Gene Summary

Gene:ESR2; estrogen receptor 2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:estrogen receptor beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (39)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Androgen Receptors
  • Societies, Scientific
  • Breast Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Genetic Variation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tamoxifen
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Haplotypes
  • Estrogens
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Alleles
  • Risk Factors
  • Lung Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Polymorphism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Tumor Burden
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Phenotype
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Aromatase
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Chromosome 14
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Cohort Studies
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genotype
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Postmenopause
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ESR2 (cancer-related)

Agosto-Arroyo E, Isayeva T, Wei S, et al.
Differential Gene Expression in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast Based on ERBB2 Status.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):102-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular signature of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the breast is not well understood. Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 [formerly known as HER2/neu]) positivity in DCIS is predictive of coexistent early invasive breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the gene-expression signature profiles of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes of DCIS.
METHODS: Based on ER, PR, and ERBB2 status, a total of 18 high nuclear grade DCIS cases with no evidence of invasive breast carcinoma were selected along with 6 non-neoplastic controls. The 3 study groups were defined as ER/PR-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes.
RESULTS: A total of 49 genes were differentially expressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with the ER/PR-positive and triple-negative groups. PROM1 was overexpressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with ER/PR-positive and triple-negative subtypes. Other genes differentially expressed included TAOK1, AREG, AGR3, PEG10, and MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified unique gene signatures in ERBB2-positive DCIS, which may be associated with the development of invasive breast carcinoma. The results may enhance our understanding of the progression of breast cancer and become the basis for developing new predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for DCIS.

Rezende LM, Marson FA, Lima CS, Bertuzzo CS
Variants of estrogen receptor alpha and beta genes modify the severity of sporadic breast cancer.
Gene. 2017; 608:73-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive factors pose a risk for sporadic breast cancer (BC) development owing to the lifetime exposure to estrogen, a hormone responsible for cell proliferation in the breast. Because variants of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta genes have been associated with BC risk in numerous populations, the objective of the study was to determine whether the risk and severity of sporadic BC was associated with the rs2228480 (ESR1) and rs4986938 (ESR2) variants in a Brazilian population.
METHODS: A total of 253 DNA samples from sporadic BC patients and 257 DNA samples from healthy controls were studied. The samples were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Epidemiological, clinical, and reproductive factors were analyzed. Statistical tests conducted included the χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests or their parametric equivalents.
RESULTS: There was a high frequency of the rs2228480*GG genotype among the ER-positive tumors (OR=2.13; 95% CI=1.189-3.816) and it showed minor association with clinical stage 0 (OR=0.324; 95% CI=0.116-0.904). The rs2228480*GA genotype was associated with minor ER expression, whereas rs2228480*GG was associated with high expression of the progesterone receptor (PR). The frequency of rs4986938*GA was high among women who breastfed (OR=2.11; 95% CI=1.203-3.702), and it showed high association with clinical stage 0 (OR=4.383; 95% CI=1.606-11.96) whereas it had minor association with systemic arterial hypertension (OR=0.53; 95% CI=0.319-0.880). The rs2228480*GG/rs4986938*GG haplotype occurred at a low frequency among women who breastfed (OR=0.525; 95% CI=0.298-0.924) but it was associated with a high expression of PR.
CONCLUSION: The rs2228480 and rs4986938 variants did not alter sporadic BC risk, but they did modulate the BC severity.

Sartore-Bianchi A, Siena S, Tonini G, et al.
Overcoming dynamic molecular heterogeneity in metastatic colorectal cancer: Multikinase inhibition with regorafenib and the case of rechallenge with anti-EGFR.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 51:54-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), fluorouracil-based combination therapy with oxaliplatin or irinotecan is the mainstay of first-line treatment. Patient survival has been significantly improved with the introduction of monoclonal antibodies against VEGF (bevacizumab), VEGFR2 (ramucirumab) or EGFR (cetuximab or panitumumab) in first- and second-line therapies. However, all patients treated with chemotherapy and targeted therapies will eventually relapse, and recently the emergence of alterations in EGFR, RAS, BRAF, ERB-B2, MET and possibly in other genes has been shown to jeopardize response to EGFR blockade. In chemorefractory patients, multikinase inhibition with regorafenib has proved to be effective and rechallenge with chemotherapy or anti-EGFR agents is empirically pursued. This review will critically discuss how the evolving knowledge of mechanisms of resistance driven by intratumoural dynamic molecular heterogeneity can impact on rational choice of treatments in this setting.

Wang Y, Zhang X, Chao Z, et al.
MiR-34a modulates ErbB2 in breast cancer.
Cell Biol Int. 2017; 41(1):93-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the second highest cause of carcinoma-related death caused by distant metastasis in women. Estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, (HER2) and progesterone receptor (PR) are three classified makers of breast cancer, which are defined as ER+, HER2+, and the most serious ER-PR-HER2- (triple-negative). It is well known that ErbB2 (V-Erb-B2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) plays an important part in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ErbB2 action needs to be well studied. In this report, we discovered that the decreased expression levels of miR-34a were inversely correlated with the increased ErbB2 levels in breast cancer. A luciferase reporter assay was done to understand the potential correlation between ErbB2 and miR-34a. Over-expression of miR-34a reduces ErbB2 expression and suppresses breast cancer cell invasion and growth in vitro. What's more, reduced expression of ErbB2 inhibits breast Cancer cell proliferation and re-expression of ErbB2 reversed miR-34a-dependent tumor suppression. Meanwhile, miR-34a levels were correlated inversely with breast cancer malignancy. Our study demonstrates that miR-34a, like ErbB2, might be a diagnostic target in breast cancer.

Zhao X, Li X, Ren Q, et al.
Calycosin induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, through modulating the ERβ/MiR-95 and IGF-1R, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
Gene. 2016; 591(1):123-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calycosin, the main component extractable from the herb Radix astragali, has been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines, but the underlying mechanisms by the way in which this occurs remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine the potential effects of calycosin on proliferation in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Colorectal cancer cell lines SW480 and LoVo and cervical cancer cell line HeLa were treated with various concentrations of calycosin or plus ER beta (ERβ) inhibitor PHTPP. The CCK8 assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33258 stain were used to assess the effects on cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The mRNA levels of ERβ and miR-95 were quantified by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels of ERβ, ERα, IGF-1R, and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blot analysis. We demonstrated that calycosin inhibited the proliferation in SW480 and LoVo cells and induced apoptosis, particularly in SW480 cells, but not in HeLa cells. Calycosin increased ERβ expression and reduced the ERα, IGF-1R, and p-Akt expression alongside down-regulation of miR-95 in SW480 cells. Inhibiting ERβ blocked the change of miR-95 and the resulting increase in apoptosis in SW480 cells. Additionally, calycosin significantly suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, calycosin exerts an inhibitory effect on proliferation of CRC cells in vivo and in vitro, through ERβ-mediated regulation of the IGF-1R, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and of miR-95 expression.

Calabrese C, Rizzello F, Gionchetti P, et al.
Can supplementation of phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers help the management of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis?
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(6):600-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, and prophylactic colectomy has been shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Duodenal cancer and desmoids are now the leading causes of death in FAP. We evaluate whether 3 months of oral supplementation with a patented blend of phytoestrogens and indigestible insoluble fibers (ADI) help the management of FAP patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). In a prospective open label study, we enrolled 15 FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in gene expression in polyp mucosa, whereas the secondary endpoint was the reduction in polyp number and size. After 3 months of ADI treatment, all patients showed a reduction in the number and size of duodenal polyps (P = 0.021). Analysis of the expression of CRC promoting/inhibiting genes in duodenal polyps biopsies demonstrated that different CRC-promoting genes (PCNA, MUC1 and COX-2) were significantly downregulated, whereas CRC-inhibiting genes (ER-β and MUC2) were significantly upregulated after ADI treatment. In conclusion, ADI proved to be safe and effective, and its long-term effects on FAP patients need further investigation. Judging from the results we observed on COX-2 and miR-101 expression, the short-term effects of ADI treatment could be comparable with those obtained using COX-2 inhibitors, with the advantage of being much more tolerable in chronic therapies and void of adverse events.

Yuan W, Zhang Z, Dai B, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing of duodenal adenocarcinoma identifies recurrent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mutations.
Cancer. 2016; 122(11):1689-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genomic alterations of small bowel cancers remain poorly understood due to the rarity of these diseases. In the current study, the authors report the identification of somatic mutations from patients with duodenal adenocarcinoma by whole-exome sequencing.
METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing and follow-up analysis were conducted in 12 matched tumor-normal tissue duodenal adenocarcinoma tissue pairs to examine the genetic characteristics of this disease. Somatic mutations (single-nucleotide variants and short insertion/deletions) were obtained and filtered and then searched for recurrently mutated genes and pathways.
RESULTS: An excess of C-to-T transitions at the CpG dinucleotide was observed in the substitution of bases. The authors identified recurrent mutations in tumor protein p53 (TP53), KRAS, catenin (cadherin-associated protein) β-1 (CTNNB1), AT-rich interactive domain 2 (ARID2), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), ARID1A, cadherin-related family member 1 (CDHR1), NRAS, Bcl-2-related ovarian killer (BOK), radial spoke head 14 homolog (chlamydomonas) (RTDR1), cell division cycle 27 (CDC27), catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PIK3CA), and SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4). Pathway scan indicated that the Wnt signaling pathway, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and the pathway of focal adhesion were the most extensively affected pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: This genomic characterization of duodenal adenocarcinoma provides researchers with insight into its somatic landscape and highlights the vital role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The study data also indicate that duodenal adenocarcinomas have a genetic resemblance to gastric and colorectal cancers. These discoveries may benefit the future development of molecular diagnosis and personalized therapies. Cancer 2016;122:1689-96. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Sheng X, Bowen N, Wang Z
GLI pathogenesis-related 1 functions as a tumor-suppressor in lung cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2016; 15:25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GLI pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1) was originally identified in glioblastomas and its expression was also found to be down-regulated in prostate cancer. Functional studies revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. GLIPR1's role in lung cancer has not been investigated. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a protein arginine methyltransferase and forms a stoichiometric complex with the WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77) protein. Both PRMT5 and WDR77 are essential for growth of lung epithelial and cancer cells. But additional gene products that interact genetically or biochemichally with PRMT5 and WDR77 in the control of lung cancer cell growth are not characterized.
METHODS: DNA microarray and immunostaining were used to detect GLIPR1 expression during lung development and lung tumorigenesis. GLIPR1 expression was also analyzed in the TCGA lung cancer cohort. The consequence of GLIPR1 on growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in the nude mice was observed.
RESULTS: We found that GLIPR1 expression is negatively associated with PRMT5/WDR77. GLIPR1 is absent in growing epithelial cells at the early stages of mouse lung development and highly expressed in the adult lung. Expression of GLIPR1 was down-regulated during lung tumorigenesis and its expression suppressed growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in mice. GLIPR1 regulates lung cancer growth through the V-Erb-B avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ErbB3).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a novel pathway that PRMT5/WDR77 regulates GLIPR1 expression to control lung cancer cell growth and GLIPR1 as a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

Vu HL, Rosenbaum S, Capparelli C, et al.
MIG6 Is MEK Regulated and Affects EGF-Induced Migration in Mutant NRAS Melanoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(2):453-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activating mutations in neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) are frequent driver events in cutaneous melanoma. NRAS is a guanosine triphosphate-binding protein whose most well-characterized downstream effector is RAF, leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 signaling. Although there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies for melanoma patients with a primary mutation in NRAS, one form of targeted therapy that has been explored is MEK inhibition. In clinical trials, MEK inhibitors have shown disappointing efficacy in mutant NRAS patients, the reasons for which are unclear. To explore the effects of MEK inhibitors in mutant NRAS melanoma, we used a high-throughput reverse-phase protein array platform to identify signaling alterations. Reverse-phase protein array analysis of phospho-proteomic changes in mutant NRAS melanoma in response to trametinib indicated a compensatory increase in v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog signaling and decreased expression of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), a negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor/v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog receptors. MIG6 expression did not alter the growth or survival properties of mutant NRAS melanoma cells. Rather, we identified a role for MIG6 as a negative regulator of epidermal growth factor-induced signaling and cell migration and invasion. In MEK-inhibited cells, further depletion of MIG6 increased migration and invasion, whereas MIG6 expression decreased these properties. Therefore, a decrease in MIG6 may promote the migration and invasiveness of MEK-inhibited mutant NRAS melanoma, especially in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation.

Kim JY, Jung HH, Do IG, et al.
Prognostic value of ERBB4 expression in patients with triple negative breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is known for aggressive biologic features and poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression in TNBC indicates poor prognosis. However, there is no previous study of the relationship between expression of the entire human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family genes and patient prognosis in TNBC. Accordingly, we investigated the expression profiles of HER family genes in patients with TNBC to determine the prognostic value and clinical implications of HER family expression.
METHODS: We used the nCounter expression assay (NanoString®) to measure the expression of EGFR, erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), ERBB3, ERBB4, and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) genes using mRNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 203 patients diagnosed with TNBC. Our data were validated using a separate cohort of 84 TNBC patients.
RESULTS: A total of 203 TNBC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery from 2000 to 2004 formed the training set. The 84 TNBC patients in the validation consort were selected from breast cancer patients who received curative surgery since 2005 to 2010. Analysis of the expression profiles of the HER family genes in TNBC tissue specimens revealed that increased expression of ERBB4 was associated with poor prognosis according to survival analysis (5-year distant relapse free survival [5Y DRFS], low vs. high expression [cut-off: median]: 90.1% vs. 80.2%; p = 0.022). This trend was also observed in the validation set of TNBC patients (5Y DRFS, low vs. high: 69.4% vs. 44.7%; p = 0.053). In a multivariate Cox regression model, ERBB4 expression was identified as a indicator of long-term prognosis in patients with TNBC.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression profile of ERBB4, a member of the HER family, might serve as a prognostic marker in patients with TNBC.

Liu J, Guo H, Mao K, et al.
Impact of estrogen receptor-β expression on breast cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(1):149-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor (ER)-β has been discovered for decades; however, its prognostic value in breast cancer patients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the impact of ER-β expression on breast cancer survival. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library was performed to identify the association between ER-β expression and outcomes in early breast cancer patients. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to generate combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). A total of 6769 patients for ER-β1, 2295 patients for ER-β2, and 2271 patients for ER-β5 from 21 studies were included. ER-β1 protein expression was correlated with both favorable 5-year DFS and OS (HR 0.690, 95 % CI 0.610-0.779; P < 0.001; HR 0.632, 95 % CI 0.533-0.749; P < 0.001), while ER-β1 mRNA had no significant association with DFS (HR 0.915, 95 % CI 0.581-1.440, P = 0.700). ER-β2 protein was associated with improved DFS (HR 0.799, 95 % CI 0.644-0.992; P = 0.042), but not OS (HR 0.958, 95 % CI 0.762-1.205; P = 0.712). ER-β5 protein was not significantly associated with DFS (HR 1.070, 95 % CI 0.810-1.410; P = 0.642). Subgroup analysis showed that higher ER-β1 expression was associated with better 5-year DFS in both ER-α positive and negative patients, but the positive association between ER-β1 expression and 5-year OS was only seen in ER-α positive patients. Wild-type ER-β (ER-β1) and its variant ER-β2 protein expressions are associated with better survival in early breast cancer patients. The prognostic significance of ER-β1 for DFS is independent of ER-α coexpression, whereas the impact on OS was only in ER-α positive breast cancer.

Ahmed NS, Elghazawy NH, ElHady AK, et al.
Design and synthesis of novel tamoxifen analogues that avoid CYP2D6 metabolism.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 112:171-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a widely used drug in the prophylaxis and treatment of breast cancer. TAM is metabolized to the more active 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-TAM) and endoxifen by cytochrome P450 (CYP) mainly CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Due to the genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 genes, high variation in the clinical outcomes of TAM treatment is observed among women of different populations. To address this issue, novel TAM analogues with possible altered activation pathways were synthesized. These analogues were tested for their antiproliferative action on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines as well as their binding affinity for estrogen receptor (ER) ER-α and ER-β receptors. These entire novel compounds showed better antiproliferative activity than did TAM on the MCF-7 cells. Moreover, compound 10 exhibited a half maximal growth inhibition (GI50) that was 1000 times more potent than that of TAM (GI50 < 0.005 μM vs 1.58 μM, respectively). Along with a broad spectrum activity on various cancer cell lines, all the TAM analogues showed considerable activity on the ER-negative breast cancer cell line. For further study, compound 10 was incubated in human liver microsomes (HLM), human hepatocytes (hHEP) and CYP2D6 supersomes. The active hydroxyl metabolite was detected after incubation in HLM and hHEP, implicating the involvement of other enzymes in its metabolism. These results prove that this novel series of TAM analogues might provide improved clinical outcomes for poor 2D6 metabolizers.

Willis S, Villalobos VM, Gevaert O, et al.
Single Gene Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas.
METHODS: A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer's method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method.
RESULTS: Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82).
CONCLUSION: A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts.

Moazzezy N, Ebrahimi F, Sisakht MM, et al.
Relationship between erb-B2 mRNA Expression in Blood and Tissue of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Breast Cancer Patients and Clinicopathological Characteristics of the Tumors.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(1):249-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular detection methods such as RT-PCR for detecting breast cancer-associated gene expression in the peripheral blood have the potential to modify breast cancer (BC) staging and therapy. In this regard, we evaluated the potential of erb-B2 molecular marker in BC detection and analyzed the expression of erb-B2 mRNA in the peripheral blood and fresh tissue samples of 50 pretreated female BC patients and 50 healthy females by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method. We also assessed the correlation of erb-B2 mRNA marker positivity in peripheral blood and tumor tissue samples with clinical and pathological factors in BC patients in order to evaluate its prognostic value. It was shown that there is a significant difference between healthy females and BC patients with expression of the erb-B2 molecular marker (p<0.01). A significant difference between the expression of erb-B2 in the peripheral blood and tissue samples of BC patients (p<0.01) and the frequency of circulating erb-B2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood and in tissue was detected by RT-PCR. No correlation was found between erb-B2 mRNA expression in blood or tumor tissue samples and lymph node, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor size, patient's age, ki67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PGR), P53, and HER-2 status. However, in a small subset of 31 BC patients we found that expression of erb-B2 in peripheral blood or in both peripheral blood and tumor tissue was directly correlated with lympho-vascular invasion and perineural invasion as poor prognostic features. The highest rates of erb-B2 expression in peripheral blood or tumor tissue were in the ER and PR negative and HER-2 positive group. This study suggests that the application of the RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for erb-B2 molecular marker detection would provide a higher detection rate, especially in early stage BC.

Hwang DH, Sholl LM, Rojas-Rudilla V, et al.
KRAS and NKX2-1 Mutations in Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Lung.
J Thorac Oncol. 2016; 11(4):496-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mucinous differentiation is observed in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas with unique clinical and pathological features, but the biology of these neoplasms is poorly understood.
METHODS: We apply targeted next-generation sequencing to characterize the mutational profiles of 21 invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas, mixed mucinous/nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas with mucinous features of the lung and validate key findings on 954 additional lung adenocarcinomas from our institution and 514 lung adenocarcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas.
RESULTS: Sequencing identifies pathogenic mutations in the oncogenes Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), and anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) and recurrent mutations in tumor protein p53 (TP53), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1), and SET domain containing 2 (SETD2). In the combined discovery and validation cohorts, we identify nine neoplasms with distinct molecular and pathological features. All are invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas or mixed mucinous/nonmucinous adenocarcinomas with mutations of KRAS and frameshift or nonsense mutations of NKX2-1. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that these neoplasms are associated with altered differentiation states, including loss of expression of the pulmonary marker thyroid transcription factor 1 (also called Nkx2.1) and expression of gastrointestinal markers.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings describe recurrent NKX2-1 mutations in invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas of the lung and support NKX2-1 as a lineage-specific tumor suppressor gene in lung carcinogenesis.

Baldissera VD, Alves AF, Almeida S, et al.
Hepatocellular carcinoma and estrogen receptors: Polymorphisms and isoforms relations and implications.
Med Hypotheses. 2016; 86:67-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of liver and its incidence continues to increase worldwide. HCC is a disease with multifactorial causes and genetic variability has been discussed as a risk factor for its development. Liver is a hormone-sensitive organ and therefore is influenced by gonadal hormones, such as estrogen. Estrogen is known to participate in various biological functions, but its role in development of HCC, on the other hand, is controversial and presents evidence suggesting a role as both a carcinogen and protective effect in liver. Estrogen way of action is mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), that belong to a family of nuclear receptors that may regulate the expression of many genes. The ER subtypes exert a variety of roles in many stages of liver disease and may play a part in the process of signal transduction, according to some studies. However, the many functions of ER subtypes in hepatic diseases, in special of the ERβ, are yet to be clarified. The genetic modifications related to HCC are not yet fully clarified and accumulation of multiple genetic alterations appears to have an important role in carcinogenesis of HCC. The presence of some certain single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may have a functional repercussion related to final product of a gene, which can be measured and may participate in some alterations related to a pathological condition. Our hypothesis is based on the fact that liver tissue express ER and its different variants exert multiple functions in various stages of liver disease and participate in an extremely complicated signal transduction process, therefore we believe that the presence of one or more SNPs of ESR1 and ESR2 genes may be related with the increase of risk in developing and the severity of HCC, as well as in the response to different treatments. The confirmation of our hypothesis by scientific studies may provide knowledge of markers that act as prognostic factors of this disease, as well as enabling alternatives to development of anti tumoral therapies.

Pisolato R, Lombardi AP, Vicente CM, et al.
Expression and regulation of the estrogen receptors in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.
Steroids. 2016; 107:74-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify the expression, cellular localization and regulation of classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, ER-α36 isoform and GPER in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3. In addition, we evaluated the relative contribution of these receptors to the activation of the ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases) signaling pathway. These four estrogen receptors were detected by Western blot assays and were shown by immunofluorescence assays to localize preferentially in extranuclear regions of PC-3 cells. In addition, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) (1 μM) for 24 h led to down-regulation of the classic estrogen receptors, whereas E2 at physiological concentration (0.1 nM) for 24h tended to increase the levels of ERα and ERβ. Furthermore, the ERα-selective agonist PPT selectively increased the expression of ERβ and the ERβ-selective agonist DPN increased ERα levels. None of these treatments affected expression of the ER-α36 isoform. The unusual cytoplasmic localization of the classic estrogen receptors in these cells differs from the nuclear localization in the majority of estrogen target cells and suggests that rapid signaling pathways may be preferentially activated. In fact, treatment with selective agonists of ERα, ERβ and GPER induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was blocked by the respective antagonists. On the other hand, activation of ERK1/2 induced by E2 may involve additional mechanisms because it was not blocked by the three antagonists. Taken together, the results indicate that there is a crosstalk between ERα and ERβ to regulate the expression of each other, and suggest the involvement of other receptors, such as ER-α36, in the rapid ERK1/2 activation by E2. The identification of new isoforms of ERs, regulation of the receptors and signaling pathways is important to develop new therapeutic strategies for the castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Williams C, DiLeo A, Niv Y, Gustafsson JÅ
Estrogen receptor beta as target for colorectal cancer prevention.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 372(1):48-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite its slow development and the capacity for early diagnosis, current preventive approaches are not sufficient. However, a role for estrogen has been demonstrated in multiple epidemiologic studies, which may benefit CRC prevention. A large body of evidence from preclinical studies indicates that expression of the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) demonstrates an inverse relationship with the presence of colorectal polyps and stage of tumors, and can mediate a protective response. Natural compounds, including phytoestrogens, or synthetic ERβ selective agonists, can activate or upregulate ERβ in the colon and promote apoptosis in preclinical models and in clinical experience. Importantly, this activity has been associated with a reduction in polyp formation and, in rodent models of CRC, has been shown to lower incidence of colon adenocarcinoma. Collectively, these findings indicate that targeted activation of ERβ may represent a novel clinical approach for management of colorectal adenomatous polyps and prevention of colorectal carcinoma in patients at risk for this condition. In this review, we discuss the potential of new chemopreventive or dietary approaches based on estrogen signaling.

Siegfried JM, Lin Y, Diergaarde B, et al.
Expression of PAM50 Genes in Lung Cancer: Evidence that Interactions between Hormone Receptors and HER2/HER3 Contribute to Poor Outcome.
Neoplasia. 2015; 17(11):817-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) frequently express estrogen receptor (ER) β, and estrogen signaling is active in many lung tumors. We investigated the ability of genes contained in the prediction analysis of microarray 50 (PAM50) breast cancer risk predictor gene signature to provide prognostic information in NSCLC. Supervised principal component analysis of mRNA expression data was used to evaluate the ability of the PAM50 panel to provide prognostic information in a stage I NSCLC cohort, in an all-stage NSCLC cohort, and in The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine status of ERβ and other proteins in lung tumor tissue. Associations with prognosis were observed in the stage I cohort. Cross-validation identified seven genes that, when analyzed together, consistently showed survival associations. In pathway analysis, the seven-gene panel described one network containing the ER and progesterone receptor, as well as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2/HER3 and neuregulin-1. NSCLC cases also showed a significant association between ERβ and HER2 protein expression. Cases positive for HER2 expression were more likely to express HER3, and ERβ-positive cases were less likely to be both HER2 and HER3 negative. Prognostic ability of genes in the PAM50 panel was verified in an ERβ-positive cohort representing all NSCLC stages. In The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets, the PAM50 gene set was prognostic in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the seven-gene panel was prognostic only in squamous cell carcinoma. Genes in the PAM50 panel, including those linking ER and HER2, identify lung cancer patients at risk for poor outcome, especially among ERβ-positive cases and squamous cell carcinoma.

Sakr SA, Mahran HA, Fahmy AM, et al.
Expression of c-erb-B2 gene in bladder cancer of Egyptian patients and its correlation with p53 and bcl-2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 76:73-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urinary bladder cancer is the 9th most common type of cancer and the 13th most common cause of death worldwide. C-erbB-4 is a class of oncogenes plays a role in cancer development. The present work was performed to assess C-erbB-4 oncogene amplification by PCR technology and its correlation with p53 and bcl-2. This study included 50 male patients (10 controls and 40 urinary bladder cancer patients). The bladder cancer patients include 20 specimens diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and 20 specimens diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed that 7 (35%) of both TCC and SCC showed c-erb-B2 gene amplification. 12 (60%) of TCC and 6 (30%) of SCC showed positive expression of p53. 11 (55%) of TCC and 6 (30%) of SCC showed positive Bcl-2 expression. A direct statistically significant association was detected between c-erb-B2 expression and Bcl-2 and p53 expression in TCC and SCC specimens. Seven (35%) of TCC showed c-erb-B2 gene amplification and expression of both p53 and Bcl-2. Five (25%) of the examined SCC specimens showed c-erb-B2 gene amplification and positive expression for both p53 and Bcl-2. The results indicated that a direct statistically significant association was detected in TCC group between amplification of c-erb-B2 gene by PCR and expressionof p53 and Bcl-2 by immunohistochemistry.

Leyland-Jones B, Gray KP, Abramovitz M, et al.
ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms in the BIG 1-98 trial comparing adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen or their sequence for early breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 154(3):543-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and ESR2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with endocrine-mediated physiological mechanisms, and inconsistently with breast cancer risk and outcomes, bone mineral density changes, and hot flushes/night sweats. DNA was isolated and genotyped for six ESR1 and two ESR2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from tumor specimens from 3691 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Associations with recurrence and adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. 3401 samples were successfully genotyped for five SNPs. ESR1 rs9340799(XbaI) (T>C) variants CC or TC were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (HR = 0.82,95% CI = 0.67-1.0), and ESR1 rs2077647 (T>C) variants CC or TC was associated with reduced distant recurrence risk (HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.53-0.90), both regardless of the treatments. No differential treatment effects (letrozole vs. tamoxifen) were observed for the association of outcome with any of the SNPs. Letrozole-treated patients with rs2077647 (T>C) variants CC and TC had a reduced risk of bone AE (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.98, P interaction = 0.08), whereas patients with rs4986938 (G>A) genotype variants AA and AG had an increased risk of bone AE (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84, P interaction = 0.07). We observed that (1) rare ESR1 homozygous polymorphisms were associated with lower recurrence, and (2) ESR1 and ESR2 SNPs were associated with bone AEs in letrozole-treated patients. Genes that are involved in estrogen signaling and synthesis have the potential to affect both breast cancer recurrence and side effects, suggesting that individual treatment strategies can incorporate not only oncogenic drivers but also SNPs related to estrogen activity.

Yeh CR, Ou ZY, Xiao GQ, et al.
Infiltrating T cells promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression via altering the estrogen receptor β-DAB2IP signals.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44346-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies indicated the T cells, one of the most common types of immune cells existing in the microenvironment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), may influence the progression of RCC. The potential linkage of T cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), a key player to impact RCC progression, however, remains unclear. Our results demonstrate that RCC cells can recruit more T cells than non-malignant kidney cells. Using an in vitro matrigel invasion system, we found infiltrating T cells could promote RCC cells invasion via increasing ERβ expression and transcriptional activity. Mechanism dissection suggested that co-culturing T cells with RCC cells released more T cell attraction factors, including IFN-γ, CCL3 and CCL5, suggesting a positive regulatory feed-back mechanism. Meanwhile, infiltrating T cells may also promote RCC cell invasion via increased ERβ and decreased DAB2IP expressions, and knocking down DAB2IP can then reverse the T cells-promoted RCC cell invasion. Together, our results suggest that infiltrating T cells may promote RCC cell invasion via increasing the RCC cell ERβ expression to inhibit the tumor suppressor DAB2IP signals. Further mechanism dissection showed that co-culturing T cells with RCC cells could produce more IGF-1 and FGF-7, which may enhance the ERβ transcriptional activity. The newly identified relationship between infiltrating T cells/ERβ/DAB2IP signals may provide a novel therapeutic target in the development of agents against RCC.

Hagberg Thulin M, Nilsson ME, Thulin P, et al.
Osteoblasts promote castration-resistant prostate cancer by altering intratumoral steroidogenesis.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016; 422:182-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The skeleton is the preferred site for prostate cancer (PC) metastasis leading to incurable castration-resistant disease. The increased expression of genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes found in bone metastatic tissue from patients suggests that up-regulated steroidogenesis might contribute to tumor growth at the metastatic site. Because of the overall sclerotic phenotype, we hypothesize that osteoblasts regulate the intratumoral steroidogenesis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in bone. We here show that osteoblasts alter the steroidogenic transcription program in CRPC cells, closely mimicking the gene expression pattern described in CRPC. Osteoblast-stimulated LNCaP-19 cells displayed an increased expression of genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, HSD3B1, and AKR1C3), estrogen signaling-related genes (CYP19A1, and ESR2), and genes for DHT-inactivating enzymes (UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17). The observed osteoblast-induced effect was exclusive to osteogenic CRPC cells (LNCaP-19) in contrast to osteolytic PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The altered steroid enzymatic pattern was specific for the intratibial tumors and verified by immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens from LNCaP-19 xenograft tumors. Additionally, the overall steroidogenic effect was reflected by corresponding levels of progesterone and testosterone in serum from castrated mice with intratibial xenografts. A bi-directional interplay was demonstrated since both proliferation and Esr2 expression of osteoblasts were induced by CRPC cells in steroid-depleted conditions. Together, our results demonstrate that osteoblasts are important mediators of the intratumoral steroidogenesis of CRPC and for castration-resistant growth in bone. Targeting osteoblasts may therefore be important in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Wang L, Zhang P, Meng X, et al.
Correlation between the germline methylation status in ERβ promoter and the risk in prostate cancer: a prospective study.
Fam Cancer. 2016; 15(2):309-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial aggregation of cancer may reflect an overall contribution of inherited genes or a shared mechanism for the manipulation of gene function. DNA methylation in the promoter regions is considered to be a mechanism through which tumor suppressor genes are inhibited, which will lead to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. To evaluate the association between the methylation status in the promoter of estrogen receptor (ER) β,possibly a tumor suppressor gene specific for prostate cancer, and the risk in prostate cancer in a Chinese population, a case-control study that included 56 sporadic prostate cancer cases and 60 healthy controls was conducted. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of all the subjects for analyzing the methylation status of the ERβ promoter by methylation-specific PCR, which was verified by bisulfite genomic sequencing PCR. A significant difference was observed in the methylation frequencies of the ERβ promoter between cancer patients (12/56, 21.4%) and healthy controls (5/60, 8.3%). Prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and prostatic epithelial (RWPE-1) cell lines were treated with various concentrations of the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-dC. Expression of ERβ was detected at both transcriptional and translational levels. As a result, both mRNA and protein of ERβ were elevated following treatment with increasing concentrations of the demethylating agent. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that abnormal methylation of the ERβ promoter may increase genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer.

Oesterreich S, Henry NL, Kidwell KM, et al.
Associations between genetic variants and the effect of letrozole and exemestane on bone mass and bone turnover.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 154(2):263-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adjuvant therapy for hormone receptor (HR) positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients includes aromatase inhibitors (AI). While both the non-steroidal AI letrozole and the steroidal AI exemestane decrease serum estrogen concentrations, there is evidence that exemestane may be less detrimental to bone. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) predict effects of AIs on bone turnover. Early stage HR-positive breast cancer patients were enrolled in a randomized trial of exemestane versus letrozole. Effects of AI on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM), and associations between SNPs in 24 candidate genes and changes in BMD or BTM were determined. Of the 503 enrolled patients, paired BMD data were available for 123 and 101 patients treated with letrozole and exemestane, respectively, and paired BTM data were available for 175 and 173 patients, respectively. The mean change in lumbar spine BMD was significantly greater for letrozole-treated (-3.2 %) compared to exemestane-treated patients (-1.0 %) (p = 0.0016). Urine N-telopeptide was significantly increased in patients treated with exemestane (p = 0.001) but not letrozole. Two SNPs (rs4870061 and rs9322335) in ESR1 and one SNP (rs10140457) in ESR2 were associated with decreased BMD in letrozole-treated patients. In the exemestane-treated patients, SNPs in ESR1 (Rs2813543) and CYP19A1 (Rs6493497) were associated with decreased bone density. Exemestane had a less negative impact on bone density compared to letrozole, and the effects of AI therapy on bone may be impacted by genetic variants in the ER pathway.

Roy D, Morgan M, Yoo C, et al.
Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(10):25285-322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenols (BPs), and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs-PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes-CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1-in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors.

Du P, Yuan B, Cao J, et al.
Methyltransferase-like 17 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptors.
IUBMB Life. 2015; 67(11):861-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen exerts its physiological and pathological functions through two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, which act as transcription factors. Coregulators, including coactivators and corepressors, have been shown to be crucial for regulation of ER transcriptional activity. Although many coregulators have been identified to regulate activities of ERs, novel coregulators are still needed to be investigated. Here, we show that human methyltransferase-like 17 (METTL17), whose function is unknown, physically interacts with ERα and ERβ, and functionally acts as a coactivator for ERs. METTL17 interacts with ER in vitro and in yeast and mammalian cells. Activation function-1 (AF1) and AF2 domains of ERs are responsible for the interaction between METTL17 and ERs. Knockdown of METTL17 reduces transcriptional activities of ERα and ERβ in breast cancer cells, whereas METTL17 overexpression increases ERα and ERβ transcriptional activities. Inhibition of METTL17 expression decreases mRNA and protein levels of ER target genes, including PR, cathepsin D, and pS2. Moreover, METTL17 knockdown reduces breast cancer cell growth. These results indicate that METTL17 is a novel coactivator of ERs and may play a role in breast tumorigenesis.

Al-Rohil RN, Tarasen AJ, Carlson JA, et al.
Evaluation of 122 advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas by comprehensive genomic profiling opens the door for new routes to targeted therapies.
Cancer. 2016; 122(2):249-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that comprehensive genomic profiling of advanced-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) could identify genomic-derived drug targets of therapy for patients with conventional therapy-resistant disease.
METHODS: Comprehensive genomic profiling of 315 cancer genes was applied to 50 ng of DNA from 122 cSCC cases for the evaluation of all classes of genomic alterations (GAs). Clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) were defined as those identifying anticancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.
RESULTS: There were 21 women (17%) and 101 men (83%) with a median age of 64.9 years (range, 21-87 years). Eleven cSCC cases (9%) were histologic AJCC grade 1, 69 (57%) were grade 2, and 42 (34%) were grade 3. The primary cSCC was used for sequencing in 77 cases (63%). Metastatic lesions were sequenced in 37% of cases. There were 1120 total GAs identified (average of 9.2 GAs per tumor), with 100% of cases harboring at least 1 alteration. Of the 122 cSCCs, 107 (88%) harbored at least 1 CRGA (2.5 CRGAs per cSCC) includingNOTCH1 (43%); patched 1 (PTCH1) (11%); BRCA2 (10%); HRAS (8%); ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) (7%); neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (7%); erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) (6%); phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) (6%); cyclin D1 (CCND1) (6%); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (5%); and F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (FBXW7) (5%).
CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, approximately 88% of patients with cSCC were found to harbor clinically relevant GAs that have the potential to guide the treatment of patients with advanced-stage tumors with targeted therapeutic agents. Cancer 2016;122:249-257. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Hima S, Sreeja S
Regulatory role of estrogen-induced reactive oxygen species in the modulatory function of UCP 2 in papillary thyroid cancer cells.
IUBMB Life. 2015; 67(11):837-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress is postulated as one of the mechanisms underlying the estrogen's carcinogenic effect in thyroid cancer. But the fundamental mechanisms behind this carcinogenic effect remain elusive. Physiologically attainable concentrations of estrogen or estrogen metabolites have been made known to cause reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is envisioned that estrogen-induced ROS mediated signaling is a key congruent mechanism that drives the modulation of uncoupled proteins in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. The present study investigates that estrogens may increase mitochondrial ROS production by repressing uncoupling proteins, which offers a new perspective on the understanding of why thyroid cancer occurs three times more often in females than in males, and the occurrence decreases after menopause.

Yan JF, Kim H, Jeong SK, et al.
Integrated Proteomic and Genomic Analysis of Gastric Cancer Patient Tissues.
J Proteome Res. 2015; 14(12):4995-5006 [PubMed] Related Publications
V-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homologue 2, known as ERBB2, is an important oncogene in the development of certain cancers. It can form a heterodimer with other epidermal growth factor receptor family members and activate kinase-mediated downstream signaling pathways. ERBB2 gene is located on chromosome 17 and is amplified in a subset of cancers, such as breast, gastric, and colon cancer. Of particular interest to the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) initiative is the amplification mechanism that typically results in overexpression of a set of genes adjacent to ERBB2, which provides evidence of a linkage between gene location and expression. In this report we studied patient samples from ERBB2-positive together with adjacent control nontumor tissues. In addition, non-ERBB2-expressing patient samples were selected as comparison to study the effect of expression of this oncogene. We detected 196 proteins in ERBB2-positive patient tumor samples that had minimal overlap (29 proteins) with the non-ERBB2 tumor samples. Interaction and pathway analysis identified extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) cascade and actin polymerization and actinmyosin assembly contraction as pathways of importance in ERBB2+ and ERBB2- gastric cancer samples, respectively. The raw data files are deposited at ProteomeXchange (identifier: PXD002674) as well as GPMDB.

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