Gene Summary

Gene:BIRC2; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2
Aliases: API1, MIHB, HIAP2, RNF48, cIAP1, Hiap-2, c-IAP1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of proteins that inhibits apoptosis by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, probably by interfering with activation of ICE-like proteases. This encoded protein inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BIRC2 (cancer-related)

Yang Y, Kelly P, Shaffer AL, et al.
Targeting Non-proteolytic Protein Ubiquitination for the Treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(4):494-507 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic active B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), engages the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 (CBM) adapter complex to activate IκB kinase (IKK) and the classical NF-κB pathway. Here we show that the CBM complex includes the E3 ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are essential mediators of BCR-dependent NF-κB activity in ABC DLBCL. cIAP1/2 attach K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on themselves and on BCL10, resulting in the recruitment of IKK and the linear ubiquitin chain ligase LUBAC, which is essential for IKK activation. SMAC mimetics target cIAP1/2 for destruction, and consequently suppress NF-κB and selectively kill BCR-dependent ABC DLBCL lines, supporting their clinical evaluation in patients with ABC DLBCL.

Gerges S, Rohde K, Fulda S
Cotreatment with Smac mimetics and demethylating agents induces both apoptotic and necroptotic cell death pathways in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 375(1):127-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is often caused by defects in programmed cell death, e.g. by overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Here, we report that small-molecule Smac mimetics (i.e. BV6, LCL161, birinapant) that neutralize x-linked IAP (XIAP), cellular IAP (cIAP)1 and cIAP2 cooperate with demethylating agents (i.e. 5-azacytidine (5AC) or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC)) to induce cell death in ALL cells. Molecular studies reveal that induction of cell death is preceded by BV6-mediated depletion of cIAP1 protein and involves tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α autocrine/paracrine signaling, since the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel significantly reduces BV6/5AC-induced cell death. While BV6/5AC cotreatment induces caspase-3 activation, the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) only partly rescues ALL cells from BV6/5AC-induced cell death. This indicates that BV6/5AC cotreatment engages non-apoptotic cell death upon caspase inhibition. Indeed, genetic silencing of key components of necroptosis such as Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP)3 or mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) in parallel with administration of zVAD.fmk provides a significantly better protection against BV6/5AC-induced cell death compared to the use of zVAD.fmk alone. Similarly, concomitant administration of pharmacological inhibitors of necroptosis (i.e. necrostatin-1s, GSK'872, dabrafenib, NSA) together with zVAD.fmk is superior in rescuing cells from BV6/5AC-induced cell death compared to the use of zVAD.fmk alone. These findings demonstrate that in ALL cells BV6/5AC-induced cell death is mediated via both apoptotic and necroptotic pathways. Importantly, BV6/5AC cotreatment triggers necroptosis in ALL cells that are resistant to apoptosis due to caspase inhibition. This opens new perspectives to overcome apoptosis resistance with important implications for the development of new treatment strategies for ALL.

Cheng X, Shi W, Zhao C, et al.
Triptolide sensitizes human breast cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor‑α‑induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of the nuclear factor‑κB pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(4):3257-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) can act as either a tumor promoter, linking inflammation with carcinogenesis, or a tumor inhibitor, inducing cancer cell death. However, several types of cancer, including breast cancer, are resistant to TNF‑α therapy. Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, has been reported to exert anti‑inflammatory and antiproliferative effects, associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB). The present study investigated the effects of triptolide sensitization on human breast cancer cells to TNF‑α‑induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of the NF‑κB pathway. Human breast cancer MDA‑MB‑231 cells and MCF‑7 cells were treated with different concentrations of triptolide, with or without 10 ng/ml TNF‑α, for different durations, followed by measurement of cell proliferation using a 3‑[4,5‑dimethyltiazol‑2‑yl]‑2.5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide assay, apoptosis induction, through determination of caspase‑3 activity and poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and NF‑κB pathway activation, through determination of inhibitor of NF‑κB (IκB) and the NF‑κB downstream genes, X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein1/2 (cIAP1/2)] using Western blot and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. TNF‑α, when combined with triptolide, was observed to inhibit the activation of IκBα, increase the level of cleaved PARP, and further activate caspase‑3 in the breast cancer cells. Triptolide also inhibited the expression levels of the downstream anti‑apoptotic genes of NF‑κB activation, XIAP and cIAP1/2. The results of the present study demonstrated that triptolide sensitized human breast cancer cells to TNF‑α‑induced apoptosis, which may provide a promising combination strategy for human breast cancer therapeutics.

Lim B, Kim C, Kim JH, et al.
Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):8055-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics.

Zheng M, Wu Z, Wu A, et al.
MiR-145 promotes TNF-α-induced apoptosis by facilitating the formation of RIP1-FADDcaspase-8 complex in triple-negative breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):8599-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Researches indicate that the dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) is involved in tumorigenesis. Among such dysregulated miRNAs in cancer, miR-145 is reported to be downregulated in multiple cancers. In this study, we demonstrated the downregulation of miR-145 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tissues and TNBC cell lines by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Furthermore, we found that the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis was expanded by the transfection of miR-145 in MDA-MB-231 which belongs to the TNBC cell lines. We then indicated that the mechanism by which miR-145 promotes the TNF-α-induced apoptosis is dependent on the formation of RIP1-FADD-caspase-8 complex. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP1), which is the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, was found to be a target of miR-145 in MDA-MB-231 cells. As a result of cIAP1 overexpression, the promotion of miR-145 on TNF-α-induced apoptosis was inhibited in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, our results indicate that miR-145 acts as a tumor suppressor in TNBC, suggesting that the miR-145-cIAP1 axis might be a potential therapeutic target for TNBC.

Zhao XC, An P, Wu XY, et al.
Overexpression of hSNF2H in glioma promotes cell proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance through its interaction with Rsf-1.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7203-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
hSNF2H partners with Rsf-1 to compose the Rsf complex to regulate gene expression. Recent studies indicated that hSNF2H was overexpressed in several human cancers. However, its expression pattern and biological mechanism in glioma remain unexplored. In this study, we found that hSNF2H was overexpressed in 32 % of glioma specimens. hSNF2H overexpression correlated with advanced tumor grade (p = 0.0338) and Rsf-1 positivity in glioma tissues (p = 0.016). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown was performed in A172 and U87 cell lines. MTT, colony formation assay, and cell cycle analysis showed that knockdown of hSNF2H inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation ability, and cell cycle transition. Matrigel invasion assay showed that hSNF2H depletion inhibited invasive ability of glioma cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hSNF2H depletion decreased temozolomide resistance of A172 and U87 cell lines and increased temozolomide induced apoptosis. Furthermore, hSNF2H depletion decreased cyclin D1, cyclin E, p-Rb, MMP2, cIAP1, Bcl-2 expression, and phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, suggesting hSNF2H regulates apoptosis through NF-κB pathway. Immunoprecipitation showed that hSNF2H could interact with Rsf-1 in both cell lines. To validate the involvement of Rsf-1, we checked the change of its downstream targets in Rsf-1 depleted cells. In Rsf-1 depleted cells, changes of cyclin E, Bcl-2, and p-IκBα were not significant using hSNF2H siRNA treatment. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hSNF2H was overexpressed in human gliomas and contributed to glioma proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance through regulation of cyclin E and NF-κB pathway, which is dependent on its interaction with Rsf-1.

Hehlgans S, Oppermann J, Reichert S, et al.
The SMAC mimetic BV6 sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to ionizing radiation by interfering with DNA repair processes and enhancing apoptosis.
Radiat Oncol. 2015; 10:198 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of counteracting inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins using the small molecule Second Mitochondria-derived Activator of Caspase (SMAC) mimetic BV6 in combination with ionizing radiation on apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, three-dimensional (3D) clonogenic survival and expression of IAPs in colorectal carcinoma cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-15, HT-29, SW480) were subjected to BV6 treatment (0-4 μM) with or without irradiation (2-8 Gy, single dose) followed by MTT, Caspase 3/7 activity, γH2AX/53BP1 foci assays, AnnexinV staining, cell cycle analysis, 3D colony forming assays and Western blotting (cellular IAP1 (cIAP1) and cIAP2, Survivin, X-linked IAP (XIAP)).
RESULTS: BV6 treatment decreased cell viability and significantly increased irradiation-induced apoptosis as analyzed by Caspase 3/7 activity, AnnexinV-positive and subG1 phase cells. While basal 3D clonogenic survival was decreased in a cell line-dependent manner, BV6 significantly enhanced cellular radiosensitivity of all cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the number of radiation-induced γH2AX/53BP1-positive foci. Western blot analysis revealed a markedly reduced cIAP1 expression at 4 h after BV6 treatment in all cell lines, a substantial reduction of XIAP expression in SW480 and HT-29 cells at 24 h and a slightly decreased cIAP2 expression in HCT-15 cells at 48 h after treatment. Moreover, single or double knockdown of cIAP1 and XIAP resulted in significantly increased residual γH2AX/53BP1-positive foci 24 h after 2 Gy and radiosensitization relative to control small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells.
CONCLUSION: The SMAC mimetic BV6 induced apoptosis and hampered DNA damage repair to radiosensitize 3D grown colorectal cancer cells. Our results demonstrate IAP targeting as a promising strategy to counteract radiation resistance of colorectal cancer cells.

Moon JH, Shin JS, Hong SW, et al.
A novel small-molecule IAP antagonist, AZD5582, draws Mcl-1 down-regulation for induction of apoptosis through targeting of cIAP1 and XIAP in human pancreatic cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):26895-908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) plays an important role in controlling cancer cell survival. IAPs have therefore attracted considerable attention as potential targets in anticancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of AZD5582, a novel small-molecule IAP inhibitor, in human pancreatic cancer cells. Treating human pancreatic cancer cells with AZD5582 differentially induced apoptosis, dependent on the expression of p-Akt and p-XIAP. Moreover, the knockdown of endogenous Akt or XIAP via RNA interference in pancreatic cancer cells, which are resistant to AZD5582, resulted in increased sensitivity to AZD5582, whereas ectopically expressing Akt or XIAP led to resistance to AZD5582. Additionally, AZD5582 targeted cIAP1 to induce TNF-α-induced apoptosis. More importantly, AZD5582 induced a decrease of Mcl-1 protein, a member of the Bcl-2 family, but not that of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Interestingly, ectopically expressing XIAP and cIAP1 inhibited the AZD5582-induced decrease of Mcl-1 protein, which suggests that AZD5582 elicits Mcl-1 decrease for apoptosis induction by targeting of XIAP and cIAP1. Taken together, these results indicate that sensitivity to AZD5582 is determined by p-Akt-inducible XIAP phosphorylation and by targeting cIAP1. Furthermore, Mcl-1 in pancreatic cancer may act as a potent marker to analyze the therapeutic effects of AZD5582.

Jin H, Dong YY, Zhang H, et al.
shRNA Depletion of cIAP1 Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells to Anticancer Agent-Induced Apoptosis.
Oncol Res. 2014; 22(3):167-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence suggests a potential role of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) in the development of human ovarian cancer. However, its function in the progression of ovarian cancer has not been clearly determined. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of cIAP1 gene depletion on the chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells. We developed a novel short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid specifically targeting cIAP1. Cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of the shRNA-transfected cells were evaluated using MTT, Transwell chamber, and flow cytometric assays, respectively. The concentration of MMP-9 in the supernatant was detected by ELISA. Targeted depletion of cIAP1 by shRNA significantly reduced expression levels of cIAP1 mRNA and protein, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion capability in SKOV3 cells. At the same time, cIAP1 downregulation decreased the secretion of MMP-9. shRNA depletion of cIAP1 enhanced chemosensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to Taxol and carboplatin-induced apoptosis. cIAP1 is associated with tumor progression in human ovarian cancer. Therefore, cIAP1 might be a potential target for therapeutic anticancer drugs.

Khan FH, Pandian V, Ramraj S, et al.
Reorganization of metastamiRs in the evolution of metastatic aggressive neuroblastoma cells.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MetastamiRs have momentous clinical relevance and have been correlated with disease progression in many tumors. In this study, we identified neuroblastoma metastamiRs exploiting unique mouse models of favorable and high-risk metastatic human neuroblastoma. Further, we related their deregulation to the modulation of target proteins and established their association with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Whole genome miRNA microarray analysis identified 74 metastamiRs across the manifold of metastatic tumors. RT-qPCR on select miRNAs validated profile expression. Results from bio-informatics across the ingenuity pathway, miRCancer, and literature data-mining endorsed the expression of these miRNAs in multiple tumor systems and showed their role in metastasis, identifying them as metastamiRs. Immunoblotting and TMA-IHC analyses revealed alterations in the expression/phosphorylation of metastamiRs' targets, including ADAMTS-1, AKT1/2/3, ASK1, AURKβ, Birc1, Birc2, Bric5, β-CATENIN, CASP8, CD54, CDK4, CREB, CTGF, CXCR4, CYCLIN-D1, EGFR, ELK1, ESR1, CFOS, FOSB, FRA, GRB10, GSK3β, IL1α, JUND, kRAS, KRTAP1, MCP1, MEGF10, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP10, MTA2, MYB, cMYC, NF2, NOS3, P21, pP38, PTPN3, CLEAVED PARP, PKC, SDF-1β, SEMA3D, SELE, STAT3, TLR3, TNFα, TNFR1, and VEGF in aggressive cells ex vivo and in a manifold of metastatic tumors in vivo. miRNA mimic (hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-27b, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-20a) and inhibitor (hsa-miR-1224-3p, hsa-miR-1260) approach for select miRNAs revealed the direct influence of the altered metastamiRs in the regulation of identified protein targets. Clinical outcome association analysis with the validated metastamiRs' targets corresponded strongly with poor overall and relapse-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, these results identified a comprehensive list of neuroblastoma metastamiRs, related their deregulation to altered expression of protein targets, and established their association with poor clinical outcomes. The identified set of distinctive neuroblastoma metastamiRs could serve as potential candidates for diagnostic markers for the switch from favorable to high-risk metastatic disease.

Armstrong MJ, Stang MT, Liu Y, et al.
IRF-1 inhibits NF-κB activity, suppresses TRAF2 and cIAP1 and induces breast cancer cell specific growth inhibition.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(7):1029-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-1, originally identified as a transcription factor of the human interferon (IFN)-β gene, mediates tumor suppression and may inhibit oncogenesis. We have shown that IRF-1 in human breast cancer cells results in the down-regulation of survivin, tumor cell death, and the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo in xenogeneic mouse models. In this current report, we initiate studies comparing the effect of IRF-1 in human nonmalignant breast cell and breast cancer cell lines. While IRF-1 in breast cancer cells results in growth inhibition and cell death, profound growth inhibition and cell death are not observed in nonmalignant human breast cells. We show that TNF-α or IFN-γ induces IRF-1 in breast cancer cells and results in enhanced cell death. Abrogation of IRF-1 diminishes TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced apoptosis. We test the hypothesis that IRF-1 augments TNF-α-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Potential signaling networks elicited by IRF-1 are investigated by evaluating the NF-κB pathway. TNF-α and/or IFN-γ results in decreased presence of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus of breast cancer cells. While TNF-α and/or IFN-γ can induce IRF-1 in nonmalignant breast cells, a marked change in NF-κB p65 is not observed. Moreover, the ectopic expression of IRF-1 in breast cancer cells results in caspase-3, -7, -8 cleavage, inhibits NF-κB activity, and suppresses the expression of molecules involved in the NF-κB pathway. These data show that IRF-1 in human breast cancer cells elicits multiple signaling networks including intrinsic and extrinsic cell death and down-regulates molecules involved in the NF-κB pathway.

Parajuli KR, Zhang Q, Liu S, You Z
Aminomethylphosphonic acid and methoxyacetic acid induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(5):11750-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and its parent compound herbicide glyphosate are analogs to glycine, which have been reported to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells, but not normal cells. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is the active metabolite of ester phthalates widely used in industry as gelling, viscosity and stabilizer; its exposure is associated with developmental and reproductive toxicities in both rodents and humans. MAA has been reported to suppress prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether AMPA and MAA can inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, we found that AMPA and MAA inhibited cell growth in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3 and DU-145) through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Importantly, the AMPA-induced apoptosis was potentiated with the addition of MAA, which was due to downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat containing 2 (BIRC2), leading to activation of caspases 7 and 3. These results demonstrate that the combination of AMPA and MAA can promote the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, suggesting that they can be used as potential therapeutic drugs in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Greenfeld H, Takasaki K, Walsh MJ, et al.
TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.
PLoS Pathog. 2015; 11(5):e1004890 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), and stimulated linear (M1)-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on LMP1 complexes may facilitate downstream canonical NF-kB pathway activation. Our results highlight LUBAC as a novel potential therapeutic target in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

Wang Y, Luo Z, Pan Y, et al.
Targeting protein neddylation with an NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 induced apoptosis or senescence in human lymphoma cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(3):420-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies indicate that post-translational protein neddylation is required for the maintenance of cell viability in several lymphoma cell lines, while inhibition of the neddylation pathway with an NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor MLN4924 induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells. However, the mechanism by which neddylation inhibition induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells has not been fully elucidated. Moreover, it is unknown whether neddylation inhibition triggers non-apoptotic cell-killing responses, such as cell senescence, in lymphoma cells. Here, we report that MLN4924 specifically inhibited protein neddylation, inactivated cullin-RING E3 ligase (CRL), the best-known neddylation substrate, and induced the accumulation of tumor-suppressive CRL substrates in lymphoma cells. Moreover, MLN4924 potently suppressed the growth of lymphoma cells by inducing G2 cell-cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis or senescence in a cell line-dependent manner. MLN4924-induced apoptosis was mediated by intrinsic apoptotic signaling with substantial up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bik and Noxa as well as down-regulation of anti-apoptotic XIAP, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, while senescence induction upon neddylation inhibition seemed dependent on the expression of tumor suppressor p21/p27. Together, these findings expand our understanding on how lymphoma cells respond to neddylation inhibition and support the development of neddylation inhibitors (e.g. MLN4924) for the treatment of lymphoma.

Yan W, Li R, He J, et al.
Importin β1 mediates nuclear factor-κB signal transduction into the nuclei of myeloma cells and affects their proliferation and apoptosis.
Cell Signal. 2015; 27(4):851-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that is currently incurable. The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling plays a crucial role in the immortalisation of MM cells. As the most important transcription factor of the canonical NF-κB pathway, the p50/p65 heterodimer requires transportation into the nucleus for its successful signal transduction. Importin β1 is the key transport receptor that mediates p50/p65 nuclear import. Currently, it remains unclear whether the regulation of importin β1 function affects the biological behaviour of MM cells. In the present study, we investigated the changes in p65 translocation and the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells after treatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an importin β1 inhibitor. The underlying mechanisms were also investigated. We found importin β1 over-expression and the excessive nuclear transport of p65 in myeloma cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and Western blot analysis results indicated that p65 nuclear transport was blocked after inhibiting importin β1 expression with siRNA and the importin β1-specific inhibitor importazole (IPZ). Importantly, electronic mobility shift assay results also verified that p65 nuclear transport was dramatically reduced. Moreover, the expression of the NF-κB signalling target genes involved in MM cell apoptosis, such as BCL-2, c-IAP1 and XIAP, were markedly reduced, as demonstrated by the RT-PCR results. Furthermore, the proliferation of MM cells was inhibited, as demonstrated by MTT assay results, and the MM cell apoptosis rate was higher, as demonstrated by the annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining assay results. Additionally, the percentage of S phase cells in the myeloma cell lines treated with IPZ was dramatically reduced. In conclusion, our results clearly show that importin β1 mediates the translocation of NF-κB into the nuclei of myeloma cells, thereby regulating proliferation and blocking apoptosis, which provides new insights for targeted myeloma therapies.

Jiang L, Wu X, Wang P, et al.
Targeting FoxM1 by thiostrepton inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(6):971-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously reported that forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor was overexpressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and was associated with development of LSCC. However, there are limited studies regarding the functional significance of FoxM1 and FoxM1 inhibitor thiostrepton in LSCC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine both in vitro and in vivo activity of FoxM1 inhibitor thiostrepton against LSCC cell line and nude mice.
METHODS: Cell viability was studied by CCK-8 assay. Cell growth was evaluated by CFSE staining and cell cycle analysis. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression were detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Xenograft model of tumor formation was used to investigate how thiostrepton influences tumorigenesis in vivo.
RESULTS: Overexpression of FoxM1 in LSCC cells was down-regulated by thiostrepton in a dose-dependent manner. Thiostrepton caused dose- and time-dependent suppression of cell viability of LSCC. Moreover, thiostrepton induced cell cycle arrest at S phase at early time and inhibited DNA synthesis in LSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner by down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1. Thiostrepton also induced dose- and time-dependent apoptosis of LSCC cells by down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and p53, and inducing release of cytochrome c accompanied by activation of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. In addition, z-VAD-fmk, a universal inhibitor of caspases, prevented activation of cleavage caspase-3 and abrogates cell death induced by thiostrepton treatment. Furthermore, FADD and cleaved caspase-8 were activated, and expression of cIAP1, XIAP and survivin were inhibited by thiostrepton. Finally, treatment of LSCC cell line xenografts with thiostrepton resulted in tumorigenesis inhibition of tumors in nude mice by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of LSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our finding suggest that targeting FoxM1 by thiostrepton inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of LSCC through mitochondrial- and caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and Fas-dependent extrinsic pathway as well as IAP family. Thiostrepton may represent a novel lead compound for targeted therapy of LSCC.

Zhao X, Puszyk WM, Lu Z, et al.
Small molecule inhibitor YM155-mediated activation of death receptor 5 is crucial for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(1):80-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite much effort, pancreatic cancer survival rates are still dismally low. Novel therapeutics may hold the key to improving survival. YM155 is a small molecule inhibitor that has shown antitumor activity in a number of cancers by reducing the expression of survivin. The aim of our study is to understand the mechanisms by which YM155 functions in pancreatic cancer cells. We established the antitumor effect of YM155 with in vitro studies in cultured cells, and in vivo studies using a mouse xenograft model. Our data demonstrated that YM155 reduced the expression of survivin; however, downregulation of survivin itself is insufficient to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We showed for the first time that treatment with YM155 increased death receptor 5 (DR5) expression in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that YM155 induced apoptosis by broad-spectrum inhibition of IAP family member proteins (e.g., CIAP1/2 and FLIP) and induced proapoptotic Bak protein upregulation and activation; the antitumor effect of YM155 treatment with either the DR5 agonist lexatumumab or gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cells was synergistic. Our data also revealed that YM155 inhibits tumor growth in vivo, without apparent toxicity to the noncancerous human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line. Together, these findings suggest that YM155 could be a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.

Jiang L, Wang P, Chen L, Chen H
Down-regulation of FoxM1 by thiostrepton or small interfering RNA inhibits proliferation, transformation ability and angiogenesis, and induces apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5450-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck malignant tumor rare throughout most of the world but common in Southern China. Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor has been shown to play important role in the development and progression of human cancers. We have previously found that FoxM1 was overexpressed in NPC patients and was associated with development of NPC. However, the exact functional significance of FoxM1 and its inhibitor thiostrepton in NPC is little known. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro activity of down-regulation of FoxM1 by thiostrepton or siRNA against NPC cell line. FoxM1 inhibition by thiostrepton or siRNA inhibited proliferation of NPC cells by down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1. Transformation ability of NPC cells was suppressed by thiostrepton. FoxM1 inhibition by thiostrepton induced apoptosis of NPC cells by down-regulation of bcl-2, up-regulation of bax and p53, and inducing release of cytochrome c accompanied by activation of caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. In addition, FoxM1 inhibition by siRNA transfection also down-regulated expression of bcl-2 and up-regulated expression of bax, p53, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Furthermore, FADD and cleaved caspase-8 expression were up-regulated by thiostrepton or FoxM1 siRNA, and expression of cIAP1 and XIAP was inhibited by thiostrepton. At last, FoxM1 inhibition by thiostrepton reduced the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, and transfection of FoxM1 siRNA decreased VEGF expression but not HIF-1α. Collectively, our finding suggest that FoxM1 inhibition by thiostrepton or siRNA suppresses proliferation, transformation ability, angiogenesis, and induces apoptosis of NPC.

Mi C, Shi H, Ma J, et al.
Celastrol induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells and inhibits their invasion via downregulation of MMP-9.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2527-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Celastrol is a quinone methide triterpene derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., a plant used in traditional medicine. In the present study, we reported that celastrol potentiated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis, affected activation of caspase-8, caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, and inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 and 2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2), cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). In addition, celastrol significantly reduced the invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells after TNF-α stimulation. As matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a critical role in tumor metastasis, we analyzed its expression with celastrol treatment. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR showed that celastrol dose-dependently suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-9 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that celastrol may be a potential candidate for breast cancer chemotherapy.

Chaves Neto AH, Pelizzaro-Rocha KJ, Fernandes MN, Ferreira-Halder CV
Antitumor activity of irradiated riboflavin on human renal carcinoma cell line 786-O.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):595-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a precursor for coenzymes involved in energy production, biosynthesis, detoxification, and electron scavenging. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiated riboflavin (IR) has potential antitumoral effects against human leukemia cells (HL60), human prostate cancer cells (PC3), and mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) through a common mechanism that leads to apoptosis. Hence, we here investigated the effect of IR on 786-O cells, a known model cell line for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), which is characterized by high-risk metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. IR also induced cell death in 786-O cells by apoptosis, which was not prevented by antioxidant agents. IR treatment was characterized by downregulation of Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6)/Fas (TNF receptor superfamily member 6) (FasL/Fas) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1a (TNFR1)/TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain (TRADD)/TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF) signaling pathways (the extrinsic apoptosis pathway), while the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was upregulated, as observed by an elevated Bcl-2 associated x protein/B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio, reduced cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (c-IAP1) expression, and increased expression of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The observed cell death was caspase-dependent as proven by caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) cleavage. IR-induced cell death was also associated with downregulation of v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homologue (avian)/protein serine/threonine kinase B/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (Src/AKT/ERK1/2) pathway and activation of p38 MAP kinase (p38) and Jun-amino-terminal kinase (JNK). Interestingly, IR treatment leads to inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity and reduced expression of renal cancer aggressiveness markers caveolin-1, low molecular weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase (LMWPTP), and kinase insert domain receptor (a type III receptor tyrosine kinase) (VEGFR-2). Together, these results show the potential of IR for treating cancer.

Hu R, Li J, Liu Z, et al.
GDC-0152 induces apoptosis through down-regulation of IAPs in human leukemia cells and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):577-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) is closely related to leukemia apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the molecular mechanisms by which GDC-0152, an IAP inhibitor, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60 cells). GDC-0152 inhibited the proliferation of K562 and HL60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was largely attributed to intrinsic apoptosis. GDC-0152 down-regulated the IAPs including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP1), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) expression and induced the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. GDC-0152-induced cell proliferation inhibition in K562 cells was prevented by pan-caspase inhibitor. GDC-0152 also inhibited PI3K and Akt expression in K562 and HL60 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that GDC-0152 results in human leukemia apoptosis through caspase-dependent mechanisms involving down-regulation of IAPs and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling.

Hoskins JW, Jia J, Flandez M, et al.
Transcriptome analysis of pancreatic cancer reveals a tumor suppressor function for HNF1A.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(12):2670-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is driven by the accumulation of somatic mutations, epigenetic modifications and changes in the micro-environment. New approaches to investigating disruptions of gene expression networks promise to uncover key regulators and pathways in carcinogenesis. We performed messenger RNA-sequencing in pancreatic normal (n = 10) and tumor (n = 8) derived tissue samples, as well as in pancreatic cancer cell lines (n = 9), to determine differential gene expression (DE) patterns. Sub-network enrichment analyses identified HNF1A as the regulator of the most significantly and consistently dysregulated expression sub-network in pancreatic tumor tissues and cells (median P = 7.56×10(-7), median rank = 1, range = 1-25). To explore the effects of HNF1A expression in pancreatic tumor-derived cells, we generated stable HNF1A-inducible clones in two pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2) and observed growth inhibition (5.3-fold, P = 4.5×10(-5) for MIA PaCa-2 clones; 7.2-fold, P = 2.2×10(-5) for PANC-1 clones), and a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis upon induction. These effects correlated with HNF1A-induced down-regulation of 51 of 84 cell cycle genes (e.g. E2F1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2/3/4/5, SKP2 and CCND1), decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes (e.g. BIRC2/5/6 and AKT) and increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes (e.g. CASP4/9/10 and APAF1). In light of the established role of HNF1A in the regulation of pancreatic development and homeostasis, our data suggest that it also functions as an important tumor suppressor in the pancreas.

Mak PY, Mak DH, Ruvolo V, et al.
Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain modulates second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases mimetic-induced cell death through BIRC2/MAP3K14 signalling in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(3):376-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC, also termed NOL3) protein predicts adverse outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and confers drug resistance to AML cells. The second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC, also termed DIABLO) mimetic, birinapant, promotes extrinsic apoptosis in AML cells. SMAC mimetics induce cleavage of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins, leading to stabilization of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-inducing kinase (MAP3K14, also termed NIK) and activation of non-canonical NF-κB signalling. To enhance the therapeutic potential of SMAC mimetics in AML, we investigated the regulation and role of ARC in birinapant-induced apoptosis. We showed that birinapant increases ARC in AML and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Downregulation of MAP3K14 by siRNA decreased ARC levels and suppressed birinapant-induced ARC increase. Reverse-phase protein array analysis of 511 samples from newly diagnosed AML patients showed that BIRC2 (also termed cIAP1) and ARC were inversely correlated. Knockdown of ARC sensitized, while overexpression attenuated, birinapant-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ARC knockdown in MSCs sensitized co-cultured AML cells to birinapant-induced apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that ARC is regulated via BIRC2/MAP3K14 signalling and its overexpression in AML or MSCs can function as a resistant factor to birinapant-induced leukaemia cell death, suggesting that strategies to inhibit ARC will improve the therapeutic potential of SMAC mimetics.

Luk SU, Xue H, Cheng H, et al.
The BIRC6 gene as a novel target for therapy of prostate cancer: dual targeting of inhibitors of apoptosis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6896-908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment resistance, the major challenge in the management of advanced prostate cancer, is in part based on resistance to apoptosis. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) family is thought to play key roles in survival and drug resistance of cancer via inhibition of apoptosis. Of the IAP family members, cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP and survivin are known to be up-regulated in prostate cancer. BIRC6, a much less studied IAP member, was recently shown to be elevated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In the present study, we showed a correlation between elevated BIRC6 expression in clinical prostate cancer specimens and poor patient prognostic factors, as well as co-upregulation of certain IAP members. In view of this, we designed antisense oligonucleotides that simultaneously target BIRC6 and another co-upregulated IAP member (dASOs). Two dASOs, targeting BIRC6+cIAP1 and BIRC6+survivin, showed substantial inhibition of CRPC cells proliferation, exceeding that obtained with single BIRC6 targeting. The growth inhibition was associated with increased apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and suppression of NFkB activation. Moreover, treatment with both dASOs led to significantly lower viable tumor volume in vivo, without major host toxicity. This study shows that BIRC6-based dual IAP-targeting ASOs represent potential novel therapeutic agents against advanced prostate cancer.

Muthu M, Cheriyan VT, Munie S, et al.
Mechanisms of neuroblastoma cell growth inhibition by CARP-1 functional mimetics.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102567 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory κB (IκB) α and β proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents.

Siu MK, Abou-Kheir W, Yin JJ, et al.
Loss of EGFR signaling regulated miR-203 promotes prostate cancer bone metastasis and tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(11):3770-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activation of EGFR signaling pathway leads to prostate cancer bone metastasis; however, therapies targeting EGFR have demonstrated limited effectiveness and led to drug resistance. miR-203 levels are down-regulated in clinical samples of primary prostate cancer and further reduced in metastatic prostate cancer. Here we show that ectopic miR-203 expression displayed reduced bone metastasis and induced sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment in a xenograft model. Our results demonstrate that the induction of bone metastasis and TKI resistance require miR-203 down regulation, activation of the EGFR pathway via altered expression of EGFR ligands (EREG and TGFA) and anti-apoptotic proteins (API5, BIRC2, and TRIAP1). Importantly, a sufficient reconstitution of invasiveness and resistance to TKIs treatment was observed in cells transfected with anti-miR-203. In prostate cancer patients, our data showed that miR-203 levels were inversely correlated with the expression of two EGFR ligands, EREG and TGFA, and an EGFR dependent gene signature. Our results support the existence of a miR-203, EGFR, TKIs resistance regulatory network in prostate cancer progression. We propose that the loss of miR-203 is a molecular link in the progression of prostate cancer metastasis and TKIs resistance characterized by high EGFR ligands output and anti-apoptotic proteins activation.

Smetana J, Frohlich J, Zaoralova R, et al.
Genome-wide screening of cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma patients using array-CGH technique: a Czech multicenter experience.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:209670 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs) play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91). Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91); del(13)(q14) was detected in 57.1% (52/91); gain(1)(q21) occurred in 58.2% (53/91); del(17)(p13) was observed in 15.4% (14/91); and t(4;14)(p16;q32) was found in 18.6% (16/86). Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91). Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%), 1p (39.6%), and 8p (31.1%), whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%). Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients.

Skender B, Hofmanová J, Slavík J, et al.
DHA-mediated enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells is associated with engagement of mitochondria and specific alterations in sphingolipid metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1841(9):1308-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, may exert cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effects on colon cancer cells when applied individually or in combination with some anticancer drugs. Here we demonstrate a selective ability of subtoxic doses of DHA to enhance antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of clinically useful cytokine TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand) in cancer but not normal human colon cells. DHA-mediated stimulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis was associated with extensive engagement of mitochondrial pathway (Bax/Bak activation, drop of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release), activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response (CHOP upregulation, changes in PERK level), decrease of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, cIAP1) levels and significant changes in sphingolipid metabolism (intracellular levels of ceramides, hexosyl ceramides, sphingomyelines, sphingosines; HPLC/MS/MS). Interestingly, we found significant differences in representation of various classes of ceramides (especially C16:0, C24:1) between the cancer and normal colon cells treated with DHA and TRAIL, and suggested their potential role in the regulation of the cell response to the drug combination. These study outcomes highlight the potential of DHA for a new combination therapy with TRAIL for selective elimination of colon cancer cells via simultaneous targeting of multiple steps in apoptotic pathways.

Zhu MY, Chen F, Niyazi M, et al.
Variation in apoptotic gene expression in cervical cancer through oligonucleotide microarray profiling.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015; 19(1):46-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of cervical cancer development using a microarray to identify the differentially expressed genes. This study also aimed to detect apoptosis genes and proteins to find those genes most aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer and to explore the cause of Uighur cervical cancer.
METHODS: An analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from cervical cancer cases was performed. Total RNA was prepared from 10 samples of cervical carcinoma and normal cervix and was hybridized to Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays with probe sets complementary to more than 20,000 transcripts. Several genes of the apoptosis pathway, which were differentially regulated, included BCL2, BCLXL, and c-IAP1. These were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining on an independent set of cancer and control specimens.
RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the expression data readily distinguished the normal cervix from cancer. Supervised analysis of gene expression data identified 1,326 and 1,432 genes that were upregulated and downregulated, respectively; a set of genes belonging to the apoptosis pathways were upregulated or downregulated in patients with cervical cancer. BCL2, BCLXL, and c-IAP1 were found to be upregulated in late-stage cancer compared to early-stage cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a new understanding of the gene expression profile in cervical cancer. BCL2, BCLXL, and c-IAP1 might be involved in cancer progression. The pathway analysis of expression data showed that the BCL2, BCLXL, and c-IAP1 genes were coordinately differentially regulated between cancer and normal cases. Our results may serve as basis for further development of biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer.

Faye MD, Beug ST, Graber TE, et al.
IGF2BP1 controls cell death and drug resistance in rhabdomyosarcomas by regulating translation of cIAP1.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(12):1532-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a neoplasm characterised by undifferentiated myoblasts, is the most common soft tissue tumour of childhood. Although aggressive treatment of RMS could provide long-term benefit, resistance to current therapies is an ongoing problem. We report here that insulin-like growth factor 2-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1), an oncofetal protein, is expressed in RMS patient-derived cell lines and in primary tumours where it drives translation of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1), a key regulator of the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway and of caspase-8-mediated cell death. We demonstrate that reducing the levels of cIAP1 in RMS, either by IGF2BP1 knockdown or by IAP antagonists, sensitises these cells to tumour necrosis factor-α-mediated cell death. Finally, we show that targeting cIAP1 by IAP antagonists delays RMS tumour growth and improve survival in mice. Our results identify IGF2BP1 as a critical translational regulator of cIAP1-mediated apoptotic resistance in RMS and advocate for the combined use of IAP antagonists and tumour necrosis factor-α as a therapeutic approach for this type of cancer.

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