Gene Summary

Gene:ESR2; estrogen receptor 2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:estrogen receptor beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Societies, Scientific
  • Alleles
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Promoter Regions
  • Epigenetics
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Estradiol
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Polymorphism
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Aromatase
  • Genetic Variation
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Testis
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Postmenopause
  • RNA, Nuclear
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Genotype
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Lung Cancer
  • Tumor Burden
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Messenger RNA
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Estrogens
  • Chromosome 14
  • Haplotypes
  • Risk Factors
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ESR2 (cancer-related)

Feng Y, Peng Z, Liu W, et al.
Evaluation of the epidemiological and prognosis significance of ESR2 rs3020450 polymorphism in ovarian cancer.
Gene. 2019; 710:316-323 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the correlation between the polymorphism of estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2) rs3020450 and cancer susceptibility, and explore the epidemiological significance and the effect of ESR2 expression levels on the prognosis of ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Based on meta-analysis the association between ESR2 rs3020450 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was estimated and a case-control design was used to verify this result in ovarian cancer. The epidemiological effect of ESR2 rs3020450 polymorphism was assessed by attributable risk percentage (ARP) and population attributable risk percentage (PARP). Kaplan Meier plotters were used to evaluate overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in ovarian cancer patients and GEPIA for the differential expression of ESR2 levels in ovarian cancer and adjacent normal tissues.
RESULTS: The pooled analysis indicated no significant correlation between the ESR2 rs3020450 polymorphism and the cancer susceptibility. In the stratified analysis by cancer types, significantly decreased risk was found in ovarian cancer (AG vs GG: OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.53-0.97, P = 0.03). Unconditional logistic regression results of case-control study in ovarian cancer observed significant differences in all comparisons (AG vs GG: OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.62-0.98, P = 0.04; AA vs GG: OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.42-0.92, P = 0.01 and AG + AA vs GG: OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.53-0.96, P < 0.001). Based on meta-analysis and case-control pooled results, ARP and PARP were evaluated respectively in allele (21.95% and7.97%), heterozygote (36.99% and 12.11%) and dominant model (36.84% and 12.97%) of rs3020450 polymorphism in ovarian cancer. The expression levels of ESR2 in normal tissues was significantly higher than that in cancer tissues (OV, Median, 4.7:0.21), and significant correlations were observed between high ESR2 expression levels and long OS (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.70-0.92, P = 0.002) and PFS (HR = 0.767, 95%Cl: 0.67-0.88, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that ESR2 rs3020450 polymorphism was associated with ovarian cancer risk from epidemiological perspective, and high ESR2 expression levels was associated with long survival in patients with ovarian cancer.

Gulliver LSM
In Vivo Quantitation of Estrogen Receptor β Subtype Expression in Ovarian Surface Epithelium Using Immunofluorescence Profiling and Confocal Microscopy.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1966:27-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, chromogen label, and light microscopy has traditionally been used to semiquantify estrogen receptor (ER) to guide diagnosis and management of breast cancer. Quantitation of ER for this purpose currently only assesses levels of the ER-alpha subtype. Considerable variability in results reported has been due to protocol and fixation variability, intraobserver and interobserver variability, and different scoring systems and thresholds for scoring ER positivity. Results can also vary with low expression levels of ER. ER-beta expression is reduced in breast and ovarian cancers and requires quantitation.Herein we describe a novel approach to quantifying ERβ using older mouse ovarian surface epithelium, where ERβ is expressed at lower levels than ERα and is therefore harder to detect. We use an antibody highly specific to the ERβ1 isoform, together with immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and imaging and statistical software to achieve clear, reproducible, and unbiased quantitation of ERβ.

Song IS, Jeong YJ, Jeong SH, et al.
Modulation of Mitochondrial ERβ Expression Inhibits Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumor Progression by Activating Mitochondrial Function.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(3):468-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have poorer outcomes than those with other breast cancer subtypes due to lack of effective molecular targets for therapy. The present study aimed to the identification of estrogen receptor (ER)β as a novel mitochondrial target in TNBC cells, together with underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: Expression of ERβ in clinical breast samples were examined by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Subcellular distribution and binding of ERβ-Grp75 was determined by confocal microscopic analysis, co-immunoprecipitation experiments, and limited-detergent extraction of subcellular organelles. The effect of mitocondrial ERβ(mitoERβ) overexpression on cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were assessed CCK-8 assays and FACS. Mitochondrial ROS, membrane potential, and Ca²⁺ level were measured using the specific fluorescent probes Mito-Sox, TMRE, and Rhod-2AM. The tumorigenic effect of mitoERβ overexpression was assessed using an anchorage-independent growth assay, sphere formation and a mouse orthotopic xenograft model.
RESULTS: ERβ expression was lower in tumor tissue than in adjacent normal tissue of patients with breast cancer, and low levels of mitochondrial ERβ (mitoERβ) also were associated with increased tumor recurrence after surgery. Overexpression of mitoERβ inhibited the proliferation of TNBC cells and tumor masses in an animal model. Moreover, overexpression of mitoERβ increased ATP production in TNBC cells and normal breast MCF10A cells, with the latter completely reversed by mitoERβ knockdown in MCF10A cells. Grp75 was found to positively regulate ERβ translocation into mitochondria via a direct interaction. Coimmunoprecipitation and subcellular fractionation experiments revealed that ERβ-Grp75 complex is stable in mitochondria.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the up-regulation of mitoERβ in TNBC cells ensures proper mitochondrial transcription, activating the OXPHOS system to produce ATP. Studying the effects of mitoERβ on mitochondrial activity and specific mitochondrial gene expression in breast cancer might help predict tumor recurrence, inform clinical decision-making, and identify novel drug targets in the treatment of TNBC.

Chen W, Xin B, Pang H, et al.
Downregulation of estrogen receptor β inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cell growth.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2967-2974 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is an important ER subtype in lung adenocarcinoma. However, the functions and mechanisms of ERβ have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects and relevant mechanisms of ERβ in lung adenocarcinoma. The protein expression of ERβ was found to be higher in lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with that in adjacent non‑cancerous tissues (n=75, P<0.001). Of note, ERβ protein expression was significantly correlated with tumor size (P=0.018), lymph node metastasis (P=0.041), clinical stage (P=0.041) and differentiation (P<0.001). In addition, ERβ protein expression in A549 cells was found to be higher compared with that in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEs). Furthermore, knockdown of ERβ expression inhibited colony formation and cell invasion in vitro, whereas the number of metastatic tumors in the lungs of mice was decreased in vivo. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 was decreased by downregulation of ERβ. Therefore, ERβ may play an important role in lung adenocarcinoma progression via the MEK/ERK signaling axis, and it may represent a novel therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma in the future.

Liu R, Xu X, Liang C, et al.
ERβ modulates genistein's cisplatin-enhancing activities in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells via P53-independent pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 456(1-2):205-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
As one of the typical food-derived phytoestrogens, genistein (GEN) could bind to estrogen receptor (ER) and was reported to be closely related to breast cancer. Our former research showed that GEN interfered with the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin (CIS) in breast cancer MCF-7 (ERα+/ERβ-) cells. However, it is not clear whether ER expression pattern affects GEN's modulation on CIS's activity. In the present study, breast cancer ERβ knockdown (ERβKD) MDA-MB-231 (ERα-/ERβ+) cell model was established via ERβ RNAi lentivirus infection. The role of ERβ expression in GEN's bioeffects on cells' response to CIS was investigated and was further double-checked by pathway-specific inhibitor PHTPP. Consistent results were harvested through cell viability analysis, cell cycle distribution flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, and expression detection of key biomarkers, Bax, Bcl-2, P21, P53, and cleaved caspase-3. Compared with the control group, PHTPP-treated or ERβKD cells exhibited higher sensitivity to both GEN and CIS treatment. GEN and CIS showed synergistic effects only in ERβ-deficient cells. This effect mainly resulted in G2 phase arresting and apoptosis induction with the upregulation of P21 and Bax/Bcl-2 protein level. Besides, P53 expression was strikingly suppressed in ERβ-deficient cells. This indicated ERβ pathway deficiency might enhance GEN-CIS bioactivity via the downregulation of P53. In summary, our data imply that daily intake of GEN-rich diet could collaborate with CIS anti-tumor treatment in ERα-/ERβ- breast cancer cases. ERβ pathway might be one of the potential targets which elicit GEN's positive effects in ERα- breast cancer patients.

Chen JY, Huang WC, Wei CT, et al.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):721-726 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatitis B virus-encoded X protein (HBx) plays a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and treatment resistance. Interestingly, our previous study unexpectedly showed that full-length HBx sensitized HCC cells to lapatinib by up-regulating erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ERBB3). We further aimed to map the exact motif within the HBx sequence responsible for lapatinib sensitization.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The exact motif responsible for the lapatinib sensitization was assessed by construction of various fragments of HBx. Cell viability was examined by the MTT assay and crystal violet staining.
RESULTS: Our investigation found that lapatinib sensitivity and up-regulation of ERBB3 promoter activity were observed only in HCC cells expressing C-terminal residues of HBx. Furthermore, C-terminal HBx peptide induced ERBB3 protein expression and sensitivity to lapatinib.
CONCLUSION: These results not only indicate that the C-terminus of HBx is required for lapatinib sensitivity, but also provide clues to developing a predictive biomarker for response of HCC to lapatinib in the future.

Bonazzoli E, Cocco E, Lopez S, et al.
PI3K oncogenic mutations mediate resistance to afatinib in HER2/neu overexpressing gynecological cancers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(1):158-164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant expression of HER2/neu and PIK3CA gene products secondary to amplification/mutations are common in high-grade-serous-endometrial (USC) and ovarian-cancers (HGSOC). Because scant information is currently available in the literature on the potential negative effect of PIK3CA mutations on the activity of afatinib, in this study we evaluate for the first time the role of oncogenic PIK3CA mutations as a potential mechanism of resistance to afatinib in HGSOC and USC overexpressing HER2/neu.
METHODS: We used six whole-exome-sequenced primary HGSOC/USC cell-lines and three xenografts overexpressing HER2/neu and harboring mutated or wild-type PIK3CA/PIK3R1 genes to evaluate the role of PI3K-mutations as potential mechanism of resistance to afatinib, an FDA-approved pan-c-erb-inhibitor in clinical trials in USC. Primary-USC harboring wild-type-PIK3CA gene was transfected with plasmids encoding oncogenic PIK3CA-mutations (H1047R/E545K). The effect of afatinib on HER2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was evaluated by immunoblotting.
RESULTS: We found PI3K wild-type cell-lines to be significantly more sensitive (lower IC
CONCLUSIONS: Oncogenic PI3K mutations may represent a major mechanism of resistance to afatinib. Combinations of c-erb with PIK3CA, AKT or mTOR inhibitors may be necessary to more efficiently block the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway.

Spirina LV, Chizhevskaya SY, Kondakova IV, Choinzonov EL
Reception of Sex Steroid Hormones in Thyroid Papillary Cancer Tissue and Relationship with Expression and Content of Transcription Factors Brn-3α and TRIM16.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2018; 166(2):237-240 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied reception of sex steroid hormones in the tissues of thyroid papillary cancer and benign tumor. Enhanced expression of AR and ERβ mRNA reflected malignant tumor growth. Nuclear factors Brn-3α and TRIM16 modulating expression of steroid hormones play an important role in the development of thyroid tumors. It was found that the level of TRIM16 mRNA is associated with the expression of ERβ, which seems to be mediated by its antiestrogen effect.

Seeliger H, Pozios I, Assmann G, et al.
Expression of estrogen receptor beta correlates with adverse prognosis in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1049 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The relevance of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is largely unknown. Clinical trials targeting ER with selective estrogen receptor modulators in pancreatic cancer did not show any benefit. Here, we analyze the impact of recently characterized ER isoform beta on survival in a cohort of patients with resected PDAC.
METHODS: Eighty-four patients having undergone pancreatic resection for PDAC at a single institution were identified. Tissue microarrays were constructed of archival tumor specimens. The expression of ER beta was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified by a system established for estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer. ER beta expression was then correlated with clinicopathological parameters, and univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Nuclear expression of ER beta was found in 31% of tumors. No significant correlation was found between ER beta expression and TNM status, tumor grade, age or sex. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis and the expression of ER beta as factors correlating with a shorter overall survival and disease free survival. When comparing ER beta expression in patients surviving more than 24 months with those who died from the tumor within 12 or 24 months, respectively, a significantly lower ER beta expression was found in the long term survivors. In multivariate analysis, ER beta expression was demonstrated to be an independent predictor of shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: In resected PDAC, expression of ER beta seems to correlate with poor prognosis. These data may help to identify patients who may benefit from additional systemic therapy including selective estrogen receptor modulators.

Hou F, Dai Y, Fan CY, et al.
Estrogen is involved in hemangioma regression associated with mast cells.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018; 13(1):181 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen plays a role in infantile hemangioma (IH) development, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to assess estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER) localization and expression levels in IH. In addition, the unexpected relationship between mast cells (MCs) and estrogen in human IH was discussed.
METHODS: IH (n = 29), vascular malformation (VMs, n = 33) and normal skin (n = 15) specimens were assessed. IH was classified into proliferative (n = 9; age, 3.56 ± 1.01 months), early involuting (n = 10; age, 8.90 ± 2.69 months) and late involuting (n = 10; age, 20.10 ± 4.93 months) groups. Estradiol (E2), ER-a, ER-β, and tryptase (MC marker) levels were determined immunohistochemically and/or by double immunofluorescence staining. Quantification and localization of tryptase, ER-a, and E2 were assessed for each specimen.
RESULTS: ER-a, E2, and tryptase were expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of MCs in IH. The IH specimens showed significantly more tryptase, ER-a, and E2 positive MCs (30.6 ± 12.7, 9.7 ± 5.6, and 19.8 ± 8.7 cells/high-power field [HPF], respectively) compared with VM specimens (9.0 ± 9.8, 1.5 ± 2.4, and 2.5 ± 4.1 cells/HPF, respectively) and normal skin (6.1 ± 8.5, 0.5 ± 1.2, and 1.9 ± 3.4 cells/HPF, respectively). Proliferating IH displayed fewer E2 positive MCs (14.0 6.3 cells/HPF) compared with early (22.3 ± 10.2 cells/HPF, P = 0.023) and late (22.4 ± 6.8 cells/HPF, P = 0.006) involuting specimens. In addition, proliferating IH showed fewer tryptase positive MCs (24.7 ± 10.8 cells/HPF) compared with early involuting specimens (35.7 ± 15.3 cells/HPF, P = 0.043). All IH specimens were ER-a positive and ER-β negative.
CONCLUSIONS: E2 and ER-a are expressed on MCs and not on IH endothelial cells. Furthermore, activated MCs may be involved in IH regression.

Youssef O, Knuuttila A, Piirilä P, et al.
Hotspot Mutations Detectable by Next-generation Sequencing in Exhaled Breath Condensates from Patients with Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5627-5634 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations occurring in lung cancer are the basis for defining molecular subtypes and essential for targeted therapies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a form of non-invasive sample that, amongst components, contains DNA from pulmonary tissue. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was herein used to analyze mutations in EBC from patients with lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: EBC was collected from 26 patients with cancer and 20 healthy controls. Amplicon-based sequencing using Ion Ampliseq Colon and Lung Cancer gene panel v2 was applied.
RESULTS: The sequencing was successful in 17 patients and 20 controls. EBC from patients revealed 39 hotspot mutations occurring in: adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4), F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1), met proto-oncogene (MET), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), ret proto-oncogene (RET), SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) genes. EBC from controls revealed 35 hotspot mutations. The average mutant allele fraction was higher in patients than controls.
CONCLUSION: NGS can identify mutations in EBCs from patients with lung cancer. This could provide a promising non-invasive method for the assessment of gene mutations in lung cancer.

Riera-Leal A, Ramírez De Arellano A, Ramírez-López IG, et al.
Effects of 60 kDa prolactin and estradiol on metabolism and cell survival in cervical cancer: Co‑expression of their hormonal receptors during cancer progression.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3781-3793 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens and estrogen receptors (ERs), such as ERα and ERβ, prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) have been reported to be involved in the physiopathology of uterine cervical cancer (UCC). The 60 kDa PRL is an isoform of PRL, which is produced by UCC‑derived cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of hormonal receptors in different degrees of cervical lesions, and to determine whether 60 kDa PRL and 17β‑estradiol (E2) modulated cell survival and metabolism in UCC cells, and in HaCaT cells transduced with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 E6/E7 oncogenes. ERα, ERβ, PRLR, Ki67 and B‑cell lymphoma 2 expression levels were analyzed in biopsies of precursor lesions and UCC using immunohistochemistry. In addition, HeLa, SiHa and C33A cells, and transduced HaCaT cells, were stimulated with 60 kDa PRL, E2 or a combination of both. Proliferation was evaluated using the xCELLigence platform, apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and cell metabolism was determined using the MTT assay. The results revealed that ERα, ERβ, PRLR and Ki67 expression levels were increased during the progression of cancer. In vitro, 60 kDa PRL alone significantly increased proliferation of SiHa cells. Furthermore, E2 alone or in combination with 60 kDa PRL increased the sensitivity of SiHa cells to cisplatin and increased the percentage of apoptosis; in HaCaT cells, these treatment strategies had the opposite effect on cisplatin sensitivity. Treatment with E2 increased mitochondrial activity in HeLa and SiHa cells, and in HaCaT cells transduced with HPV 16 E6/E7 and HPV 18 E6 oncogenes. PRL had a similar effect on HeLa cells, and on HaCaT cells transduced with HPV 18 E6 and HPV 16 E7. The co‑expression of these receptors demonstrated the hormonal dependence of UCC. In addition, E2 and the 60 kDa PRL significantly impacted the metabolism, but not the survival, of cells.

Yu W, Ding J, He M, et al.
Estrogen receptor β promotes the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and cell invasion via altering the lncRNA-MALAT1/miR-145-5p/NEDD9 signals in lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(8):1225-1238 [PubMed] Related Publications
While estrogen receptor β (ERβ) may impact the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its linkage to alteration of the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation to influence the NSCLC cell invasion remains unclear. Here, we analyzed immunohistochemistry data from NSCLC tissues and found that ERβ-positive NSCLC female patients had worse survival outcomes than those of ERβ-negative NSCLC female patients. In vitro studies using multiple NSCLC cell lines also revealed that ERβ could increase the VM formation and cell invasion. Molecular mechanism dissection suggested that ERβ could increase the lncRNA-MALAT1 (MALAT1) expression via directly binding to the estrogen response elements (EREs) located on the promoter of MALAT1, which could then lead to (i) suppressing the miR145-5p and (ii) increasing the NEDD9 protein expression as miR145-5p can directly target the 3'-UTR of NEDD9-mRNA. A preclinical study using the in vivo mouse model further confirmed the in vitro cell lines data. Together, results from the above studies demonstrated that ERβ can promote NSCLC VM formation and cell invasion via altering the ERβ/MALAT1/miR145-5p/NEDD9 signaling. Targeting this newly identified signaling pathway with small molecules may help the development of novel therapies to better suppress the NSCLC metastasis.

Bousset L, Rambur A, Fouache A, et al.
New Insights in Prostate Cancer Development and Tumor Therapy: Modulation of Nuclear Receptors and the Specific Role of Liver X Receptors.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence has been dramatically increasing these last years in westernized countries. Though localized PCa is usually treated by radical prostatectomy, androgen deprivation therapy is preferred in locally advanced disease in combination with chemotherapy. Unfortunately, PCa goes into a castration-resistant state in the vast majority of the cases, leading to questions about the molecular mechanisms involving the steroids and their respective nuclear receptors in this relapse. Interestingly, liver X receptors (LXRα/NR1H3 and LXRβ/NR1H2) have emerged as new actors in prostate physiology, beyond their historical roles of cholesterol sensors. More importantly LXRs have been proposed to be good pharmacological targets in PCa. This rational has been based on numerous experiments performed in PCa cell lines and genetic animal models pointing out that using selective liver X receptor modulators (SLiMs) could actually be a good complementary therapy in patients with a castration resistant PCa. Hence, this review is focused on the interaction among the androgen receptors (AR/NR3C4), estrogen receptors (ERα/NR3A1 and ERβ/NR3A2), and LXRs in prostate homeostasis and their putative pharmacological modulations in parallel to the patients' support.

Qu W, Zhao Y, Wang X, et al.
Culture characters, genetic background, estrogen/progesterone receptor expression, and tumorigenic activities of frequently used sixteen endometrial cancer cell lines.
Clin Chim Acta. 2019; 489:225-232 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the in vitro and in vivo properties of sixteen frequently used endometrial cancer (EC) cell lines, including the cell proliferation rate, morphology, hormone receptor expression patterns, PTEN, hMLH1 expression, p53 mutation, karyotype, and tumorigenicity in mouse xenograt model.
METHODS: Twelve type I (AN3, ECC-1, EN, EN-1, EN-11, HEC-1A, HEC1B, Ishikawa, KLE, MFE-280, MFE-296, MFE-319) and four type II (ARK1, ARK2, HEC-155/180, SPEC-2) endometrial cancer cell lines were studied. Cell proliferation and morphology were determined using cell growth curves and light microscopy, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to measure the mRNA levels of target genes. Denaturing High Performance Chromatography (DHPLC) screening and PCR/sequencing were performed to identify p53 mutations. G-banding was applied for karyotyping. Tumorigenicity was evaluated using mouse xenograft.
RESULTS: The population doubling time of the cell lines ranged between 19 and 41 h. Ishikawa, ECC-1, and MFE-280 have high while AN3 and EN1 have low expression of ER-α and ER-β. Expression of total PR and PR-B uniformly decreased in all type II cell lines and several type I cell lines (AN3, HEC-1A, HEC1B, KLE, EN-1). Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between PR-B and total PR (p < .001), between isoforms ER-α and ER-β (p < .001), and between total PR and ER (p < .001), mRNA levels in type I cell lines. p53 mutations were detected in exons 5-8 of seven out of twelve type I and one out of four type II cell lines. PTEN expression was more uniformly suppressed in type II than type I cells, while hMLH1 did not show this pattern. All the five cell lines tested contained severe karyotype abnormalities. Mouse xenograft results indicated that HEC-1A, HEC-1B and EN-1 type I as well as ARK1 and ARK2 type II cell lines had potent tumorigenic activities. Low PR-B and ER-α expression in type I cell lines were associated with high tumorigenic activity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides resource information on EC cell lines commonly used in laboratories, which could be used for choosing cell lines suitable for specific research purposes. The results of karyotype analysis and p53 mutation together with hormone receptor expression pattern and morphology comparison strongly suggested an independent nature of these cell lines, excluding the possibility of cross-contamination between cell lines. Additionally, this information suggests potential directions for future studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer.

Ponandai-Srinivasan S, Andersson KL, Nister M, et al.
Aberrant expression of genes associated with stemness and cancer in endometria and endometrioma in a subset of women with endometriosis.
Hum Reprod. 2018; 33(10):1924-1938 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY QUESTION: Is there molecular evidence for a link between endometriosis and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers (EAOC)?
STUDY ANSWER: We identified aberrant gene expression signatures associated with malignant transformation in a small subgroup of women with ovarian endometriosis.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of EAOC in women with ovarian endometriosis. However, the cellular and molecular changes leading to EAOC are largely unexplored.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CD73+CD90+CD105+ multipotent stem cells/progenitors (SC cohort) were isolated from endometrium (n = 18) and endometrioma (n = 11) of endometriosis patients as well as from the endometrium of healthy women (n = 14). Extensive phenotypic and functional analyses were performed in vitro on expanded multipotent stem cells/progenitors to confirm their altered characteristics. Aberrant gene signatures were also validated in paired-endometrium and -endometrioma tissue samples from another cohort (Tissue cohort, n = 19) of endometriosis patients.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: Paired-endometrial and -endometriotic biopsies were obtained from women with endometriosis (ASRM stage III-IV) undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Control endometria were obtained from healthy volunteers. Isolated CD73+CD90+CD105+ SC were evaluated for the presence of known endometrial surface markers, colony forming efficiency, multi-lineage differentiation, cell cycle distribution and 3D-spheroid formation capacity. Targeted RT-PCR arrays, along with hierarchical and multivariate clustering tools, were used to determine both intergroup and intragroup gene expression variability for stem cell and cancer-associated markers, in both SC+ and tissue cohorts.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Isolated and expanded SC+ from both control and patient groups showed significantly higher surface expression of W5C5+, clonal expansion and 3D-spheroid formation capacity (P < 0.05) compared with SC-. The SC+ cells also undergo mesenchymal lineage differentiation, unlike SC-. Gene expression from paired-endometriosis samples showed significant downregulation of PTEN, ARID1A and TNFα (P < 0.05) in endometrioma compared with paired-endometrium SC+ samples. Hierarchical and multivariate clustering from both SC+ and tissue cohorts together identified 4 out of 30 endometrioma samples with aberrant expression of stem cell and cancer-associated genes, such as KIT, HIF2α and E-cadherin, altered expression ratio of ER-β/ER-α and downregulation of tumour suppressor genes (PTEN and ARID1A). Thus, we speculate that above changes may be potentially relevant to the development of EAOC.
LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION: As the reported frequency of EAOC is very low, we did not have access to those samples in our study. Moreover, by adopting a targeted gene array approach, we might have missed several other potentially-relevant genes associated with EAOC pathogenesis. The above panel of markers should be further validated in archived tissue samples from women with endometriosis who later in life developed EAOC.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Knowledge gained from this study, with further confirmation on EAOC cases, may help in developing screening methods to identify women with increased risk of EAOC.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study is funded by the Swedish Research Council (2012-2844), a joint grant from Stockholm County and Karolinska Institutet (ALF), RGD network at Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Institutet for doctoral education (KID), Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT34-16), Enterprise Estonia (EU48695), Horizon 2020 innovation program (WIDENLIFE, 692065), European Union's FP7 Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways funding (IAPP, SARM, EU324509) and MSCA-RISE-2015 project MOMENDO (691058). All authors have no competing interest.

Braga DL, Mota STS, Zóia MAP, et al.
Ethanolic Extracts from
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Breast Cancer (BC) encompasses numerous entities with different biological and behavioral characteristics, favored by tumor molecular complexity.

Gerashchenko GV, Mevs LV, Chashchina LI, et al.
Expression of steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes in prostate tumors in relation to the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(2):101-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To analyze an expression pattern of the steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes in prostate tumors in relation to the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion; and to examine a putative correlation between gene expression and clinical characteristics, to define the molecular subtypes of prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative gene expression (RE) of 33 transcripts (27 genes) and the presence/absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion were analyzed by a quantitative PCR. 37 prostate cancer tissues (T) paired with conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) and 21 samples of prostate adenomas were investigated. RE changes were calculated, using different protocols of statistics.
RESULTS: We demonstrated differences in RE of seven genes between tumors and CNT, as was calculated, using the 2-ΔCT model and the Wilcoxon matched paired test. Five genes (ESR1, KRT18, MKI67, MMP9, PCA3) showed altered expression in adenocarcinomas, in which the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion was detected. Two genes (INSR, isoform B and HOTAIR) expressed differently in tumors without fusion. Comparison of the gene expression pattern in adenomas, CNT and adenocarcinomas demonstrated that in adenocarcinomas, bearing the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, genes KRT18, PCA3, and SCHLAP1 expressed differently. At the same time, we detected differences in RE of AR (isoform 2), MMP9, PRLR and HOTAIR in adenocarcinomas without the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion. Two genes (ESR1 and SRD5A2) showed differences in RE in both adenocarcinoma groups. Fourteen genes, namely AR (isoforms 1 and 2), CDH1, OCLN, NKX3-1, XIAP, GCR (ins AG), INSR (isoform A), IGF1R, IGF1R tr, PRLR, PRL, VDR and SRD5A2 showed correlation between RE and tumor stage. RE of four genes (CDH2, ESR2, VDR and SRD5A2) correlated with differentiation status of tumors (Gleason score). Using the K-means clustering, we could cluster adenocarcinomas in three groups, according to gene expression profiles. A specific subtype of prostate tumors is characterized by the activated ERG signaling, due to the presence of TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, and also by high levels of the androgen receptor, prolactin, IGF, INSR and PCA3.
CONCLUSIONS: We have found the specific differences in expression of the steroid and peptide hormone receptors, metabolic enzymes and EMT-related genes, depending on the pre-sence/absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion in prostate adenocarcinomas, CNT and adenomas. We showed three different gene expression profiles of prostate adenocarcinomas. One of them is characteristic for adenocarcinomas with the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion. Further experiments are needed to confirm these data in a larger cohort of patients.

Sánchez DI, González-Fernández B, Crespo I, et al.
Melatonin modulates dysregulated circadian clocks in mice with diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Pineal Res. 2018; 65(3):e12506 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disruption of circadian rhythms, which are regulated by the circadian clock machinery, plays an important role in different long-term diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Melatonin has been reported to alleviate promotion and progression of HCC, but the potential contribution of circadian clock modulation is unknown. We investigated the effects of melatonin in mice which received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (35 mg/kg body weight ip) once a week for 8 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg

Jiang CF, Shi ZM, Li DM, et al.
Estrogen-induced miR-196a elevation promotes tumor growth and metastasis via targeting SPRED1 in breast cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen plays a critical role in breast cancer (BC) progression through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene regulation. Emerging studies suggest that the malignant progress of BC cells is influenced by the cross talk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and ER-α signaling. However, the mechanism and functional linkage between estrogen and miRNAs remain unclear.
METHODS: The expression levels of miR-196a and SPRED1 in BC were tested by qRT-PCR in 46 paired BC and adjacent tissues and by the GEO datasets. The role of miR-196a in estrogen-induced BC development was examined by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay, Matrigel invasion assay and tumorigenicity assay in nude mice. The binding site of ER-α in miR-196a promoter region was analyzed by ChIP-seq, ChIP assay and luciferase reporter assay. The potential targets of miR-196a in BC cells were explored using the luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis, and the correlation between miR-196a and SPRED1 was analyzed by Spearman's correlation analysis in BC specimens and GEO dataset. TCGA BRCA data was used to characterize the ESR1 signatures according to MSigDB gene set.
RESULTS: The expression levels of miR-196a were higher in ER-positive (ER+) breast tumors compared to ER-negative (ER-) tumor tissue samples. Besides, miR-196a was involved in estrogen-induced BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Notably, the up-regulation of miR-196a was mediated by a direct interaction with estrogen receptor α (ER-α) but not estrogen receptor β (ER-β) in its promoter region, and miR-196a expression levels were positively correlated to ER-α signature scores. Furthermore, SPRED1 was a new direct target of miR-196a which participated in miR-196a-promoted BC development and was suppressed by ligand-activated ER-α signal pathway. Finally, forced expression of miR-196a induced tumor growth of MCF7 cells, while inhibition of miR-196a significantly suppressed the tumor progress in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the identification of estrogen/miR-196a/SPRED1 cascade will shed light on new molecular mechanism of estrogen signaling in BC development and therapy.

Tao L, Qiu J, Slavin S, et al.
Recruited T cells promote the bladder cancer metastasis via up-regulation of the estrogen receptor β/IL-1/c-MET signals.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 430:215-223 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical data indicates that T cells can be recruited to bladder cancer (BCa), yet the impact of T cells on BCa progression remains unclear. In the present study, we found that T cells were recruited more to BCa tissues than to the surrounding normal bladder tissues. Results from an in vitro co-culture system also found that BCa recruited more CD4

Shergalis A, Bankhead A, Luesakul U, et al.
Current Challenges and Opportunities in Treating Glioblastoma.
Pharmacol Rev. 2018; 70(3):412-445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, has a high mortality rate despite extensive efforts to develop new treatments. GBM exhibits both intra- and intertumor heterogeneity, lending to resistance and eventual tumor recurrence. Large-scale genomic and proteomic analysis of GBM tumors has uncovered potential drug targets. Effective and "druggable" targets must be validated to embark on a robust medicinal chemistry campaign culminating in the discovery of clinical candidates. Here, we review recent developments in GBM drug discovery and delivery. To identify GBM drug targets, we performed extensive bioinformatics analysis using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We discovered 20 genes,

Owen GI, Pinto MP, Retamal IN, et al.
Chilean Gastric Cancer Task Force: A study protocol to obtain a clinical and molecular classification of a cohort of gastric cancer patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(16):e0419 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the world's second-leading cause of neoplastic mortality. Genetic alterations, response to treatments, and mortality rates are highly heterogeneous across different regions. Within Latin America, GC is the leading cause of cancer death in Chile, affecting 17.6 per 100,000 people and causing >3000 deaths/y. Clinical outcomes and response to "one size fits all" therapies are highly heterogeneous and thus a better stratification of patients may aid cancer treatment and response.The Gastric Cancer Task Force is a Chilean collaborative, noninterventional study that seeks to stratify gastric adenocarcinomas using clinical outcomes and genomic, epigenomic, and protein alterations in a cohort of 200 patients. Tumor samples from the Pathology Department and the Cancer Center at UC-Christus healthcare network, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile will be analyzed using a panel of 143 known cancer genes (Oncomine Comprehensive Assay) at the Center of Excellence in Precision Medicine in Santiago, Chile. In addition, promoter methylation for selected genes will be performed along with tissue microarray for clinically relevant proteins (e.g., PD-L1, Erb-2, VEGFR2, among others) and Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus status. Obtained data will be correlated to 120 clinical parameters retrieve from medical records, including general patient information, cancer history, laboratory studies, comorbidity index, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, efficacy, and follow-up.The development of a clinically meaningful classification that encompasses comprehensive clinical and molecular parameters may improve patient treatment, predict clinical outcomes, aid patient selection/stratification for clinical trials and may offer insights into future preventive and/or therapeutic strategies in patients from Latin America region.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT03158571, Registered on May 18, 2017.

Liu J, Sareddy GR, Zhou M, et al.
Differential Effects of Estrogen Receptor β Isoforms on Glioblastoma Progression.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(12):3176-3189 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The estrogen receptor β (ERβ) functions as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma (GBM) cells. However, the

Giurato G, Nassa G, Salvati A, et al.
Quantitative mapping of RNA-mediated nuclear estrogen receptor β interactome in human breast cancer cells.
Sci Data. 2018; 5:180031 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The nuclear receptor estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2, ERβ) modulates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, exerting an oncosuppressive role in breast cancer (BC). Interaction proteomics by tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry was previously applied in BC cells to identify proteins acting in concert with ERβ to control key cellular functions, including gene transcription, RNA splicing and post-transcriptional mRNA regulation. These studies revealed an involvement of RNA in ERβ interactome assembly and functions. By applying native protein complex purification followed by nano LC-MS/MS before and after in vitro RNA removal, we generated a large dataset of newly identified nuclear ERβ interactors, including a subset associating with the receptor via RNA bridging. These datasets will be useful to investigate further the role of ERβ, nuclear RNAs and the other proteins identified here in BC and other cell types.

Gechijian LN, Buckley DL, Lawlor MA, et al.
Functional TRIM24 degrader via conjugation of ineffectual bromodomain and VHL ligands.
Nat Chem Biol. 2018; 14(4):405-412 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The addressable pocket of a protein is often not functionally relevant in disease. This is true for the multidomain, bromodomain-containing transcriptional regulator TRIM24. TRIM24 has been posited as a dependency in numerous cancers, yet potent and selective ligands for the TRIM24 bromodomain do not exert effective anti-proliferative responses. We therefore repositioned these probes as targeting features for heterobifunctional protein degraders. Recruitment of the VHL E3 ubiquitin ligase by dTRIM24 elicits potent and selective degradation of TRIM24. Using dTRIM24 to probe TRIM24 function, we characterize the dynamic genome-wide consequences of TRIM24 loss on chromatin localization and gene control. Further, we identify TRIM24 as a novel dependency in acute leukemia. Pairwise study of TRIM24 degradation versus bromodomain inhibition reveals enhanced anti-proliferative response from degradation. We offer dTRIM24 as a chemical probe of an emerging cancer dependency, and establish a path forward for numerous selective yet ineffectual ligands for proteins of therapeutic interest.

Ya G, Wang H, Ma Y, et al.
Serum miR-129 functions as a biomarker for colorectal cancer by targeting estrogen receptor (ER) β.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(2):107-112 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrantly expressed miRNAs widely participate in the signaling cascades of colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to identify a potential miRNA that serves as effective biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression of estrogen receptorβ (ERβ) was explored using immunohistochemistry. The possible miRNAs targeting ERβ were predicted by TargetScan, and their expression patterns were validated using real time PCR. Dual luciferase reporter assays were performed to determine the potential binding of miR-129 in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of ERβ. In vitro scratch assays and flow cytometry assays were conducted to determine the role of miR-129 on colon cancer cell migration and apoptosis. Proteins related to cell proliferation were determined using western blots. Compared with adjacent non-cancer tissues, the protein level of ERβ was significantly decreased in CRC tissues, and compared with NC the level of miR-129 was significantly increased in blood and tissue samples. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that ERβ was a direct target gene of miR-129. Further study showed that inhibition of miR-129 decreases HCT116 cell migration and enhances cell apoptosis. More importantly, we found that the silencing of ERβ significantly decreased the activation of caspase3 but increased the protein expression of PCNA. Interestingly, miR-129 inhibitor-induced protein expression pattern changes could be reversed by the siRNA targeting ERβ. The high expression level of circulating miR-129 in the tissue and blood samples of CRC patients contributes to aberrant colon cancer cell proliferation and migration mainly by targeting ERβ.

Ghali RM, Al-Mutawa MA, Al-Ansari AK, et al.
Differential association of ESR1 and ESR2 gene variants with the risk of breast cancer and associated features: A case-control study.
Gene. 2018; 651:194-199 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen is key to breast cancer pathogenesis, and acts by binding its receptor (ER), which exists as ERα and ERβ, encoded by ESR1 and ESR2 genes, respectively. Studies that investigated the association of ESR1 and ESR2 variants with breast cancer yielded mixed outcome, and ethnic contribution was proposed. We evaluated the association between ESR1 and ESR2 variants and breast cancer and associated features in Tunisian women.
METHODS: Retrospective case-control study involving 207 female breast cancer patients, and 284 control women. Genotyping was done by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: Minor allele frequencies (MAF) of tagging SNPs rs2234693 and rs3798577 (ESR1) were significantly higher, while MAF of rs1256049 (ESR2) was significantly lower in breast cancer patients vs.
CONTROLS: Patients carrying rs3798577 genotypes had higher risk, while rs1256049 genotype carriers had reduced risk of breast cancer. The association of ESR1 and ESR2 gene variants with breast cancer depended on ER and Her-2 status. ESR1 rs3798577 and ESR2 rs1256049 were associated with breast cancer in ER-positive cases, and ESR1 rs2234693, and rs3798577 were associated with breast cancer in Her-2-negative cases, while the association of ESR2 rs1256049 with breast cancer was seen in Her-2 positive cases. Haploview analysis identified 4-locus ESR1 haplotypes that were positively (CGTT, TACC, and TACT), and negatively (CGTC) associated with breast cancer. No ESR2 haplotypes associated with breast cancer were identified.
CONCLUSION: ESR1 alleles and genotypes, and specific 3-locus ESR1 haplotypes are related with increased breast cancer susceptibility in Tunisian women. However, ESR2 variant and specific 1-locus ESR1 haplotype have a protective effect.

Zeid R, Lawlor MA, Poon E, et al.
Enhancer invasion shapes MYCN-dependent transcriptional amplification in neuroblastoma.
Nat Genet. 2018; 50(4):515-523 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Amplification of the locus encoding the oncogenic transcription factor MYCN is a defining feature of high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we present the first dynamic chromatin and transcriptional landscape of MYCN perturbation in neuroblastoma. At oncogenic levels, MYCN associates with E-box binding motifs in an affinity-dependent manner, binding to strong canonical E-boxes at promoters and invading abundant weaker non-canonical E-boxes clustered at enhancers. Loss of MYCN leads to a global reduction in transcription, which is most pronounced at MYCN target genes with the greatest enhancer occupancy. These highly occupied MYCN target genes show tissue-specific expression and are linked to poor patient survival. The activity of genes with MYCN-occupied enhancers is dependent on the tissue-specific transcription factor TWIST1, which co-occupies enhancers with MYCN and is required for MYCN-dependent proliferation. These data implicate tissue-specific enhancers in defining often highly tumor-specific 'MYC target gene signatures' and identify disruption of the MYCN enhancer regulatory axis as a promising therapeutic strategy in neuroblastoma.

Wang X, Zhu X, Zhang H, et al.
Increased circular RNA hsa_circ_0012673 acts as a sponge of miR-22 to promote lung adenocarcinoma proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 496(4):1069-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent reports have indicated that circular RNA (circRNA) may regulate Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) development. Our previous studies showed that hsa_circ_0012673 was up-regulated in a circRNA microarray. However, its expression level in LAC has not been verified, and the underlying molecular mechanisms in LAC are unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of hsa_circ_0012673 was up-regulated in LAC tissues compared to pair-matched adjacent non-tumor tissues (P = 0.0079), and that the expression level was associated with tumour size (P = 0.015). Furthermore, hsa_circ_0012673 was primarily localized in the cytoplasm and promoted cell proliferation of LAC cells by sponging miR-22, which targeted erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ErbB3) in LAC. Hsa_circ_0012673 promotes LAC proliferation by suppressing miR-22, which targets ErbB3.

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