Gene Summary

Gene:CX3CL1; C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1
Aliases: NTN, NTT, CXC3, CXC3C, SCYD1, ABCD-3, C3Xkine, fractalkine, neurotactin
Summary:This gene belongs to the CX3C subgroup of chemokines, characterized by the number of amino acids located between the conserved cysteine residues. This is the only member of the CX3C subgroup, which contains three amino acids between cysteine residues, resulting in a Cys-X-X-X-Cys configuration. The encoded protein contains an extended mucin-like stalk with a chemokine domain on top, and exists in both a membrane-anchored form where it acts as a binding molecule, or, in soluble form, as a chemotactic cytokine. The mature form of this protein can be cleaved at the cell surface, yielding different soluble forms that can interact with the G-protein coupled receptor, C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1 gene product. This gene plays a role in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, vasculitis, neuropathies, atherosclerosis, inflammatory diseases, and in human immunodeficiency virus infections. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (33)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Bone Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • RNA Interference
  • Young Adult
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Signal Transduction
  • Messenger RNA
  • RT-PCR
  • Brain Tumours
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Chemokine CX3CL1
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Staging
  • Breast Cancer
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Natural Killer Cells
  • Chemokines
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Tumor Burden
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Up-Regulation
  • Brain Tumours
  • gp100 Melanoma Antigen
  • Chromosome 16
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Stromal Cells
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CX3CL1 (cancer-related)

Hariharan N, Ashcraft KA, Svatek RS, et al.
Adipose Tissue-Secreted Factors Alter Bladder Cancer Cell Migration.
J Obes. 2018; 2018:9247864 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer recurrence. This study investigated the role of adipose tissue in bladder cancer progression.
Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed on adipose tissues collected from normal weight (
Results: Expression profiling demonstrated depot-specific or body mass index-specific differences. Increased T24 cell migration was observed using CM harvested from all ASCs. ASC CM from an obese patient significantly increased T24 cell migration and invasion compared to ASC CM collected from normal weight and overweight patients. We identified abundant expression of CXCL1, PAI1, IL6, CX3CL1, and CCL2 in all CM. Exogenous treatment of T24 cells with PAI1, IL6, and CXCL1 enhanced migration. Depletion of CXCL1, PAI1, and IL6 in an obese patient ASC CM abrogated T24 migration.
Conclusion: Factors secreted by adipose tissue influence the migration of bladder tumor cells and could play an active role in tumor progression.

Geismann C, Erhart W, Grohmann F, et al.
TRAIL/NF-κB/CX3CL1 Mediated Onco-Immuno Crosstalk Leading to TRAIL Resistance of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms and registers rising death rates in western countries. Due to its late detection in advanced stages, its extremely aggressive nature and the minimal effectiveness of currently available therapies, PDAC is a challenging problem in the clinical field. One characteristic of PDAC is a distinct desmoplasia consisting of fibroblasts, endothelial and immune cells as well as non-cellular components, contributing to therapy resistance. It is well established that the NF-κB signaling pathway controls inflammation, cancer progression and apoptosis resistance in PDAC. This study attempts to identify NF-κB target genes mediating therapy resistance of humane PDAC cell lines towards death ligand induced apoptosis. By using a genome wide unbiased approach the chemokine CX3CL1 was established as a central NF-κB target gene mediating therapy resistance. While no direct impact of CX3CL1 expression on cancer cell apoptosis was identified in co-culture assays it became apparent that CX3CL1 is acting in a paracrine fashion, leading to an increased recruitment of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells in turn mediate apoptosis resistance of PDAC cells. Therefore, our data dissect a bifunctional cross-signaling pathway in PDAC between tumor and immune cells giving rise to therapy resistance.

Terada K, Yamaguchi H, Ueki T, et al.
Usefulness of BCOR gene mutation as a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate cytogenetic prognosis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(8):401-408 [PubMed] Related Publications
BCOR gene is a transcription regulatory factor that plays an essential role in normal hematopoiesis. The wider introduction of next-generation sequencing technology has led to reports in recent years of mutations in the BCOR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the related clinical characteristics and prognosis are not sufficiently understood. We investigated the clinical characteristics and prognosis of 377 de novo AML cases with BCOR or BCORL1 mutation. BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations were found in 28 cases (7.4%). Among cases aged 65 years or below that were also FLT3-ITD-negative and in the intermediate cytogenetic prognosis group, BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations were observed in 11% of cases (12 of 111 cases), and this group had significantly lower 5-year overall survival (OS) (13.6% vs. 55.0%, P = 0.0021) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (14.3% vs. 44.5%, P = 0.0168) compared to cases without BCOR or BCORL1 gene mutations. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BCOR mutations were an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P = 0.0038, P = 0.0463) for both OS and RFS. In cases of AML that are FLT3-ITD-negative, aged 65 years or below, and in the intermediate cytogenetic prognosis group, which are considered to have relatively favorable prognosis, BCOR gene mutations appear to be an important prognostic factor.

Ota S, Matsukawa T, Yamamoto S, et al.
Severe adverse events by tyrosine kinase inhibitors decrease survival rates in patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(1):95-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This multicenter cooperative study aimed to analyze the adverse events (AEs) associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used as initial treatment for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP) and their impact on outcome.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 450 patients with CML-CP who received TKIs between 2004 and 2014.
RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 95.1% and 89.0%, respectively. Patients with comorbidities (46.4%) and aged ≥60 years (50.4%) at diagnosis had significantly inferior OS to those without comorbidities and aged <60. Patients achieved higher rates of major molecular response (MMR) at 6 and 12 months after initial treatment with dasatinib or nilotinib compared to imatinib, but final MMR rates were almost the same. Sixty-six percent of patients required treatment modifications from first-line TKI therapy; the main reasons were AEs (48.4%) and failure (18%). Grade III-IV AEs in first-line TKI therapy were significantly correlated to inferior OS/EFS compared to grade 0-II AEs.
CONCLUSION: Although long-term outcomes were similar in CML-CP patients treated with each TKI regardless of first-line TKI selection, severe AEs in first-line TKI therapy decreased their survival rates. Early change in TKIs is recommended, when faced with severe AEs of specific TKIs.

Zhuang Q, Cheng K, Ming Y
CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Axis, as the Therapeutic Potential in Renal Diseases: Friend or Foe?
Curr Gene Ther. 2017; 17(6):442-452 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fractalkine receptor chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) and its highly selective ligand CX3CL1 mediate chemotaxis and adhesion of immune cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of numerous inflammatory disorders and malignancies. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis has recently drawn attention as a potential therapeutic target because it is involved in the ontogeny, homeostatic migration, or colonization of renal phagocytes. We performed a Medline/PubMed search to detect recently published studies that explored the relationship between the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and renal diseases and disorders, including diabetic nephropathy, renal allograft rejection, infectious renal diseases, IgA nephropathy, fibrotic kidney disease, lupus nephritis and glomerulonephritis, acute kidney injury and renal carcinoma. Most studies demonstrated its role in promoting renal pathopoiesis; however, several recent studies showed that the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis could also reduce renal pathopoiesis. Thus, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is now considered to be a double-edged sword that could provide novel perspectives into the pathogenesis and treatment of renal diseases and disorders.

Taniguchi Y, Matsumoto Y, Furukawa R, et al.
The clinical features of squamous cell lung carcinoma with sensitive EGFR mutations.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2018; 23(3):452-457 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The process of selecting patients on the basis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations would likely result in a patient population with greater sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, EGFR mutation status is not routinely examined in patients with squamous cell lung cancer (Sq) because of the low incidence of EGFR mutations and the poor clinical response to EGFR-TKIs.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of patients at our hospital with Sq who carried EGFR-TKI-sensitive EGFR mutations and assessed their responses to EGFR-TKIs.
RESULTS: EGFR mutation status was tested in 23 of 441 patients with Sq (5.2%) admitted to our hospital during the study period. An EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion 3, L858R 2) was identified in five of the 23 patients (21.7%), all of whom were female never-smokers. Of these five patients, four (4/9; 44.4%) were in the normal lung group, one (1/12; 8.3%) was in the emphysematous lung group, and none (0/2; 0%) in the fibrotic lung group. Two of these five patients with the EGFR mutation received gefitinib and two received afatinib. Although the two patients who were treated with gefitinib did not respond well to treatment (stable disease, 1 patient; progressive disease, 1 patient), the two patients who were treated with afatinib showed a good response (partial response, 2 patients).
CONCLUSION: The administration of afatinib to Sq patients after selecting patients using the EGFR mutation test based on their underlying pulmonary disease and smoking status would likely result in a population with a greater sensitivity to afatinib.

Su YC, Chang H, Sun SJ, et al.
Differential impact of CX3CL1 on lung cancer prognosis in smokers and non-smokers.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(5):629-639 [PubMed] Related Publications
CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine, expressed in both soluble and membrane bound forms, which mediates different biological activities. Recent studies have revealed the potential of CX3CL1 signaling pathway as a target for the treatment of inflammation and cancer. The correlation between expression of CX3CL1 and prognosis of patients varies among cancers. In this study, based on CX3CL1 immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer, CX3CL1 levels were positively associated with cancer stage (Pearson chi-square, P = 0.048) and lymph node status (P = 0.033). Interestingly, survival effects of CX3CL1 were only observed in patients with smoking history and adenocarcinoma (AD, log rank, P = 0.027), but not in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SQ). The median survival time of patients with smoking history and low level CX3CL1 expressing AD was 1538 days, while that of patients with smoking history and high level CX3CL1 expressing AD was 396 days. Cox regression models showed adverse effects of high CX3CL1 levels only in AD patients with smoking history (hazard ratio = 3.01, p = 0.034), but not in AD patients without smoking history or in SQ patients with smoking history. The results of this study suggest that CX3CL1 plays different roles in lung tumorigenesis in smokers and non-smokers, and different CX3CL1-based therapeutic strategies are needed depending on patient smoking status and tumor type. Furthermore, high level of CX3CL1 expression enhances nodal metastasis by activating JNK & MMP2/MMP9 activity in lung cancer cells.

Shindo T, Shimizu T, Nojima M, et al.
Evaluation of Urinary DNA Methylation as a Marker for Recurrent Bladder Cancer: A 2-Center Prospective Study.
Urology. 2018; 113:71-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical utility of urinary DNA methylation for detection of intravesical recurrence of non-muscle invasive BCa (NMIBC), we performed a 2-center prospective study.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of 207 self-voided urine samples were prospectively collected from 132 patients with NMIBC who had undergone transurethral resection of BCa. Methylation of miRNA genes (miR-9-3, miR-124-2, miR-124-3, and miR-137) was analyzed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The primary end point was detection of intravesical recurrence; the secondary end point was prediction of late recurrence. The number of methylated genes (M-score) or quantitative level of methylation were compared with outcomes.
RESULTS: Twenty-six urine specimens were collected on the same day intravesical recurrence was detected, and 14 were collected from patients whose recurrences were found during the subsequent follow-up period (0-632 days, mean, 342.2 days). For detection of current recurrence, M-scores achieved 61.5% sensitivity and 74.0% specificity, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.71. Regarding prediction of late recurrence, patients with a high M-score (≥3) showed worse recurrence-free survival (P <.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that high M-scores were independently associated with current (P = .028) and late recurrence (P = .026). Elevated levels of urinary DNA methylation were also strongly associated with recurrence and radical cystectomy.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that urinary methylation of miRNA genes may be a useful marker for detecting and predicting BCa recurrence.

Kurata A, Yamada M, Ohno SI, et al.
Expression level of microRNA-200c is associated with cell morphology in vitro and histological differentiation through regulation of ZEB1/2 and E-cadherin in gastric carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(1):91-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Scirrhous type gastric cancer is characterized by diffuse infiltration of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells and poor prognosis. Although association of poorly differentiated histology with reduction in E-cadherin expression, as well as association of microRNA (miR)-200c with E-cadherin through regulation of ZEB1/2, has been reported, participation of miR-200c in gastric carcinogenesis is not fully understood. We used 6 cell lines originating from gastric cancers, and investigated levels of miR-200c along with its target mRNAs ZEB1/2 and E-cadherin by qRT-PCR. ZEB1 and E-cadherin protein expression was also assessed via western blotting. Furthermore, we investigated the expression levels of miR‑200c by in situ hybridization, along with the expression of ZEB1 and E-cadherin by immunohistochemistry, in 97 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. Inverse correlation between miR‑200c and ZEB1 levels were obtained by qRT-PCR in cell lines (P<0.05). Cell lines with low miR-200c and high ZEB1 exhibited low E-cadherin expression in both qRT-PCR and western blotting, and exhibited spindle-shaped morphology, in contrast to round cell morphology in those cell lines with high miR-200c levels. Inverse correlations were also obtained between miR-200c and ZEB1 as well as between ZEB1 and E-cadherin levels in tissue samples (P<0.001). Cancer tissues with low miR-200c, high ZEB1, and low E-cadherin expression were associated with poorly differentiated histology, in contrast to tubular form in cancers with high miR-200c expression levels (P<0.001). Our data revealed that downregulation of miR-200c primarily regulated cell morphology by downregulation of E-cadherin through upregulation of ZEB1, leading to poorly differentiated histology in gastric cancer.

Kato T, Lee D, Huang H, et al.
Personalized siRNA-Nanoparticle Systemic Therapy using Metastatic Lymph Node Specimens Obtained with EBUS-TBNA in Lung Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(1):47-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibiting specific gene expression with siRNA provides a new therapeutic strategy to tackle many diseases at the molecular level. Recent strategies called high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking peptide-phospholipid nanoscaffold (HPPS) nanoparticles have been used to induce siRNAs-targeted delivery to

Huang L, Ma B, Ma J, Wang F
Fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis modulated the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via JAK/STAT signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 493(4):1510-1517 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal malignancy with an estimated 5 year survival rate of approximately 5% of all stages combined. High potential of PDAC metastasis is a leading cause for high mortality and poor prognosis. The majority of patients present with distant metastasis at diagnosis. Fractalkine (FKN) is recognized as a chemokine and a specific ligand of CX3CR1. It has been reported that FKN/CX3CR1 system was upregulated in many types of solid tumors. However, role of FKN/CX3CR1 in PDAC development remains unclear. In the current investigation, we found that FKN and CX3CR1 expression was significantly increased in PDAC tissues, especially in the metastatic samples, and was highly-correlated with severity of PDAC. Ectopic expression of FKN promoted the proliferation and migration of PDAC, while knockdown of CX3CR1 reversed the function of FKN. In addition, PDAC cells with FKN-deficiency showed impaired proliferation and migration activity. The underlying mechanism is that FKN/CX3CR1 activated JAK/STAT signaling, which in turn regulated cell growth. Consistently, in vivo tumorigenesis assay validated the regulatory role of FKN/CX3CR1 in PDAC growth. Our investigation helped understanding the pathogenesis of PDAC occurrence, and demonstrated critical role of FKN/CX3CR1 in PDAC development.

Terada K, Yamaguchi H, Ueki T, et al.
Full-length mutation search of the TP53 gene in acute myeloid leukemia has increased significance as a prognostic factor.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(1):51-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
TP53 gene abnormality has been reported to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, almost all studies of TP53 gene abnormality so far have been limited to mutation searches in the DNA binding domain. As there have been few reports examining both mutation and deletion over the full-length of the TP53 gene, the clinical characteristics of TP53 gene abnormality have not yet been clearly established. In this study, TP53 gene mutation was observed in 7.3% of the total 412 de novo AML cases (33 mutations in 30 cases), with mutation outside the DNA binding domain in eight cases (27%). TP53 gene deletion was observed in 3.1% of 358 cases. All cases had monoallelic deletion with TP53 gene mutation on the opposite allele. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that TP53 gene mutation in the DNA binding domain and outside the DNA binding domain was an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival and relapse-free survival among the total cohort and it is also an unfavorable prognostic factor in FLT3-ITD-negative AML cases aged 70 years or below with intermediate cytogenetic prognosis. In stratified treatment, full-length search for TP53 gene mutation is therefore very important.

Ellsworth SG, Rabatic BM, Chen J, et al.
Principal component analysis identifies patterns of cytokine expression in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0183239 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Radiation treatment (RT) stimulates the release of many immunohumoral factors, complicating the identification of clinically significant cytokine expression patterns. This study used principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze cytokines in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing RT and explore differences in changes after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) without or with chemotherapy.
METHODS: The dataset included 141 NSCLC patients treated on prospective clinical protocols; PCA was based on the 128 patients who had complete CK values at baseline and during treatment. Patients underwent SBRT (n = 16), CFRT (n = 18), or CFRT (n = 107) with concurrent chemotherapy (ChRT). Levels of 30 cytokines were measured from prospectively collected platelet-poor plasma samples at baseline, during RT, and after RT. PCA was used to study variations in cytokine levels in patients at each time point.
RESULTS: Median patient age was 66, and 22.7% of patients were female. PCA showed that sCD40l, fractalkine/C3, IP10, VEGF, IL-1a, IL-10, and GMCSF were responsible for most variability in baseline cytokine levels. During treatment, sCD40l, IP10, MIP-1b, fractalkine, IFN-r, and VEGF accounted for most changes in cytokine levels. In SBRT patients, the most important players were sCD40l, IP10, and MIP-1b, whereas fractalkine exhibited greater variability in CFRT alone patients. ChRT patients exhibited variability in IFN-γ and VEGF in addition to IP10, MIP-1b, and sCD40l.
CONCLUSIONS: PCA can identify potentially significant patterns of cytokine expression after fractionated RT. Our PCA showed that inflammatory cytokines dominate post-treatment cytokine profiles, and the changes differ after SBRT versus CFRT, with vs without chemotherapy. Further studies are planned to validate these findings and determine the clinical significance of the cytokine profiles identified by PCA.

Takahashi N, Tauchi T, Kitamura K, et al.
Deeper molecular response is a predictive factor for treatment-free remission after imatinib discontinuation in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia: the JALSG-STIM213 study.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 107(2):185-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this prospective clinical trial (JALSG-STIM213, UMIN000011971) was to evaluate treatment-free remission (TFR) rates after discontinuation of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML patients who received imatinib treatment for at least 3 years and sustained deep molecular response for at least 2 years were eligible. Molecular recurrence was defined as loss of major molecular response (MMR). Of the 68 eligible patients, 38.2% were women, the median age was 55.0 years, and the median duration of imatinib treatment was 97.5 months. The 12-month TFR rate was 67.6%. Patients who lost MMR were immediately treated with imatinib again; all re-achieved MMR. Three-year treatment-free survival (TFS) was estimated as 64.6% using the Kaplan-Meier method. Undetectable molecular residual disease (UMRD) was defined as no BCR-ABL1 in > 100,000 ABL1 control genes using international scale polymerase chain reaction. UMRD at the study baseline was found to be predictive of continuation of TFR. Our findings suggest that CML patients who meet all the eligibility criteria that have commonly been used in the TFR trials are able to discontinue imatinib use safely. TFR may thus be valuable as a new goal for CML treatment in Japan.

Yui S, Kurosawa S, Yamaguchi H, et al.
D816 mutation of the KIT gene in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia is associated with poorer prognosis than other KIT gene mutations.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(10):1641-1652 [PubMed] Related Publications
The clinical impact of KIT mutations in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is still unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the prognostic significance of each KIT mutation (D816, N822K, and other mutations) in Japanese patients with CBF-AML. We retrospectively analyzed 136 cases of CBF-AML that had gone into complete remission (CR). KIT mutations were found in 61 (45%) of the patients with CBF-AML. D816, N822K, D816 and N822K, and other mutations of the KIT gene were detected in 29 cases (21%), 20 cases (15%), 7 cases (5%), and 5 cases (4%), respectively. The rate of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with D816 and with both D816 and N822K mutations was significantly lower than in patients with other or with no KIT mutations (RFS: p < 0.001, OS: p < 0.001). Moreover, stratified analysis of the chromosomal abnormalities t(8;21)(q22;q22) and inv(16)(p13.1q22), t(16;16)(p13.1;q22) showed that D816 mutation was associated with a significantly worse prognosis. In a further multivariate analysis of RFS and OS, D816 mutation was found to be an independent risk factor for significantly poorer prognosis. In the present study, we were able to establish that, of all KIT mutations, D816 mutation alone is an unfavorable prognostic factor.

Jung K, Heishi T, Khan OF, et al.
Ly6Clo monocytes drive immunosuppression and confer resistance to anti-VEGFR2 cancer therapy.
J Clin Invest. 2017; 127(8):3039-3051 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current anti-VEGF therapies for colorectal cancer (CRC) provide limited survival benefit, as tumors rapidly develop resistance to these agents. Here, we have uncovered an immunosuppressive role for nonclassical Ly6Clo monocytes that mediates resistance to anti-VEGFR2 treatment. We found that the chemokine CX3CL1 was upregulated in both human and murine tumors following VEGF signaling blockade, resulting in recruitment of CX3CR1+Ly6Clo monocytes into the tumor. We also found that treatment with VEGFA reduced expression of CX3CL1 in endothelial cells in vitro. Intravital microscopy revealed that CX3CR1 is critical for Ly6Clo monocyte transmigration across the endothelium in murine CRC tumors. Moreover, Ly6Clo monocytes recruit Ly6G+ neutrophils via CXCL5 and produce IL-10, which inhibits adaptive immunity. Preventing Ly6Clo monocyte or Ly6G+ neutrophil infiltration into tumors enhanced inhibition of tumor growth with anti-VEGFR2 therapy. Furthermore, a gene therapy using a nanoparticle formulated with an siRNA against CX3CL1 reduced Ly6Clo monocyte recruitment and improved outcome of anti-VEGFR2 therapy in mouse CRCs. Our study unveils an immunosuppressive function of Ly6Clo monocytes that, to our knowledge, has yet to be reported in any context. We also reveal molecular mechanisms underlying antiangiogenic treatment resistance, suggesting potential immunomodulatory strategies to enhance the long-term clinical outcome of anti-VEGF therapies.

Mohamad M, Wahab NA, Yunus R, et al.
Roles of MicroRNA21 and MicroRNA29a in Regulating Cell Adhesion Related Genes in Bone Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3437-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing concern in the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis (BM) secondary to prostate cancer (CaP). In this exploratory study, we hypothesized that the expression of vinculin (VCL) and chemokine X3C ligand 1 (CX3CL1) might be downregulated in clinical samples, most likely due to the posttranscriptional modification by microRNAs. Targeted genes would be upregulated upon transfection of the bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, with specific microRNA inhibitors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MicroRNA software predicted that miR21 targets VCL while miR29a targets CX3CL1. Twenty benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 16 high grade CaP formalinfixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were analysed. From the bone scan results, high grade CaP samples were further classified into CaP with no BM and CaP with BM. Transient transfection with respective microRNA inhibitors was done in both RWPE1 (normal) and PC3 cell lines. QPCR was performed in all FFPE samples and transfected cell lines to measure VCL and CX3CL1 levels.
RESULTS: QPCR confirmed that VCL messenger RNA (mRNA) was significantly down regulated while CX3CL1 was upregulated in all FFPE specimens. Transient transfection with microRNA inhibitors in PC3 cells followed by qPCR of the targeted genes showed that VCL mRNA was significantly up regulated while CX3CL1 mRNA was significantly downregulated compared to the RWPE1 case.
CONCLUSIONS: The downregulation of VCL in FFPE specimens is most likely regulated by miR21 based on the in vitro evidence but the exact mechanism of how miR21 can regulate VCL is unclear. Upregulated in CaP, CX3CL1 was found not regulated by miR29a. More microRNA screening is required to understand the regulation of this chemokine in CaP with bone metastasis. Understanding miRNAmRNA interactions may provide additional knowledge for individualized study of cancers.

Ryotokuji T, Yamaguchi H, Ueki T, et al.
Clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia associated with DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutations.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(9):1074-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In recent years, it has been reported that the frequency of DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutations - mutations of the genes that regulate gene expression through DNA methylation - is high in acute myeloid leukemia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia with associated DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutation. We studied 308 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutations were observed in 135 of the 308 cases (43.8%). Acute myeloid leukemia associated with a DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutation was more frequent in older patients (P<0.0001) and in patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk (P<0.0001) accompanied by a high white blood cell count (P=0.0032). DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutation was an unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival in the whole cohort (P=0.0018), in patients aged ≤70 years, in patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk, and in FLT3-ITD-negative patients (P=0.0409). Among the patients with DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutations, 26.7% were found to have two or more such mutations and prognosis worsened with increasing number of mutations. In multivariate analysis DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutation was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival (P=0.0424). However, patients with a DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutation who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first remission had a significantly better prognosis than those who did not undergo such transplantation (P=0.0254). Our study establishes that DNA-methylation regulatory gene mutation is an important unfavorable prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia.

Zhou B, Xu H, Ni K, et al.
Expression of Chemokine XCL2 and CX3CL1 in Lung Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:1560-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Chemokines are a family of small proteins secreted by cells with chemotactic activity, and they play important roles in cell adhesion. However, the expression of chemokine XCL2 and CX3CL1 in lung cancers in different pathological stages remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS XCL2 and CX3CL1 expression in lung cancers and adjacent non-cancerous tissues was detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA. The relative expression of both chemokines in lung cancers in different pathological stages was compared by immunohistochemical assay. RESULTS The relative expression level of XCL2 and CX3CL1 in lung cancer was significantly higher compared with adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). The expression level of both chemokines was significantly increased with higher pathological stages, as indicated by immunohistochemical assay (P<0.05 or P <0.001). Their expression level in cancers with higher numbers of metastatic lymph nodes was also significantly increased compared with cancers with lower numbers of metastatic lymph nodes (P<0.05 or P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The expression of XCL2 and CX3CL1 increases with increasing degree of malignancy, indicating that both chemokines might be important targets in gene therapy for lung cancer.

Sakai E, Fukuyo M, Matsusaka K, et al.
TP53 mutation at early stage of colorectal cancer progression from two types of laterally spreading tumors.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(6):820-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although most sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC) are thought to develop from protruded adenomas through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, some CRC develop through flat lesions, so-called laterally spreading tumors (LST). We previously analyzed epigenetic aberrations in LST and found that LST are clearly classified into two molecular subtypes: intermediate-methylation with KRAS mutation and low-methylation with absence of oncogene mutation. Intermediate-methylation LST were mostly granular type LST (LST-G) and low-methylation LST were mostly non-granular LST (LST-NG). In the present study, we conducted a targeted exon sequencing study including 38 candidate CRC driver genes to gain insight into how these genes modulate the development of LST. We identified a mean of 11.5 suspected nonpolymorphic variants per sample, including indels and non-synonymous mutations, although there was no significant difference in the frequency of total mutations between LST-G and LST-NG. Genes associated with RTK/RAS signaling pathway were mutated more frequently in LST-G than LST-NG (P = 0.004), especially KRAS mutation occurring at 70% (30/43) of LST-G but 26% (13/50) of LST-NG (P < 0.0001). Both LST showed high frequency of APC mutation, even at adenoma stage, suggesting its involvement in the initiation stage of LST, as it is involved at early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis via adenoma-carcinoma sequence. TP53 mutation was never observed in adenomas, but was specifically detected in cancer samples. TP53 mutation occurred during development of intramucosal cancer in LST-NG, but during development of cancer with submucosal invasion in LST-G. It is suggested that TP53 mutation occurs in the early stages of cancer development from adenoma in both LST-G and LST-NG, but is involved at an earlier stage in LST-NG.

Meireles M, Marques C, Norberto S, et al.
Anthocyanin effects on microglia M1/M2 phenotype: Consequence on neuronal fractalkine expression.
Behav Brain Res. 2016; 305:223-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microglia mediate multiple aspects of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype or microglia-neuron crosstalk can be an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy. Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids found e.g., in berries that has been attracting interest due to its neuroprotective potential. However, there are no data clarifying the impact of anthocyanins on microglial phenotype or on microglia-neuron crosstalk (CX3CR1/CX3CL1). N9 microglia cell line was treated with 1μM cyanidin (Cy), cyanidin-3-glucose (Cy3glc) and a methylated form of cyanidin-3-glucose (Met-Cy3glc) in basal conditions and with LPS/IL-4 stimulation. SH-SY5Y cell line was treated with the conditioned medium of microglia and with the anthocyanins alone. At basal conditions, microglia treatment with anthocyanins for 24h induced a less pro-inflammatory profile. Decreased TNF-α mRNA expression was induced either by Cy and Met-Cy3glc. LPS markedly increase IL-6 mRNA expression, which was lowered by Cy3glc. IL-1β LPS-induced expression was reverted by Cy. Cy increased CX3CL1 mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y comparing either with control or LPS. Anthocyanins and metabolites were not able to shift microglia to an M2 strict phenotype however they did interact with microglia biology. There was an attenuation of M1 phenotype and increase of neuronal expression of CX3CL1 mRNA. Understanding how flavonoids modulate microglia-neuron crosstalk can open new directions for future nutritional interventions.

Yoshimi A, Toya T, Nannya Y, et al.
Spectrum of clinical and genetic features of patients with inherited platelet disorder with suspected predisposition to hematological malignancies: a nationwide survey in Japan.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(5):887-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited thrombocytopenia (IT) contains several forms of familial thrombocytopenia and some of them have propensity to hematological malignancies. The etiological and genetic features of this heterogeneous syndrome have not yet been elucidated.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey to collect clinical information and samples from patients with familial thrombocytopenia and/or hematological malignancies in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of IT.
RESULTS: Among the 43 pedigrees with clinical samples, RUNX1 mutations were identified in 8 pedigrees (18.6%). While MYH9 and ANKRD26 mutations were identified in 2 and 1 pedigrees, respectively, no gene mutations were detected in the remaining 32 pedigrees from a panel of previously reported pathogenetic mutations. Clinical data were comparable between FPD/AML and non-FPD/AML probands.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study clarified that it is unexpectedly difficult to diagnose FPD/AML based on clinical information alone, and thus, genetic testing is strongly recommended. Our survey also identified some pedigrees with a strong family history of myelodysplastic syndromes of unknown origin. Additionally, there were 14 pedigrees in which three or more members were affected by immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and a computer-aided simulation suggested that such a distribution almost never happens by coincidence, which implicates a genetic predisposition to ITP.

Seifert M, Garbe M, Friedrich B, et al.
Comparative transcriptomics reveals similarities and differences between astrocytoma grades.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:952 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors distinguished into four histological grades. Molecular analyses of individual astrocytoma grades have revealed detailed insights into genetic, transcriptomic and epigenetic alterations. This provides an excellent basis to identify similarities and differences between astrocytoma grades.
METHODS: We utilized public omics data of all four astrocytoma grades focusing on pilocytic astrocytomas (PA I), diffuse astrocytomas (AS II), anaplastic astrocytomas (AS III) and glioblastomas (GBM IV) to identify similarities and differences using well-established bioinformatics and systems biology approaches. We further validated the expression and localization of Ang2 involved in angiogenesis using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Our analyses show similarities and differences between astrocytoma grades at the level of individual genes, signaling pathways and regulatory networks. We identified many differentially expressed genes that were either exclusively observed in a specific astrocytoma grade or commonly affected in specific subsets of astrocytoma grades in comparison to normal brain. Further, the number of differentially expressed genes generally increased with the astrocytoma grade with one major exception. The cytokine receptor pathway showed nearly the same number of differentially expressed genes in PA I and GBM IV and was further characterized by a significant overlap of commonly altered genes and an exclusive enrichment of overexpressed cancer genes in GBM IV. Additional analyses revealed a strong exclusive overexpression of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and its receptor CX3CR1 in PA I possibly contributing to the absence of invasive growth. We further found that PA I was significantly associated with the mesenchymal subtype typically observed for very aggressive GBM IV. Expression of endothelial and mesenchymal markers (ANGPT2, CHI3L1) indicated a stronger contribution of the micro-environment to the manifestation of the mesenchymal subtype than the tumor biology itself. We further inferred a transcriptional regulatory network associated with specific expression differences distinguishing PA I from AS II, AS III and GBM IV. Major central transcriptional regulators were involved in brain development, cell cycle control, proliferation, apoptosis, chromatin remodeling or DNA methylation. Many of these regulators showed directly underlying DNA methylation changes in PA I or gene copy number mutations in AS II, AS III and GBM IV.
CONCLUSIONS: This computational study characterizes similarities and differences between all four astrocytoma grades confirming known and revealing novel insights into astrocytoma biology. Our findings represent a valuable resource for future computational and experimental studies.

Erreni M, Siddiqui I, Marelli G, et al.
The Fractalkine-Receptor Axis Improves Human Colorectal Cancer Prognosis by Limiting Tumor Metastatic Dissemination.
J Immunol. 2016; 196(2):902-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is a frequent neoplasia in Western countries, and its metastatic progression is a major cause of cancer-related death. In search of specific molecules upregulated in CRC, with possible clinical relevance, we performed a differential gene-profiling analysis in surgery-derived CRC samples and adjacent uninvolved intestinal mucosa. The chemokine CX3CL1 and its specific receptor CX3CR1 were significantly upregulated in tumors. Higher expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in 100 CRC tumor samples (stages I-III). Unexpectedly, high immune scores of CX3CL1 did not correlate with the density of tumor-infiltrating CD3(+) T cells or CD68(+) macrophages. Coexpression of ligand and receptor by tumor cells (axis-positive tumors) significantly associated with longer disease-free (p = 0.01) and disease-specific survival (p = 0.001). Conversely, axis-negative tumors (with low expression of both ligand and receptor) had increased risk of tumor relapse (p = 0.02), and increased likelihood of metachronous metastasis (p = 0.001), including after stage adjustment (p = 0.006). Transduction of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in CRC tumor cell lines induced cell aggregation that strongly inhibited in vitro migration in chemotaxis assays. In a mouse model of spleen-liver metastases, cancer dissemination to liver was dramatically reduced in CX3CL1-CX3CR1-expressing tumors, and ligand-receptor interaction was confirmed in cancer cells in vivo by fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. In conclusion, tumoral expression of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 chemokine axis functions as a retention factor, increasing homotypic cell adhesion and limiting tumor spreading to metastatic sites. Lack or low levels of expression of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 by tumor cells identifies a group of CRC patients at increased risk of metastatic progression.

Wünsch D, Hahlbrock A, Jung S, et al.
Taspase1: a 'misunderstood' protease with translational cancer relevance.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(26):3351-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteolysis is not only a critical requirement for life, but the executing enzymes also play important roles in numerous pathological conditions, including cancer. Therefore, targeting proteases is clearly relevant for improving cancer patient care. However, to effectively control proteases, a profound knowledge of their mechanistic function as well as their regulation and downstream signalling in health and disease is required. The highly conserved protease Threonine Aspartase1 (Taspase1) is overexpressed in numerous liquid and solid malignancies and was characterized as a 'non-oncogene addiction' protease. Although Taspase1 was shown to cleave various regulatory proteins in humans as well as leukaemia provoking mixed lineage leukaemia fusions, our knowledge on its detailed functions and the underlying mechanisms contributing to cancer is still incomplete. Despite superficial similarity to type 2 asparaginases as well as Ntn proteases, such as the proteasome, Taspase1-related research so far gives us the picture of a unique protease exhibiting special features. Moreover, neither effective genetic nor chemical inhibitors for this enzyme are available so far, thus hampering not only to further dissect Taspase1's pathobiological functions but also precluding the assessment of its clinical impact. Based on recent insights, we here critically review the current knowledge of Taspase1's structure-function relationship and its mechanistic relevance for tumorigenesis obtained from in vitro and in vivo cancer models. We provide a comprehensive overview of tumour entities for which Taspase1 might be of predictive and therapeutic value, and present the respective experimental evidence. To stimulate progress in the field, a comprehensive overview of Taspase1 targeting approaches is presented, including coverage of Taspase1-related patents. We conclude by discussing future inhibition strategies and relevant challenges, which need to be resolved by the field.

Gurler H, Macias V, Kajdacsy-Balla AA, Barbolina MV
Examination of the Fractalkine and Fractalkine Receptor Expression in Fallopian Adenocarcinoma Reveals Differences When Compared to Ovarian Carcinoma.
Biomolecules. 2015; 5(4):3438-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fallopian adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising in the epithelium of the fallopian tube. Fallopian tube epithelium has been proposed as a tissue origin for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Given the commonalities in dissemination and treatment of these malignancies, we contemplated the possibility of similar patterns of gene expression underlying their progression. To reveal potential similarities or differences in the gene expression of fallopian adenocarcinoma and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, we tested expression of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) and its ligand, fractalkine (CX3CL1), in the specimens of normal and pathologic fallopian tube using immunohistochemistry. Our data show that CX3CR1 is expressed in the normal, cancer adjacent normal, inflammatory, and malignant fallopian epithelium. CX3CL1 was expressed only by the normal and cancer adjacent normal fallopian tube epithelium; its expression was largely lost in the inflammatory and malignant fallopian epithelium. In opposite, both CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 are expressed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. These findings are consistent with an idea that fallopian adenocarcinoma and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, although currently thought to arise from the same organ, may not share similar molecular characteristics.

Sakai E, Fukuyo M, Ohata K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic aberrations occurring in colorectal tumors associated with serrated pathway.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(7):1634-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To clarify molecular alterations in serrated pathway of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed epigenetic and genetic analyses in sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P), traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) and high-methylation CRC. The methylation levels of six Group-1 and 14 Group-2 markers, established in our previous studies, were analyzed quantitatively using pyrosequencing. Subsequently, we performed targeted exon sequencing analyses of 126 candidate driver genes and examined molecular alterations that are associated with cancer development. SSA/P showed high methylation levels of both Group-1 and Group-2 markers, frequent BRAF mutation and occurrence in proximal colon, which were features of high-methylation CRC. But TSA showed low-methylation levels of Group-1 markers, less frequent BRAF mutation and occurrence at distal colon. SSA/P, but not TSA, is thus considered to be precursor of high-methylation CRC. High-methylation CRC had even higher methylation levels of some genes, e.g., MLH1, than SSA/P, and significant frequency of somatic mutations in nonsynonymous mutations (p < 0.0001) and insertion/deletions (p = 0.002). MLH1-methylated SSA/P showed lower methylation level of MLH1 compared with high-methylation CRC, and rarely accompanied silencing of MLH1 expression. The mutation frequencies were not different between MLH1-methylated and MLH1-unmethylated SSA/P, suggesting that MLH1 methylation might be insufficient in SSA/P to acquire a hypermutation phenotype. Mutations of mismatch repair genes, e.g., MSH3 and MSH6, and genes in PI3K, WNT, TGF-β and BMP signaling (but not in TP53 signaling) were significantly involved in high-methylation CRC compared with adenoma, suggesting importance of abrogation of these genes in serrated pathway.

Tang J, Chen Y, Cui R, et al.
Upregulation of fractalkine contributes to the proliferative response of prostate cancer cells to hypoxia via promoting the G1/S phase transition.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(6):7907-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in prostate cancer, which leads to cell proliferation and tumor growth. Fractalkine (FKN) is a membrane‑bound chemokine, which is implicated in the progression of human prostate cancer and skeletal metastasis. However, the association between FKN and hypoxia‑induced prostate cancer cell proliferation remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that hypoxia induced the expression and secretion of FKN in the DU145 prostate cancer cell line. Furthermore, inhibiting the activity of FKN with the anti‑FKN FKN‑specific antibody markedly inhibited hypoxia‑induced DU145 cell proliferation. Under normoxic conditions, DU145 cell proliferation markedly increased following exogenous administration of human recombinant FKN protein, and the increase was significantly alleviated by anti‑FKN, indicating the importance of FKN in DU145 cell proliferation. In addition, subsequent determination of cell cycle distribution and expression levels of two core cell cycle regulators, cyclin E and cyclin‑dependent kinase (CDK)2, suggested that FKN promoted the G1/S phase transition by upregulating the expression levels of cyclin E and CDK2. The results of the present study demonstrated that hypoxia led to the upregulation of the secretion and expression of FKN, which enhanced cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in the prostate cancer cells. These findings provide evidence of a novel function for FKN, and suggest that FKN may serve as a potential target for treating androgen‑independent prostate cancer.

Wakita S, Yamaguchi H, Ueki T, et al.
Complex molecular genetic abnormalities involving three or more genetic mutations are important prognostic factors for acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(3):545-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of 28 recurrently mutated genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 271 patients with de novo AML. Co-mutations were frequently detected in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, at an average of 2.76 co-mutations per patient. When assessing the prognostic impact of these co-mutations in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group, overall survival (OS) was found to be significantly shorter (P=0.0006) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) significantly higher (P=0.0052) in patients with complex molecular genetic abnormalities (CMGAs) involving three or more mutations. This trend was marked even among patients aged ⩽65 years who were also FLT3-ITD (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications)-negative (OS: P=0.0010; CIR: P=0.1800). Moreover, the multivariate analysis revealed that CMGA positivity was an independent prognostic factor associated with OS (P=0.0007). In stratification based on FLT3-ITD and CEBPA status and 'simplified analysis of co-mutations' using seven genes that featured frequently in CMGAs, CMGA positivity retained its prognostic value in transplantation-aged patients of the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (OS: P=0.0002. CIR: P<0.0001). In conclusion, CMGAs in AML were found to be strong independent adverse prognostic factors and simplified co-mutation analysis to have clinical usefulness and applicability.

Ferrer-Mayorga G, Alvarez-Díaz S, Valle N, et al.
Cystatin D locates in the nucleus at sites of active transcription and modulates gene and protein expression.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(44):26533-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cystatin D is an inhibitor of lysosomal and secreted cysteine proteases. Strikingly, cystatin D has been found to inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion of colon carcinoma cells indicating tumor suppressor activity that is unrelated to protease inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that a proportion of cystatin D locates within the cell nucleus at specific transcriptionally active chromatin sites. Consistently, transcriptomic analysis show that cystatin D alters gene expression, including that of genes encoding transcription factors such as RUNX1, RUNX2, and MEF2C in HCT116 cells. In concordance with transcriptomic data, quantitative proteomic analysis identified 292 proteins differentially expressed in cystatin D-expressing cells involved in cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, and RNA synthesis and processing. Furthermore, using cytokine arrays we found that cystatin D reduces the secretion of several protumor cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor-4, CX3CL1/fractalkine, neurotrophin 4 oncostatin-M, pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL18, and transforming growth factor B3. These results support an unanticipated role of cystatin D in the cell nucleus, controlling the transcription of specific genes involved in crucial cellular functions, which may mediate its protective action in colon cancer.

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