Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: BIRC2 (cancer-related)
Generation of excess quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction facilitates rapid growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Elevated ROS levels in cancer cells cause an anti-apoptotic effect by activating survival signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and its target gene expression. Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes and a potent antioxidant, displays a protective effect against pancreatic cancer. The present study was designed to determine if lycopene induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells by decreasing intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, and consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and expression of NF-κB target genes including cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. The results show that the lycopene decreased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, mitochondrial function (determined by the mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate), NF-κB activity, and expression of NF-κB-dependent survival genes in PANC-1 cells. Lycopene reduced cell viability with increases in active caspase-3 and the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio in PANC-1 cells. These findings suggest that supplementation of lycopene could potentially reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer.
Lukosiute-Urboniene A, Jasukaitiene A, Silkuniene G, et al.Human antigen R mediated post-transcriptional regulation of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in pancreatic cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(2):205-219 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine the association of human antigen R (HuR) and inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP1, IAP2) and prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: Protein and mRNA expression levels of IAP1, IAP2 and HuR in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were compared with normal pancreatic tissue. The correlations among IAP1/IAP2 and HuR as well as their respective correlations with clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used for survival analysis. Immunoprecipitation assay was performed to demonstrate HuR binding to IAP1, IAP2 mRNA. PANC1 cells were transfected with either anti-HuR siRNA or control siRNA for 72 h and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis was carried out.
RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis revealed that HuR, IAP1, IAP2 mRNA expression were accordingly 3.3-fold, 5.5-fold and 8.4 higher in the PDAC when compared to normal pancreas (
CONCLUSION: HuR mediated overexpression of IAP1 significantly correlates with poor outcomes and early progression of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to assess the underlying mechanisms.
Gao Y, Liu H, Wang H, et al.Baicalin inhibits breast cancer development via inhibiting IĸB kinase activation in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2727-2736 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and therapeutic potential of baicalin in breast cancer. Baicalin is used to treat inflammatory diseases. The effects of baicalin were assessed in breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB‑231 cells, and human breast cancer xenograft mice. Cells were treated with 0, 20 or 30 µM baicalin for 48 h, while xenograft mice were treated with intraperitoneal injection of 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg baicalin for 30 days. The results demonstrated that treatment with baicalin dose-dependently suppressed breast cancer cell invasion, migration and proliferation, and also induced G1/S-phase cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. Baicalin alleviated inflammation injury and inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, thus suppressing nuclear factor (NF)-ĸB-p65 activation via inhibition of IĸB kinase. Investigation of the mechanism underlying baicalin activity indicated that it inhibited protein expression of NF-ĸB-p65, leading to NF-ĸB‑induced increased expression of CCND1, BCL2, BIRC2 and BIRC3, thus inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion and migration and suppressing anti-apoptotic factors in vitro and in vivo. In addition, baicalin did not affect non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells. These results indicate that baicalin may exert therapeutic effects in breast cancer.
BACKGROUND: Activation of intrinsic p53 tumor-suppressor (TS) pathways is an important principle underlying cancer chemotherapy. It is necessary to elucidate the precise regulatory mechanisms of these networks to create new treatment strategies.
METHODS: Comprehensive analyses were carried out by microarray. Expression of miR-101 was analyzed by clinical samples of lung adenocarcinomas.
FINDINGS: We discovered a functional link between p53 and miR-101, which form a molecular circuit in response to nucleolar stress. Inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription resulted in the post-transcriptional activation of miR-101 in a p53-dependent manner. miR-101 induced G2 phase-specific feedback regulation of p53 through direct repression of its target, EG5, resulting in elevated phosphorylation of ATM. In lung cancer patients, low expression of miR-101 was associated with significantly poorer prognosis exclusively in p53 WT cases. miR-101 sensitized cancer cells to Pol I transcription inhibitors and strongly repressed xenograft growth in mice. Interestingly, the most downstream targets of this circuit included the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Repression of cIAP1 by a selective inhibitor, birinapant, promoted activation of the apoptosis induced by Pol I transcription inhibitor in p53 WT cancer cells.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that the p53-miR-101 circuit is a component of an intrinsic TS network formed by nucleolar stress, and that mimicking activation of this circuit represents a promising strategy for cancer therapy. FUND: National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports & Technology of Japan, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development.
Rada M, Nallanthighal S, Cha J, et al.Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) mediate collagen type XI alpha 1-driven cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(35):4809-4820 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although, cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer, the precise mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance are not fully understood. Collagen type XI alpha 1 (COL11A1), a gene encoding a minor fibrillar collagen of the extracellular matrix, is identified as one of the most upregulated genes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer and recurrent ovarian cancer. However, the exact functions of COL11A1 in cisplatin resistance are unknown. Here we demonstrate that COL11A1 binds to integrin α1β1 and discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) and activates downstream signaling pathways to inhibit cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that COL11A1 activates Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB signaling to induce the expression of three inhibitor apoptosis proteins (IAPs), including XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of XIAP, BIRC2, and BIRC3 is sufficient to restore cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of COL11A1 in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mouse models, respectively. We also show that the components of COL11A1- integrin α1β1/DDR2- Src-PI3K/Akt-NF-kB-IAP signaling pathway serve as poor prognosis markers in ovarian cancer patients. Taken together, our results suggest novel mechanisms by which COL11A1 confers cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Our study also uncovers IAPs as promising therapeutic targets to reduce cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, particularly in recurrent ovarian cancer expressing high levels of COL11A1.
This study investigated the enhanced antiproliferative effect of
Zhang YY, Tabataba H, Liu XY, et al.ACTN4 regulates the stability of RIPK1 in melanoma.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(29):4033-4045 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The actin crosslinking protein α-actinin-4 (ACTN4) is emerging as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of cancer. This has largely been attributed to its role in regulating cytoskeleton organization and its involvement in transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Here we report a novel function of ACTN4 as a scaffold necessary for stabilization of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) that we have recently found to be an oncogenic driver in melanoma. ACTN4 bound to RIPK1 and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) with its actin-binding domain at the N-terminus and the CaM-like domain at the C-terminus, respectively. This facilitated the physical association between RIPK1 and cIAP1 and was critical for stabilization of RIPK1 that in turn activated NF-κB. Functional investigations showed that silencing of ACTN4 suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and retarded melanoma xenograft growth. In contrast, overexpression of ACTN4 promoted melanocyte and melanoma cell proliferation and moreover, prompted melanocyte anchorage-independent growth. Of note, the expression of ACTN4 was transcriptionally activated by NF-κB. Taken together, our findings identify ACTN4 as an oncogenic regulator through driving a feedforward signaling axis of ACTN4-RIPK1-NF-κB, with potential implications for targeting ACTN4 in the treatment of melanoma.
Pan W, Luo Q, Yan X, et al.A novel SMAC mimetic APG-1387 exhibits dual antitumor effect on HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma with high expression of cIAP2 by inducing apoptosis and enhancing innate anti-tumor immunity.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 154:127-135 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In our study, firstly, we found that HCC patients with copy number alteration of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP had a dismal prognosis. Then, we discovered that APG-1387 alone could induce apoptosis of PLC/PRF/5 which was HBV positive both in-vitro and in-vivo. Furthermore, we found that APG-1387 significantly up-regulated the expression of calreticulin and HLA-DR in PLC/PRF/5 via activating non-classic NF-κB pathway. Also, compared to vehicle group, APG-1387 increased NK cell counts by 5 folds in PLC/PRF/5 xenograft model. In-vitro, APG-1387 positively regulated T cells by reducing Treg differentiation and down-regulating PD1 expression in CD4 T cell. Moreover, APG-1387 had no impact on memory T cells. Consequently, our results suggest that APG1387 could be a good candidate to combine with anti-PD1 antibody treatment to overcome low responds of check point inhibitors in HBV positive HCC.
Thyroid carcinoma is primarily treated by surgery combined with radioactive 131iodine (131I) treatment; however, certain patients exhibit resistance to 131I treatment. Previous research indicated that nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) was associated with resistance to 131I in cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NF‑κB on 131I uptake and apoptosis in thyroid carcinoma cells. TPC‑1 and BCPAP cell lines were employed as research models in the present study, and the expression of NF‑κB was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). The ability of TPC‑1 and BCPAP cells to uptake 131I was measured and the cell viability was detected by an MTT assay. Finally, the expression of the apoptosis‑associated proteins X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) and caspase‑3 in TCP‑1 and BCPAP cells was determined by western blotting. Western blotting results demonstrated that the expression levels of NF‑κB in TPC‑1 and BCPAP cells were successfully downregulated by RNAi (P<0.05), while analysis of 131I uptake revealed no significant alterations in the 131I uptake ability of cells following RNAi (P>0.05). MTT experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of NF‑κB expression in combination with radiation (131I treatment) led to a marked reduction in cell viability (P<0.05). Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that the inhibition of NF‑κB expression downregulated the expression levels of XIAP and cIAP1 (P<0.05), while the expression levels of caspase‑3 were upregulated, indicating that the observed reduction in cell viability following NF‑κB inhibition may be due to an increased level of apoptosis. Although NF‑κB inhibition did not affect the 131I uptake of thyroid cancer cells, this inhibition may increase the apoptotic effects of radioactive 131I.
A key feature in the pathogenesis of OSCC is genetic instability, which results in altered expression of genes located in amplified/deleted chromosomal regions. In a previous study we have shown that the amplification of the 11q22.1-q22.2 region, encoding cIAP1 and cIAP2, is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor clinical outcome in OSCC. Here, we validate the aCGH results by nuc ish and detect a weak amplification at the 11q22.1-q22.2 locus in 37% of the 182 samples tested. We find positive correlation of 11q22.1-q22.2 amplification with lymph node metastasis, reduced survival, and increased cancer recurrence, and we observe that patients with 11q22.1-q22.2 amplification fail to respond to radiotherapy. We confirm the concurrent overexpression of cIAP1 and cIAP2 and observe differential subcellular localization of the two proteins in OSCC. To ascertain the roles of cIAP1/cIAP2 in lymph node metastasis and radioresistance, we use an in vitro pre-clinical model and confirm the role of cIAP1 in invasion and the role of cIAP2 in invasion and migration. Studies of other tumor types in which cIAP1 is overexpressed suggest that multi-regimen treatments including SMAC mimetics may be effective. Thus, the evaluation of 11q22.1-q22.2 amplifications in OSCC patients may help choose the most effective treatment.
Chen L, Yuan Y, Kar S, et al.PPARγ Ligand-induced Annexin A1 Expression Determines Chemotherapy Response via Deubiquitination of Death Domain Kinase RIP in Triple-negative Breast Cancers.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(11):2528-2542 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastatic breast cancer is still incurable so far; new specifically targeted and more effective therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are required in the clinic. In this study, our clinical data have established that basal and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC types) express significantly higher levels of Annexin A1 (ANXA1) with poor survival outcomes. Using human cancer cell lines that model the TNBC subtype, we observed a strong positive correlation between expression of ANXA1 and PPARγ. A similar correlation between these two markers was also established in our clinical breast cancer patients' specimens. To establish a link between these two markers in TNBC, we show
BACKGROUND: The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the enhanced anticancer effects of Res (resveratrol) on PA (paclitaxel) in HepG2 human liver cancer cells.
METHODS: The MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide), flow cytometry, qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and western blot assay were used for cells growth inhibitory effects, cells apoptosis (DNA content of sub-G1), mRNA and protein expressions, respectively.
RESULTS: The 10 μg/mL of Res had no growth inhibitory effect on Nthy-ori 3-1 normal cells or HepG2 cancer cells meanwhile the 5 or 10 μg/mL of PA also had no growth inhibitory effect on Nthy-ori 3-1 normal cells. Where as PA-L (5 μg/mL) and PA-H (10 μg/mL) had the growth inhibitory effects in HepG2 cancer cells, and Res increase these growth inhibitory effects. By flow cytometry experiment, after Res (5 μg/mL) + PA-H (10 μg/mL) treatment, the HepG2 cells showed the most apoptosis in cells as compared to other treatments groups, and after additionally treated with Res, both the apoptosis cells of two concentrations PA were raised. As PA raised it also raised the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax (Bcl-2 assaciated X protein), p53, p21, IκB-α (inhibitor of NF-κB alpha), Fas (factor associated suicide), FasL (factor associated suicide ligand), TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1), TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2) and decrease Bcl-2 (B cell leukemia 2), Bcl-xL (B cell leukemia extra large), HIAP-1 (cIAP-1, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1), HIAP-2 (cIAP-2, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase 2), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), MMP-2 (metalloproteinase 2), MMP-9 (metalloproteinase 9), EGF (epidermal growth factor), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Fit-1 (VEGFR-1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1). Meanwhile, the 5 μg/mL of Res could enhance these mRNA expressions changes as compared to the control cells.
CONCLUSION: From these results, we can conclude that Res could raise the anticancer effects of PA in HepG2 cells, Res could be used as a good sensitizing agent for PA.
Guesmi F, Prasad S, Tyagi AK, Landoulsi AAntinflammatory and anticancer effects of terpenes from oily fractions of Teucruim alopecurus, blocker of IκBα kinase, through downregulation of NF-κB activation, potentiation of apoptosis and suppression of NF-κB-regulated gene expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 95:1876-1885 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Teucrium alopecurus is an endemic plant limited to southern Tunisia. In the present study, the chemical composition, anticancer and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitory effects of Teucrium alopecurus leaf essential oil was investigated. The analysis of Teucrium alopecurus (TA-1) with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) showed that α-Bisabolol, (+)-epi-Bicyclosesquiphellandrene and α-Cadinol, were found in relatively high amounts (16.16%, 15.40% and 8.52%, respectively). Cell viability was determined by 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2-5-diphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis assay were determined by flow cytometry. TA-1 functions as an anticancer agent by triggering apoptosis potentiated by chemotherapeutic agents and TNF in human myeloid leukemia cells (KBM5) through a mechanism involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and initiator and effector caspases activation. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that TA-1 downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB and its phosphorylation induced by TNF-α and this, allows the suppression of the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB and the inhibition of the phosphorylation of p65 phosphorylation and the p50-p65 heterodimer nuclear translocation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated antiapoptotic (Survivin, Bcl-2, c-IAP1/2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and cFLIP), invasion (ICAM1), metasatsis (MMP-9), and angiogenesis (VEGF) gene expression in KBM5; and finally reporter gene expression. Furthermore, treatment with essential oil and TNF-α suppressed the NF-κB DNA binding activity. Finally, the activation of nuclear factor-κB induced by different plasmids (TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, NIK, TAK1/TAB1, and IKKβ) was inhibited following treatment with TA-1. Overall, TA-1 inhibits NF-κB activation and further growth and proliferation of cancer cells.
Lai Y, Fan L, Zhao Y, et al.Cx32 suppresses extrinsic apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells via the NF‑κB signalling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(4):1159-1168 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and TNF‑related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) usually trigger either survival or apoptosis signals in various cell types, and nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) is a key factor that regulates their biological effects. Connexin 32 (Cx32) is a gap junction (GJ) protein that plays vital roles in tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Our previous study explored abnormal Cx32 expression in para‑nuclear areas, exacerbated prognostic parameters and suppressed streptonigrin/cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer (CaCx) cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Cx32 in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway of CaCx cells. In transgenic HeLa cells and C-33A cells, Cx32 expression was manipulated using doxycycline or Cx32 siRNA. GJ inhibitors or low density culturing was used to change the status of gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC). We found that apoptosis induced by TNFα and TRAIL was suppressed by Cx32 expression despite the presence or absense of GJIC. We also found that Cx32 upregulated the expression of nuclear NF‑κB and its downstream targets c-IAP1, MMP‑2, and MMP‑9 in HeLa‑Cx32 and C-33A cells. Following our previous study design, our clinical data showed that NF‑κB and MMP‑2 levels increased in human CaCx specimens with high Cx32 expression compared to levels in para‑carcinoma of cervical specimens. SC75741 and JSH-23, NF‑кB signalling pathway inhibitors, inhibited the anti-apoptotic effects of Cx32. In conclusion, Cx32 suppressed TNFα /TRAIL-induced extrinsic apoptosis by upregulating the NF‑κB signalling pathway. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism for Cx32's anti-apoptotic effect and provides a reasonable explanation for the pro-tumour effect of Cx32 in human CaCx cells.
Mohamed MF, Samir N, Ali A, et al.Apoptotic induction mediated p53 mechanism and Caspase-3 activity by novel promising cyanoacrylamide derivatives in breast carcinoma.
Bioorg Chem. 2017; 73:43-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
New cyanoacrylamide derivatives were theoretically examined for their binding abilities to a protein model of apoptosis inhibitor proteins x-IAP and c-IAP1 using molecular modeling. The two compounds 5a and 5b proved promising IAP antagonists, where they have good binding affinity toward the selected active domains. Anticancer activity of all derivatives was performed on different human cancer cell lines (HCT116, Caco
Li X, Jin Y, Mu Z, et al.MicroRNA‑146a‑5p enhances cisplatin‑induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by targeting multiple anti‑apoptotic genes.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(1):327-335 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs play a crucial role in gene expression regulation in various types of cancers. Previous studies show the expression level of miR‑146a‑5p is downregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer. Further investigations suggest this downregulation is responsible for apoptosis resistance in ovarian cancer cells. However, the mechanism of how miR‑146a‑5p promotes apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, the role of miR‑146a‑5p in cisplatin‑induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells was assessed by DAPI staining, MTT assays, and monitoring expression of XIAP, BCL2L2, BIRC2 and BIRC5 through a dual‑luciferase assay. Our results show that miR‑146a‑5p can regulate three important anti‑apoptotic genes including XIAP, BCL2L2 and BIRC5 via their 3'UTRs. Not only can overexpression of miR‑146a‑5p downregulate the expression of XIAP in SKOV3 cells, but it also lowers the IC50 values of cisplatin in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells and enhances the susceptibility of OVCAR3, SKOV3 and primary ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin‑induced apoptosis. The effect of XIAP rescuing cisplatin‑induced apoptosis accelerated by miR‑146a‑5p further supports our conclusion. Our results suggest that the regulation of three anti‑apoptotic genes by miR‑146‑5p enhances the therapeutic effects of cisplatin.
Chang YS, Huang HD, Yeh KT, Chang JGIdentification of novel mutations in endometrial cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(5):1778-1784 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to identify genomic alterations in Taiwanese endometrial cancer patients. This information is vitally important in Taiwan, where endometrial cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing on DNA from 14 tumor tissue samples from Taiwanese endometrial cancer patients. We used the Genome Analysis Tool kit software package for data analysis, and the dbSNP, Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases for comparisons. Variants were validated via Sanger sequencing. We identified 143 non-synonymous mutations in 756 canonical cancer-related genes and 1,271 non-synonymous mutations in non-canonical cancer-related genes in 14 endometrial samples. PTEN, KRAS and PIK3R1 were the most frequently mutated canonical cancer-related genes. Our results revealed nine potential driver genes (MAPT, IL24, MCM6, TSC1, BIRC2, CIITA, DST, CASP8 and NOTCH2) and 21 potential passenger genes (ARMCX4, IGSF10, VPS13C, DCT, DNAH14, TLN1, ZNF605, ZSCAN29, MOCOS, CMYA5, PCDH17, UGT1A8, CYFIP2, MACF1, NUDT5, JAKMIP1, PCDHGB4, FAM178A, SNX6, IMP4 and PCMTD1). The detected molecular aberrations led to putative activation of the mTOR, Wnt, MAPK, VEGF and ErbB pathways, as well as aberrant DNA repair, cell cycle control and apoptosis pathways. We characterized the mutational landscape and genetic alterations in multiple cellular pathways of endometrial cancer in the Taiwanese population.
Hikami S, Shiozaki A, Kitagawa-Juge M, et al.The Role of cIAP1 and XIAP in Apoptosis Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
Dig Dis Sci. 2017; 62(3):652-659 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family are reported to play important roles in cancer cells evading apoptosis. However, the significance of their expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells remains uncertain.
AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate the role of the IAP family members in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis of human ESCC cells.
METHODS: Five human ESCC cell lines were pretreated with TNF-α, cycloheximide (CHX, protein synthesis inhibitor), epoxomicin (proteasome inhibitor). Apoptosis assay and protein study with Western blot testing were conducted. Knockdown experiments with IAP siRNA were conducted, and the effect on cell apoptosis was analyzed.
RESULTS: Significant apoptosis was induced in five ESCC cell lines by TNF-α plus CHX stimulation, but not when treated with TNF-α or CHX alone. The protein expression levels of cIAP1 and XIAP were decreased by treatment with TNF-α in the presence of CHX, and the degree of cIAP1 and XIAP expression decrease was correlated with sensitivity to TNF-α plus CHX-induced apoptosis. Epoxomicin suppressed TNF-α plus CHX-induced degradation of survivin, cIAP1, and XIAP, in addition to apoptosis. A caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) suppressed TNF-α plus CHX-induced apoptosis, but did not suppress degradation of survivin, cIAP1, and XIAP. Furthermore, cIAP1 or XIAP siRNA transfected cells underwent apoptosis in response to treatment with TNF-α alone. Double knockdown of both genes resulted in further increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: cIAP1 and XIAP play an essential role in the resistance of ESCC cells against apoptosis.
Piao L, Canguo Z, Wenjie L, et al.Lipopolysaccharides-stimulated macrophage products enhance Withaferin A-induced apoptosis via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-κB pathway in human cancer cells.
Mol Immunol. 2017; 81:92-101 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Macrophages, as a major cellular component in tumor microenvironment, play an important role in tumor progression. However, their roles in modulation of cytotoxic chemotherapy are still not fully understood. Here, we investigated the influence of Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophage products (LSMP) on Withaferin A (WA), a natural compound that derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, as an antitumor agent in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and prostate cancer cells PC-3. Our results revealed that LSMP may enhance WA-induced apoptosis in both cell lines, the underlying mechanisms of which are closely associated with activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), as well as specifically inhibiting the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP1/2). These findings demonstrate that macrophages in tumor microenvironment can modulate tumor responses to chemotoxic agents, providing an effective strategy that targets macrophages to enhance the antitumor efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
The cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (cIAP) 1 and 2 are amplified in about 3% of cancers and have been identified in multiple malignancies as being potential therapeutic targets as a result of their role in the evasion of apoptosis. Consequently, small-molecule IAP antagonists, such as LCL161, have entered clinical trials for their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells. However, cIAP1 and cIAP2 are recurrently homozygously deleted in multiple myeloma (MM), resulting in constitutive activation of the noncanonical nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. To our surprise, we observed robust in vivo anti-myeloma activity of LCL161 in a transgenic myeloma mouse model and in patients with relapsed-refractory MM, where the addition of cyclophosphamide resulted in a median progression-free-survival of 10 months. This effect was not a result of direct induction of tumor cell death, but rather of upregulation of tumor-cell-autonomous type I interferon (IFN) signaling and a strong inflammatory response that resulted in the activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, leading to phagocytosis of tumor cells. Treatment of a MM mouse model with LCL161 established long-term anti-tumor protection and induced regression in a fraction of the mice. Notably, combination of LCL161 with the immune-checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD1 was curative in all of the treated mice.
High expression of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) has been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, resistance to treatment and poor prognosis. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) through its receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2) can selectively induce cancer cell apoptosis. The mRNA expression of DR4, DR5, c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and BIRC5/Survivin genes was examined in 100 paired (cancerous-normal) colorectal tissue specimens by real-time PCR, 50 of which were KRAS wild-type and 50 KRAS-mutant. DR5, XIAP and BIRC5/Survivin genes are significantly up-regulated (p < 0.0001, p = 0.012 and p = 0.0003, respectively), whereas c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 genes are significantly down-regulated at mRNA and protein levels in CRC (p < 0.0001 for both). ROC analyses showed that DR5, cIAP1 and cIAP2 expression has discriminatory value between CRC and normal tissue (AUC = 0.700, p < 0.0001 for DR5; AUC = 0.628, p = 0.011 for cIAP1; AUC = 0.673, p < 0.0001 for cIAP2). Combinatorial ROC analysis revealed the marginally fair discriminatory value of 5 genes as a panel (AUC = 0.685, p < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed significant association of cIAP2 down-regulation in CRC with lower overall survival probability of CRC patients (p = 0.0098). DR5, BIRC5/Survivin, XIAP, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 mRNA expression are significantly deregulated in CRC and could provide a panel of markers with significant discriminatory value between CRC and normal colorectal tissue.
Dysfunctional apoptotic machinery is a hallmark feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Accordingly, targeting apoptosis regulators has been proven a rational approach for CLL treatment. We show that CLL lymphocytes express high levels of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 compared to normal lymphocytes. Smac mimetic, Smac066, designed to bind to BIR3-domain of IAPs, induce apoptosis in primary CLL cells (n=71; p<0.0001), irrespective of prognostic markers. Apoptosis was mediated by diminished levels of IAPs (XIAP-p=0.02; cIAP-p<0.0001) and increased activation of caspases-8,-9,-3. The caspase-cleavage was in direct association with the levels of apoptosis (r2=0.8 for caspases-8,-9,-3). Correlative analysis revealed a direct relationship between reduction in IAPs and degree of apoptosis (r2=0.6 (XIAP); 0.5 (cIAP2)). There was a strong association between apoptosis, IAP-degradation, and concurrent caspase-activation. Pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Vad-fmk reversed the degradation of Mcl-1, but not IAPs suggesting that smac066 is selective to IAPs, however, Mcl-1 degradation is through caspase-mediated cleavage. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed physical interaction between caspase-3 and XIAP that was disrupted by smac066. Importantly, XIAP and cIAP2 were markedly induced in bone-marrow and lymph-node microenvironments, providing a basis for IAP antagonists as anti-tumor agents in CLL. Smac066 synergized with ABT-737, revealing a mechanistic rationale to jointly target BH3 and BIR3 domains.
BACKGROUND: LCL161, a novel Smac mimetic, is known to have anti-tumor activity and improve chemosensitivity in various cancers. However, the function and mechanisms of the combination of LCL161 and paclitaxel in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown.
METHODS: Cellular inhibitor of apoptotic protein 1 and 2 (cIAP1&2) expression in NSCLC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between cIAP1&2 expression and clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis were analyzed. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assays and Flow cytometry. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation assay were performed to measure the protein expression and interaction in NF-kB pathway. siRNA-mediated gene silencing and caspases activity assays were applied to demonstrate the role and mechanisms of cIAP1&2 and RIP1 in lung cancer cell apoptosis. Mouse xenograft NSCLC models were used in vivo to determine the therapeutic efficacy of LCL161 alone or in combination with paclitaxel.
RESULTS: The expression of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues. cIAP1 was highly expressed in patients with late TNM stage NSCLC and a poor prognosis. Positivity for both cIAP1 and cIAP2 was an independent prognostic factor that indicated a poorer prognosis in NSCLC patients. LCL161, an IAP inhibitor, cooperated with paclitaxel to reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Molecular studies revealed that paclitaxel increased TNFα expression, thereby leading to the recruitment of various factors and the formation of the TRADD-TRAF2-RIP1-cIAP complex. LCL161 degraded cIAP1&2 and released RIP1 from the complex. Subsequently, RIP1 was stabilized and bound to caspase-8 and FADD, thereby forming the caspase-8/RIP1/FADD complex, which activated caspase-8, caspase-3 and ultimately lead to apoptosis. In nude mouse xenograft experiments, the combination of LCL161 and paclitaxel degraded cIAP1,2, activated caspase-3 and inhibited tumor growth with few toxic effects.
CONCLUSION: Thus, LCL161 could be a useful agent for the treatment of NSCLC in combination with paclitaxel.
Shen S, Liu H, Wang Y, et al.Long non-coding RNA CRNDE promotes gallbladder carcinoma carcinogenesis and as a scaffold of DMBT1 and C-IAP1 complexes to activating PI3K-AKT pathway.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(45):72833-72844 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) is deleted during cancer progression and as a potential tumor-suppressor gene in various types of cancer. However, its role in Gallbladder cancer remains poorly understood. DMBT1 has low-expression and deletion of copy number were detected in normal tissues and GBC cancer tissues by qRT-PCR. Knockdown of DMBT1 increased migration and invasion and overexpressed DMBT1 impaired migration and invasion in GBC cells. We also evaluated the molecular mechanism of DMBT1 by RNA sequencing and GSEA analysis. RNA-Pulldown and RIP assay authenticated CRNDE can specified binding with DMBT1 and c-IAP1. Downregulation of DMBT1 resulted in significant change of gene expression (at least 2-fold) in PI3K-AKT pathway, increased expression of MMP-9, JUK-1, ERK and AKT, activating PI3K-AKT pathway lead to GBC carcinogenesis.We for the first time reported, DMBT1 as a prognosis biomarker, is low-expressed in GBC tumors, and CRNDE act as a scaffold to recruit the DMBT1 and c-IAP1, promotes the PI3K-AKT pathway. Our study reveals DMBT1 may be an important contributor to GBC cancer development.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low-like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration-approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC.
Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2's potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC.
Eytan DF, Snow GE, Carlson S, et al.SMAC Mimetic Birinapant plus Radiation Eradicates Human Head and Neck Cancers with Genomic Amplifications of Cell Death Genes FADD and BIRC2.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(18):5442-5454 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Comparison of tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) harbor the most frequent genomic amplifications of Fas-associated death domain (FADD), with or without Baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing BIRC2 (cIAP1), affecting about 30% of patients in association with worse prognosis. Here, we identified HNSCC cell lines harboring FADD/BIRC2 amplifications and overexpression by exome sequencing, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. In vitro, FADD or BIRC2 siRNA knockdown inhibited HNSCC displaying amplification and increased expression of these genes, supporting their functional importance in promoting proliferation. Birinapant, a novel SMAC mimetic, sensitized multiple HNSCC lines to cell death by agonists TNFα or TRAIL and inhibited cIAP1>XIAP>IAP2. Combination of birinapant and TNFα induced sub-G0 DNA fragmentation in sensitive lines and birinapant alone also induced significant G2-M cell-cycle arrest and cell death in UM-SCC-46 cells. Gene transfer and expression of FADD sensitized resistant UM-SCC-38 cells lacking FADD amplification to birinapant and TNFα, supporting a role for FADD in sensitization to IAP inhibitor and death ligands. HNSCC varied in mechanisms of cell death, as indicated by reversal by inhibitors or protein markers of caspase-dependent apoptosis and/or RIPK1/MLKL-mediated necroptosis. In vivo, birinapant inhibited tumor growth and enhanced radiation-induced TNFα, tumor responses, and host survival in UM-SCC-46 and -11B xenograft models displaying amplification and overexpression of FADD+/- BIRC2 These findings suggest that combination of SMAC mimetics such as birinapant plus radiation may be particularly active in HNSCC, which harbor frequent FADD/BIRC2 genomic alterations. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5442-54. ©2016 AACR.
Hwang JW, Cho H, Lee JY, et al.The synthetic ajoene analog SPA3015 induces apoptotic cell death through crosstalk between NF-κB and PPARγ in multidrug-resistant cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2016; 96:35-42 [PubMed
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression impedes successful cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of SPA3015, a synthetic ajoene analog, in P-gp-overexpressing MDR cancer cells (KBV20C and MES-SA/DX5). Treatment with SPA3015 caused a dramatic decrease in the cell viabilities of both KBV20C and MES-SA/DX5 cells. This decrease was accompanied by apoptotic cell death without affecting the expression level or drug efflux function of P-gp. SPA3015 selectively suppressed NF-κB reporter gene activity, which led to decreased expression of NF-κB target genes such as CIAP1, CIAP2, XIAP, and Bcl-XL. Surprisingly, nuclear localization and DNA binding affinity of the p65 subunit were not affected by SPA3015, suggesting that SPA3015 inhibits the transcriptional activity of NF-κB at the nucleus. Indeed, SPA3015 treatment led to an increase in the physical interaction of p65 with PPARγ, which resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Our findings support the hypothesis that SPA3015 inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity by facilitating the physical interaction of the p65 subunit and PPARγ, which leads to apoptotic cell death in MDR cancer cells.
Falkenhorst J, Grunewald S, Mühlenberg T, et al.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are commonly dysregulated in GIST and can be pharmacologically targeted to enhance the pro-apoptotic activity of imatinib.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):41390-41403 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) exhibit a strong oncogenic dependency on KIT and KIT inhibitors confer long lasting disease stabilization in the majority of patients. Nonetheless, KIT inhibition alone does not cure GIST as a subset of GIST cells evade apoptosis and eventually develop resistance. Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) may confer resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. We observed that the mRNA and protein of IAPs XIAP (BIRC4) and survivin (BIRC5) were highly expressed in primary GIST tumors and cell line models. Amplification of the respective gene loci (BIRC2, BIRC3, BIRC4, BIRC5) was detected in 47% of GIST studied by SNP arrays. Whole exome analyses revealed a mutation of SMAC(DIABLO) in a heavily pretreated patient. Both, survivin (rank 62-92/11.194 tested proteins) and XIAP (rank 106-557/11.194) were found to be essential proteins for survival in a synthetic lethality screen. Expression of XIAP and survivin decreased upon KIT inhibition and may play a role in KIT-regulated pro-survival signaling. SMAC-mimetic treatment with LCL161 and TL32711 reduced cIAP1 and XIAP expression. Survivin inhibitor YM155 lead to transcriptional repression of BIRC5/survivin (YM155) and induced apoptosis. Combinational treatment with KIT inhibitors (imatinib, regorafenib) enhanced the proapoptotic effect. These findings support the combination of KIT inhibition with IAP antagonists in GIST.
Chronic active B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), engages the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 (CBM) adapter complex to activate IκB kinase (IKK) and the classical NF-κB pathway. Here we show that the CBM complex includes the E3 ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are essential mediators of BCR-dependent NF-κB activity in ABC DLBCL. cIAP1/2 attach K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on themselves and on BCL10, resulting in the recruitment of IKK and the linear ubiquitin chain ligase LUBAC, which is essential for IKK activation. SMAC mimetics target cIAP1/2 for destruction, and consequently suppress NF-κB and selectively kill BCR-dependent ABC DLBCL lines, supporting their clinical evaluation in patients with ABC DLBCL.