Gene Summary

Gene:TRIM24; tripartite motif containing 24
Aliases: PTC6, TF1A, TIF1, RNF82, TIF1A, hTIF1, TIF1ALPHA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene mediates transcriptional control by interaction with the activation function 2 (AF2) region of several nuclear receptors, including the estrogen, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3 receptors. The protein localizes to nuclear bodies and is thought to associate with chromatin and heterochromatin-associated factors. The protein is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains - a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2 - and a coiled-coil region. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRIM24 (cancer-related)

Appikonda S, Thakkar KN, Barton MC
Regulation of gene expression in human cancers by TRIM24.
Drug Discov Today Technol. 2016; 19:57-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite Motif-containing protein 24 (TRIM24) functions as an E3 ligase targeting p53 for ubiquitination, a histone 'reader' that interacts with a specific signature of histone post-translational modifications and a co-regulator of nuclear receptor-regulated transcription. Although mouse models of Trim24 depletion suggest that TRIM24 may be a liver-specific tumor suppressor, several studies show that human TRIM24 is an oncogene when aberrantly over expressed. This review focuses on the mechanisms of TRIM24 functions in oncogenesis and metabolic reprogramming, which underlie recent interest in therapeutic targeting of aberrant TRIM24 in human cancers.

Wang L, Yang H, Lei Z, et al.
Repression of TIF1γ by SOX2 promotes TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(7):867-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
TIF1γ is a novel regulator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling. Our previous studies show that dysregulated expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1γ) and abnormal TGF-β/Smad signaling are implicated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) separately. However, how TIF1γ contributes to NSCLC by controlling TGF-β/Smad signaling is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanistic role of TIF1γ in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as a link between TIF1γ and SOX2 in NSCLC. We show that TIF1γ is a downstream target of SOX2 in NSCLC cells. SOX2 overexpression negatively regulated TIF1γ promoter activity and thereby attenuated TIF1γ mRNA and protein expression levels; SOX2 knockdown significantly enhanced TIF1γ promoter activity and augmented TIF1γ expression. Moreover, TIF1γ mRNA expression was downregulated in human NSCLC tissues and negatively correlated with SOX2 protein, which was upregulated in NSCLC tissues. Importantly, knockdown of TIF1γ or SOX2 overexpression augmented SMAD4 (human Mad (mothers against decapentaplegic)-related homologous protein 4)-dependent transcriptional responses, and enhanced TGF-β-induced EMT and human NSCLC cell invasion; knockdown of SOX2 impaired TGF-β-induced EMT and NSCLC cell invasion. In an in vivo model of metastasis, knockdown of TIF1γ promotes NSCLC cell metastasis. In addition, our data suggested that TIF1γ inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT through competing with SMAD4 in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a new mechanism by which SOX2-mediated transcription repression of TIF1γ promotes TGF-β-induced EMT in NSCLC.

Xue D, Zhang X, Zhang X, et al.
Clinical significance and biological roles of TRIM24 in human bladder carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(9):6849-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), also known as transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha (TIF1α), is a chromatin-associated protein which as been has been implicated in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and biological roles in human bladder carcinoma has not been investigated. In this study, we examined its expression in 95 bladder cancer specimens. We found that TRIM24 expression was upregulated in 39 of 95 (41.1 %) specimens compared with normal control. TRIM24 overexpression was associated with local invasion and advanced grade of bladder cancer. In addition, we transfected TRIM24 plasmid into BIU-87 cell line and TRIM24 siRNA into 5637 cell line. Colony formation, CCK-8, and transwell assay were used to assess its biological roles in bladder cancer cells. The result showed that TRIM24 could facilitate cancer cell growth and invading ability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TRIM24 upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin E, p-IκBα, and p-AKT expression, suggesting TRIM24 activates NF-κB and AKT pathways. In addition, NF-κB inhibitor reversed the effect of TRIM24 on cyclin D1. In conclusion, TRIM24 is overexpressed in human bladder cancer and facilitates bladder cancer growth and invasion, possibly through NF-κB and AKT signaling pathways.

Wang J, Zhu J, Dong M, et al.
Knockdown of tripartite motif containing 24 by lentivirus suppresses cell growth and induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Res. 2014; 22(1):39-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer remains one of the most common cancers in men and women, and it accounts for a large proportion of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a novel class of "single protein RING finger" E3 ubiquitin ligases, which have been shown to be involved in many cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of TRIM24 in human colorectal cancer. By using a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference system, we first explored the effect of TRIM24 knockdown on HCT116 cell proliferation and colony formation. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis was used to examine its effects on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Our data showed that knockdown of TRIM24 expression in HCT116 cells significantly decreased cell growth due to the induction of apoptosis. Hence, the present study provides evidence that TRIM24 functions as an oncogene in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Bertrand D, Chng KR, Sherbaf FG, et al.
Patient-specific driver gene prediction and risk assessment through integrated network analysis of cancer omics profiles.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(7):e44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extensive and multi-dimensional data sets generated from recent cancer omics profiling projects have presented new challenges and opportunities for unraveling the complexity of cancer genome landscapes. In particular, distinguishing the unique complement of genes that drive tumorigenesis in each patient from a sea of passenger mutations is necessary for translating the full benefit of cancer genome sequencing into the clinic. We address this need by presenting a data integration framework (OncoIMPACT) to nominate patient-specific driver genes based on their phenotypic impact. Extensive in silico and in vitro validation helped establish OncoIMPACT's robustness, improved precision over competing approaches and verifiable patient and cell line specific predictions (2/2 and 6/7 true positives and negatives, respectively). In particular, we computationally predicted and experimentally validated the gene TRIM24 as a putative novel amplified driver in a melanoma patient. Applying OncoIMPACT to more than 1000 tumor samples, we generated patient-specific driver gene lists in five different cancer types to identify modes of synergistic action. We also provide the first demonstration that computationally derived driver mutation signatures can be overall superior to single gene and gene expression based signatures in enabling patient stratification and prognostication. Source code and executables for OncoIMPACT are freely available from

Jiang S, Minter LC, Stratton SA, et al.
TRIM24 suppresses development of spontaneous hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.
J Hepatol. 2015; 62(2):371-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aberrantly high expression of TRIM24 occurs in human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, TRIM24 in the mouse is reportedly a liver-specific tumour suppressor. To address this dichotomy and to uncover direct regulatory functions of TRIM24 in vivo, we developed a new mouse model that lacks expression of all Trim24 isoforms, as the previous model expressed normal levels of Trim24 lacking only exon 4.
METHODS: To produce germline-deleted Trim24(dlE1) mice, deletion of the promoter and exon 1 of Trim24 was induced in Trim24(LoxP) mice by crossing with a zona pellucida 3-Cre line for global deletion. Liver-specific deletion (Trim24(hep)) was achieved by crossing with an albumin-Cre line. Phenotypic analyses were complemented by protein, gene-specific and global RNA expression analyses and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Global loss of Trim24 disrupted hepatic homeostasis in 100% of mice with highly significant, decreased expression of oxidation/reduction, steroid, fatty acid, and lipid metabolism genes, as well as increased expression of genes involved in unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell cycle pathways. Trim24(dlE1/dlE1) mice have markedly depleted visceral fat and, like Trim24(hep/hep) mice, spontaneously develop hepatic lipid-filled lesions, steatosis, hepatic injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: TRIM24, an epigenetic co-regulator of transcription, directly and indirectly represses hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and damage in the murine liver. Complete loss of Trim24 offers a model of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of high-fat diet or obesity.

Theurillat JP, Udeshi ND, Errington WJ, et al.
Prostate cancer. Ubiquitylome analysis identifies dysregulation of effector substrates in SPOP-mutant prostate cancer.
Science. 2014; 346(6205):85-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer genome characterization has revealed driver mutations in genes that govern ubiquitylation; however, the mechanisms by which these alterations promote tumorigenesis remain incompletely characterized. Here, we analyzed changes in the ubiquitin landscape induced by prostate cancer-associated mutations of SPOP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding protein. SPOP mutants impaired ubiquitylation of a subset of proteins in a dominant-negative fashion. Of these, DEK and TRIM24 emerged as effector substrates consistently up-regulated by SPOP mutants. We highlight DEK as a SPOP substrate that exhibited decreases in ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation resulting from heteromeric complexes of wild-type and mutant SPOP protein. DEK stabilization promoted prostate epithelial cell invasion, which implicated DEK as an oncogenic effector. More generally, these results provide a framework to decipher tumorigenic mechanisms linked to dysregulated ubiquitylation.

Pathiraja TN, Thakkar KN, Jiang S, et al.
TRIM24 links glucose metabolism with transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(22):2836-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripartite motif 24 protein (TRIM24) is a plant homeodomain/bromodomain histone reader, recently associated with poor overall survival of breast-cancer patients. At a molecular level, TRIM24 is a negative regulator of p53 levels and a co-activator of estrogen receptor. However, the role of TRIM24 in breast tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. We used an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model, derived from reduction mammoplasty tissue, and found that ectopic expression of TRIM24 in immortalized HMECs (TRIM24 iHMECs) greatly increased cellular proliferation and induced malignant transformation. Subcutaneous injection of TRIM24 iHMECs in nude mice led to growth of intermediate to high-grade tumors in 60-70% of mice. Molecular analysis of TRIM24 iHMECs revealed a glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle gene signature, alongside increased glucose uptake and activated aerobic glycolysis. Collectively, these results identify a role for TRIM24 in breast tumorigenesis through reprogramming of glucose metabolism in HMECs, further supporting TRIM24 as a viable therapeutic target in breast cancer.

Rivlin N, Katz S, Doody M, et al.
Rescue of embryonic stem cells from cellular transformation by proteomic stabilization of mutant p53 and conversion into WT conformation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(19):7006-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that is mutated in over 50% of human cancers. These mutations were shown to exhibit gain of oncogenic function compared with the deletion of the gene. Additionally, p53 has fundamental roles in differentiation and development; nevertheless, mutant p53 mice are viable and develop malignant tumors only on adulthood. We set out to reveal the mechanisms by which embryos are protected from mutant p53-induced transformation using ES cells (ESCs) that express a conformational mutant of p53. We found that, despite harboring mutant p53, the ESCs remain pluripotent and benign and have relatively normal karyotype compared with ESCs knocked out for p53. Additionally, using high-content RNA sequencing, we show that p53 is transcriptionally active in response to DNA damage in mutant ESCs and elevates p53 target genes, such as p21 and btg2. We also show that the conformation of mutant p53 protein in ESCs is stabilized to a WT conformation. Through MS-based interactome analyses, we identified a network of proteins, including the CCT complex, USP7, Aurora kinase, Nedd4, and Trim24, that bind mutant p53 and may shift its conformation to a WT form. We propose this conformational shift as a novel mechanism of maintenance of genomic integrity, despite p53 mutation. Harnessing the ability of these protein interactors to transform the oncogenic mutant p53 to the tumor suppressor WT form can be the basis for future development of p53-targeted cancer therapy.

Nakaoku T, Tsuta K, Ichikawa H, et al.
Druggable oncogene fusions in invasive mucinous lung adenocarcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(12):3087-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify druggable oncogenic fusions in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung, a malignant type of lung adenocarcinoma in which KRAS mutations frequently occur.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: From an IMA cohort of 90 cases, consisting of 56 cases (62%) with KRAS mutations and 34 cases without (38%), we conducted whole-transcriptome sequencing of 32 IMAs, including 27 cases without KRAS mutations. We used the sequencing data to identify gene fusions, and then performed functional analyses of the fusion gene products.
RESULTS: We identified oncogenic fusions that occurred mutually exclusively with KRAS mutations: CD74-NRG1, SLC3A2-NRG1, EZR-ERBB4, TRIM24-BRAF, and KIAA1468-RET. NRG1 fusions were present in 17.6% (6/34) of KRAS-negative IMAs. The CD74-NRG1 fusion activated HER2:HER3 signaling, whereas the EZR-ERBB4 and TRIM24-BRAF fusions constitutively activated the ERBB4 and BRAF kinases, respectively. Signaling pathway activation and fusion-induced anchorage-independent growth/tumorigenicity of NIH3T3 cells expressing these fusions were suppressed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved for clinical use.
CONCLUSIONS: Oncogenic fusions act as driver mutations in IMAs without KRAS mutations, and thus represent promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of such IMAs.

Zhang LH, Yin AA, Cheng JX, et al.
TRIM24 promotes glioma progression and enhances chemoresistance through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(5):600-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tripartite motif protein TRIM24 (tripartite motif-containing 24) has been found to play distinct roles in tumor development and progression, according to different tumor contexts. However, it remains elusive whether TRIM24 plays a role in malignant gliomas that are the most common and deadly primary brain tumors in adults. We report here that TRIM24 expression is positively correlated with glioma malignancy and is negatively associated with prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, which is the most malignant form of gliomas but displays highly heterogeneous clinical outcome. The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrates the independent predictive value of TRIM24 expression level for overall and progression-free survival. Knockdown of TRIM24 suppresses cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, clone formation and in vivo tumor development, whereas overexpression of TRIM24 promotes cell growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and mutation analyses demonstrate that TRIM24 binds to the PIK3CA promoter via its PHD-Bromo domain to activate the transcription of PIK3CA gene, thus enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The pan-PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and small interfering RNA targeting PIK3CA both abrogate the growth-promoting effect of TRIM24. Moreover, TRIM24 regulates the expression of DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) through PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB signaling transduction and enhances resistance to temozolomide, the standard chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma. Finally, glioblastoma patients with low TRIM24 expression benefit from chemotherapy, whereas those with high TRIM24 expression do not have such benefit. Our results suggest that TRIM24 might serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the management of malignant gliomas.

Liu X, Huang Y, Yang D, et al.
Overexpression of TRIM24 is associated with the onset and progress of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The survival and colonization of tumor cells at new locations involve a variety of complex genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental factors. TRIM24 was originally named transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha (TIF1α), which was associated with cellular proliferation and was an oncogene in tumor development. Here we provide the first evidence of the expression profile and clinicopathological significance of TRIM24 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the expression level of TRIM24 in HCC tissues and noncancerous liver tissues. Elevated TRIM24 level was found in 61.4% HCC samples (51/83) correlating with AFP (P = 0.036), poor differentiation (P = 0.004), intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.004), recurrence (P = 0.000006), and shorter tumor-free survival time (P = 0.002). Small interfering RNA induced down-regulation of TRIM24 promoted apoptosis in HCC cell line HepG2. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that knockdown of TRIM24 increased the protein levels of p53, Bax, and Caspase-8, and decreased Bcl-2, Survivin, Cyclin D1, and CDK4. Depletion of TRIM24 decreased Snail, Slug, β-catenin, and Vimentin, and increased E-cadherin expression, which suggested the involvement of TRIM24 in EMT. These results indicated that TRIM24 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human HCC.

Xue J, Lin X, Chiu WT, et al.
Sustained activation of SMAD3/SMAD4 by FOXM1 promotes TGF-β-dependent cancer metastasis.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(2):564-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A key feature of TGF-β signaling activation in cancer cells is the sustained activation of SMAD complexes in the nucleus; however, the drivers of SMAD activation are poorly defined. Here, using human and mouse breast cancer cell lines, we found that oncogene forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) interacts with SMAD3 to sustain activation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex in the nucleus. FOXM1 prevented the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1γ) from binding SMAD3 and monoubiquitinating SMAD4, which stabilized the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex. Loss of FOXM1 abolished TGF-β-induced SMAD3/SMAD4 formation. Moreover, the interaction of FOXM1 and SMAD3 promoted TGF-β/SMAD3-mediated transcriptional activity and target gene expression. We found that FOXM1/SMAD3 interaction was required for TGF-β-induced breast cancer invasion, which was the result of SMAD3/SMAD4-dependent upregulation of the transcription factor SLUG. Importantly, the function of FOXM1 in TGF-β-induced invasion was not dependent on FOXM1's transcriptional activity. Knockdown of SMAD3 diminished FOXM1-induced metastasis. Furthermore, FOXM1 levels correlated with activated TGF-β signaling and metastasis in human breast cancer specimens. Together, our data indicate that FOXM1 promotes breast cancer metastasis by increasing nuclear retention of SMAD3 and identify crosstalk between FOXM1 and TGF-β/SMAD3 pathways. This study highlights the critical interaction of FOXM1 and SMAD3 for controlling TGF-β signaling during metastasis.

Cui Z, Cao W, Li J, et al.
TRIM24 overexpression is common in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and correlates with aggressive malignant phenotypes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), a member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family, functions as a co-regulator that positively or negatively modulates the transcriptional activities of several nuclear receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate TRIM24 expression and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The expression levels of TRIM24 variants were examined in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples and cell lines by real-time PCR and WB. The expression levels of TRIM24 measured in 91 locally advanced HNSCC tumors were measured by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical and pathological parameters. The functional role of TRIM24 in HNSCC was further investigated by silencing its expression in HNSCC cell lines. TRIM24 variants were up-regulated in 56 HNSCC samples (P<.001) and 9 HNSCC cell lines (P<.05). TRIM24 protein was overexpressed in 6 of 8 HNSCC cell lines and in 2 of 3 HNSCC samples. Furthermore, 54.95% (50/91) of HNSCC samples exhibited remarkably elevated expression of TRIM24 by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis revealed that high TRIM24 expression was associated with worse overall survival (P = .020). In multivariate analysis, TRIM24 expression was identified as an independent predictor of overall survival (P = .030), after adjusting for other clinicopathological parameters. Upon TRIM24 silencing, the proliferation of HNSCC cells was notably inhibited due to the induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that aberrant TRIM24 expression may play an important role in the development of HNSCC and is a promising prognostic indicator for patients with locally advanced HNSCC.

Silveira VS, Scrideli CA, Moreno DA, et al.
Gene expression pattern contributing to prognostic factors in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(2):310-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study evaluated the expression profile of 19 genes previously reported in microarray studies and associated with resistance or sensitivity to vincristine (RPLP2, CD44, TCFL5, KCNN1, TRIM24), prednisolone (F8A, CDK2AP1, BLVRB, CD69), daunorubicin (MAP3K12, SHOC2, PCDH9, EGR1, KCNN4) and l-asparaginase (GPR56, MAN1A1, CLEC11A, IGFBP7, GATA3). We studied 140 bone marrow samples at diagnosis from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated according to the Brazilian Childhood Leukemia Treatment Group (GBTLI) ALL-99 protocol. The expression profiles of the genes listed above were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then related to the clinical and biological prognostic factors. The results showed significant associations (p ≤ 0.05) between the expression levels of genes GPR56, BLVRB, IGFBP7 and white blood cell (WBC) count at diagnosis; GATA3, MAN1A1, CD44, MAP3K12, CLEC11A, SHOC2 and CD10 B-lineage ALL; TCFL5 and bone marrow status at day 14; MAP3K12 and TRIM24 and bone marrow status at day 28; and CD69, TCFL5 and TRIM24 genes and ETV6/RUNX1 positive ALL. The up-regulation of SHOC2 was also associated with better 5-year event-free survival (EFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). These findings highlight genes that could be associated with clinical and biological prognostic factors in childhood ALL, suggesting that these genes may characterize and play a role in the treatment outcome of some ALL subsets.

Li H, Sun L, Tang Z, et al.
Overexpression of TRIM24 correlates with tumor progression in non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37657 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of TRIM24 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression profile of TRIM24 in NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. TRIM24 was found to be overexpressed in 81 of 113 (71.7%) human lung cancer samples and correlated with p-TNM stage (p = 0.0006), poor differentiation (p = 0.004), Ki67 index (p<0.0001), cyclin D1(p = 0.0096) and p-Rb expression (p = 0.0318). In addition, depleting TRIM24 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited growth and invasion in lung cell lines. Moreover, TRIM24 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary and induced apoptosis. Western blotting analysis revealed that knockdown of TRIM24 decreased the protein levels of Cyclin A, Cyclin B, Cyclin D1, cyclin E and p-Rb and increased P27 expression. These results indicate that TRIM24 plays an important role in NSCLC progression.

Quintás-Cardama A, Qiu YH, Post SM, et al.
Reverse phase protein array profiling reveals distinct proteomic signatures associated with chronic myeloid leukemia progression and with chronic phase in the CD34-positive compartment.
Cancer. 2012; 118(21):5283-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal stem cell malignancy whose pathogenesis is driven by constitutive activation of the breakpoint cluster region-v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (BCR-ABL1) kinase. Although BCR-ABL1 activation is present in all patients with CML, patients can present in 3 different phases characterized by an increasingly worse prognosis and diminished responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors: chronic phase, accelerated phase, or blastic phase. The biologic basis for progression from chronic phase to blastic phase and for regulating the homeostasis of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant CML stem cells is not entirely understood.
METHODS: To shed some light into these aspects of CML biology, the authors used reverse phase protein arrays probed with 112 individual monoclonal antibodies to compare protein expression patterns in 40 samples of leukemia-enriched fractions from patients with CML (25 in chronic phase, 5 in accelerated phase, and 10 in phase).
RESULTS: An analysis of variance (significance cutoff, P < .01) unveiled a set of proteins that were overexpressed in blastic phase, including heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90); retinoblastoma (Rb); apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF); serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A); B-cell leukemia 2 (Bcl-2); X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (Xiap); human homolog of Drosophila Mad (mothers against decapentaplegic) and related Caenorhabditis elegans gene Sma, family member 1 (Smad1); single-stranded DNA binding protein 2 alpha (SSBP2α); poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP); GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (Gab2); and tripartite motif containing 24 (Trim24). It is noteworthy that several of these proteins also were overexpressed in the CD34-positive compartment, which putatively contains the CML stem cell population.
CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicated that reverse phase protein array analysis can unveil differentially expressed proteins in advanced phase CML that can be exploited therapeutically with targeted approaches.

Hatakeyama S
TRIM proteins and cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2011; 11(11):792-804 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging clinical evidence shows that the deregulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of oncogene products or tumour suppressors is likely to be involved in the aetiology of carcinomas and leukaemias. Recent studies have indicated that some members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins (one of the subfamilies of the RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases) function as important regulators for carcinogenesis. This Review focuses on TRIM proteins that are involved in tumour development and progression.

Tisserand J, Khetchoumian K, Thibault C, et al.
Tripartite motif 24 (Trim24/Tif1α) tumor suppressor protein is a novel negative regulator of interferon (IFN)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway acting through retinoic acid receptor α (Rarα) inhibition.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(38):33369-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent genetic studies in mice have established that the nuclear receptor coregulator Trim24/Tif1α suppresses hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting retinoic acid receptor α (Rara)-dependent transcription and cell proliferation. However, Rara targets regulated by Trim24 remain unknown. We report that the loss of Trim24 resulted in interferon (IFN)/STAT pathway overactivation soon after birth (week 5). Despite a transient attenuation of this pathway by the induction of several IFN/STAT pathway repressors later in the disease, this phenomenon became more pronounced in tumors. Remarkably, Rara haplodeficiency, which suppresses tumorigenesis in Trim24(-/-) mice, prevented IFN/STAT overactivation. Moreover, together with Rara, Trim24 bound to the retinoic acid-responsive element of the Stat1 promoter and repressed its retinoic acid-induced transcription. Altogether, these results identify Trim24 as a novel negative regulator of the IFN/STAT pathway and suggest that this repression through Rara inhibition may prevent liver cancer.

Chambon M, Orsetti B, Berthe ML, et al.
Prognostic significance of TRIM24/TIF-1α gene expression in breast cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2011; 178(4):1461-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we have analyzed the expression of TRIM24/TIF-1α, a negative regulator of various transcription factors (including nuclear receptors and p53) at the genomic, mRNA, and protein levels in human breast tumors. In breast cancer biopsy specimens, TRIM24/TIF-1α mRNA levels (assessed by Real-Time Quantitative PCR or microarray expression profiling) were increased as compared to normal breast tissues. At the genomic level, array comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed that the TRIM24/TIF-1α locus (7q34) exhibited both gains and losses that correlated with mRNA levels. By re-analyzing a series of 238 tumors, high levels of TRIM24/TIF-1α mRNA significantly correlated with various markers of poor prognosis (such as the molecular subtype) and were associated with worse overall survival. By using a rabbit polyclonal antibody for immunochemistry, the TRIM24/TIF-1α protein was detected in nuclei of normal luminal epithelial breast cells, but not in myoepithelial cells. Tissue microarray analysis confirmed that its expression was increased in epithelial cells from normal to breast infiltrating duct carcinoma and correlated with worse overall survival. Altogether, this work is the first study that shows that overexpression of the TRIM24/TIF-1α gene in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis and worse survival, and it suggests that this transcription coregulator may play a role in mammary carcinogenesis and represent a novel prognostic marker.

Tsai WW, Wang Z, Yiu TT, et al.
TRIM24 links a non-canonical histone signature to breast cancer.
Nature. 2010; 468(7326):927-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

Hoshino K, Muro Y, Sugiura K, et al.
Anti-MDA5 and anti-TIF1-gamma antibodies have clinical significance for patients with dermatomyositis.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010; 49(9):1726-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Myositis-specific autoantibodies are useful for diagnosing PM/DM. Recently, two new myositis-specific autoantibodies against melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and transcriptional intermediary factor 1-gamma (TIF1-gamma) were identified in DM. Here, we detected these autoantibodies in patient sera using new assays with recombinant MDA5 and TIF1-gamma, and associated clinical features with the presence of anti-MDA5 or anti-TIF1-gamma antibodies.
METHODS: We screened 135 Japanese patients with various CTDs, including 82 with DM. DM patients were classified as clinically amyopathic DM (CADM), cancer-associated DM or classical DM without cancer. Anti-MDA5 and anti-TIF1-gamma antibodies were detected by their ability to immunoprecipitate biotinylated recombinant proteins.
RESULTS: Sera from 21 (26%) of 82 DM patients immunoprecipitated MDA5, and every anti-MDA5-positive patient had DM (except one patient with SSc). Sera from 20 (65%) of 31 CADM patients reacted with MDA5. Notably, anti-MDA5-positive DM patients had significantly more interstitial lung disease than anti-MDA5-negative DM patients (95 vs 32%, P < 0.001). Sera from 12 (15%) of 82 DM patients immunoprecipitated TIF1-gamma, and anti-TIF1-gamma antibodies were only detected in DM patients. Strikingly, 7 (58%) of 12 patients with cancer-associated DM had sera that reacted with TIF1-gamma. Anti-TIF1-gamma-positive DM patients had significantly more internal malignancies than anti-TIF1-gamma-negative DM patients (58 vs 9%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Anti-MDA5 and anti-TIF1-gamma antibodies were confirmed to be serological DM subset markers. Anti-MDA5 and anti-TIF1-gamma antibodies were detected based on their ability to immunoprecipitate biotinylated recombinant MDA5 and TIF1-gamma, and were closely associated with life-threatening complications in DM.

Vincent DF, Yan KP, Treilleux I, et al.
Inactivation of TIF1gamma cooperates with Kras to induce cystic tumors of the pancreas.
PLoS Genet. 2009; 5(7):e1000575 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inactivation of the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFbeta) tumor suppressor pathway contributes to the progression of Pancreatic Ductal AdenoCarcinoma (PDAC) since it is inactivated in virtually all cases of this malignancy. Genetic lesions inactivating this pathway contribute to pancreatic tumor progression in mouse models. Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 gamma (TIF1gamma) has recently been proposed to be involved in TGFbeta signaling, functioning as either a positive or negative regulator of the pathway. Here, we addressed the role of TIF1gamma in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Using conditional Tif1gamma knockout mice (Tif1gamma(lox/lox)), we selectively abrogated Tif1gamma expression in the pancreas of Pdx1-Cre;Tif1gamma(lox/lox) mice. We also generated Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D);Tif1gamma(lox/lox) mice to address the effect of Tif1gamma loss-of-function in precancerous lesions induced by oncogenic Kras(G12D). Finally, we analyzed TIF1gamma expression in human pancreatic tumors. In our mouse model, we showed that Tif1gamma was dispensable for normal pancreatic development but cooperated with Kras activation to induce pancreatic tumors reminiscent of human Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMNs). Interestingly, these cystic lesions resemble those observed in Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D);Smad4(lox/lox) mice described by others. However, distinctive characteristics, such as the systematic presence of endocrine pseudo-islets within the papillary projections, suggest that SMAD4 and TIF1gamma don't have strictly redundant functions. Finally, we report that TIF1gamma expression is markedly down-regulated in human pancreatic tumors by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry supporting the relevance of these findings to human malignancy. This study suggests that TIF1gamma is critical for tumor suppression in the pancreas, brings new insight into the genetics of pancreatic cancer, and constitutes a promising model to decipher the respective roles of SMAD4 and TIF1gamma in the multifaceted functions of TGFbeta in carcinogenesis and development.

Liu CJ, Lin SC, Chen YJ, et al.
Array-comparative genomic hybridization to detect genomewide changes in microdissected primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Mol Carcinog. 2006; 45(10):721-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common worldwide malignancy. However, it is unclear what, if any, genomic alterations occur as the disease progresses to invasive and metastatic OSCC. This study used genomewide array-CGH in microdissected specimens to map genetic alterations found in primary OSCC and neck lymph node metastases. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to screen genomewide alterations in eight pairs of microdissected tissue samples from primary and metastatic OSCC. In addition, 25 primary and metastatic OSCC tissue pairs were examined with immunohistochemistry for protein expression of the most frequently altered genes. The highest frequencies of gains were detected in LMYC, REL, TERC, PIK3CA, MYB, MDR1, HRAS, GARP, CCND2, FES, HER2, SIS, and SRY. The highest frequencies of losses were detected in p44S10, TIF1, LPL, MTAP, BMI1, EGR2, and MAP2K5. Genomic alterations in TGFbeta2, cellular retinoid-binding protein 1 gene (CRBP1), PIK3CA, HTR1B, HRAS, ERBB3, and STK6 differed significantly between primary OSCC and their metastatic counterparts. Genomic alterations in PRKCZ, ABL1, and FGF4 were significantly different in patients who died compared with those who survived. Immunohistochemistry confirmed high PIK3CA immunoreactivity in primary and metastatic OSCC. Higher FGF4 immunoreactivity in primary OSCC is associated with a worse prognosis. Loss of CRBP1 immunoreactivity is evident in primary and metastatic OSCC. Our study suggests that precise genomic profiling can be useful in determining gene number changes in OSCC. As our understanding of these changes grow, this profiling may become a practical tool for clinical evaluation.

Strefford JC, Stasevich I, Lane TM, et al.
A combination of molecular cytogenetic analyses reveals complex genetic alterations in conventional renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005; 159(1):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we report the complex pattern of genomic imbalances and rearrangements in a panel of 19 renal cell carcinoma cell lines detected with molecular cytogenetic analysis. Consistent heterogeneity in chromosome number was found, and most cell lines showed a near-triploid chromosome complement. Several cell lines showed deletions of the TP53 (alias p53), CDKN2A (alias p16), and VHL genes. Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) analysis revealed chromosome 3 translocated to several other partners chromosomes, as well as breakage events commonly affecting chromosomes 1, 5, 8, 10, and 17. The most common abnormality detected with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was deletions of chromosome 3p, with loss of the RASSF1, FHIT, and p44S10 loci frequently involved. CGH gain of 5q showed overrepresentation of the EGR1 and CSF1R genes. Recurrent alterations to chromosome 7 included rearrangement of 7q11 and gains of the EGFR, TIF1, and RFC2 genes. Several lines exhibited rearrangement of 12q11 approximately q14 and overrepresentation of CDK4 and SAS loci. M-FISH revealed several other recurrent translocations, and CGH findings included loss of 9p, 14q, and 18q and gain of 8q, 12, and 20. Further genomic microarray changes included loss of MTAP, IGH@, HTR1B, and SMAD4 (previously MADH4) and gains of MYC and TOP1. An excellent correlation was observed between the genomic array and FISH data, demonstrating that this technique is effective and accurate. The aberrations detected here may reflect important pathways in renal cancer pathogenesis.

Chan CM, Martin LA, Johnston SR, et al.
Molecular changes associated with the acquisition of oestrogen hypersensitivity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells on long-term oestrogen deprivation.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002; 81(4-5):333-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The growth dependence of many breast cancers on oestrogen has been exploited therapeutically by oestrogen deprivation, but almost all patients eventually develop resistance largely by unknown mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) MCF-7 cells were cultured in oestrogen-deficient medium for 90 weeks in order to establish a long-term oestrogen-deprived MCF-7 (LTED) which eventually became independent of exogenous oestrogen for growth. After 15 weeks of quiescence (LTED-Q), basal growth rate increased in parallel with increasing oestrogen sensitivity. While 10(-9)M oestradiol (E2) maximally stimulated WT growth, the hypersensitive LTED (LTED-H) were maximally growth stimulated by 10(-13)M E2. By week 50, hypersensitivity was apparently lost and the cells became oestrogen independent (LTED-I), although the pure antioestrogen ICI182780 still inhibited cell growth and reversed the inhibitory effect of 10(-9)M E2 at 10(-12) to 10(-7)M. Tamoxifen (10(-7) to 10(-6)M) had a partial agonist effect on WT, but had no stimulatory effect on LTED. Whilst LTED cells have a low progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in all phases, oestrogen receptor (ER) a expression was, on average, elevated five- and seven-fold in LTED-H and LTED-I, respectively, and serine118 was phosphorylated. ERbeta expression was up-regulated and the levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) remained low throughout all phases. The levels of RIP140mRNA appeared to decrease to approximately 50% of the WT message in LTED-Q and remained constant into the hypersensitive phase. No significant changes were observed in the expression of SUG-1, TIF-1 and SMRT in LTED. The overall changes in nuclear receptor interacting proteins do not appear to be involved in the hypersensitivity. Thus, the resistance of these human breast cancer cells to oestrogen-deprivation appears to be due to acquired hypersensitivity which may be explained in part by increased levels of and phosphorylated ERalpha.

Gandini D, De Angeli C, Aguiari G, et al.
Preferential expression of the transcription coactivator HTIF1alpha gene in acute myeloid leukemia and MDS-related AML.
Leukemia. 2002; 16(5):886-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
HTIF1alpha, a transcription coactivator which is able to mediate RARalpha activity and functionally interact with PML, is encoded by a gene on chromosome 7q32-34, which is a critical region in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). With the assumption that this gene may be related to AML, we investigated the HTIF1alpha DNA structure and RNA expression in leukemic cells from 36 M1-M5 AML patients (28 "de novo" and eight "secondary" to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)). Abnormal HTIF1alpha DNA fragments were never found, whereas loss of HTIF1alpha DNA was observed in the patients with chromosome 7q32 deletion and translocation, and in one case without detectable chromosome 7 abnormality. HTIF1alpha RNA was found in acute myelocytic leukemic blasts, and was almost undetectable in normal mononuclear cells. The expression varied among the patients: higher in M1 to M3 subtypes, with the highest values in M1; low levels were constantly observed in M4 and M5 AML. In addition, HTIF1alpha was significantly overexpressed in MDS-related AML (MDR-AML), but not in MDS. We also found that HTIF1alpha expression was high in myeloid cell lines. In myeloblastic HL60 and promyelocytic NB4 cells, induced to differentiate along the monocytic-macrophage pathway by TPA or vitamin D3, HTIF1alpha expression decreased, whereas it was maintained at high levels on induction to granulocytic differentiation by RA or DMSO. In K562 cells, HTIF1alpha RNA levels did not change after hemin-induced erythroid differentiation. These results suggest that HTIF1alpha could play a role in myeloid differentiation, being distinctly regulated in hematopoietic lineages.

Salassidis K, Bruch J, Zitzelsberger H, et al.
Translocation t(10;14)(q11.2:q22.1) fusing the kinetin to the RET gene creates a novel rearranged form (PTC8) of the RET proto-oncogene in radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(11):2786-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evaluation of 20 cases of radiation-induced childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma using fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of clonal translocations affecting the RET locus. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR indicated overexpression of the RET tyrosine kinase (TK) domain in four cases. In two cases, the RET rearrangements PTC6 and PTC7 were identified and assigned to balanced translocations t(7;10)(q32;q11.2) and t(1;10)(p13;q11.2), respectively. In one case with a balanced translocation t(10;14)(q11.2;q22.1), 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a novel type of RET oncogenic activation (PTC8), arising from a fusion of the 5' part of the kinectin (KTN1) gene to the TK domain of the RET gene. The presence of coiled-coil domains in the resulting ktn1/ret fusion protein suggests ligand-independent dimerization and thus constitutive activation of the ret TK domain.

Rabes HM, Demidchik EP, Sidorow JD, et al.
Pattern of radiation-induced RET and NTRK1 rearrangements in 191 post-chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas: biological, phenotypic, and clinical implications.
Clin Cancer Res. 2000; 6(3):1093-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular genetic aberrations and the related phenotypes were investigated in 191 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) from patients exposed at young age to radioiodine released from the Chernobyl reactor. A high prevalence of RET gene rearrangements (62.3%) with a significant predominance of ELE1/RET (PTC3) over H4/RET (PTC1) rearrangements was found in PTCs of the first post-Chernobyl decade. NTRK1 rearrangements were rare (3.3%). In 3.3%, we observed novel types of RET rearrangements: GOLGA5/ RET (PTC5), HTIF/RET (PTC6), RFG7/RET (PTC7), and an as yet undefined RFGX/RET.RET rearrangements, preferentially ELE1/RET, are related to rapid tumor development. At longer intervals after exposure to ionizing radiation, the prevalence of RET rearrangements declines with a shift from ELE1/RET to H4/RET, most significantly in female patients. The prevalence of specific types of rearrangements is independent of age at irradiation. A significantly higher prevalence of ELE1/RET was observed in the most heavily contaminated Oblasts, Gomel and Brest, suggesting a preferential formation of this type of rearrangement after high thyroid doses. RET rearrangement is related to aggressive growth: Rearrangement-positive PTCs were in a more advanced pT category and more frequently in the pN1 category at presentation than rearrangement-negative PTCs. ELE1/RET is related to the solid variant of PTC, H4/RET more frequently to typical papillary structures. The genotype/phenotype evaluation of post-Chernobyl PTCs reveals a characteristic spectrum of gene rearrangements that lead to typical phenotypes with important biological and clinical implications.

Zhong S, Delva L, Rachez C, et al.
A RA-dependent, tumour-growth suppressive transcription complex is the target of the PML-RARalpha and T18 oncoproteins.
Nat Genet. 1999; 23(3):287-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PML and Tif1a are fused to RARA and Braf, respectively, resulting in the production of PML-RARalpha and Tif1alpha-B-Raf (T18) oncoproteins. Here we show that PML, Tif1alpha and RXRalpha/RARalpha function together in a transcription complex that is dependent on retinoic acid (RA). We found that PML acts as a ligand-dependent coactivator of RXRalpha/RARalpha. PML interacts with Tif1alpha and CBP. In Pml-/- cells, the RA-dependent induction of genes such as RARB2 and the ability of Tif1alpha and CBP to act as transcriptional coactivators on RA are impaired. We show that both PML and Tif1alpha are growth suppressors required for the growth-inhibitory activity of RA. T18, similar to PML-RARalpha, disrupts the RA-dependent activity of this complex in a dominant-negative manner resulting in a growth advantage. Our data define a new pathway for the control of cell growth and tumorigenesis, and provide a new model for the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL).

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