TNFRSF10D

Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF10D; TNF receptor superfamily member 10d
Aliases: DCR2, CD264, TRUNDD, TRAILR4, TRAIL-R4
Location:8p21.3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor contains an extracellular TRAIL-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a truncated cytoplamic death domain. This receptor does not induce apoptosis, and has been shown to play an inhibitory role in TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10D
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Staging
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 8
  • TNF
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 10c
  • von Hippel-Lindau Disease
  • Signal Transduction
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • DNA Methylation
  • Caspases
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Phenotype
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Epigenetics
  • Infant
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Caspase 8
  • CpG Islands
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Promoter Regions
  • Up-Regulation
  • Drug Resistance
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF10D (cancer-related)

Marmary Y, Adar R, Gaska S, et al.
Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(5):1170-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

Ouyang W, Zhang S, Yang B, et al.
β-catenin is regulated by USP9x and mediates resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(2):717-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of decoy receptor expression in TRAIL-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cells, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays were applied to examine sensitivity to TRAIL in breast cancer cells. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were used to detect the co-localization and interaction of USP9x and β-catenin. Luciferase assay was used to examine activity of the DcR1/DcR2/OPG reporter. Overexpression/silencing of β-catenin was performed to confirm β-catenin mediated transcription of the decoy receptors. Additionally, silencing of USP9x was performed to prove that USP9X stabilizes β-catenin and mediates TRAIL-resistance. It was found that USP9x interacted with β-catenin and inhibited the degradation of β-catenin through the deubiquitination of β-catenin. Luciferase reporter assays showed induction of DcR1/DcR2/OPG reporter activity observed upon co-transfection of β-catenin and Tcf-4. The overexpression/silencing of β-catenin further confirmed the role of β-catenin in the regulation of transcription of the decoy receptors. Silencing of USP9x directly evidenced that USP9x affected the protein expression level of β-catenin, the transcription level of the decoy receptors, and reversed TRAIL-resistance of MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, USP9x interacted with and stabilized β-catenin through deubiquitination to mediate transcription of the decoy receptors in breast cancer cells. Our results offer new insights into the mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL, and USP9x could potentially be a therapeutic target for TRAIL-resistant breast cancers.

Narayan G, Xie D, Ishdorj G, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of TRAIL decoy receptors at 8p12-21.3 commonly deleted region confers sensitivity to Apo2L/trail-Cisplatin combination therapy in cervical cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):177-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple chromosomal regions are affected by deletions in cervical cancer (CC) genomes, but their consequence and target gene involvement remains unknown. Our single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array identified 8p copy number losses localized to an 8.4 Mb minimal deleted region (MDR) in 36% of CC. The 8p MDR was associated with tumor size, treatment outcome, and with multiple HPV infections. Genetic, epigenetic, and expression analyses of candidate genes at MDR identified promoter hypermethylation and/or inactivation of decoy receptors TNFRSF10C and TNFRSF10D in the majority of CC patients. TNFRSF10C methylation was also detected in precancerous lesions suggesting that this change is an early event in cervical tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate here that CC cell lines exhibiting downregulated expression of TNFRSF10C and/or TNFRSF10D effectively respond to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and this affect was synergistic in combination with DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that the CC cell lines harboring epigenetic inactivation of TRAIL decoy receptors effectively activate downstream caspases suggesting a critical role of inactivation of these genes in efficient execution of extrinsic apoptotic pathway and therapy response. Therefore, these findings shed new light on the role of genetic/epigenetic defects in TRAIL decoy receptor genes in the pathogenesis of CC and provide an opportunity to explore strategies to test decoy receptor gene inactivation as a biomarker of response to Apo2L/TRAIL-combination therapy.

Sriraksa R, Limpaiboon T
TRAIL in Combination with Subtoxic 5-FU Effectively Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):6991-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the past decade, the incidence and mortality rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have been increasing worldwide. The relatively low responsiveness of CCA to conventional chemotherapy leads to poor overall survival. Recently, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) has emerged as the most promising anti-cancer therapeutic agent since it is able to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of TRAIL in CCA cell lines (M213, M214 and KKU100) compared with the immortal biliary cell line, MMNK1, either alone or in combination with a subtoxic dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We found that recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) was a potential agent which significantly inhibited cell proliferation and mediated caspase activities (caspases 8, 9 and 3/7) and apoptosis of CCA cells. The combined treatment of rhTRAIL and 5-FU effectively enhanced inhibition of CCA cell growth with a smaller effect on MMNK1. Our finding suggests TRAIL to be a novel anti-cancer therapeutic agent and advantage of its combination with a conventional chemotherapeutic drug for effective treatment of CCA.

Bruzzoni-Giovanelli H, González JR, Sigaux F, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36269-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Little is known about inherited factors associated with the risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We used a dedicated DNA chip containing 16 561 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 1 916 candidate genes to analyze 437 CML patients and 1 144 healthy control individuals. Single SNP association analysis identified 139 SNPs that passed multiple comparisons (1% false discovery rate). The HDAC9, AVEN, SEMA3C, IKBKB, GSTA3, RIPK1 and FGF2 genes were each represented by three SNPs, the PSM family by four SNPs and the SLC15A1 gene by six. Haplotype analysis showed that certain combinations of rare alleles of these genes increased the risk of developing CML by more than two or three-fold. A classification tree model identified five SNPs belonging to the genes PSMB10, TNFRSF10D, PSMB2, PPARD and CYP26B1, which were associated with CML predisposition. A CML-risk-allele score was created using these five SNPs. This score was accurate for discriminating CML status (AUC: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.58-0.64). Interestingly, the score was associated with age at diagnosis and the average number of risk alleles was significantly higher in younger patients. The risk-allele score showed the same distribution in the general population (HapMap CEU samples) as in our control individuals and was associated with differential gene expression patterns of two genes (VAPA and TDRKH). In conclusion, we describe haplotypes and a genetic score that are significantly associated with a predisposition to develop CML. The SNPs identified will also serve to drive fundamental research on the putative role of these genes in CML development.

Duru AD, Sutlu T, Wallblom A, et al.
Deletion of Chromosomal Region 8p21 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib and Is Associated with Upregulated Decoy TRAIL Receptor Expression in Patients with Multiple Myeloma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of the chromosomal region 8p21 negatively effects survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we aimed to identify the immunological and molecular consequences of del(8)(p21) with regards to treatment response and bortezomib resistance. In patients receiving bortezomib as a single first line agent without any high-dose therapy, we have observed that patients with del(8)(p21) responded poorly to bortezomib with 50% showing no response while patients without the deletion had a response rate of 90%. In vitro analysis revealed a higher resistance to bortezomib possibly due to an altered gene expression profile caused by del(8)(p21) including genes such as TRAIL-R4, CCDC25, RHOBTB2, PTK2B, SCARA3, MYC, BCL2 and TP53. Furthermore, while bortezomib sensitized MM cells without del(8)(p21) to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis, in cells with del(8)(p21) bortezomib failed to upregulate the pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 which are located on the 8p21 region. Also expressing higher levels of the decoy death receptor TRAIL-R4, these cells were largely resistant to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis. Corroborating the clinical outcome of the patients, our data provides a potential explanation regarding the poor response of MM patients with del(8)(p21) to bortezomib treatment. Furthermore, our clinical analysis suggests that including immunomodulatory agents such as Lenalidomide in the treatment regimen may help to overcome this negative effect, providing an alternative consideration in treatment planning of MM patients with del(8)(p21).

Jamshidi M, Fagerholm R, Khan S, et al.
SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):37979-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In breast cancer, constitutive activation of NF-κB has been reported, however, the impact of genetic variation of the pathway on patient prognosis has been little studied. Furthermore, a combination of genetic variants, rather than single polymorphisms, may affect disease prognosis. Here, in an extensive dataset (n = 30,431) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, we investigated the association of 917 SNPs in 75 genes in the NF-κB pathway with breast cancer prognosis. We explored SNP-SNP interactions on survival using the likelihood-ratio test comparing multivariate Cox' regression models of SNP pairs without and with an interaction term. We found two interacting pairs associating with prognosis: patients simultaneously homozygous for the rare alleles of rs5996080 and rs7973914 had worse survival (HRinteraction 6.98, 95% CI=3.3-14.4, P=1.42E-07), and patients carrying at least one rare allele for rs17243893 and rs57890595 had better survival (HRinteraction 0.51, 95% CI=0.3-0.6, P = 2.19E-05). Based on in silico functional analyses and literature, we speculate that the rs5996080 and rs7973914 loci may affect the BAFFR and TNFR1/TNFR3 receptors and breast cancer survival, possibly by disturbing both the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways or their dynamics, whereas, rs17243893-rs57890595 interaction on survival may be mediated through TRAF2-TRAIL-R4 interplay. These results warrant further validation and functional analyses.

Todorova T, Bock FJ, Chang P
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13 and RNA regulation in immunity and cancer.
Trends Mol Med. 2015; 21(6):373-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Post-transcriptional regulation of RNA is an important mechanism for activating and resolving cellular stress responses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13 (PARP13), also known as ZC3HAV1 and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability and translation of specific mRNAs, and modulates the miRNA silencing pathway to globally affect miRNA targets. These functions of PARP13 are important components of the cellular response to stress. In addition, the ability of PARP13 to restrict oncogenic viruses and to repress the prosurvival cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 4 (TRAILR4) suggests that it can be protective against malignant transformation and cancer development. The relevance of PARP13 to human health and disease make it a promising therapeutic target.

Woo JK, Kang JH, Jang YS, et al.
Evaluation of preventive and therapeutic activity of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CG100649, in colon cancer: Increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors enhance the apoptotic response to combination treatment with TRAIL.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(4):1947-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as the potential new class of preventive or therapeutic antitumor agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of the novel NSAID, CG100649. CG100649 is a novel NSAID dual inhibitor for COX-2 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-I/-II. In the present study, we investigated the alternative mechanism by which CG100649 mediated suppression of the colon cancer growth and development. The anchorage‑dependent and -independent clonogenic assay showed that CG100649 inhibited the clonogenicity of human colon cancer cells. The flow cytometric analysis showed that CG100649 induced the G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells. Animal studies showed that CG100649 inhibited the tumor growth in colon cancer xenograft in nude mice. Furthermore, quantitative PCR and FACS analysis demonstrated that CG100649 upregulated the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (DR4 and DR5) but decreased the expression of decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) in colon cancer cells. The results showed that CG100649 treatment sensitized TRAIL‑mediated growth suppression and apoptotic cell death. The combination treatment resulted in significant repression of the intestinal polyp formation in APCmin/+ mice. Our data clearly demonstrated that CG100649 contains preventive and therapeutic activity for colon cancer. The present study may be useful for identification of the potential benefit of the NSAID CG100649, for the achievement of a better treatment response in colon cancer.

Li Z, Guo X, Wu Y, et al.
Methylation profiling of 48 candidate genes in tumor and matched normal tissues from breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 149(3):767-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene-specific methylation alterations in breast cancer have been suggested to occur early in tumorigenesis and have the potential to be used for early detection and prevention. The continuous increase in worldwide breast cancer incidences emphasizes the urgent need for identification of methylation biomarkers for early cancer detection and patient stratification. Using microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation bisulfite sequencing technology, we analyzed methylation status of 48 candidate genes in paired tumor and normal tissues from 180 Chinese breast cancer patients. Analysis of the sequencing results showed 37 genes differentially methylated between tumor and matched normal tissues. Breast cancer samples with different clinicopathologic characteristics demonstrated distinct profiles of gene methylation. The methylation levels were significantly different between breast cancer subtypes, with basal-like and luminal B tumors having the lowest and the highest methylation levels, respectively. Six genes (ACADL, ADAMTSL1, CAV1, NPY, PTGS2, and RUNX3) showed significant differential methylation among the 4 breast cancer subtypes and also between the ER +/ER- tumors. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, we identified a panel of 13 hypermethylated genes as candidate biomarkers that performed a high level of efficiency for cancer prediction. These 13 genes included CST6, DBC1, EGFR, GREM1, GSTP1, IGFBP3, PDGFRB, PPM1E, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, TNFRSF10D, and WRN. Our results provide evidence that well-defined DNA methylation profiles enable breast cancer prediction and patient stratification. The novel gene panel might be a valuable biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

Verim A, Turan S, Farooqi AA, et al.
Association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induce ligand (TRAIL), TRAIL receptor and sTRAIL levels.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(24):10697-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
The laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors occurring in the head and neck. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induce ligand (TRAIL) and TRAIL-receptors (DR4, DR5, DcR1, DcR2) are known as important members of TRAIL-mediated biochemical signaling pathway. Associations between polymorphisms in these genes and clinicopathological characteristics of human laryngeal carcinoma are not well defined. This study therefore aimed to investigate a possible relationship among the TRAIL and TRAIL-DR4 polymorphisms and sTRAIL levels in the risk or progression of LSCC. A total of 99 patients with laryngeal cancer and 120 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. DR4 C626G and TRAIL 1595 C/T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and sTRAIL levels were measured by ELISA. There were significant differences in the distribution of DR4 C626G genotypes and frequencies of the alleles between laryngeal cancer patients and controls (p<0.001) but not in TRAIL 1595 C/T. We found the increased frequency of the DR4 C626G homozygote CC genotype in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Haplotype analysis revealed that there was also a statistically significant relationship between TRAIL and TRAIL-DR4 polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer. Serum sTRAIL levels in the laryngeal patients with CC genotype who had advanced tumour stage were lower than those of patients with early tumor stage (p=0.014). Our findings suggest that DR4 C626G genotypes and sTRAIL levels might be associated with progression of laryngeal cancer in the Turkish population.

Yu R, Albarenque SM, Cool RH, et al.
DR4 specific TRAIL variants are more efficacious than wild-type TRAIL in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(12):1658-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current treatment modalities for pancreatic carcinoma afford only modest survival benefits. TRAIL, as a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells, would be a promising new treatment option. However, since not all pancreatic cancer cells respond to TRAIL, further improvements and optimizations are still needed. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of TRAIL-based therapies is to specifically target one of the 2 cell death inducing TRAIL-receptors, TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 to overcome resistance. To this end, we designed constructs expressing soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) variants that were rendered specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 by amino acid changes in the TRAIL ectodomain. When we expressed these constructs, including wild-type sTRAIL (sTRAIL(wt)), TRAIL-R1 (sTRAIL(DR4)) and TRAIL-R2 (sTRAIL(DR5)) specific variants, in 293 producer cells we found all to be readily expressed and secreted into the supernatant. These supernatants were subsequently transferred onto target cancer cells and apoptosis measured. We found that the TRAIL-R1 specific variant had higher apoptosis-inducing activity in human pancreatic carcinoma Colo357 cells as well as PancTu1 cells that were additionally sensitized by targeting of XIAP. Finally, we tested TRAIL-R1 specific recombinant TRAIL protein (rTRAIL(DR4)) on Colo357 xenografts in nude mice and found them to be more efficacious than rTRAIL(wt). Our results demonstrate the benefits of synthetic biological approaches and show that TRAIL-R1 specific variants can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that they can possibly become part of individualized and tumor specific combination treatments in the future.

Sarhan D, D'Arcy P, Lundqvist A
Regulation of TRAIL-receptor expression by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(10):18557-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R) family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients.

Anees M, Horak P, Schiefer AI, et al.
The potential evasion of immune surveillance in mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma by DcR2-mediated up-regulation of nuclear factor-κB.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(5):1440-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated expression profiles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway components and mechanisms underlying TRAIL-induced apoptosis in mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Genetic aberrations including translocations and trisomies were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression of TRAIL, death receptors 4 and 5, decoy receptors 1 and 2, and FADD-like interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (FLICE) inhibitory protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All 32 patients under study showed some alterations in TRAIL pathway mainly involving loss of death receptors (37.5%), gain of decoy receptors (3.1%) or both (59.4%). Decoy receptor 2 (DcR2) was highly expressed in patients with normal cytogenetic status as compared to those with cytogenetic aberrations (p = 0.005). Moreover, DcR2 expression correlated significantly with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression (R = 0.372, p = 0.047). High expression of DcR2 in patients with normal cytogenetic status and its significant correlation with NF-κB expression provides a potential clue to evasion of immune surveillance in cytogenetically normal MALT lymphomas.

Ratzinger G, Mitteregger S, Wolf B, et al.
Association of TNFRSF10D DNA-methylation with the survival of melanoma patients.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(7):11984-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this retrospective pilot study, the DNA-methylation status of genes that have been demonstrated to be involved in melanoma carcinogenesis was analyzed in order to identify novel biomarkers for the risk assessment of melanoma patients. We analyzed DNA extracted from punch-biopsies from 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) melanoma specimens. Using MethyLight PCR, we examined 20 genes in specimens from a training set comprising 36 melanoma patients. Selected candidate genes were validated in a test set using FFPE tissue samples from 32 melanoma patients. First, we identified the TNFRSF10D DNA-methylation status (TNFRSF10D methylated vs. unmethylated) as a prognostic marker for overall (p = 0.001) and for relapse-free survival (p = 0.008) in the training set. This finding was confirmed in the independent test set (n = 32; overall survival p = 0.041; relapse-free survival p = 0.012). In a multivariate Cox-regression analysis including all patients, the TNFRSF10D DNA-methylation status remained as the most significant prognostic parameter for overall and relapse-free survival (relative-risk (RR) of death, 4.6 (95% CI: 2.0-11.0; p < 0.001), RR of relapse, 7.2 (95% CI: 2.8-18.3; p < 0.001)). In this study, we demonstrate that TNFRSF10D DNA-methylation analysis of a small tissue-punch from archival FFPE melanoma tissue is a promising approach to provide prognostic information in patients with melanoma.

Kang KW, Lee MJ, Song JA, et al.
Overexpression of goosecoid homeobox is associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal cancer among all gynecological malignancies due to recurrence through chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to identify new biomarkers to predict chemoresistance and prognosis in ovarian carcinomas. The mRNA expression by qRT-PCR was examined in 60 ovarian serous carcinomas for selected genes from the screening by PCR array focusing on apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer pathways. The clinical impact was assessed by analyzing the correlation between gene expression and clinicopathological variables. Further validation with immunohistochemistry was performed with 75 cases of serous carcinomas. The chemoresistance was significantly associated with high expression of FOS, GSC, SNAI1, TERT and TNFRSF10D, and low expression of CDKN1A, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10C and TRAF1 (p<0.05, t-test). Low expression of TRAF1 and high expression of E2F1, FOS, TERT and GSC were significantly associated with advanced clinical stage (p<0.05, χ2-test). Lymph node metastasis was significantly associated with high expression of GSC. The upregulation group of TERT, GSC, NOTCH1 and SNAI1, and downregulation group of TRAF1 were significantly associated with poor overall survival (p<0.05, log-rank test). On further validation with immunohistochemistry, overexpression of goosecoid homeobox (GSC) was associated with poor overall survival. The results suggest that GSC is the most potential biomarker of drug response and poor prognosis in ovarian serous carcinomas.

Haruta M, Kamijo T, Nakagawara A, Kaneko Y
RASSF1A methylation may have two biological roles in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis depending on the ploidy status and age of patients.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 348(1-2):167-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
RASSF1A methylation was frequent in neuroblastomas found in infants by mass-screening or infants and children diagnosed clinically, whereas CASP8 and DCR2 methylation was only frequent in tumors in children. When classified according to the ploidy status, RASSF1A and PCDHB methylation was only associated with MYCN amplification and poor outcomes in infants with a clinically diagnosed diploid, not triploid tumor. RASSF1A and PCDHB methylation was associated with poor outcomes in children with triploid and diploid tumors, respectively, and with MYCN amplification in children with diploid tumor. RASSF1A methylation may have two biological roles based on the ploidy status and patient's age.

Stamatelli A, Vlachou C, Aroni K, et al.
Epigenetic alterations in sporadic basal cell carcinomas.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2014; 306(6):561-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant human neoplasm characterized by slow growth and virtual absence of metastases. Recently, it has become evident that along with genetic mutations epigenetic alterations play a key role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. We searched for promoter methylation of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes and BRAF mutations in BCCs in association with the clinicopathological parameters and the histological subtypes of the tumours. Fifty-two BCCs, 17 FFPE along with 35 fresh tissue samples with matching normal tissues for 26 cases were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR to assess the methylation status of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes after sodium bisulfite treatment of the tumour and normal DNA. hMLH1 and DCR1 gene expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. BRAF mutations were studied by high resolution melting analysis. Methylation was detected at a variable frequency of 44, 33, 32.5, 32 and 14 % of DCR2, APC, DCR1, RASSF1 and DAPK promoters, respectively, whereas methylation of hMLH1 promoter was absent. No BRAF mutations were found. There was no correlation between the frequency of the promoter methylation of the above-mentioned genes and the clinicopathological features or the histological subtypes of the tumours. The relatively high frequency of RASSF1A, DCR1, DCR2 and APC promoter methylation may imply that methylation constitutes an important pathway in the tumourigenesis of BCC that could provide new opportunities in developing epigenetic therapies for BCC patients. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to establish the above-mentioned hypothesis.

Zhu H, Huang M, Ren D, et al.
The synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:293874 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member which has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. However, many cancer cells remain resistant to TRAIL. In this study, we had investigated the synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil (5-Fu) and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells and explored the potential mechanisms. Cell viability was analyzed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the synergistic effects were evaluated by Jin's formula and confirmed by both morphological changes under inverted microscope and flow cytometry. The expression of TRAIL-R1 (death receptor 4, DR4), TRAIL-R2 (DR5), TRAIL-R3 (decoy receptor, DcR1), TRAIL-R4 (DcR2), procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 was detected by western blotting. Our results showed that there were significant synergistic effects of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant AGS cells, and this effect was supposed to be mediated by decreasing DcR2 expression and increasing DR5 expression. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were both activated. The data suggest that combined treatment of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL can be an effective therapeutic approach for gastric adenocarcinoma.

Venza M, Visalli M, Catalano T, et al.
Impact of DNA methyltransferases on the epigenetic regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor expression in malignant melanoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 441(4):743-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant promoter methylation and resultant silencing of TRAIL decoy receptors were reported in a variety of cancers, but to date little is known about the relevance of this epigenetic modification in melanoma. In this study, we examined the methylation and the expression status of TRAIL receptor genes in cutaneous and uveal melanoma cell lines and specimens and their interaction with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b. DR4 and DR5 methylation was not frequent in cutaneous melanoma but on the contrary it was very frequent in uveal melanoma. No correlation between methylation status of DR4 and DR5 and gene expression was found. DcR1 and DcR2 were hypermethylated with very high frequency in both cutaneous and uveal melanoma. The concordance between methylation and loss of gene expression ranged from 91% to 97%. Here we showed that DNMT1 was crucial for DcR2 hypermethylation and that DNMT1 and DNMT3a coregulate the methylation status of DcR1. Our work also revealed the critical relevance of DcR1 and DcR2 expression in cell growth and apoptosis either in cutaneous or uveal melanoma. In conclusion, the results presented here claim for a relevant impact of aberrant methylation of decoy receptors in melanoma and allow to understand how the silencing of DcR1 and DcR2 is related to melanomagenesis.

Abdulghani J, Allen JE, Dicker DT, et al.
Sorafenib sensitizes solid tumors to Apo2L/TRAIL and Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies by the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75414 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of tumor cell lines are resistant to the tumor-selective apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo22L/TRAIL). Previously, we showed that combining Apo2L/TRAIL with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, results in dramatic efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumor xenografts via inhibition of Mcl-1. Soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is capable of binding to several surface receptors, including the pro-apoptotic death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decoy receptors, DcR1 and DcR2. Monoclonal antibodies targeting either of these death receptors are being investigated as antitumor agents in clinical trials. We hypothesized that sorafenib and Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor agonist (TRA) antibodies against DR4 (mapatumumab) and DR5 (lexatumumab) will overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and as increase antitumor efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive solid tumors.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Apo2L/TRAIL or TRA antibodies combined with sorafenib synergistically reduce cell growth and increase cell death across a panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. This panel included human breast, prostate, colon, liver and thyroid cancers. The cooperativity of these combinations was also observed in vivo, as measured by tumor volume and TUNEL staining as a measure of apoptosis. We found that sorafenib inhibits Jak/Stat3 signaling and downregulates their target genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Mcl-1, in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of sorafenib with Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies sensitizes Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells and increases the sensitivity of Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive cells. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis in response to sorafenib treatment, which may play a key role in sorafenib-mediated sensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL.

Tahir RA, Sehgal SA, Khattak NA, et al.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 10B (TNFRSF10B): an insight from structure modeling to virtual screening for designing drug against head and neck cancer.
Theor Biol Med Model. 2013; 10:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) belongs to a group of heterogeneous disease with distinct patterns of behavior and presentation. TNFRSF10B, a tumor suppressor gene mapped on chromosome 8. Mutation in candidate gene is responsible for the loss of chromosome p arm which is frequently observed in head and neck tumors. TNFRSF10B inhibits tumor formation through apoptosis but deregulation encourages metastasis, migration and invasion of tumor cell tissues.
RESULTS: Structural modeling was performed by employing MODELLER (9v10). A suitable template [2ZB9] was retrieved from protein databank with query coverage and sequence identity of 84% and 30% respectively. Predicted Model evaluation form Rampage revealed 93.2% residues in favoured region, 5.7% in allowed region while only 1 residue is in outlier region. ERRAT and ProSA demonstrated 51.85% overall quality with a -1.08 Z-score of predicted model. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA 5) tool was executed to infer an evolutionary history of TNFRSF10B candidate gene. Orthologs and paralogs [TNFRSF10A & TNFRSF10D] protein sequences of TNFRSF10B gene were retrieved for developed ancestral relationship. Topology of tree presenting TNFRSF10A gene considered as outgroup. Human and gorilla shared more than 90% similarities with conserved amino acid sequence. Virtual screening approach was appliedfor identification of novel inhibitors. Library (Mcule) was screened for novel inhibitors and utilized the scrutinized lead compounds for protein ligand docking. Screened lead compounds were further investigated for molecular docking studies. STRING server was employed to explore protein-protein interactions of TNFRSF10B target protein. TNFSF10 protein showed highest 0.999 confidence score and selected protein-protein docking by utilizing GRAMM-X server. In-silico docking results revealed I-58, S-90 and A-62 as most active interacting residues of TNFRSF10B receptor protein with R-130, S-156 and R-130 of TNFSF10B ligand protein.
CONCLUSION: Current research may provide a backbone for understanding structural and functional insights of TNFRSF10B protein. The designed novel inhibitors and predicted interactions might serve to inhibit the disease. Effective in-vitro potent ligands are required which will be helpful in future to design a drug to against Head and neck cancer disease. There is an urgent need for affective drug designing of head and neck cancer and computational tools for examining candidate genes more efficiently and accurately are required.

Pare R, Yang T, Shin JS, Lee CS
The significance of the senescence pathway in breast cancer progression.
J Clin Pathol. 2013; 66(6):491-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive breast cancer develops through prolonged accumulation of multiple genetic changes. The progression to a malignant phenotype requires overriding of growth inhibition. It is evident that some breast cancers have an inherited basis, and both hereditary and sporadic cancers appear to involve molecular mechanisms that are linked to the cell cycle. Frequently, changes in the molecular pathways with gene deletions, point mutations and/or overexpression of growth factors can be seen in these cancers. Recent evidence also implicates the senescence pathway in breast carcinogenesis. It has a barrier effect towards excessive cellular growth, acting as the regulator of tumour initiation and progression. Later in carcinogenesis, acquisition of the senescence associated secretory phenotype may instead promote tumour progression by stimulating growth and transformation in adjacent cells. This two-edge role of senescence in cancer directs more investigations into the effects of the senescence pathway in the development of malignancy. This review presents the current evidence on the roles of senescence molecular pathways in breast cancer and its progression.

Kiss NB, Muth A, Andreasson A, et al.
Acquired hypermethylation of the P16INK4A promoter in abdominal paraganglioma: relation to adverse tumor phenotype and predisposing mutation.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013; 20(1):65-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent alterations in promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and LINE1 (L1RE1) repeat elements were previously reported in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. This study was undertaken to explore CpG methylation abnormalities in an extended tumor panel and assess possible relationships between metastatic disease and mutation status. CpG methylation was quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing for selected TSG promoters and LINE1 repeats. Methylation indices above normal reference were observed for DCR2 (TNFRSF10D), CDH1, P16 (CDKN2A), RARB, and RASSF1A. Z-scores for overall TSG, and individual TSG methylation levels, but not LINE1, were significantly correlated with metastatic disease, paraganglioma, disease predisposition, or outcome. Most strikingly, P16 hypermethylation was strongly associated with SDHB mutation as opposed to RET/MEN2, VHL/VHL, or NF1-related disease. Parallel analyses of constitutional, tumor, and metastasis DNA implicate an order of events where constitutional SDHB mutations are followed by TSG hypermethylation and 1p loss in primary tumors, later transferred to metastatic tissue. In the combined material, P16 hypermethylation was prevalent in SDHB-mutated samples and was associated with short disease-related survival. The findings verify the previously reported importance of P16 and other TSG hypermethylation in an independent tumor series. Furthermore, a constitutional SDHB mutation is proposed to predispose for an epigenetic tumor phenotype occurring before the emanation of clinically recognized malignancy.

Tang SY, Zhong MZ, Yuan GJ, et al.
Casticin, a flavonoid, potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through modulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and death receptor 5 in colon cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(2):474-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the effect of casticin on apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We found that casticin potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Casticin downregulated cell survival proteins including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP and cFLIP, and induced death receptor 5 (DR5), but had no effect on DR4 and decoy receptors (DcR1 or DcR2). Deletion of DR5 by siRNA significantly reduced the apoptosis induced by TRAIL and casticin. In addition, casticin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, the present study showed that casticin potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through downregulation of cell survival proteins and induction of DR5 mediated by ROS.

Kiss NB, Kogner P, Johnsen JI, et al.
Quantitative global and gene-specific promoter methylation in relation to biological properties of neuroblastomas.
BMC Med Genet. 2012; 13:83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to quantify tumor suppressor gene (TSG) promoter methylation densities levels in primary neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. A subset of these TSGs is associated with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in other tumor types.
METHODS: The study panel consisted of 38 primary tumors, 7 established cell lines and 4 healthy references. Promoter methylation was determined by bisulphate Pyrosequencing for 14 TSGs; and LINE-1 repeat element methylation was used as an indicator of global methylation levels.
RESULTS: Overall mean TSG Z-scores were significantly increased in cases with adverse outcome, but were unrelated to global LINE-1 methylation. CIMP with hypermethylation of three or more gene promoters was observed in 6/38 tumors and 7/7 cell lines. Hypermethylation of one or more TSG (comprising TSGs BLU, CASP8, DCR2, CDH1, RASSF1A and RASSF2) was evident in 30/38 tumors. By contrast only very low levels of promoter methylation were recorded for APC, DAPK1, NORE1A, P14, P16, TP73, PTEN and RARB. Similar involvements of methylation instability were revealed between cell line models and neuroblastoma tumors. Separate analysis of two proposed CASP8 regulatory regions revealed frequent and significant involvement of CpG sites between exon 4 and 5, but modest involvement of the exon 1 region.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the involvement of TSG methylation instability in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines using quantitative methods, support the use of DNA methylation analyses as a prognostic tool for this tumor type, and underscore the relevance of developing demethylating therapies for its treatment.

Lau DT, Hesson LB, Norris MD, et al.
Prognostic significance of promoter DNA methylation in patients with childhood neuroblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(20):5690-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical significance of promoter methylation in a cohort of primary neuroblastoma tumors and investigate the association between DNA methylation and clinical outcome.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A customized Illumina GoldenGate methylation assay was used to assess methylation status of 96 CpG sites within 48 candidate genes in primary neuroblastoma tumors obtained from 131 children diagnosed in Australia. Genes were selected on the basis of previous reports of altered DNA methylation in embryonal cancers. Levels of DNA methylation were validated in a subset of 48 patient samples using combined bisulfite restriction analysis (CoBRA) and bisulfite sequencing. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between promoter hypermethylation and the risk of relapse/death within 5 years of diagnosis, while adjusting for known prognostic factors including MYCN amplification, age, and stage at diagnosis.
RESULTS: Levels of promoter methylation of DNAJC15, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 or TrkA (NTRK1), and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10D (TNFRSF10D), were higher in older patients at diagnosis (P < 0.01), whereas higher levels of methylation of DNAJC15, NTRK1, and PYCARD were observed in patients with MYCN amplification (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, hypermethylation of folate hydrolase (FOLH1), myogenic differentiation-1 (MYOD1), and thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) remained significant independent predictors of poorer clinical outcome after adjusting for known prognostic factors (P ≤ 0.017). Moreover, more than 30% of patients displayed hypermethylation in 2 genes or more and were at least 2 times more likely to relapse or die (HR = 2.72, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-4.78, P = 0.001), independent of MYCN status, age, and stage at diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the potential use of methylation profiling to identify additional prognostic markers and detect new therapeutic targets for selected patient subsets.

Mahapatra S, Klee EW, Young CY, et al.
Global methylation profiling for risk prediction of prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(10):2882-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter hypermethylation as diagnostic markers to detect malignant prostate cells and as prognostic markers to predict the clinical recurrence of prostate cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DNA was isolated from prostate cancer and normal adjacent tissues. After bisulfite conversion, methylation of 14,495 genes was evaluated using the Methylation27 microarrays in 238 prostate tissues. We analyzed methylation profiles in four different groups: (i) tumor (n = 198) versus matched normal tissues (n = 40), (ii) recurrence (n = 123) versus nonrecurrence (n = 75), (iii) clinical recurrence (n = 80) versus biochemical recurrence (n = 43), and (iv) systemic recurrence (n = 36) versus local recurrence (n = 44). Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 genes signifying biomarkers for diagnosis, prediction of recurrence, clinical recurrence, and systemic progression were determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to predict risk of recurrence. We validated the methylation of genes in 20 independent tissues representing each group by pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed significant methylation of genes in four different groups of prostate cancer tissues. The sensitivity and specificity of methylation for 25 genes from 1, 2, and 4 groups and 7 from group 3 were shown. Validation of genes by pyrosequencing from group 1 (GSTP1, HIF3A, HAAO, and RARβ), group 2 (CRIP1, FLNC, RASGRF2, RUNX3, and HS3ST2), group 3 (PHLDA3, RASGRF2, and TNFRSF10D), and group 4 (BCL11B, POU3F3, and RASGRF2) confirmed the microarray results.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a global assessment of DNA methylation in prostate cancer and identifies the significance of genes as diagnostic and progression biomarkers of prostate cancer.

Ohshima J, Haruta M, Fujiwara Y, et al.
Methylation of the RASSF1A promoter is predictive of poor outcome among patients with Wilms tumor.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012; 59(3):499-505 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) has a survival rate of 90% following multimodality therapy. Nevertheless, there are some groups of patients with event-free survival rates less than 75%. In addition to clinical prognostic factors, loss of heterozygosity at 1p and/or 16q has been used to determine treatment intensity. However, the incidence of this abnormality is low, and new biomarkers are still needed.
PROCEDURE: We analyzed methylation status of three tumor suppressor genes; Ras-association domain family 1 protein, isoform A (RASSF1A), DCR2, and CASP8, in 84 WTs using conventional methylation-specific PCR (cMSP), and the results were correlated with outcome. Furthermore, we analyzed the methylation status of RASSF1A by quantitative MSP (qMSP) in 171 WTs, and evaluated clinical and genetic differences between the methylated and unmethylated tumors.
RESULTS: RASSF1A was the most frequently methylated gene identified by cMSP, and associated with a poor outcome. Patients with a RASSF1A-methylated tumor had shorter overall and event-free survival periods (P = 0.043 and 0.018, respectively), when a cut-off value of 7% by qMSP was used. The methylation was more frequent in tumors of older children than younger children (P < 0.001), and in advanced-stage tumors than early stage tumors (P = 0.001). However, multivariate analysis could not confirm the prognostic significance of RASSF1A methylation, possibly because of a small number of advanced stage tumors examined. RASSF1A methylation was correlated with LOH at 1p and/or 16q (P = 0.017), but not with WT1 abnormality, suggesting the methylation and LOH to involve the same tumorigenic pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The methylation status of RASSF1A might be a novel biomarker to predict outcome of WT patients.

Tserga A, Michalopoulos NV, Levidou G, et al.
Association of aberrant DNA methylation with clinicopathological features in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(5):1630-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation is responsible for the epigenetic silencing of genes associated with tumourigenesis and progression of cancer. In this study, we assessed the methylation status of eight genes in 49 snap-frozen primary breast tumours. Epigenetic alterations of 8 genes were analysed with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) (DCR1, DAPK1, RASSF1A and DCR2) or methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRM) (APC, MGMT, GSTP1 and PTEN). MS-HRM performance was validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing regarding the methylation levels of MGMT. Promoter methylation was observed in APC 54.34%, 40.4% DCR1, 37.5% DAPK1, 33.3% RASSF1A, 22.44% MGMT, 16.6% GSTP1, 6% PTEN and 0% DCR2 promoters, respectively. Interestingly, 37 out of 49 cases (75.5%) displayed aberrant promoter methylation in at least one gene. An association of MGMT promoter methylation with age and tumour grade was recorded. Moreover, a correlation with advanced T-category was elicited for GSTP1, RASSF1 and DAPK1 promoter methylation. Finally, concurrent methylation of several genes showed a marginal statistical relationship with N-category. We conclude that APC, DCR1, DAPK1 and RASSF1A promoter methylation represents a common event in breast cancer tumourigenesis. Our results suggest that GSTP1, RASSF1, DAPK1 and MGMT may be implicated in the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype in breast cancer.

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