Gene Summary

Gene:TRIM24; tripartite motif containing 24
Aliases: PTC6, TF1A, TIF1, RNF82, TIF1A, hTIF1, TIF1ALPHA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene mediates transcriptional control by interaction with the activation function 2 (AF2) region of several nuclear receptors, including the estrogen, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3 receptors. The protein localizes to nuclear bodies and is thought to associate with chromatin and heterochromatin-associated factors. The protein is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains - a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2 - and a coiled-coil region. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRIM24 (cancer-related)

Fong KW, Zhao JC, Song B, et al.
TRIM28 protects TRIM24 from SPOP-mediated degradation and promotes prostate cancer progression.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5007 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRIM24 is an effector substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPOP and becomes stabilized in prostate cancer (PCa) with SPOP mutations. However, how TRIM24 protein is regulated in the vast majority of SPOP-wildtype PCa is unknown. Here we report TRIM28 as a critical upstream regulator of TRIM24. TRIM28 protein interacts with TRIM24 to prevent its ubiquitination and degradation by SPOP. Further, TRIM28 facilitates TRIM24 occupancy on the chromatin and, like TRIM24, augments AR signaling. TRIM28 promotes PCa cell proliferation in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, TRIM28 is upregulated in aggressive PCa and associated with elevated levels of TRIM24 and worse clinical outcome. TRIM24 and AR coactivated gene signature of SPOP-mutant PCa is similarly activated in human PCa with high TRIM28 expression. Taken together, this study provides a novel mechanism to broad TRIM24 protein stabilization and establishes TRIM28 as a promising therapeutic target.

Wang L, Tong X, Zhou Z, et al.
Circular RNA hsa_circ_0008305 (circPTK2) inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by controlling TIF1γ in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):140 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: TGF-β promotes tumor invasion and metastasis through inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recognized as functional non-coding RNAs involved in human cancers. However, whether and how circRNAs contribute to TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis in NSCLC remain vague. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of Circular RNA hsa_circ_0008305 (circPTK2) in TGF-β-induced EMT and tumor metastasis, as well as a link between circPTK2 and transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1γ) in NSCLC.
METHODS: Circular RNAs were determined by human circRNA Array analysis, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and northern blot. Luciferase reporter, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were employed to test the interaction between circPTK2 and miR-429/miR-200b-3p. Ectopic overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown of circPTK2, TGF-β-induced EMT, Transwell migration and invasion in vitro, and in vivo experiment of metastasis were used to evaluate the function of circPTK2. Transcription and prognosis analyses were done in public databases.
RESULTS: CircPTK2 and TIF1γ were significantly down-regulated in NSCLC cells undergoing EMT induced by TGF-β. CircPTK2 overexpression augmented TIF1γ expression, inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT and NSCLC cell invasion, whereas circPTK2 knockdown had the opposite effects. CircPTK2 functions as a sponge of miR-429/miR-200b-3p, and miR-429/miR-200b-3p promote TGF-β-induced EMT and NSCLC cell invasion by targeting TIF1γ. CircPTK2 overexpression inhibited the invasion-promoting phenotype of endogenous miR-429/miR-200b-3p in NSCLC cells in response to TGF-β. CircPTK2 overexpression significantly decreased the expression of Snail, an important downstream transcriptional activator of TGF-β/Smad signaling. In an in vivo experiment of metastasis, circPTK2 overexpression suppressed NSCLC cell metastasis. Moreover, circPTK2 expression was dramatically down-regulated and positively correlated with TIF1γ expression in human NSCLC tissues. Especially, circPTK2 was significantly lower in metastatic NSCLC tissues than non-metastatic counterparts.
CONCLUSION: Our findings show that circPTK2 (hsa_circ_0008305) inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis by controlling TIF1γ in NSCLC, revealing a novel mechanism by which circRNA regulates TGF-β-induced EMT and tumor metastasis, and suggesting that circPTK2 overexpression could provide a therapeutic strategy for advanced NSCLC.

Wang H, Xue W, Jiang X
Overexpression of TRIM24 Stimulates Proliferation and Glucose Metabolism of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:6142843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRIM24 (Tripartite Motif Containing 24) is a recently identified oncogene overexpressed in various cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of TRIM24 in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of TRIM24 in 100 HNSCC tissues and found that TRIM24 was overexpressed in 43/100 HNSCC cases. Significant association was found between TRIM24 overexpression and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (

Wang P, Shen N, Liu D, et al.
TRIM24 siRNA induced cell apoptosis and reduced cell viability in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(1):369-376 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer occurring primarily in East Asia and Africa. The high rate of recurrence and metastasis of NPC continuously endangers the health of patients. The present study aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the progression of NPC and provide experimental basis to develop a novel and efficient agent against NPC. The present study measured the expression level of tripartite motif containing 24 (TRIM24) in tumor tissues from NPC patients using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, Cell Counting kit‑8 and flow cytometry were used to detect the cell proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cell lines HONE1 and CNE1 cells where the TRIM24 gene was knocked‑down with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Further, caspase kits and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of apoptosis and angiogenesis‑associated proteins. The present study detected a higher expression level of TRIM24 in tumor tissues and NPC cell lines and lower cell viability and higher apoptotic rate were observed when TRIM24 was silenced. Meanwhile, upregulated caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 indicated induced cell apoptosis in HONE1 and CNE1 cells following the treatment with TRIM24 siRNA. Additionally, the downregulated expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 suggested inhibited angiogenesis of NPC cells. Additionally, the reduced levels of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) indicated a blocked JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. However, there was no direct evidence that inactivation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in regulation of siTRIM24, these results suggested that TRIM24 has an important role in the growth of NPC. Additionally, silenced TRIM24 may lead to inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in NPC cells. The limitation of this study was that HONE1, CNE1 and CNE2 cells may have been contaminated with other cells. Further experiments with validated NPC cells may be needed.

Gechijian LN, Buckley DL, Lawlor MA, et al.
Functional TRIM24 degrader via conjugation of ineffectual bromodomain and VHL ligands.
Nat Chem Biol. 2018; 14(4):405-412 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The addressable pocket of a protein is often not functionally relevant in disease. This is true for the multidomain, bromodomain-containing transcriptional regulator TRIM24. TRIM24 has been posited as a dependency in numerous cancers, yet potent and selective ligands for the TRIM24 bromodomain do not exert effective anti-proliferative responses. We therefore repositioned these probes as targeting features for heterobifunctional protein degraders. Recruitment of the VHL E3 ubiquitin ligase by dTRIM24 elicits potent and selective degradation of TRIM24. Using dTRIM24 to probe TRIM24 function, we characterize the dynamic genome-wide consequences of TRIM24 loss on chromatin localization and gene control. Further, we identify TRIM24 as a novel dependency in acute leukemia. Pairwise study of TRIM24 degradation versus bromodomain inhibition reveals enhanced anti-proliferative response from degradation. We offer dTRIM24 as a chemical probe of an emerging cancer dependency, and establish a path forward for numerous selective yet ineffectual ligands for proteins of therapeutic interest.

Pinal-Fernandez I, Ferrer-Fabregas B, Trallero-Araguas E, et al.
Tumour TIF1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity related to cancer-associated myositis.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018; 57(2):388-396 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objectives: To analyse the influence of genetic alterations and differential expression of transcription intermediary factor 1 (TIF1) genes in the pathophysiology of cancer-associated myositis (CAM).
Methods: Paired blood and tumour DNA samples from patients with anti-TIF1γ-positive CAM and from controls were analysed by whole-exome sequencing for the presence of somatic mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in their TIF1 genes. The genesis and maintenance of the autoimmune process were investigated immunohistochemically by studying TIF1γ expression in the different tissues involved in CAM (skin, muscle and tumour) based on the immunohistochemical H-score.
Results: From seven patients with anti-TIF1γ-positive CAM, we detected one somatic mutation and five cases of LOH in one or more of the four TIF1 genes compared with just one case of LOH in tumours from TIF1γ-negative myositis patients (86% vs 17%; P = 0.03). Compared with type-matched control tumours from non-myositis patients, TIF1γ staining was more intense in tumours from anti-TIF1γ-positive patients (H-score 255 vs 196; P = 0.01). Also, TIF1γ staining in muscle was slightly more intense in anti-TIF1γ-positive than in anti-TIF1γ-negative myositis (H-score 22 vs 5; P = 0.03). In contrast, intense TIF1γ staining was detected in the skin of both myositis and control patients.
Conclusion: Tumours from paraneoplastic anti-TIF1γ-positive patients showed an increased number of genetic alterations, such as mutations and LOH, in TIF1 genes. These genetic alterations, in the context of a high expression of TIF1γ in the tumour, muscle and skin of these patients may be key to understanding the genesis of paraneoplastic myositis.

Lv D, Li Y, Zhang W, et al.
TRIM24 is an oncogenic transcriptional co-activator of STAT3 in glioblastoma.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1454 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant amplification and mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the most common oncogenic events in glioblastoma (GBM), but the mechanisms by which they promote aggressive pathogenesis are not well understood. Here, we determine that non-canonical histone signature acetylated H3 lysine 23 (H3K23ac)-binding protein tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) is upregulated in clinical GBM specimens and required for EGFR-driven tumorigenesis. In multiple glioma cell lines and patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSCs), EGFR signaling promotes H3K23 acetylation and association with TRIM24. Consequently, TRIM24 functions as a transcriptional co-activator and recruits STAT3, leading to stabilized STAT3-chromatin interactions and subsequent activation of STAT3 downstream signaling, thereby enhancing EGFR-driven tumorigenesis. Our findings uncover a pathway in which TRIM24 functions as a signal relay for oncogenic EGFR signaling and suggest TRIM24 as a potential therapeutic target for GBM that are associated with EGFR activation.

Lv D, Jia F, Hou Y, et al.
Histone Acetyltransferase KAT6A Upregulates PI3K/AKT Signaling through TRIM24 Binding.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(22):6190-6201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lysine acetyltransferase KAT6A is a chromatin regulator that contributes to histone modification and cancer, but the basis of its actions are not well understood. Here, we identify a KAT6A signaling pathway that facilitates glioblastoma (GBM), where it is upregulated. KAT6A expression was associated with GBM patient survival. KAT6A silencing suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration, colony formation, and tumor development in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model system. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that KAT6A acetylates lysine 23 of histone H3 (H3K23), which recruits the nuclear receptor binding protein TRIM24 to activate

Wang FQ, Han Y, Yao W, Yu J
Prognostic relevance of tripartite motif containing 24 expression in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(10):1271-1275 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world. Tripartite motif containing 24 (TRIM24) is a member of the TRIM protein family and a coregulator for multiple nuclear receptors. Altered expression of TRIM24 has been shown in a spectrum of human cancers. However, the clinical role of TRIM24 in colorectal cancer remains unknown. Here, gene expression data in colorectal cancer and normal tissues were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Western blotting analysis was conducted to compare TRIM24 expression between colorectal cancer and non-cancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining were performed to assess TRIM24 expression in colorectal cancer tissues, and statistical analyses were employed to evaluate the associations of TRIM24 expression with clinicopathologic features and overall survival. TRIM24 mRNA and protein levels were higher in colorectal cancer tissues than that in the normal controls. TRIM24 protein expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P=0.0269), clinical stage (P=0.0061), vital status (P=0.0110) and serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (P=0.0176). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with higher TRIM24 expression had shorter survival time than those with lower TRIM24 expression. Multivariate analyses revealed TRIM24 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P<0.001). In conclusion, our study suggests that TRIM24 may play a role in colorectal carcinogens and serve as a potential prognostic marker of human colorectal cancer.

Pinheiro M, Drigo SA, Tonhosolo R, et al.
HABP2 p.G534E variant in patients with family history of thyroid and breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(25):40896-40905 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES) revealing HABP2 p.G534E. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the involvement of this variant in three families (F1: 7 relatives; F2: 3 and F3: 3). The proband and his sister (with no malignant tumor so far) from F1 were homozygous for the variant whereas one relative with PTC from F2 was negative for the variant. Although the proband of the F3 with PTC was HABP2 wild type, three relatives presented the variant. Five of 170 healthy Brazilian individuals with no family history of BC or PTC and three of 50 sporadic PTC presented the p.G534E. These findings suggested no association of this variant with our familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes have pathogenic effects in the risk of familial PTC development.

Fang Z, Zhang L, Liao Q, et al.
Regulation of TRIM24 by miR-511 modulates cell proliferation in gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of tripartite motif containing 24 (TRIM24) in tumor initiation and malignant progression in many tumors, including gastric cancer (GC). Although TRIM24 expression is remarkably upregulated during GC carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying TRIM24 dysregulation remain unexplored.
METHODS: In this study, miRNA target prediction tools were applied to explore miRNAs that potentially target TRIM24. Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed to detected TRIM24 and miR-511 expression in GC tissues and cell lines. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was utilized to validate if TRIM24 is a direct target gene of miR-511. CCK-8 assay, cell colony formation assay, EdU incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine whether miR-511-mediated regulation of TRIM24 could affect GC progression.
RESULTS: In our study, miR-511 was found to be downregulated in GC and an inverse correlation was observed between TRIM24 and miR-511 expression in primary GC tissues and cell lines. Dual-luciferase reporter assay further verified TRIM24 is a direct target of miR-511. Functional assays showed miR-511 overexpression inhibited cell growth, colony formation ability and cell cycle progression. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous miR-511 promoted these phenotypes in GC cells. Moreover, reintroduction of TRIM24 rescued miR-511-induced inhibitory effects on GC cells. Furthermore, miR-511 elicits tumor-suppressive effects through inactivating PI3K/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways by suppressing TRIM24.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the new evidence supporting the tumor-suppressive role of miR-511 in GC by suppressing TRIM24, suggesting that this novel miR-511/TRIM24 axis is critical in the control of gastric cancer tumorigenesis.

Chang YC, Chi LH, Chang WM, et al.
Glucose transporter 4 promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma metastasis through the TRIM24-DDX58 axis.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a unique and major health concern worldwide. Significant increases in glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis have been observed in HNSCC cells. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) represent a major hub in the glycolysis pathway, with GLUT4 having the highest glucose affinity. However, GLUT4's role in HNSCC has not been fully appreciated.
METHODS: An in silico analysis was performed in HNSCC cohorts to identify the most significant glucose transporter associated with HNSCC patient prognosis. An immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray with samples from 90 HNSCC patients was used to determine the association of GLUT4 with prognosis. Complementary functional expression and knockdown studies of GLUT4 were performed to investigate whether GLUT4 plays a role in HNSCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The detailed molecular mechanism of the function of GLUT4 in inducing HNSCC cell metastasis was determined.
RESULTS: Our clinicopathologic analysis showed that increased GLUT4 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly associated with a poor overall survival (OS, P = 0.035) and recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the ectopic overexpression of GLUT4 in cell lines with low endogenous GLUT4 expression resulted in a significant increase in migratory ability both in vitro and in vivo, whereas the reverse phenotype was observed in GLUT4-silenced cells. Utilizing a GLUT4 overexpression model, we performed gene expression microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine that the transcription factor tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) was the main downstream regulator of GLUT4. In addition, DDX58 was confirmed to be the downstream target of TRIM24, whose downregulation is essential for the migratory phenotype induced by GLUT4-TRIM24 activation in HNSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Here, we identified altered glucose metabolism in the progression of HNSCC and showed that it could be partially attributed to the novel link between GLUT4 and TRIM24. This novel signaling axis may be used for the prognosis and therapeutic treatment of HNSCC in the future.

Appikonda S, Thakkar KN, Barton MC
Regulation of gene expression in human cancers by TRIM24.
Drug Discov Today Technol. 2016; 19:57-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite Motif-containing protein 24 (TRIM24) functions as an E3 ligase targeting p53 for ubiquitination, a histone 'reader' that interacts with a specific signature of histone post-translational modifications and a co-regulator of nuclear receptor-regulated transcription. Although mouse models of Trim24 depletion suggest that TRIM24 may be a liver-specific tumor suppressor, several studies show that human TRIM24 is an oncogene when aberrantly over expressed. This review focuses on the mechanisms of TRIM24 functions in oncogenesis and metabolic reprogramming, which underlie recent interest in therapeutic targeting of aberrant TRIM24 in human cancers.

Chi J, Yang Q, Xie XF, et al.
Clinical significance and prognostic value of TRIM24 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016; 8(9):2204-2221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), a member of the transcription intermediary factor 1 family, is defined as a co-regulator with several nuclear receptors, such as RARα. TRIM24 has been reported to be involved in many cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression pattern and prognostic significance of TRIM24 and its relationship with RARα in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Both mRNA and protein expression levels of TRIM24 were found to be significantly decreased in ESCC, as judged by qRT-PCR and western blot. Immunohistochemistry staining shows that the reduced TRIM24 protein is associated with lymph node metastasis (

Groner AC, Cato L, de Tribolet-Hardy J, et al.
TRIM24 Is an Oncogenic Transcriptional Activator in Prostate Cancer.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(6):846-858 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a key driver of prostate cancer (PC). While androgen-deprivation therapy is transiently effective in advanced disease, tumors often progress to a lethal castration-resistant state (CRPC). We show that recurrent PC-driver mutations in speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) stabilize the TRIM24 protein, which promotes proliferation under low androgen conditions. TRIM24 augments AR signaling, and AR and TRIM24 co-activated genes are significantly upregulated in CRPC. Expression of TRIM24 protein increases from primary PC to CRPC, and both TRIM24 protein levels and the AR/TRIM24 gene signature predict disease recurrence. Analyses in CRPC cells reveal that the TRIM24 bromodomain and the AR-interacting motif are essential to support proliferation. These data provide a rationale for therapeutic TRIM24 targeting in SPOP mutant and CRPC patients.

Wang L, Yang H, Lei Z, et al.
Repression of TIF1γ by SOX2 promotes TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(7):867-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
TIF1γ is a novel regulator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling. Our previous studies show that dysregulated expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1γ) and abnormal TGF-β/Smad signaling are implicated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) separately. However, how TIF1γ contributes to NSCLC by controlling TGF-β/Smad signaling is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanistic role of TIF1γ in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as a link between TIF1γ and SOX2 in NSCLC. We show that TIF1γ is a downstream target of SOX2 in NSCLC cells. SOX2 overexpression negatively regulated TIF1γ promoter activity and thereby attenuated TIF1γ mRNA and protein expression levels; SOX2 knockdown significantly enhanced TIF1γ promoter activity and augmented TIF1γ expression. Moreover, TIF1γ mRNA expression was downregulated in human NSCLC tissues and negatively correlated with SOX2 protein, which was upregulated in NSCLC tissues. Importantly, knockdown of TIF1γ or SOX2 overexpression augmented SMAD4 (human Mad (mothers against decapentaplegic)-related homologous protein 4)-dependent transcriptional responses, and enhanced TGF-β-induced EMT and human NSCLC cell invasion; knockdown of SOX2 impaired TGF-β-induced EMT and NSCLC cell invasion. In an in vivo model of metastasis, knockdown of TIF1γ promotes NSCLC cell metastasis. In addition, our data suggested that TIF1γ inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT through competing with SMAD4 in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a new mechanism by which SOX2-mediated transcription repression of TIF1γ promotes TGF-β-induced EMT in NSCLC.

Xue D, Zhang X, Zhang X, et al.
Clinical significance and biological roles of TRIM24 in human bladder carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(9):6849-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), also known as transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha (TIF1α), is a chromatin-associated protein which as been has been implicated in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and biological roles in human bladder carcinoma has not been investigated. In this study, we examined its expression in 95 bladder cancer specimens. We found that TRIM24 expression was upregulated in 39 of 95 (41.1 %) specimens compared with normal control. TRIM24 overexpression was associated with local invasion and advanced grade of bladder cancer. In addition, we transfected TRIM24 plasmid into BIU-87 cell line and TRIM24 siRNA into 5637 cell line. Colony formation, CCK-8, and transwell assay were used to assess its biological roles in bladder cancer cells. The result showed that TRIM24 could facilitate cancer cell growth and invading ability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TRIM24 upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin E, p-IκBα, and p-AKT expression, suggesting TRIM24 activates NF-κB and AKT pathways. In addition, NF-κB inhibitor reversed the effect of TRIM24 on cyclin D1. In conclusion, TRIM24 is overexpressed in human bladder cancer and facilitates bladder cancer growth and invasion, possibly through NF-κB and AKT signaling pathways.

Wang J, Zhu J, Dong M, et al.
Knockdown of tripartite motif containing 24 by lentivirus suppresses cell growth and induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Res. 2014; 22(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most common cancers in men and women, and it accounts for a large proportion of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a novel class of "single protein RING finger" E3 ubiquitin ligases, which have been shown to be involved in many cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of TRIM24 in human colorectal cancer. By using a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference system, we first explored the effect of TRIM24 knockdown on HCT116 cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis was used to examine its effects on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Our data showed that knockdown of TRIM24 expression in HCT116 cells significantly decreased cell growth due to the induction of apoptosis. Hence, the present study provides evidence that TRIM24 functions as an oncogene in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Bertrand D, Chng KR, Sherbaf FG, et al.
Patient-specific driver gene prediction and risk assessment through integrated network analysis of cancer omics profiles.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(7):e44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extensive and multi-dimensional data sets generated from recent cancer omics profiling projects have presented new challenges and opportunities for unraveling the complexity of cancer genome landscapes. In particular, distinguishing the unique complement of genes that drive tumorigenesis in each patient from a sea of passenger mutations is necessary for translating the full benefit of cancer genome sequencing into the clinic. We address this need by presenting a data integration framework (OncoIMPACT) to nominate patient-specific driver genes based on their phenotypic impact. Extensive in silico and in vitro validation helped establish OncoIMPACT's robustness, improved precision over competing approaches and verifiable patient and cell line specific predictions (2/2 and 6/7 true positives and negatives, respectively). In particular, we computationally predicted and experimentally validated the gene TRIM24 as a putative novel amplified driver in a melanoma patient. Applying OncoIMPACT to more than 1000 tumor samples, we generated patient-specific driver gene lists in five different cancer types to identify modes of synergistic action. We also provide the first demonstration that computationally derived driver mutation signatures can be overall superior to single gene and gene expression based signatures in enabling patient stratification and prognostication. Source code and executables for OncoIMPACT are freely available from

Jiang S, Minter LC, Stratton SA, et al.
TRIM24 suppresses development of spontaneous hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.
J Hepatol. 2015; 62(2):371-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aberrantly high expression of TRIM24 occurs in human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, TRIM24 in the mouse is reportedly a liver-specific tumour suppressor. To address this dichotomy and to uncover direct regulatory functions of TRIM24 in vivo, we developed a new mouse model that lacks expression of all Trim24 isoforms, as the previous model expressed normal levels of Trim24 lacking only exon 4.
METHODS: To produce germline-deleted Trim24(dlE1) mice, deletion of the promoter and exon 1 of Trim24 was induced in Trim24(LoxP) mice by crossing with a zona pellucida 3-Cre line for global deletion. Liver-specific deletion (Trim24(hep)) was achieved by crossing with an albumin-Cre line. Phenotypic analyses were complemented by protein, gene-specific and global RNA expression analyses and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Global loss of Trim24 disrupted hepatic homeostasis in 100% of mice with highly significant, decreased expression of oxidation/reduction, steroid, fatty acid, and lipid metabolism genes, as well as increased expression of genes involved in unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell cycle pathways. Trim24(dlE1/dlE1) mice have markedly depleted visceral fat and, like Trim24(hep/hep) mice, spontaneously develop hepatic lipid-filled lesions, steatosis, hepatic injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: TRIM24, an epigenetic co-regulator of transcription, directly and indirectly represses hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and damage in the murine liver. Complete loss of Trim24 offers a model of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of high-fat diet or obesity.

Theurillat JP, Udeshi ND, Errington WJ, et al.
Prostate cancer. Ubiquitylome analysis identifies dysregulation of effector substrates in SPOP-mutant prostate cancer.
Science. 2014; 346(6205):85-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer genome characterization has revealed driver mutations in genes that govern ubiquitylation; however, the mechanisms by which these alterations promote tumorigenesis remain incompletely characterized. Here, we analyzed changes in the ubiquitin landscape induced by prostate cancer-associated mutations of SPOP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding protein. SPOP mutants impaired ubiquitylation of a subset of proteins in a dominant-negative fashion. Of these, DEK and TRIM24 emerged as effector substrates consistently up-regulated by SPOP mutants. We highlight DEK as a SPOP substrate that exhibited decreases in ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation resulting from heteromeric complexes of wild-type and mutant SPOP protein. DEK stabilization promoted prostate epithelial cell invasion, which implicated DEK as an oncogenic effector. More generally, these results provide a framework to decipher tumorigenic mechanisms linked to dysregulated ubiquitylation.

Pathiraja TN, Thakkar KN, Jiang S, et al.
TRIM24 links glucose metabolism with transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(22):2836-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripartite motif 24 protein (TRIM24) is a plant homeodomain/bromodomain histone reader, recently associated with poor overall survival of breast-cancer patients. At a molecular level, TRIM24 is a negative regulator of p53 levels and a co-activator of estrogen receptor. However, the role of TRIM24 in breast tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. We used an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model, derived from reduction mammoplasty tissue, and found that ectopic expression of TRIM24 in immortalized HMECs (TRIM24 iHMECs) greatly increased cellular proliferation and induced malignant transformation. Subcutaneous injection of TRIM24 iHMECs in nude mice led to growth of intermediate to high-grade tumors in 60-70% of mice. Molecular analysis of TRIM24 iHMECs revealed a glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle gene signature, alongside increased glucose uptake and activated aerobic glycolysis. Collectively, these results identify a role for TRIM24 in breast tumorigenesis through reprogramming of glucose metabolism in HMECs, further supporting TRIM24 as a viable therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Rivlin N, Katz S, Doody M, et al.
Rescue of embryonic stem cells from cellular transformation by proteomic stabilization of mutant p53 and conversion into WT conformation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(19):7006-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that is mutated in over 50% of human cancers. These mutations were shown to exhibit gain of oncogenic function compared with the deletion of the gene. Additionally, p53 has fundamental roles in differentiation and development; nevertheless, mutant p53 mice are viable and develop malignant tumors only on adulthood. We set out to reveal the mechanisms by which embryos are protected from mutant p53-induced transformation using ES cells (ESCs) that express a conformational mutant of p53. We found that, despite harboring mutant p53, the ESCs remain pluripotent and benign and have relatively normal karyotype compared with ESCs knocked out for p53. Additionally, using high-content RNA sequencing, we show that p53 is transcriptionally active in response to DNA damage in mutant ESCs and elevates p53 target genes, such as p21 and btg2. We also show that the conformation of mutant p53 protein in ESCs is stabilized to a WT conformation. Through MS-based interactome analyses, we identified a network of proteins, including the CCT complex, USP7, Aurora kinase, Nedd4, and Trim24, that bind mutant p53 and may shift its conformation to a WT form. We propose this conformational shift as a novel mechanism of maintenance of genomic integrity, despite p53 mutation. Harnessing the ability of these protein interactors to transform the oncogenic mutant p53 to the tumor suppressor WT form can be the basis for future development of p53-targeted cancer therapy.

Nakaoku T, Tsuta K, Ichikawa H, et al.
Druggable oncogene fusions in invasive mucinous lung adenocarcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(12):3087-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify druggable oncogenic fusions in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung, a malignant type of lung adenocarcinoma in which KRAS mutations frequently occur.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: From an IMA cohort of 90 cases, consisting of 56 cases (62%) with KRAS mutations and 34 cases without (38%), we conducted whole-transcriptome sequencing of 32 IMAs, including 27 cases without KRAS mutations. We used the sequencing data to identify gene fusions, and then performed functional analyses of the fusion gene products.
RESULTS: We identified oncogenic fusions that occurred mutually exclusively with KRAS mutations: CD74-NRG1, SLC3A2-NRG1, EZR-ERBB4, TRIM24-BRAF, and KIAA1468-RET. NRG1 fusions were present in 17.6% (6/34) of KRAS-negative IMAs. The CD74-NRG1 fusion activated HER2:HER3 signaling, whereas the EZR-ERBB4 and TRIM24-BRAF fusions constitutively activated the ERBB4 and BRAF kinases, respectively. Signaling pathway activation and fusion-induced anchorage-independent growth/tumorigenicity of NIH3T3 cells expressing these fusions were suppressed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved for clinical use.
CONCLUSIONS: Oncogenic fusions act as driver mutations in IMAs without KRAS mutations, and thus represent promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of such IMAs.

Zhang LH, Yin AA, Cheng JX, et al.
TRIM24 promotes glioma progression and enhances chemoresistance through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(5):600-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tripartite motif protein TRIM24 (tripartite motif-containing 24) has been found to play distinct roles in tumor development and progression, according to different tumor contexts. However, it remains elusive whether TRIM24 plays a role in malignant gliomas that are the most common and deadly primary brain tumors in adults. We report here that TRIM24 expression is positively correlated with glioma malignancy and is negatively associated with prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, which is the most malignant form of gliomas but displays highly heterogeneous clinical outcome. The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrates the independent predictive value of TRIM24 expression level for overall and progression-free survival. Knockdown of TRIM24 suppresses cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, clone formation and in vivo tumor development, whereas overexpression of TRIM24 promotes cell growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and mutation analyses demonstrate that TRIM24 binds to the PIK3CA promoter via its PHD-Bromo domain to activate the transcription of PIK3CA gene, thus enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The pan-PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and small interfering RNA targeting PIK3CA both abrogate the growth-promoting effect of TRIM24. Moreover, TRIM24 regulates the expression of DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) through PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB signaling transduction and enhances resistance to temozolomide, the standard chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma. Finally, glioblastoma patients with low TRIM24 expression benefit from chemotherapy, whereas those with high TRIM24 expression do not have such benefit. Our results suggest that TRIM24 might serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the management of malignant gliomas.

Liu X, Huang Y, Yang D, et al.
Overexpression of TRIM24 is associated with the onset and progress of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The survival and colonization of tumor cells at new locations involve a variety of complex genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental factors. TRIM24 was originally named transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha (TIF1α), which was associated with cellular proliferation and was an oncogene in tumor development. Here we provide the first evidence of the expression profile and clinicopathological significance of TRIM24 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the expression level of TRIM24 in HCC tissues and noncancerous liver tissues. Elevated TRIM24 level was found in 61.4% HCC samples (51/83) correlating with AFP (P = 0.036), poor differentiation (P = 0.004), intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.004), recurrence (P = 0.000006), and shorter tumor-free survival time (P = 0.002). Small interfering RNA induced down-regulation of TRIM24 promoted apoptosis in HCC cell line HepG2. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that knockdown of TRIM24 increased the protein levels of p53, Bax, and Caspase-8, and decreased Bcl-2, Survivin, Cyclin D1, and CDK4. Depletion of TRIM24 decreased Snail, Slug, β-catenin, and Vimentin, and increased E-cadherin expression, which suggested the involvement of TRIM24 in EMT. These results indicated that TRIM24 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human HCC.

Xue J, Lin X, Chiu WT, et al.
Sustained activation of SMAD3/SMAD4 by FOXM1 promotes TGF-β-dependent cancer metastasis.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(2):564-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A key feature of TGF-β signaling activation in cancer cells is the sustained activation of SMAD complexes in the nucleus; however, the drivers of SMAD activation are poorly defined. Here, using human and mouse breast cancer cell lines, we found that oncogene forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) interacts with SMAD3 to sustain activation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex in the nucleus. FOXM1 prevented the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1γ) from binding SMAD3 and monoubiquitinating SMAD4, which stabilized the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex. Loss of FOXM1 abolished TGF-β-induced SMAD3/SMAD4 formation. Moreover, the interaction of FOXM1 and SMAD3 promoted TGF-β/SMAD3-mediated transcriptional activity and target gene expression. We found that FOXM1/SMAD3 interaction was required for TGF-β-induced breast cancer invasion, which was the result of SMAD3/SMAD4-dependent upregulation of the transcription factor SLUG. Importantly, the function of FOXM1 in TGF-β-induced invasion was not dependent on FOXM1's transcriptional activity. Knockdown of SMAD3 diminished FOXM1-induced metastasis. Furthermore, FOXM1 levels correlated with activated TGF-β signaling and metastasis in human breast cancer specimens. Together, our data indicate that FOXM1 promotes breast cancer metastasis by increasing nuclear retention of SMAD3 and identify crosstalk between FOXM1 and TGF-β/SMAD3 pathways. This study highlights the critical interaction of FOXM1 and SMAD3 for controlling TGF-β signaling during metastasis.

Cui Z, Cao W, Li J, et al.
TRIM24 overexpression is common in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and correlates with aggressive malignant phenotypes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), a member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family, functions as a co-regulator that positively or negatively modulates the transcriptional activities of several nuclear receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate TRIM24 expression and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The expression levels of TRIM24 variants were examined in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples and cell lines by real-time PCR and WB. The expression levels of TRIM24 measured in 91 locally advanced HNSCC tumors were measured by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical and pathological parameters. The functional role of TRIM24 in HNSCC was further investigated by silencing its expression in HNSCC cell lines. TRIM24 variants were up-regulated in 56 HNSCC samples (P<.001) and 9 HNSCC cell lines (P<.05). TRIM24 protein was overexpressed in 6 of 8 HNSCC cell lines and in 2 of 3 HNSCC samples. Furthermore, 54.95% (50/91) of HNSCC samples exhibited remarkably elevated expression of TRIM24 by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis revealed that high TRIM24 expression was associated with worse overall survival (P = .020). In multivariate analysis, TRIM24 expression was identified as an independent predictor of overall survival (P = .030), after adjusting for other clinicopathological parameters. Upon TRIM24 silencing, the proliferation of HNSCC cells was notably inhibited due to the induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that aberrant TRIM24 expression may play an important role in the development of HNSCC and is a promising prognostic indicator for patients with locally advanced HNSCC.

Silveira VS, Scrideli CA, Moreno DA, et al.
Gene expression pattern contributing to prognostic factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(2):310-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study evaluated the expression profile of 19 genes previously reported in microarray studies and associated with resistance or sensitivity to vincristine (RPLP2, CD44, TCFL5, KCNN1, TRIM24), prednisolone (F8A, CDK2AP1, BLVRB, CD69), daunorubicin (MAP3K12, SHOC2, PCDH9, EGR1, KCNN4) and l-asparaginase (GPR56, MAN1A1, CLEC11A, IGFBP7, GATA3). We studied 140 bone marrow samples at diagnosis from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated according to the Brazilian Childhood Leukemia Treatment Group (GBTLI) ALL-99 protocol. The expression profiles of the genes listed above were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then related to the clinical and biological prognostic factors. The results showed significant associations (p ≤ 0.05) between the expression levels of genes GPR56, BLVRB, IGFBP7 and white blood cell (WBC) count at diagnosis; GATA3, MAN1A1, CD44, MAP3K12, CLEC11A, SHOC2 and CD10 B-lineage ALL; TCFL5 and bone marrow status at day 14; MAP3K12 and TRIM24 and bone marrow status at day 28; and CD69, TCFL5 and TRIM24 genes and ETV6/RUNX1 positive ALL. The up-regulation of SHOC2 was also associated with better 5-year event-free survival (EFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). These findings highlight genes that could be associated with clinical and biological prognostic factors in childhood ALL, suggesting that these genes may characterize and play a role in the treatment outcome of some ALL subsets.

Li H, Sun L, Tang Z, et al.
Overexpression of TRIM24 correlates with tumor progression in non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37657 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of TRIM24 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression profile of TRIM24 in NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. TRIM24 was found to be overexpressed in 81 of 113 (71.7%) human lung cancer samples and correlated with p-TNM stage (p = 0.0006), poor differentiation (p = 0.004), Ki67 index (p<0.0001), cyclin D1(p = 0.0096) and p-Rb expression (p = 0.0318). In addition, depleting TRIM24 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited growth and invasion in lung cell lines. Moreover, TRIM24 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary and induced apoptosis. Western blotting analysis revealed that knockdown of TRIM24 decreased the protein levels of Cyclin A, Cyclin B, Cyclin D1, cyclin E and p-Rb and increased P27 expression. These results indicate that TRIM24 plays an important role in NSCLC progression.

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