Gene Summary

Gene:XIAP; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis
Aliases: API3, ILP1, MIHA, XLP2, BIRC4, IAP-3, hIAP3, hIAP-3
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of apoptotic suppressor proteins. Members of this family share a conserved motif termed, baculovirus IAP repeat, which is necessary for their anti-apoptotic function. This protein functions through binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2 and inhibits apoptosis induced by menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals, and interleukin 1-beta converting enzyme. This protein also inhibits at least two members of the caspase family of cell-death proteases, caspase-3 and caspase-7. Mutations in this gene are the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2 and 11.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase XIAP
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: XIAP (cancer-related)

Lu X, Yu Y, Tan S
Long non-coding XIAP-AS1 regulates cell proliferation, invasion and cell cycle in colon cancer.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):767-775 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed and deadly cancers worldwide. Further understanding of the biological mechanisms is important for exploring the molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets of this disease. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been reported to be associated with the development and progression of various cancers. XIAP-AS1 is a novel lncRNA, which can regulate apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. However, the role of XIAP-AS1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we found that XIAP-AS1 expression was significantly increased in CRC tissues and its expression showed a positive correlation with TNM stage and cumulative survival rate of CRC. To investigate whether XIAP-AS1 regulates the progression of CRC, we knocked down its expression in several CRC cell lines. CCK-8 assays showed that XIAP-AS1 knockdown remarkably suppressed CRC cell growth and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase (flow cytometric analysis). Furthermore, XIAP-AS1 knockdown also remarkably blocked cell invasion of colon cancer cells by regulating the expression of EMT markers, such as E-cadherin, ZO-1, vimentin, and N-cadherin. Importantly, we found that XIAP-AS1 knockdown significantly reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. Overall, this study suggests that lncRNA XIAP-AS1 might serve as a potential oncogene for colon cancer.

Soltan MY, Sumarni U, Assaf C, et al.
Key Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Indirubin Derivative-Induced Cell Death in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) may develop a highly malignant phenotype in its late phase, and patients may profit from innovative therapies. The plant extract indirubin and its chemical derivatives represent new and promising antitumor strategies. This first report on the effects of an indirubin derivative in CTCL cells shows a strong decrease of cell proliferation and cell viability as well as an induction of apoptosis, suggesting indirubin derivatives for therapy of CTCL. As concerning the mode of activity, the indirubin derivative DKP-071 activated the extrinsic apoptosis cascade via caspase-8 and caspase-3 through downregulation of the caspase antagonistic proteins c-FLIP and XIAP. Importantly, a strong increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed as an immediate early effect in response to DKP-071 treatment. The use of antioxidative pre-treatment proved the decisive role of ROS, which turned out upstream of all other proapoptotic effects monitored. Thus, reactive oxygen species appear as a highly active proapoptotic pathway in CTCL, which may be promising for therapeutic intervention. This pathway can be efficiently activated by an indirubin derivative.

Chiang CH, Chung JG, Hsu FT
Regorefenib induces extrinsic/intrinsic apoptosis and inhibits MAPK/NF-κB-modulated tumor progression in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Environ Toxicol. 2019; 34(6):679-688 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study is to investigate anticancer effect and mechanism of regorafenib in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Human bladder cancer TSGH 8301 cells were treated with regorafenib, NF-κB, AKT, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors for different time. The changes of cell viability, NF-κB activation, apoptotic signaling transduction, and expression of tumor progression-associated proteins were evaluated with MTT, NF-κB reporter gene assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting assay. TSGH 8301 tumor bearing mice were established and treated with vehicle (140 μL of 0.1% DMSO) or regorafenib (10 mg/kg/day by gavage) for 15 days. The changes of tumor volume, body weight, NF-κB activation, MAPK activation, and tumor progression-associated proteins (MMP-9, XIAP, VEGF, and Cyclin-D1) after regorafenib treatment were evaluated with digital caliper, digital weight, and ex vivo Western blotting assay. Our results demonstrated NF-κB activation and protein levels of MMP-9, XIAP, VEGF, and Cyclin-D1 were significantly reduced by NF-κB (QNZ), ERK (PD98059), and P38 (SB203580) inhibitors. Regorafenib also significantly induced extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signaling transduction in bladder cancer in vitro. In addition, regorafenib significantly inhibited tumor growth, NF-κB, p38, ERK activation and expression of tumor progression-associated proteins in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results proved that regorafenib not only induced apoptosis through extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and but suppressed MAPK/ NF-κB-modulated tumor progression in bladder cancer.

Zhang H, Wang X, Huang H, et al.
Hsa_circ_0067997 promotes the progression of gastric cancer by inhibition of miR-515-5p and activation of X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP).
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):308-318 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been revealed to play vital roles in modulating gene expression and participate in several pathological responses including gastric cancer (GC). However, the larger numbers of the circRNAs in GC progression remain undetermined. In the present study, four GC related circRNAs expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were enrolled. We identified hsa_ circRNA_00067997 (circ_0067997) as an oncogene in GC. qRT-PCR was used to validate the expression of circ_0067997 in GC tissues and cell lines. The results revealed that circ_0067997 was upregulated in GC, and high circ_0067997 expression was associated with the poor overall survival rate of GC patients. Knockdown of circ_0067997 significantly reduced cell viability, inhibited colony formation, and attenuated invasive ability, whereas overexpression of circ_0067997 exhibited opposed effects. Circ_0067997 was identified to be a sponge for miR-515-5p directly. Moreover, XIAP was demonstrated to be targeted and regulated by miR-515-5p. In conclusion, circ_0067997 was identified to be an oncogene in GC by regulating miR-515-5p/XIAP axis.

Hua Y, Zhu Y, Zhang J, et al.
miR-122 Targets X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein to Sensitize Oxaliplatin-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells to Oxaliplatin-Mediated Cytotoxicity.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(5):2148-2159 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although oxaliplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), long-term administration usually induces acquired drug resistance during the course of treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel strategies to improve the efficiency of cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of microRNA-122 (miR-122) on reversing oxaliplatin resistance in CRC.
METHODS: The expression of miR-122 in CRC cells was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR. The cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin against CRC cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays. Mitochondrial membrane potentials and cell apoptotic rates were measured by flow cytometry. Cellular protein expression and interactions were detected by western blot and co-immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Established oxaliplatin-resistant SW480 and HT29 cells (SW480/OR and HT29/OR) expressed significantly higher levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and lower levels of miR-122 compared with normal SW480 and HT29 cells, respectively. Our results showed that the downregulation of miR-122 was responsible for the overexpression of XIAP in these oxaliplatin-resistant CRC cells. We then found that the recovery of miR-122 expression can sensitize SW480/OR and HT29/OR cells to oxaliplatin-mediated apoptosis through the inhibition of XIAP expression.
CONCLUSION: Upregulation of XIAP in CRC cells is responsible for the acquired resistance to oxaliplatin. Furthermore, miR-122 reversed oxaliplatin resistance in CRC by targeting XIAP.

Zohny SF, Zamzami MA, El-Shinawi M
Concomitance of downregulated active caspase-3 and upregulated X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein as a sensitive diagnostic approach for breast cancer.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 455(1-2):159-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to explore the efficacy of active caspase-3 and X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) as diagnostic markers for breast cancer. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the examined parameters and clinicopathological factors. The current study involved 96 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 40 patients had benign breast diseases. The expression of active caspase-3 was analyzed by both ELISA and Western blot, whereas the expression of XIAP was determined by ELISA in cell lysates. Active caspase-3 was significantly downregulated, while XIAP was markedly upregulated in patients with breast cancer in comparison to benign group. A significant negative correlation was observed between active caspase-3 and XIAP in breast cancer patients. Low active caspase-3 expression was associated with high grade, whereas, the high XIAP level was correlated with poorly differentiated tumors and late tumor stages. The sensitivity and specificity were 73.96% and 80.0% for active caspase-3, and, 70.83% and 82.5% for XIAP. A combination of active caspase-3 and XIAP provided a promising sensitivity of 88.54% and specificity of 90.0%. Our data indicate that active caspase-3 and XIAP could be substantial diagnostic markers for breast cancer patients.

Li D, Liu J, Wang X, et al.
Biological Potential and Mechanism of Prodigiosin from
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tripyrrole molecules have received renewed attention due to reports of numerous biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, antimalarial, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. In a screen of bacterial strains with known toxicities to termites, a red pigment-producing strain, HDZK-BYSB107, was isolated from

Zhivkova V, Kiecker F, Langer P, Eberle J
Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the proapoptotic effects of indirubin derivative DKP-073 in melanoma cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):258-269 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma represents a prime example demonstrating the success of targeted therapy in cancer. Nevertheless, it remained a deadly disease until now, and the identification of new, independent strategies as well as the understanding of their molecular mechanisms may help to finally overcome the high mortality. Both indirubins and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) represent promising candidates. Here, the indirubin derivative DKP-073 is shown to trigger apoptosis in melanoma cells, which is enhanced by the combination with TRAIL and is accompanied by complete loss of cell viability. Addressing the signaling cascade, characteristic molecular steps were identified as caspase-3 activation, downregulation of XIAP, upregulation of p53 and TRAIL receptor 2, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and STAT-3 dephosphorylation. The decisive step, however, turned out to be the early production of ROS already at 1 h. This was proven by antioxidant pretreatment, which completely abolished apoptosis induction and loss of cell viability as well as abrogated all signaling effects listed above. Thus, ROS appeared as upstream of all proapoptotic signaling. The data indicate a dominant role of ROS in apoptosis regulation, and the new pathway may expose a possible Achilleś heel of melanoma.

Sato Y, Yoshino H, Kazama Y, Kashiwakura I
Involvement of caspase‑8 in apoptosis enhancement by cotreatment with retinoic acid‑inducible gene‑I‑like receptor agonist and ionizing radiation in human non‑small cell lung cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5286-5294 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoic acid‑inducible gene‑I‑like receptors (RLRs) serve an important role in antiviral immune responses. Recent studies demonstrated that RLR activation exerts antitumor activity by inducing an anticancer immune response and apoptosis in various cancer cells. The authors' recent study demonstrated that the cytotoxic effects of the RLR agonist Poly(I:C)‑HMW/LyoVec™ [Poly(I:C)‑HMW] in human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enhanced by cotreatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Furthermore, cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR effectively induced cell death, including apoptosis, in a caspase‑dependent manner. However, the mechanisms by which cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR effectively induce apoptosis remains unclear. Therefore, the pathways involved in the increase in apoptosis elicited by cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR in the A549 human NSCLC cell line were investigated. Poly(I:C)‑HMW induced the expression of active caspase‑8 and ‑9, and the Poly(I:C)‑HMW‑induced increase in the cell cycle sub‑G1 population, which is one of the hallmarks of apoptosis, was decreased by treatment with a caspase‑8 inhibitor and caspase‑9 inhibitor. When cells were treated with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR, the sub‑G1 population, and the active caspase‑8 and caspase‑9 expression were all increased compared with cells treated with Poly(I:C)‑HMW or IR alone. Furthermore, expression of X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, which negatively regulates caspase activation, was decreased in cells cotreated with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR. Notably, treatment with an inhibitor for caspase‑8, not caspase‑9, partially reversed the net increase in the sub‑G1 population induced by cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR. Collectively, these results suggested that Poly(I:C)‑HMW induces apoptosis through caspase‑8 and caspase‑9 activation; however, the apoptotic pathway mediated by casapse‑8, and not casapse‑9, is involved in the enhancement of apoptosis caused by cotreatment with Poly(I:C)‑HMW and IR.

Huang X, Wang XN, Yuan XD, et al.
XIAP facilitates breast and colon carcinoma growth via promotion of p62 depletion through ubiquitination-dependent proteasomal degradation.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1448-1460 [PubMed] Related Publications
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) possesses a critical role in promotion of cell survival and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In cancer, elevated XIAP expression has been associated with malignancy, poor prognosis, and treatment resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. XIAP has previously been proposed to promote tumor growth through suppression of autophagy. In this study, we examined the expression of XIAP and p62, two critical mediators of autophagy, in breast and colon cancer. We observed a negative correlation between XIAP and p62 expression in normal and cancer tissues of breast and colon, and that the ratio of XIAP and p62 expression determines the cancer phenotype. In vitro, we observed that XIAP interacted with p62 and also that XIAP depletion resulted in increased expression of p62. XIAP functioned as an ubiquitination E3 ligase towards p62 and suppressed p62 expression through ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, XIAP enhanced cancer cell proliferation, viability, and colony formation in vitro via suppression of p62. In addition, we demonstrated that XIAP-enhanced tumor growth is dependent on depletion of p62 in vivo. Herein, we have therefore delineated a novel mechanism by which XIAP contributes to development and progression of breast and colon carcinoma.

Qian H, Huang T, Chen Y, et al.
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein inhibitor Embelin induces apoptosis via PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibits invasion in osteosarcoma cells.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S648-S655 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Embelin is an active compound identified as a novel X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) inhibitor from the Embelia ribes that exhibits various medicinal effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the therapeutic effect of Embelin to human osteosarcoma is not yet determined.
Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the sensitizing potential of Embelin on promoting apoptosis to cause osteosarcoma cell death and inhibiting its invasion.
Methods: We uesd 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide to detect the survival rates of osteosarcoma cells, Western blot to detect the expression of proteins in U-2 OS and MG63 cells, and fluorescence microscope to observe the morphology of apoptotic cells.
Results: The survival of osteosarcoma cells decreased, When Embelin was used. Obvious condensed and flared fluorescence was observed, when used high-dose Embelin. There was an increase of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 in Embelin group, while PI3K, AKt, p-AKt, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and MMP-9 were downregulated. The invasion of Embelin application was significantly lower than that of the control application.
Conclusion: Embelin promoted apoptosis via XIAP and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. XIAP inhibitor Embelin inducing apoptosis could cause osteosarcoma cell death and inhibit its invasion.

Chou YC, Chang MY, Lee HT, et al.
Phenethyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits In Vivo Growth of Xenograft Tumors of Human Glioblastoma Cells.
Molecules. 2018; 23(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) from cruciferous vegetables can inhibit the growth of various human cancer cells. In previous studies, we determined that PEITC inhibited the in vitro growth of human glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting migration and invasion, and altering gene expression. Nevertheless, there are no further in vivo reports disclosing whether PEITC can suppress the growth of glioblastoma. Therefore, in this study we investigate the anti-tumor effects of PEITC in a xenograft model of glioblastoma in nude mice. Thirty nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with GBM 8401 cells. Mice with one palpable tumor were divided randomly into three groups: control, PEITC-10, and PEITC-20 groups treated with 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 10 and 20 μmole PEITC/100 μL PBS daily by oral gavage, respectively. PEITC significantly decreased tumor weights and volumes of GBM 8401 cells in mice, but did not affect the total body weights of mice. PEITC diminished the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1) and XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) in GBM 8401 cells. PEITC enhanced the levels of caspase-3 and Bax in GBM 8401 cells. The growth of glioblastoma can be suppressed by the biological properties of PEITC in vivo. These effects might support further investigations into the potential use of PEITC as an anticancer drug for glioblastoma.

Hwang SM, Lee HJ, Jung JH, et al.
Inhibition of Wnt3a/FOXM1/β-Catenin Axis and Activation of GSK3β and Caspases are Critically Involved in Apoptotic Effect of Moracin D in Breast Cancers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although Moracin D derived from

Im E, Yeo C, Lee EO
Luteolin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via inhibiting the AKT/osteopontin pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells.
Life Sci. 2018; 209:259-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, possesses anti-cancer effects including induction of apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of osteopontin (OPN) in luteolin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep-1 cells with high OPN expression.
MAIN METHODS: MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability. Cell cycle analysis was performed to identify apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by detecting cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments using a cell death detection ELISA
KEY FINDINGS: Cytotoxic effect of luteolin was higher in cancer cell line SK-Hep-1 cells than in normal cell line AML12 cells. Luteolin led a significantly increase in apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase 8, -9 and -3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which was completely blocked by Z-VAD-FMK, a pan caspase inhibitor. Luteolin significantly downregulated the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), Mcl-1 and Bid. Furthermore, luteolin effectively decreased OPN expression at both mRNA and protein level. Exogenous OPN markedly blocked apoptosis induction, caspases activation, PARP cleavage, downregulation of XIAP and Mcl-1 in luteolin-treated cells. Luteolin impaired the AKT pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of AKT. SC79, an AKT activator, blocked apoptosis induction, caspases activation, PARP cleavage, downregulation of OPN, XIAP, Mcl-1 and Bid in luteolin-treated cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated that luteolin inhibits the AKT/OPN pathway, thereby inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis in human HCC SK-Hep-1 cells with little toxicity.

Li X, Tian Z, Jin H, et al.
Decreased c-Myc mRNA Stability via the MicroRNA 141-3p/AUF1 Axis Is Crucial for p63α Inhibition of Cyclin D1 Gene Transcription and Bladder Cancer Cell Tumorigenicity.
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(21) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BC) ranks as the sixth most common cancer in the United States and is the leading cause of death in patients with urinary malignancies. p63 is a member of the p53 family and is believed to function as a tumor suppressor in human BCs. Our most recent studies revealed a previously unknown function of the RING of XIAP in promoting microRNA 4295 (miR-4295) transcription, thereby reducing p63α protein translation and enhancing normal urothelial transformation, whereas p63α upregulates hsp70 transcription, subsequently activating the HSP70/Wasf3/Wave3/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) axis and promoting BC cell invasion via initiating the transcription factor E2F1. In this study, we found that p63α inhibited cyclin D1 protein expression, subsequently decreasing the ability of BC cell anchorage-independent growth

Xu J, Fang J, Cheng Z, et al.
Overexpression of the Kininogen-1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of glioma cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common primary central nervous system tumor derived from glial cells. Kininogen-1 (KNG1) can exert antiangiogenic properties and inhibit proliferation of endothelial cells. The effect of KNG1 on the glioma is rarely reported, so our purpose in to explore its mechanism in glioma cells.
METHODS: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The KNG1-vector was transfected into the two glioma cells. The viability, apoptosis and cell cycle of glioma cells and microvessel density (MVD) were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The expression were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. A tumor mouse model was established to determine apoptosis rate of brain tissue by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis.
RESULTS: KNG1 was identified as the core gene and lowly expressed in the glioma cells. Overexpression of KNG1 inhibited cell viability and angiogenesis of glioma cells. Overexpression of KNG1 promoted the apoptosis and G1 phase cell cycle arrest of glioma cells. Moreover, the expressions of VEGF, cyclinD1, ki67, caspase-3/9 and XIAP were regulated by overexpression of KNG1. In addition, overexpression of KNG1 inhibited the activity of PI3K/Akt. Furthermore, overexpression of KNG1 decreased the tumor growth and promoted the apoptosis of decreased by overexpression of KNG1 in vivo. .
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of KNG1 suppresses glioma progression by inhibiting the proliferation and promoting apoptosis of glioma cells, providing a therapeutic strategy for the malignant glioma.

Hu Z, Tie Y, Lv G, et al.
Transcriptional activation of miR-320a by ATF2, ELK1 and YY1 induces cancer cell apoptosis under ionizing radiation conditions.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1691-1702 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including development, proliferation, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. It has been reported that miRNA expression is induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, endogenous miR‑320a and its primary precursor (pri‑miR‑320a) were assayed by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR). Luciferase activities were measured using a dual‑luciferase reporter assay system. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expressions of upstream and downstream genes of miR‑320a. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V apoptosis assay and cell proliferation was measured using the trypan blue exclusion method. The results revealed that miR‑320a expression increased linearly with the IR dose and treatment duration. Three transcription factors, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), ETS transcription factor (ELK1) and YY1 transcription factor (YY1), were activated by p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mitogen‑activated protein kinase 8 (JNK) and by upregulated miR‑320a expression under IR conditions. In addition, it was identified that X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) was an miR‑320a target gene during the IR response. By targeting XIAP, miR‑320a induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. On the whole, the results of this study demonstrated that miRNA‑320a, regulated by the p38 MAPK/JNK pathway, enhanced the radiosensitivity of cancer cells by inhibiting XIAP and this may thus prove to be a potential therapeutic approach with which to overcome radioresistance in cancer treatment.

Maijaroen S, Jangpromma N, Daduang J, Klaynongsruang S
KT2 and RT2 modified antimicrobial peptides derived from Crocodylus siamensis Leucrocin I show activity against human colon cancer HCT-116 cells.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018; 62:164-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
Conventional colon cancer treatments have been associated with side effects. Consequently, the discovery of novel effective and safe therapies is urgently needed. Hence, cationic antimicrobial peptides KT2 and RT2 were evaluated towards human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. The MTT assay indicated that both KT2 and RT2 exhibited anticancer activity with good therapeutic indices, and were found to be non-toxic to non-cancerous Vero cells. The IC

Sindhu R, Manonmani HK
l-asparaginase induces intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and impedes tumor progression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2393-2399 [PubMed] Related Publications
l-asparagine essentially regulates growth and proliferation of cancer cells. l-asparaginase is an anti-cancer enzyme that deprives the cancer cells of l-asparagine. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of a novel l-asparaginase from Pseudomonas fluorescens on l-asparagine deprivation mediated anti-proliferation, apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to evaluate inhibition of angiogenesis. We observed that, the presence of extracellular l-asparagine was essential for the growth of AGS cells. l-asparagine deprivation by l-asparaginase induced metabolic stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis by G0 phase cell-cycle arrest, modulated the mitochondrial membrane integrity, accelerated caspase-3 activation and instigated DNA damage. The RT-PCR analysis of pro-apoptosis genes: bak1, bax, bbc3, bik, pmaip1, bnip3l, apaf1, casp3, casp7 and casp9 were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while anti-apoptotic markers xiap, bid, mcl1, and death receptor genes tnf and tradd were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). Additionally, higher protein expressions of p53, caspase-3 and TEM analysis showing modulations in mitochondria confirmed intrinsic apoptosis pathway. The enzyme impeded tumor progression through inhibition of cell migration and vascular remodelling of endothelial cells. Our findings suggests that the action of l-asparaginase alters mitochondrial membrane permeability and auxiliary activates intrinsic apoptosis. Therefore, this mechanistic approach might be considered as a targeted enzymotherapy against gastric adenocarcinoma.

Gerashchenko GV, Mevs LV, Chashchina LI, et al.
Expression of steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes in prostate tumors in relation to the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(2):101-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To analyze an expression pattern of the steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes in prostate tumors in relation to the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion; and to examine a putative correlation between gene expression and clinical characteristics, to define the molecular subtypes of prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative gene expression (RE) of 33 transcripts (27 genes) and the presence/absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion were analyzed by a quantitative PCR. 37 prostate cancer tissues (T) paired with conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) and 21 samples of prostate adenomas were investigated. RE changes were calculated, using different protocols of statistics.
RESULTS: We demonstrated differences in RE of seven genes between tumors and CNT, as was calculated, using the 2-ΔCT model and the Wilcoxon matched paired test. Five genes (ESR1, KRT18, MKI67, MMP9, PCA3) showed altered expression in adenocarcinomas, in which the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion was detected. Two genes (INSR, isoform B and HOTAIR) expressed differently in tumors without fusion. Comparison of the gene expression pattern in adenomas, CNT and adenocarcinomas demonstrated that in adenocarcinomas, bearing the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, genes KRT18, PCA3, and SCHLAP1 expressed differently. At the same time, we detected differences in RE of AR (isoform 2), MMP9, PRLR and HOTAIR in adenocarcinomas without the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion. Two genes (ESR1 and SRD5A2) showed differences in RE in both adenocarcinoma groups. Fourteen genes, namely AR (isoforms 1 and 2), CDH1, OCLN, NKX3-1, XIAP, GCR (ins AG), INSR (isoform A), IGF1R, IGF1R tr, PRLR, PRL, VDR and SRD5A2 showed correlation between RE and tumor stage. RE of four genes (CDH2, ESR2, VDR and SRD5A2) correlated with differentiation status of tumors (Gleason score). Using the K-means clustering, we could cluster adenocarcinomas in three groups, according to gene expression profiles. A specific subtype of prostate tumors is characterized by the activated ERG signaling, due to the presence of TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, and also by high levels of the androgen receptor, prolactin, IGF, INSR and PCA3.
CONCLUSIONS: We have found the specific differences in expression of the steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes, depending on the pre-sence/absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion in prostate adenocarcinomas, CNT and adenomas. We showed three different gene expression profiles of prostate adenocarcinomas. One of them is characteristic for adenocarcinomas with the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion. Further experiments are needed to confirm these data in a larger cohort of patients.

Tian L, Tao ZZ, Ye HP, et al.
Over-expression of MEOX2 promotes apoptosis through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway in laryngeal cancer cells.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(5):745-752 [PubMed] Related Publications
The early-stage diagnosis and treatment for the recurrence of larynx carcinoma needs further investigation. Mesenchyme homeobox 2 (MEOX2) was speculated as a novel suppressor gene in larynx carcinoma in our study, the molecular mechanism was studied. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein levels of MEOX2 in laryngeal cancer tissues and cells (Hep-2, TU212, AMC-NH-8 and TU686 cells), and also apoptosis and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase (Akt) related factors in TU212 cells transfected with MEOX2. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay and Annexin-Ⅴ/PI staining assay were conducted to determine cell viability and apoptosis rates respectively.46 patients with larynx carcinoma were involved in this study. The expression of MEOX2 was lower in larynx carcinoma tissues than normal tissues, correlated with clinical stages, differentiated degrees, and survival times. The expression of MEOX2 was the lowest among those laryngeal cancer cells, and was chosen to be transfected with MEOX2 in the following study. Over-expression of MEOX2 inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptosis of TU212 cells, via increasing the expression levels of Caspase-3, and decreasing levels of C-Myc, XIAP, PI3K p110α, PI3K p110β, PI3K class III and p-Akt. In summary, the expression levels of MEOX2 were inhibited in larynx carcinoma than normal tissues, correlated with the progression of the cancer. Over-expression of MEOX2 in laryngeal cancer cells inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptosis, via regulating apoptosis and PI3K/Akt pathway related factors. It would provide evidence for MEOX2 to be used as a therapeutical gene in larynx carcinoma.

Ishikawa C, Senba M, Mori N
Mitotic kinase PBK/TOPK as a therapeutic target for adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):801-814 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a disorder involving human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV‑1)-infected T‑cells characterized by increased clonal neoplastic proliferation. PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) [also known as T‑lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)] is a serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferative cells and is phosphorylated during mitosis. In this study, the expression and phosphorylation of PBK/TOPK were examined by western blot analysis and RT‑PCR. We found that PBK/TOPK was upregulated and phosphorylated in HTLV‑1-transformed T‑cell lines and ATLL‑derived T‑cell lines. Notably, CDK1/cyclin B1, which phosphorylates PBK/TOPK, was overexpressed in these cells. HTLV‑1 infection upregulated PBK/TOPK expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in co-culture assays. The potent PBK/TOPK inhibitors, HI‑TOPK‑032, and fucoidan from brown algae, decreased the proliferation and viability of these cell lines in a dose‑dependent manner. By contrast, the effect of HI‑TOPK‑032 on PBMCs was less pronounced. Treatment with HI‑TOPK‑032 resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, and decreased CDK6 expression and pRb phosphorylation, which are critical determinants of progression through the G1 phase. In addition, HI‑TOPK‑032 induced apoptosis, as evidenced by morphological changes, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase with the activation of caspase‑3, -8 and -9, and an increase in the sub‑G1 cell population and APO2.7-positive cells. Moreover, HI‑TOPK‑032 inhibited the expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (c-IAP2), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin and myeloid cell leukemia‑1 (Mcl‑1), and induced the expression of Bak and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT)1, 2 and 3. It is noteworthy that the use of this inhibitor led to the inhibition of the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK)α, IKKβ, IκBα, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and Akt, and to the decreased protein expression of JunB and JunD, suggesting that PBK/TOPK affects the nuclear factor-κB, Akt and activator protein‑1 signaling pathways. In vivo, the administration of HI‑TOPK‑032 suppressed tumor growth in an ATLL xenograft model. Thus, on the whole, this study on the identification and functional analysis of PBK/TOPK suggests that this kinase is a promising molecular target for ATLL treatment.

Han B, Jiang P, Liu W, et al.
Role of Daucosterol Linoleate on Breast Cancer: Studies on Apoptosis and Metastasis.
J Agric Food Chem. 2018; 66(24):6031-6041 [PubMed] Related Publications
The antitumor property of steroids in sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) remains poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effect on breast carcinoma of daucosterol linoleate (DL), a steroid isolated from sweet potato. DL inhibited the cell viability of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells at an IC

Rada M, Nallanthighal S, Cha J, et al.
Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) mediate collagen type XI alpha 1-driven cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(35):4809-4820 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although, cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer, the precise mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance are not fully understood. Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1), a gene encoding a minor fibrillar collagen of the extracellular matrix, is identified as one of the most upregulated genes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and recurrent ovarian cancer. However, the exact functions of COL11A1 in cisplatin resistance are unknown. Here we demonstrate that COL11A1 binds to integrin α1β1 and discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) and activates downstream signaling pathways to inhibit cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that COL11A1 activates Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB signaling to induce the expression of three inhibitor apoptosis proteins (IAPs), including XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3 is sufficient to restore cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of COL11A1 in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mouse models, respectively. We also show that the components of COL11A1- integrin α1β1/DDR2- Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB-IAP signaling pathway serve as poor prognosis markers in ovarian cancer patients. Taken together, our results suggest novel mechanisms by which COL11A1 confers cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Our study also uncovers IAPs as promising therapeutic targets to reduce cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, particularly in recurrent ovarian cancer expressing high levels of COL11A1.

Oak C, Khalifa AO, Isali I, et al.
Diosmetin suppresses human prostate cancer cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):835-843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diosmetin, a plant flavonoid, has been shown to exert promising effects on prostate cancer cells as an anti‑proliferative and anticancer agent. In this study, using western blot analysis for protein expression and flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis, we determined that the treatment of the LNCaP and PC‑3 prostate cancer cells with diosmetin resulted in a marked decrease in cyclin D1, Cdk2 and Cdk4 expression levels (these proteins remain active in the G0‑G1 phases of the cell cycle). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in c-Myc and Bcl-2 expression, and by an increase in Bax, p27Kip1 and FOXO3a protein expression, which suggests the potential modulatory effects of diosmetin on protein transcription. The treatment of prostate cancer cells with diosmetin set in motion an apoptotic machinery by inhibiting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and increasing cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels. On the whole, the findings of this study provide an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulatory effects of diosmetin on key molecules that perturb the cell cycle to inhibit cell growth, and suggest that diosmetin may prove to be an effective anticancer agent for use in the treatment of prostate cancer in the future.

AlQarni S, Al-Sheikh Y, Campbell D, et al.
Lymphomas driven by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) are dependant upon Mdm2.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(29):3998-4012 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated Burkitt's lymphoma is characterised by the deregulation of c-Myc expression and a restricted viral gene expression pattern in which the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein to be consistently expressed. EBNA1 is required for viral genome propagation and segregation during latency. However, it has been much debated whether the protein plays a role in viral-associated tumourigenesis. We show that the lymphomas which arise in EµEBNA1 transgenic mice are unequivocally linked to EBNA1 expression and that both C-Myc and Mdm2 deregulation are central to this process. Tumour cell survival is supported by IL-2 and there is a skew towards CD8-positive T cells in the tumour environment, while the immune check-point protein PD-L1 is upregulated in the tumours. Additionally, several isoforms of Mdm2 are upregulated in the EµEBNA1 tumours, with increased phosphorylation at ser166, an expression pattern not seen in Eµc-Myc transgenic tumours. Concomitantly, E2F1, Xiap, Mta1, C-Fos and Stat1 are upregulated in the tumours. Using four independent inhibitors of Mdm2 we demonstrate that the EµEBNA1 tumour cells are dependant upon Mdm2 for survival (as they are upon c-Myc) and that Mdm2 inhibition is not accompanied by upregulation of p53, instead cell death is linked to loss of E2F1 expression, providing new insight into the underlying tumourigenic mechanism. This opens a new path to combat EBV-associated disease.

Sim MY, Go ML, Yuen JSP
The mechanistic effects of the dioxonaphthoimidazolium analog YM155 in renal cell carcinoma cell cycling and apoptosis.
Life Sci. 2018; 203:282-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effect of dioxonaphthoimidazolium analog YM155 on cell cycle progression of the clear-cell variant of renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
MAIN METHODS: Cell cycle analysis was performed using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and PI, apoptosis initiation was monitored using Annexin V and proteins expression was determined using western immunoblotting.
KEY FINDINGS: Here, we showed that YM155 activated stress-related molecules (histone H2AX, checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2, p53) that mediate DNA damage checkpoint responses. The coordinated activation of these effector molecules disrupts progression of the cell cycle at the S phase as deduced from BrdU pulsing experiments and the ensuing changes in the levels of proteins (cyclins, CDKs, CDK inhibitors, phosphatases) that control cell cycle progression. Notably, we found increases in cyclin E and Cdc2 which regulate transition of cells from G1 to S, even as losses were observed for other CDKs and their cyclin partners. Furthermore, by inducing a loss in total pRb possibly by promoting its degradation, YM155 promoted the E2F transcription of genes that regulate entry into the S phase. After 24 h, cell cycle arrest to repair YM155-inflicted DNA damage was overtaken by p53-mediated apoptosis. YM155 induced increases in pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bad), diminished anti-apoptotic proteins (Mcl-1, Bcl-xl, XIAP, survivin) and initiated cleavage of apoptotic marker proteins caspase 3 and PARP.
SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, the added insight provided on the cell cycle perturbative effects of YM155 may assist clinicians in framing rational choices for combining YM155 with other anti-cancer drugs or treatment modalities in ccRCC.

Pan W, Luo Q, Yan X, et al.
A novel SMAC mimetic APG-1387 exhibits dual antitumor effect on HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma with high expression of cIAP2 by inducing apoptosis and enhancing innate anti-tumor immunity.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 154:127-135 [PubMed] Related Publications
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In our study, firstly, we found that HCC patients with copy number alteration of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP had a dismal prognosis. Then, we discovered that APG-1387 alone could induce apoptosis of PLC/PRF/5 which was HBV positive both in-vitro and in-vivo. Furthermore, we found that APG-1387 significantly up-regulated the expression of calreticulin and HLA-DR in PLC/PRF/5 via activating non-classic NF-κB pathway. Also, compared to vehicle group, APG-1387 increased NK cell counts by 5 folds in PLC/PRF/5 xenograft model. In-vitro, APG-1387 positively regulated T cells by reducing Treg differentiation and down-regulating PD1 expression in CD4 T cell. Moreover, APG-1387 had no impact on memory T cells. Consequently, our results suggest that APG1387 could be a good candidate to combine with anti-PD1 antibody treatment to overcome low responds of check point inhibitors in HBV positive HCC.

Leiphrakpam PD, Brattain MG, Black JD, Wang J
TGFβ and IGF1R signaling activates protein kinase A through differential regulation of ezrin phosphorylation in colon cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(21):8242-8254 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant cell survival plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. We have previously shown that ezrin, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A-anchoring protein (AKAP), is up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis. Phosphorylation of ezrin at Thr-567 activates ezrin and plays an important role in CRC cell survival associated with XIAP and survivin up-regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that in FET and GEO colon cancer cells, knockdown of ezrin expression or inhibition of ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567 increases apoptosis through protein kinase A (PKA) activation in a cAMP-independent manner. Transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling inhibits ezrin phosphorylation in a Smad3-dependent and Smad2-independent manner and regulates pro-apoptotic function through ezrin-mediated PKA activation. On the other hand, ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567 by insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling leads to cAMP-dependent PKA activation and enhances cell survival. Further studies indicate that phosphorylated ezrin forms a complex with PKA RII, and dephosphorylated ezrin dissociates from the complex and facilitates the association of PKA RII with AKAP149, both of which activate PKA yet lead to either cell survival or apoptosis. Thus, our studies reveal a novel mechanism of differential PKA activation mediated by TGFβ and IGF1R signaling through regulation of ezrin phosphorylation in CRC, resulting in different cell fates. This is of significance because TGFβ and IGF1R signaling pathways are well-characterized tumor suppressor and oncogenic pathways, respectively, with important roles in CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our studies indicate that they cross-talk and antagonize each other's function through regulation of ezrin activation. Therefore, ezrin may be a potential therapeutic target in CRC.

Yu Z, Zhao R
Inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase promotes apoptosis and suppresses proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Anticancer Drugs. 2018; 29(6):513-519 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study was to examine the roles of crizotinib and ceritinib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and explore the possible mechanisms. MTT assay was employed to examine the proliferation of five HCC cell lines treated with various concentrations of crizotinib or ceritinib. HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells were incubated with 2 nmol/l ceritinib for 1 week, followed by crystal violet staining and cell counting. Protein amounts of t-ALK, p-ALK, t-AKT, p-AKT, t-ERK, p-ERK, Mcl-1, survivin, and XIAP in HepG2 cells under different culture conditions were evaluated by western blot. HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells were treated with vehicle or ceritinib and measured by flow cytometry apoptosis analysis with Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. MTT assay showed that both crizotinib and ceritinib suppressed the proliferation of various human HCC cells. Crystal violet staining analysis also indicated that ceritinib effectively inhibited human HCC cell proliferation. Western blot analysis indicated that both crizotinib and ceritinib inhibited ALK, AKT, and ERK phosphorylations. In addition, ceritinib reduced antiapoptotic gene expressions in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that ceritinib induced HepG2 and HCCLM3 cells apoptosis. ALK inhibitor exhibited antitumor effects by inhibiting ALK activation, repressing AKT and ERK pathways, and suppressing antiapoptotic gene expressions, which subsequently promoted apoptosis and suppressed HCC cell proliferations.

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