function of B2M in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway.
METHODS: B2M expression in normal ovarian tissues and epithelia-type ovarian tumours was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, followed by the analysis of association with clinical features. OC cells were transfected with B2M-siRNA and cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by WST-1 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway in OC cells was examined by Western blot, ELISA and qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: We found that B2M was overexpressed in ovarian borderline and malignant tumours compared with benign tumours and normal controls, but was not associated with age, tumour size, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage. Knocking down of B2M led to a decrease in OC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The expression of B2M was downregulated by TGF-β1 in OC cells, which was abolished in the presence of the inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that B2M is a potential tissue biomarker and therapeutic target of borderline and malignant ovarian tumours and the dysregulation of B2M in these tumours may be mediated by the TGF-β signaling pathway.
Weinmann HCancer Immunotherapy: Selected Targets and Small-Molecule Modulators.
ChemMedChem. 2016; 11(5):450-66 [PubMed
] Related Publications
There is a significant amount of excitement in the scientific community around cancer immunotherapy, as this approach has renewed hope for many cancer patients owing to some recent successes in the clinic. Currently available immuno-oncology therapeutics under clinical development and on the market are mostly biologics (antibodies, proteins, engineered cells, and oncolytic viruses). However, modulation of the immune system with small molecules offers several advantages that may be complementary and potentially synergistic to the use of large biologicals. Therefore, the discovery and development of novel small-molecule modulators is a rapidly growing research area for medicinal chemists working in cancer immunotherapy. This review provides a brief introduction into recent trends related to selected targets and pathways for cancer immunotherapy and their small-molecule pharmacological modulators.
Lim B, Kim C, Kim JH, et al.Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):8055-66 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics.
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) present in tumor microenvironment acts in a coordinated fashion to either suppress or promote tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of TGF-β1 on tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Our clinical data showed a positive association between TGF-β1 expression and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients. Thus we employed starved NIH3T3 fibroblasts in vitro and 4T1 cells mixed with NIH3T3 fibroblasts xenograft model in vivo to simulate nutritional deprivation of tumor microenvironment to explore the effects of TGF-β1. We demonstrated that TGF-β1 protected NIH3T3 fibroblasts from Star-induced growth inhibition, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. Interestingly, TGF-β1 induced the formation of CAFs phenotype in starvation (Star)-treated NIH3T3 fibroblasts and xenografted Balb/c mice, which promoted breast cancer tumor growth. In both models, autophagy agonist rapamycin increased TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotypes, while autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, Atg5 knockdown or TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor LY-2157299 blocked TGF-β1 induced these effects. Taken together, our results indicated that TGF-β/Smad autophagy was involved in TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotype in tumor microenvironment, which may be used as therapy targets in breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignances worldwide. Metastasis is responsible for the rapid recurrence and poor prognosis of CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of CRC metastasis remains largely unclear. In this study we purposed to investigate the expression and biological functions of miR-490-3p in CRC metastasis, as well as to identify its downstream target genes and influenced pathway.
METHODS: The expression level of miR-490-3p in CRC cell lines, CRC adjacent normal tissues, non-metastasis and metastasis tissues were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Patient survivals were follow-up up to 7 years. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function study on cell migration and invasion abilities were carried out by transfection of miR-490-3p mimics or inhibitors respectively. The molecular targets of miR-490-3p were computationally identified and experimentally verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blot. Functional rescue was also conducted to confirm miR-490-3p inhibits CRC metastasis by targeting TGF-β signaling pathway.
RESULTS: miR-490-3p expression was persistently downregulated during CRC malignant progression, as well as in CRC cell lines. Artificially overexpression miR-490-3p in CRC cell lines inhibited cell migration and invasion abilities while knockdown miR-490-3p expression caused the reverse effects. TGFβR1 and MMP2/9 were the downstream targets of miR-490-3p in CRC. Inhibition of TGFβR1 could partially recover the tumor suppression effect of miR-490-3p.
CONCLUSION: miR-490-3p is downregulated during CRC malignant progression. miR-490-3p represses CRC cell migration and invasion abilities, partially by targeting to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Taken together, miR-490-3p is acting as a tumor suppressor in CRC.
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling is involved in both tumour suppression and tumour progression. The mRNA expression levels of the TGFβ isoforms and receptors in breast tumours may have prognostic value and clinical implications.
METHODS: The mRNA levels of TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 were analysed in primary breast tumours and adjacent normal breast tissues, and the associations with tumour characteristics and patients' overall and relapse-free survival were evaluated, using the public gene expression microarray data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 520) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (four datasets) and our quantitative real-time PCR validation data (n = 71).
RESULTS: Significantly higher TGFB1 and TGFB3 mRNA levels and lower TGFBR2 mRNA levels were observed in primary tumours compared with their paired normal tissues. TGFB1 mRNA expression was seemly lower in triple-negative tumours and in tumours from lymph node-negative patients. TGFB3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative/Basal-like/Grade 3 tumours. High TGFB2, TGFB3 and TGFBR2 mRNA levels in tumours were generally associated with better prognosis for patients, especially those diagnosed with lymph node-negative diseases. High TGFBR1 mRNA levels in tumours were associated with poorer clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with small (diameter ≤ 2 cm) tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a reduced responsiveness of tumour cells to TGFβ, a preferential up-regulation of TGFB1 in malignant tumours and a preferential up-regulation of TGFB3 in premalignant tumours. The results may not only provide prognostic value for patients but also assist in classifying tumours according to their potential responses to TGFβ and selecting patients for TGFβ signalling pathway targeted therapies.
He X, Liu Z, Peng Y, Yu CMicroRNA-181c inhibits glioblastoma cell invasion, migration and mesenchymal transition by targeting TGF-β pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 469(4):1041-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. In this study, we found that miR-181c was down-regulated both in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. We also annotated 566 TCGA miRNA expression profiles and found that patients with high microRNA-181c (miR-181c)-expressing tumors had significantly longer OS and PFS. Overexpression of miR-181c evidently inhibited glioblastoma cell line T98G migration and invasion. Further, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly upregulated and that of N-cadherin and vimentin was significantly down-regulated. We also found that miR-181c overexpression inhibited TGF-β signaling by down-regulating TGFBR1, TGFBR2 and TGFBRAP1 expression. Overall, our study found that miR-181c plays a key role in glioblastoma cell invasion, migration and mesenchymal transition suggesting potential therapeutic applications.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important post-transcriptional regulators involved in various biological and pathological processes of cells, but their underlying mechanisms in chemosensitivity and metastasis have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify miR-181b and its mechanism in the chemosensitivity and metastasis of NSCLC. We found that miR-181b expression levels were lower in A549/DDP cells compared with A549 cells. Functional assays showed that the overexpression of miR-181b inhibited proliferation, enhanced chemosensitivity to DDP, attenuated migration and metastatic ability in NSCLC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. TGFβR1 was subsequently identified as a novel functional target of miR-181b. TGFβR1 knockdown revealed similar effects as that of ectopic miR-181b expression, whereas overexpression of TGFβR1 rescued the function of miR-181b-mediated growth, chemosensitivity and metastasis in NSCLC cells. In addition, miR-181b could inactivate the TGFβR1/Smad signaling pathway. We also observed that decreased miR-181b expression and increased TGFβR1 expression were significantly associated with chemosensitivity to DDP and tumor metastasis in NSCLC patients. Consequently, miR-181b functions as a tumor suppressor and has an important role in proliferation, chemosensitivity to DDP and metastasis of NSCLC by targeting TGFβR1/Smad signaling pathway.
Ou C, Li H, Liu JH, et al.Meta-analysis of transforming growth factor β receptor I 6A/9A gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk: the picture remains murky.
Biomarkers. 2015; 20(6-7):487-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer is currently the second most common cancer worldwide and the most frequent malignant tumor among women. However, the exact contribution of various allelic alterations remains unclear. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of the transforming growth factor β receptor I 6A/9A (TβR-I 6A/9A) gene polymorphism with breast cancer risk. Relevant studies were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library on 1 October 2013, and eligible reports were recruited and synthesized. Eleven reports that included a total of 12 studies were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of the TβR-I 6A/9A gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk. The results indicated that overall the TβR-I 6A allele was associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.73, p = 0.04). However, the TβR-I 6A/6A and 9A/9A genotypes were not associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer (6A/6A: OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 0.95-3.08, p = 0.07; 9A/9A: OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66-1.02, p = 0.08). In the Caucasian population, no such association could be established. In conclusion, the TβR-I 6A allele might represent a risk factor for breast cancer risk, but significantly larger data sets from a larger number of studies, including studies that allow ethnicity, subgroup analysis and environmental impact evaluation, are required to maximize statistical significance and meta-analysis robustness.
Bartscht T, Rosien B, Rades D, et al.Dasatinib blocks transcriptional and promigratory responses to transforming growth factor-beta in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of Smad signalling: implications for in vivo mode of action.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:199 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells that the SRC inhibitors PP2 and PP1 effectively inhibited TGF-β1-mediated cellular responses by blocking the kinase function of the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 rather than SRC. Here, we investigated the ability of the clinically utilised SRC/ABL inhibitor dasatinib to mimic the PP2/PP1 effect.
METHODS: The effect of dasatinib on TGF-β1-dependent Smad2/3 phosphorylation, general transcriptional activity, gene expression, cell motility, and the generation of tumour stem cells was measured in Panc-1 and Colo-357 cells using immunoblotting, reporter gene assays, RT-PCR, impedance-based real-time measurement of cell migration, and colony formation assays, respectively.
RESULTS: In both PDAC cell lines, dasatinib effectively blocked TGF-β1-induced Smad phosphorylation, activity of 3TPlux and pCAGA(12)-luc reporter genes, cell migration, and expression of individual TGF-β1 target genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion. Moreover, dasatinib strongly interfered with the TGF-β1-induced generation of tumour stem cells as demonstrated by gene expression analysis and single cell colony formation. Dasatinib also inhibited the high constitutive migratory activity conferred on Panc-1 cells by ectopic expression of kinase-active ALK5.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the clinical efficiency of dasatinib may in part be due to cross-inhibition of tumour-promoting TGF-β signalling. Dasatinib may be useful as a dual TGF-β/SRC inhibitor in experimental and clinical therapeutics to prevent metastatic spread in late-stage PDAC and other tumours.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are hypovascular, but overexpress pro-angiogenic factors and exhibit regions of microvasculature. Using RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we previously reported that ~12% of PDACs have an angiogenesis gene signature with increased expression of multiple pro-angiogenic genes. By analyzing the recently expanded TCGA dataset, we now report that this signature is present in ~35% of PDACs but that it is mostly distinct from an angiogenesis signature present in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These PDACs exhibit a transcriptome that reflects active TGF-β signaling, and up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory genes, and many members of JAK signaling pathways. Moreover, expression of SMAD4 and HDAC9 correlates with endothelial cell abundance in PDAC tissues. Concomitantly targeting the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) kinase with SB505124 and JAK1-2 with ruxolitinib suppresses JAK1 phosphorylation and blocks proliferative cross-talk between human pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and human endothelial cells (ECs), and these anti-proliferative effects were mimicked by JAK1 silencing in ECs. By contrast, either inhibitor alone does not suppress their enhanced proliferation in 3D co-cultures. These findings suggest that targeting both TGF-β and JAK1 signaling could be explored therapeutically in the 35% of PDAC patients whose cancers exhibit an angiogenesis gene signature.
The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is produced by several types of cancers, including prostate cancer, and promote tumour progression in autocrine and paracrine manners. In response to ligand binding, the TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) activates Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways. The ubiquitin-ligase tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was recently linked to regulate intramembrane proteolytic cleavage of the TβRI in cancer cells. Subsequently, the intracellular domain (ICD) of TβRI enters in an unknown manner into the nucleus, where it promotes the transcription of pro-invasive genes, such as MMP2 and MMP9. Here we show that the endocytic adaptor molecules APPL1 and APPL2 are required for TGFβ-induced nuclear translocation of TβRI-ICD and for cancer cell invasiveness of human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, APPL proteins were found to be expressed at high levels in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, and to be associated with TβRI in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the APPL-TβRI complex promotes prostate tumour progression, and may serve as a prognostic marker.
Yu GT, Bu LL, Huang CF, et al.PD-1 blockade attenuates immunosuppressive myeloid cells due to inhibition of CD47/SIRPα axis in HPV negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):42067-80 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play key roles in the tumor immune suppressive network and tumor progression. However, precise roles of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in immunological functions of MDSCs and TAMs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we show that PD-1 and PD-L1 levels were significantly higher in human HNSCC specimen than in normal oral mucosa. MDSCs and TAMs were characterized in mice and human HNSCC specimen, correlated well with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. αPD-1 treatment was well tolerated and significantly reduced tumor growth in the HNSCC mouse model along with significant reduction in MDSCs and TAMs in immune organs and tumors. Molecular analysis suggests a reduction in the CD47/SIRPα pathway by PD-1 blockade, which regulates MDSCs, TAMs, dendritic cell as well as effector T cells. Hence, these data identify that PD-1/PD-L1 axis is significantly increased in human and mouse HNSCC. Adoptive αPD-1 immunotherapy may provide a novel therapeutic approach to modulate the micro- and macro-environment in HNSCC.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role in progression and metastasis of HCC. This study was undertaken to gain the proof of concept of a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor kinase, EW-7197 as a potent anti-cancer therapy for HCC. We identified tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as one of the secreted proteins of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and a key mediator of TGF-β-mediated crosstalk between HSCs and HCC cells. TGF-β signaling led to increased expression of TIMP-1, which activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling via its interaction with CD63. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling using EW-7197 significantly attenuated the progression and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC in an SK-HEP1-Luc orthotopic-xenograft mouse model. In addition, EW-7197 inhibited TGF-β-stimulated TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs as well as the TIMP-1-induced proliferation, motility, and survival of HCC cells. Further, EW-7197 interrupted TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and Akt signaling, leading to significant reductions in the motility and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. In conclusion, we found that TIMP-1 mediates TGF-β-regulated crosstalk between HSCs and HCC cells via FAK signaling. In addition, EW-7197 demonstrates potent in vivo anti-cancer therapeutic activity and may be a potential new anti-cancer drug of choice to treat patients with liver cancer.
Fujiwara Y, Nokihara H, Yamada Y, et al.Phase 1 study of galunisertib, a TGF-beta receptor I kinase inhibitor, in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 76(6):1143-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta receptor I (TGF-beta RI)-mediated signaling pathways blocks tumor growth and metastases in nonclinical studies. Galunisertib (LY2157299), a small molecule inhibitor of TGF-beta RI serine/threonine kinase, had antitumor effects with acceptable safety/tolerability in a first-in-human dose (FHD) study conducted mainly in Caucasian patients with glioma. In this nonrandomized, open-label, dose-escalation study, we assessed safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and tumor response in Japanese patients.
METHODS: Patients with advanced and/or metastatic disease refractory were assigned sequentially to Cohort-1 (80 mg) or Cohort-2 (150 mg) of galunisertib, administered twice daily and treated using 2-week on, 2-week off treatment cycles. Dose escalation was guided by predefined PK criteria and dose-limiting toxicities (DLT). Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and cardiac safety (ultrasound cardiography/Doppler imaging, electrocardiogram, chest computed tomography, and cardiotoxicity serum biomarkers).
RESULTS: Twelve patients (Cohort-1, n = 3; Cohort-2, n = 9) were enrolled and the most common types of cancer were pancreatic (n = 5) and lung cancer (n = 3). Seven patients (Cohort-1, n = 2; Cohort-2, n = 5) experienced possibly galunisertib-related TEAEs. The most frequent related TEAEs were brain natriuretic peptide increased (n = 2), leukopenia (n = 2), and rash (n = 2). No cardiovascular toxicities or other DLTs were reported. PK profile of galunisertib was consistent with the FHD study. Maximum plasma concentration was reached within 2 h post-dose, and the mean elimination half-life was 9 h.
CONCLUSIONS: Galunisertib had an acceptable tolerability and safety profile in Japanese patients with advanced cancers. CLINICATRIALS.GOV.
Gleich T, Chiticariu E, Huber M, Hohl DKeratoacanthoma: a distinct entity?
Exp Dermatol. 2016; 25(2):85-91 [PubMed
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Keratoacanthoma (KA) are common but exceptional benign tumors, often appearing on sun-exposed areas of light skinned people and showing spontaneous resolution. The goal of this study was to review existing literature, to point out the etiological complexity of KA biology and to answer the controversial debate if or not KA is a distinct entity or a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Relying on recent results, we highlight that KA is an individual lesion with a unique molecular signature caused by alterations in the TGFβ signalling pathway. These recent findings will help to understand the nature of KA and to develop new reliable diagnostic tools, simplifying the discrimination of the histologically similar KA and SCC.
Distant relapse after chemotherapy is an important clinical issue for treating breast cancer patients and results from the development of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) during chemotherapy. Here we report that blocking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) suppresses paclitaxel-induced CSCs properties by using a MDA-MB-231-xenografted mice model (in vivo), and breast cancer cell lines (in vitro). Paclitaxel, one of the cytotoxic taxane-drugs such as docetaxel, increases mesenchymal markers (Vimentin and Fibronectin) and decreases an epithelial marker (Zo-1). Blocking TGF-β signaling with the TGF-β type I receptor kinase (ALK5) inhibitor, EW-7197, suppresses paclitaxel-induced EMT and CSC properties such as mammosphere-forming efficiency (MSFE), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, CD44+/CD24- ratio, and pluripotency regulators (Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, Myc, and Sox2). The combinatorial treatment of EW-7197 improves the therapeutic effect of paclitaxel by decreasing the lung metastasis and increasing the survival time in vivo. We confirmed that Snail is increased by paclitaxel-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and EW-7197 suppresses the paclitaxel-induced Snail and EMT by attenuating paclitaxel-induced intracellular ROS. Knock-down of SNAI1 suppresses paclitaxel-induced EMT and CSC properties. These data together suggest that blocking the Snail-induced EMT with the ALK5 inhibitor attenuates metastasis after paclitaxel-therapy and that this combinatorial approach could prove useful in treating breast cancer.
Nakashiro K, Tanaka H, Goda H, et al.Identification of Akt1 as a potent therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(4):1273-81 [PubMed
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Oncogene addiction can provide therapeutic opportunities in human malignancies. In this study, we aimed to identify critical oncogenes for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development and progression. We determined gene expression profiles in 10 primary OSCCs and 10 human OSCC cell lines using Applied Biosystems Human Genome Survey Arrays. Akt1 was the only gene identified that was expressed in all OSCC tissues and cultured cells, but not in non-neoplastic tissues and cells. Subsequently, western blot analysis showed that Akt1 protein was overexpressed in OSCC tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemistry also showed Akt1 protein expression in 59 of 63 (94%) primary OSCCs. To clarify the oncogenic function of Akt1 in human OSCC cells, we used RNA interference. We designed and synthesized 5 small interfering RNAs specific for Akt1 (siAkt1). Transfecting human OSCC cells with siAkt1 in vitro markedly suppressed their expression of Akt1 protein and significantly reduced their growth rate. Furthermore, the growth of human OSCC tumors which had been subcutaneously xenografted in athymic nude mice lacking interferon responses was markedly inhibited by atelocollagen-mediated systemic siAkt1 administration. We also found that synthetic siAkt1 had an inhibitory effect on the growth of primary cultured OSCC cells. Finally, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth inhibitory effect of Akt1 suppression using microarray analysis of human OSCC cells transfected with siAkt1. Knockdown of Akt1 induced the expression of CDKN2B, a tumor suppressor gene, and reduced the expression of TGFBR1, which supports malignant phenotypes. These results suggest that Akt1 functions as a critical oncogene in human OSCC cells and may therefore be an appropriate target for novel OSCC therapies.
Herbertz S, Sawyer JS, Stauber AJ, et al.Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015; 9:4479-99 [PubMed
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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle) of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab) in patients with cancer with high unmet medical needs such as glioblastoma, pancreatic cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present review summarizes the past and current experiences with different pharmacological treatments that enabled galunisertib to be investigated in patients.
AIM: To investigate biological mechanisms underlying pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) regulation of cell migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
METHODS: HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were stably transfected and cultured in DMEM (HyClone, Logan, UT, United States). To investigate the effects of PKM2 on cellular proliferation, hepatocellular carcinoma cells were subjected to the Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kamimashiki-gun, Kumamoto, Japan). And investigate the effects of PKM2 on cell signal pathway related with migration and invasion, Western immunoblotting were used to find out the differential proteins. All the antibody used was purchaseed from Cell Signal Technology. In order to explore cell motility used Transwell invasion and wound healing assays. The transwell plate with 0.5 mg/mL collagen type I (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA)-coated filters. The wound-healing assay was performed in 6-well plates. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, CA, United States) and then reverse transcription was conducted. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed with the ABI 7500 real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We further use digital gene expression tag profiling and identification of differentially expressed genes.
RESULTS: The cells seeded in four 96-well plates were measured OD450 by conducted Cell Counting Kit-8. From this conduction we observed that both HepG2 and Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells with silenced PKM2 turn on a proliferate inhibition; however, cell migration and invasion were enhanced compared with the control upon stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Our results indicate that the knockdown of PKM2 decreased the expression of E-cadherin and enhanced the activity of the EGF/EGFR signaling pathway, furthermore up-regulate the subsequent signal molecular the PLCγ1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 expression in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh-7, which regulates cell motility. These variations we observed were due to the activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway after PKM2 knockdown. We also found that the expression of TGFBRI was increased and the phosphorylation of Smad2 was enhanced. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PKM2 can regulate cell motility through the EGF/EGFR and TGFβ/TGFR signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSION: PKM2 play different roles in modulating the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and this finding could help to guide the future targeted therapies.
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome b5 reductase 2 (CYB5R2) is a potential tumor suppressor that inhibits cell proliferation and motility in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Inactivation of CYB5R2 is associated with lymph node metastasis in NPC. This study aimed to explore the mechanisms contributing to the anti-neoplastic effects of CYB5R2.
METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to analyze the transcription of 84 genes known to be involved in representative cancer pathways in the NPC cell line HONE1. NPC cell lines CNE2 and HONE1 were transiently transfected with CYB5R2, and data was validated by real-time PCR. A chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) embryo model was implanted with CYB5R2-expressing CNE2 and HONE1 cells to evaluate the effect of CYB5R2 on angiogenesis. An immunohistochemical assay of the CAM model was used to analyze the protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
RESULTS: In CYB5R2-transfected NPC cells, PCR assays revealed up-regulated mRNA levels of Fas cell surface death receptor (FAS), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1), integrin beta 3 (ITGB3), metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1), interferon beta 1 (IFNB1), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and down-regulated levels of integrin beta 5 (ITGB5), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), TEK tyrosine kinase (TEK), transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1), and VEGF. The angiogenesis in the CAM model implanted with CYB5R2-transfected NPC cells was inhibited. Down-regulation of VEGF by CYB5R2 in NPC cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining in the CAM model.
CONCLUSION: CYB5R2 up-regulates the expression of genes that negatively modulate angiogenesis in NPC cells and down-regulates the expression of VEGF to reduce angiogenesis, thereby suppressing tumor formation.
Lin SZ, Xu JB, Ji X, et al.Emodin inhibits angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer by regulating the transforming growth factor-β/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic pathway and angiogenesis-associated microRNAs.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(4):5865-71 [PubMed
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Emodin is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether emodin suppresses angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer. A nude mouse pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using SW1990 human pancreatic cancer cells by surgical orthotopic implantation. Different doses of emodin were injected into the abdominal cavities of the tumor‑bearing mouse models and controls three times each week for 2 weeks. The tumors were measured and weighed, the expression of cluster of differentiation 34 was detected using immunochemistry, and microvessel densities were calculated. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β and drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) homologs. The angiogenesis‑associated microRNAs (miR), miR‑20, miR‑155 and miR‑210 were assessed by RT‑qPCR. A negative dose‑dependent association was revealed between treatment with emodin and the volume and weight of tumors and microvessel density. Emodin was associated with lower mRNA and protein expression levels of TGF‑β1 and its downstream target, angiopoietin‑like 4, and higher mRNA and protein expression levels of TGF‑β receptor (TβR)I, TβRII and Smad4. Notably, treatment with emodin was associated with lower expression levels of miR‑155 and miR‑210 and higher expression levels of miR‑20b. The present study suggested that treatment with emodin may repress angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer by altering the activities of the TGF-β/Smad pathway and angiogenesis-associated miR-20b, miR-155, and miR-210.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is among the most lethal of all malignancies in women. While chemotherapy is the preferred treatment modality, chemoresistance severely limits treatment success. Because transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) could increase survival of ovarian cancer cells in the presence of cisplatin, we conducted a preclinical study of the antitumor effects of the TGF-β type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) kinase inhibitor LY2109761 in combination with cisplatin.
METHODS: SKOV3, OV-90 and SKOV3(DDP) cells were treated with LY2109761, and/or cisplatin, and cell viability, apoptosis mRNA and protein expression levels were then evaluated. Furthermore, the efficacy of LY2109761 combined with cisplatin was further examined in established xenograft models.
RESULTS: LY2109761 was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Combination with LY2109761 significantly augmented the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in both parental and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. LY2109761 significantly increased apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-resistant cells. Combination treatment of LY2109761 and cisplatin showed antiproliferative effects and induced a greater rate of apoptosis than the sum of the single-treatment rates and promoted tumor regression in established parental and cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer xenograft models.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapeutic approaches using LY2109761 might enhance the treatment benefit of the cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients.