Research IndicatorsGraph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: GATA5 (cancer-related)
Rankeillor KL, Cairns DA, Loughrey C, et al.Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification identifies promoter methylation events associated with survival in glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2014; 117(2):243-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
DNA methylation plays an important role in cancer biology and methylation events are important prognostic and predictive markers in many tumor types. We have used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to survey the methylation status of MGMT and 25 tumor suppressor genes in 73 glioblastoma cases. The data obtained was correlated with overall survival and response to treatment. The study revealed that methylation of promoter regions in TP73 (seven patients), THBS1 (eight patients) and PYCARD (nine patients) was associated with improved outcome, whereas GATA5 (21 patients) and WT1 (24 patients) promoter methylation were associated with poor outcome. In patients treated with temozolomide and radiation MGMT and PYCARD promoter methylation events remained associated with improved survival whereas GATA5 was associated with a poor outcome. The identification of GATA5 promoter methylation in glioblastoma has not previously been reported. Furthermore, a cumulative methylation score separated patients into survival groups better than any single methylation event. In conclusion, we have identified specific methylation events associated with patient outcome and treatment response in glioblastoma, and these may be of functional and predictive/prognostic significance. This study therefore provides novel candidates and approaches for future prospective validation.
Peters I, Dubrowinskaja N, Kogosov M, et al.Decreased GATA5 mRNA expression associates with CpG island methylation and shortened recurrence-free survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:101 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GATA-5, a zinc-finger transcription factor and member of the GATA family proteins 1-6, is known to be involved in cellular differentiation. We recently found that tumor-specific hypermethylation of the GATA5 CpG island (CGI) occurs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and is associated with an adverse clinical outcome. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic GATA5 alterations may result in changes in GATA5 mRNA expression levels and correlate with the observed prognostic impact of epigenetic changes in GATA5 in RCC.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction was applied to measure relative GATA5 mRNA expression levels in 135 kidney tissue samples, including 77 clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissues and 58 paired adjacent normal renal tissue samples. Relative GATA5 expression levels were determined using the ΔΔCt method and detection of three endogenous control genes then compared to previously measured values of relative methylation.
RESULTS: The mean relative GATA5 mRNA expression level exhibited an approximately 31-fold reduction in tumor specimens compared with corresponding normal tissues (p < 0.001, paired t-test). Decreased GATA5 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with increased GATA5 CGI methylation (p < 0.001) and was associated with shortened recurrence-free survival in ccRCC patients (p = 0.023, hazard ratio = 0.25).
CONCLUSION: GATA5 mRNA expression is decreased in ccRCC, likely due to gene silencing by methylation of the GATA5 CGI. Moreover, reduced GATA5 mRNA levels were associated with a poor clinical outcome, indicating a possible role of GATA5 for the development of aggressive ccRCC phenotypes.
Feierabend D, Walter J, Grube S, et al.Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its impact on clinical findings in medulloblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2014; 116(2):213-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gain of (proto-)oncogenes and loss or promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) play essential roles in tumorigenesis. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) allows simultaneous detection of both these alterations. MS-MLPA was performed on 20 medulloblastoma samples (n = 12 cryoconserved; n = 8 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, FFPE) in order to screen for copy number changes in 77 unselected TSGs and (proto-)oncogenes as well as for promoter hypermethylation in a subset of 33 TSGs. In all specimens, determination of promoter methylation status was possible, whereas robust data concerning copy number changes could be obtained on cryopreserved material only. We found a median of 1.5 deletions and 6.5 amplifications in the 12 cryopreserved medulloblastoma and a median of 5 promoter hypermethylation per tumor. Frequent copy number changes included amplification of ASC on 16p12 (5/12) and amplification of several adjacent genes on 17q (3/12) including IGFBP4. Hypermethylation of MSH6 on 2p16 was found in 16 samples. MS-MLPA findings were also correlated with clinical and histological characteristics. The number of promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with presence of necrosis (p = 0.004). Tumors which recurred within 1 year were more likely to show amplification of the GATA5 gene (p = 0.038), while hypermethylation of CASP8 was associated with a lower tumor recurrence rate (p = 0.036). There was also a trend towards a correlation between total number of aberrations and CSF dissemination (p = 0.055). Our findings confirm frequent presence of certain aberrations and reveal novel candidates for improving prognosis based on genetic and epigenetic tumor features. A medulloblastoma-specific MS-MLPA probe set seems a potentially valuable tool for further investigations on larger sample series.
Dvorakova E, Chmelarova M, Laco J, et al.Methylation analysis of tumor suppressor genes in endometroid carcinoma of endometrium using MS-MLPA.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):298-303 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes are considered to be a frequent event during tumor development. Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of specific genes in endometrial cancer by comparison with normal endometrial tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) to compare the methylation status of 59 tissue samples of endometroid type of endometrial carcinoma with 20 control samples of non-neoplastic endometrium.
RESULTS: Using 15% cut-off for methylation, we observed significantly higher methylation in the CDH13 gene in endometrial cancer group. We observed significantly higher methylation in both WT1 and GATA5 genes in IB stage of endometroid carcinoma. We also observed significantly higher methylation in GATA5 gene in the group of poorly differentiated endometroid carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the importance of hypermethylation of CDH13, WT1 and GATA5 genes in endometrial carcinogenesis and could have implications for future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of endometrial cancer based on epigenetic changes.
Chmelařová M, Křepinská E, Spaček J, et al.Methylation analysis of tumour suppressor genes in ovarian cancer using MS-MLPA.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2012; 58(6):246-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic changes are considered to be a frequent event during tumour development. Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism for inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of specific genes in ovarian cancer by comparison with normal ovarian tissue. To search for epigenetic events we used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) to compare the methylation status of 69 tissue samples of ovarian cancer with 40 control samples. Using a 15% cut-off for methylation, we observed significantly higher methylation in genes MGMT, PAX5, CDH13, WT1, THBS1, GATA5 in the ovarian cancer group, while in the ESR1 gene we observed significantly higher methylation in the control group compared with the ovarian cancer group. These findings could potentially be used in screening of ovarian cancer and may have implications for future chemotherapy based on epigenetic changes.
Cosialls AM, Santidrián AF, Coll-Mulet L, et al.Epigenetic profile in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Epigenomics. 2012; 4(5):491-501 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: To analyze the methylation status of 35 tumor suppressor genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
MATERIALS & METHODS: The DNA of 37 samples from patients with CLL, six healthy donors, and Jurkat and Ramos cell lines was analyzed by MS-MLPA.
RESULTS: Our results confirm that hypermethylation is a common and not randomly distributed event in CLL, and some genes, such as WT1, CDH13, IGSF4/TSLC1, GATA5, DAPK1 and RARB, are hypermethylated in more than 25% of the analyzed samples. Importantly, MS-MLPA also detected hypermethylation of some genes not reported previously in CLL, and their methylation status was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that MS-MLPA is a useful technique for the detection of methylation in CLL samples. Selecting CLL-specific methylation targets in order to generate a CLL-specific MS-MLPA probe set could enhance its usefulness as a tool in studies of risk stratification and guiding the best therapeutic decision.
INTRODUCTION: Epigenetic events are, along with genetic alteration, important in the development and progression of cancer. Promoter hypermethylation causes gene silencing and is thought to be an early event in carcinogenesis. The role of promoter hypermethylation in male breast cancer has not yet been studied.
METHODS: In a group of 108 male breast cancers, the methylation status of 25 genes was studied using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Methylation of more than 15% was regarded indicative for promoter hypermethylation. Methylation status was correlated with clinicopathological features, with patients' outcome and with 28 female breast cancer cases.
RESULTS: Promoter hypermethylation of the genes MSH6, WT1, PAX5, CDH13, GATA5 and PAX6 was seen in more than 50% of the cases, but was uncommon or absent in normal male breast tissue. High overall methylation status was correlated with high grade (P = 0.003) and was an independent predictor of poor survival (P = 0.048; hazard ratio 2.5). ESR1 and GSTP1 hypermethylation were associated with high mitotic count (P = 0.037 and P = 0.002, respectively) and high grade (both P = 0.001). No correlation with survival was seen for individual genes. Compared with female breast cancers (logistic regression), promoter hypermethylation was less common in a variety of genes, particularly ESR1 (P = 0.005), BRCA1 (P = 0.010) and BRCA2 (P < 0.001). The most frequently hypermethylated genes (MSH6, CDH13, PAX5, PAX6 and WT1) were similar for male and female breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Promoter hypermethylation is common in male breast cancer and high methylation status correlates with aggressive phenotype and poor survival. ESR1 and GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation seem to be involved in development and/or progression of high-grade male breast cancer. Although female and male breast cancer share a set of commonly methylated genes, many of the studied genes are less frequently methylated in male breast cancer, pointing towards possible differences between male and female breast carcinogenesis.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the methylation state of 31 genes in sputum as biomarkers in an expanded nested, case-control study from the Colorado cohort, and to assess the replication of results from the most promising genes in an independent case-control study of asymptomatic patients with stage I lung cancer from New Mexico.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cases and controls from Colorado and New Mexico were interrogated for methylation of up to 31 genes using nested, methylation-specific PCR. Individual genes and methylation indices were used to assess the association between methylation and lung cancer with logistic regression modeling.
RESULTS: Seventeen genes with ORs of 1.4 to 3.6 were identified and selected for replication in the New Mexico study. Overall, the direction of effects seen in New Mexico was similar to Colorado with the largest increase in case discrimination (ORs, 3.2-4.2) seen for the PAX5α, GATA5, and SULF2 genes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves generated from seven-gene panels from Colorado and New Mexico studies showed prediction accuracy of 71% and 77%, respectively. A 22-fold increase in lung cancer risk was seen for a subset of New Mexico cases with five or more genes methylated. Sequence variants associated with lung cancer did not improve the accuracy of this gene methylation panel.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies have identified and replicated a panel of methylated genes whose integration with other promising biomarkers could initially identify the highest risk smokers for computed tomographic screening for early detection of lung cancer.
Wang H, Liu Z, Li J, et al.ΔNp63α mediates proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells by the regulation of GATA-6.
Neoplasma. 2012; 59(4):416-23 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The oncogenic isoform of the p63 protein, ΔNp63α, has been found to be overexpressed in numerous human squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of ΔNp63α in human gastric cancer remains unknown. To evaluate this role, we screened a panel of gastric cancer cell lines for ΔNp63α expression and found that they are correlated with the differentiation status of the cell lines. Using the MKN28 gastric cancer cell line for loss-of-function or gain-of-function of ΔNp63α in our experiments, we observed that forced expression of ΔNp63α promoted cell proliferation as assessed by the MTT and colony formation assays, and increased the GATA-6 expression. In contrast, down-regulation of ΔNp63α via small interfering RNA suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced the expression of GATA-6. In conclusion, our data suggest that ΔNp63α plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation of gastric cancer cells, which may be associated with the regulation of GATA-6 expression. This is the first study exploring the biological functions and the underlying mechanism of ΔNp63α during gastric cancer development. It also identifies potential targets for anti-tumor treatment.
Livide G, Epistolato MC, Amenduni M, et al.Epigenetic and copy number variation analysis in retinoblastoma by MS-MLPA.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2012; 18(3):703-12 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Two step inactivation of RB1 (M1-M2) represents the key event in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma but additional genetic and epigenetic events (M3-Mn) are required for tumor development. In the present study, we employed Methylation Specific Multiplex Ligation Probe Assay to investigate methylation status and copy number changes of 25 and 39 oncosuppressor genes, respectively. This technique was applied to analyse 12 retinoblastomas (5 bilateral and 7 unilateral) and results were compared to corresponding normal retina. We identified hypermethylation in seven new genes: MSH6 (50%), CD44 (42%), PAX5 (42%), GATA5 (25%), TP53 (8%), VHL (8%) and GSTP1 (8%) and we confirmed the previously reported hypermethylation of MGMT (58%), RB1 (17%) and CDKN2 (8%). These genes belong to key pathways including DNA repair, pRB and p53 signalling, transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, cell-cell interaction, cellular adhesion and migration. In the same group of retinoblastomas, a total of 29 copy number changes (19 duplications and 10 deletions) have been identified. Interestingly, we found deletions of the following oncosuppressor genes that might contribute to drive retinoblastoma tumorigenesis: TP53, CDH13, GATA5, CHFR, TP73 and IGSF4. The present data highlight the importance of epigenetic changes in retinoblastoma and indicate seven hypermethylated oncosuppressors never associated before to retinoblastoma pathogenesis. This study also confirms the presence of copy number variations in retinoblastoma, expecially in unilateral cases (mean 3 ± 1.3) where these changes were found more frequently respect to bilateral cases (mean 1.4 ± 1.1).
Pesek M, Kopeckova M, Benesova L, et al.Clinical significance of hypermethylation status in NSCLC: evaluation of a 30-gene panel in patients with advanced disease.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(12):4647-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is one of major factors in cancer progression. We observed multiple genes involved in cancer-related signaling and focused on patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluated methylation in relation to various clinical parameters.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty genes were examined in 121 NSCLC patients using the methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) method. Correlations to gender, smoking status, tumor subtype, disease stage and EGFR/KRAS mutation status were performed by chi-square test.
RESULTS: 90% of tumors exhibited methylation of at least one gene. Most frequently methylated were cadherin-13 (CDH13), Ras associated domain-containing protein (RASSF1A), Wilms' tumor protein (WT1), adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC), paired box protein Pax-5 (PAX5), estrogen receptor (ESR1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase p15 (CDKN2B), paired box protein Pax-6 (PAX6), transcription factor GATA-5 (GATA5) and cell adhesion molecule 4 (IGSF4). Overall methylation (any gene) was increased in adenocarcinomas (p=0.0329), unrelated to gender or disease stage. Several genes exhibited variable methylation with gender (CDH13, p<0.001; GATA5, p=0.02; PAX6, p=0.01 and ESR1, p=0.03), smoking (CDH13, p=0.002), or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status [Von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor supresor (VHL), p=0.001; CDKN2B, p=0.02; CDH13, p=0.02; APC, p=0.04 and ESR1, p=0.04].
CONCLUSION: Differences in gene methylation associated with gender, smoking and EGFR mutation suggest potential for prediction in relation to management of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
Montavon C, Gloss BS, Warton K, et al.Prognostic and diagnostic significance of DNA methylation patterns in high grade serous ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 124(3):582-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Altered DNA methylation patterns hold promise as cancer biomarkers. In this study we selected a panel of genes which are commonly methylated in a variety of cancers to evaluate their potential application as biomarkers for prognosis and diagnosis in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC); the most common and lethal subtype of ovarian cancer.
METHODS: The methylation patterns of 10 genes (BRCA1, EN1, DLEC1, HOXA9, RASSF1A, GATA4, GATA5, HSULF1, CDH1, SFN) were examined and compared in a cohort of 80 primary HGSOC and 12 benign ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) samples using methylation-specific headloop suppression PCR.
RESULTS: The genes were variably methylated in primary HGSOC, with HOXA9 methylation observed in 95% of cases. Most genes were rarely methylated in benign OSE, with the exception of SFN which was methylated in all HGSOC and benign OSE samples examined. Methylation of DLEC1 was associated with disease recurrence, independent of tumor stage and suboptimal surgical debulking (HR 3.5 (95% CI:1.10-11.07), p=0.033). A combination of the methylation status of HOXA9 and EN1 could discriminate HGSOC from benign OSE with a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 91.7%, which increased to 100% sensitivity with no loss of specificity when pre-operative CA125 levels were also incorporated.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence to support the feasibility of detecting altered DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic and prognostic approach for HGSOC.
Worldwide oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for more than 100,000 deaths each year. Chronic inflammation constitutes one of the key risk factors for OSCC. Accumulating evidence suggests that aberrant DNA methylation may contribute to OSCC tumorigenesis. This study investigated whether chronic inflammation alters DNA methylation and expression of cancer-associated genes in OSCC. We established an in vitro model of interleukin (IL)-6 mediating chronic inflammation in OSCC cell lines. Thereafter, we measured the ability of IL-6 to induce global hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) sequences, as well as CpG methylation changes using multiple methodologies including quantitative pyrosequencing, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and sensitive melting analysis after real-time-methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gene expression was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. IL-6 induced significant global LINE-1 hypomethylation (p=0.016) in our in vitro model of inflammatory stress in OSCC cell lines. Simultaneously, IL-6 induced CpG promoter methylation changes in several important putative tumor suppressor genes including CHFR, GATA5 and PAX6. Methylation changes correlated inversely with the changes in the expression of corresponding genes. Our results indicate that IL-6-induced inflammation promotes tumorigenesis in the oral cavity by altering global LINE-1 hypomethylation. In addition, concurrent hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes by IL-6 suggests that epigenetic gene silencing may be an important consequence of chronic inflammation in the oral cavity. These findings have clinical relevance, as both methylation and inflammation are suitable targets for developing novel preventive and therapeutic measures.
Agundez M, Grau L, Palou J, et al.Evaluation of the methylation status of tumour suppressor genes for predicting bacillus Calmette-Guérin response in patients with T1G3 high-risk bladder tumours.
Eur Urol. 2011; 60(1):131-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a standard treatment for reducing tumour recurrence and delaying progression of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder tumours. However, it is not clear yet which patients are more likely to respond to BCG.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of the methylation of 25 tumour suppressor genes (TSG) as clinical outcome predictive biomarkers in T1G3 bladder tumours treated with BCG.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective design included 91 paraffin-embedded tumours of patients with T1G3 primary non-muscle-invasive disease undergoing nonmaintenance BCG treatment.
MEASUREMENTS: The methylation status of 25 TSGs was measured using a methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay. Recurrence, progression into muscle-invasive tumours, and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were analysed using univariate and multivariate tests.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The genes most frequently methylated included STK11 (94.5%), MSH6 (81.3%), BRCA1 (72.5%), PAX5A (68.1%), MGMT (67.0%), CDH13 (62.6%), and IGSF4 (61.5%). Methylation was newly identified in T1G3 tumours for TP73, MSH6, ESR1, PAX5A, WT1, CD44, ATM, IGSF4, CHFR, BRCA2, THBS1, PYCARD, STK11, and GATA5. Methylation for several TSGs was significantly associated with multifocality and tumour size. Patients with different methylation statuses of TSGs showed differential recurrence rates (PAX6: p = 0.025), progression rates (MSH6: p = 0.040; RB1: p = 0.042; THBS1: p = 0.041; PYCARD: p = 0.048; TP73: p = 0.048; ESR1: p = 0.036; and GATA5: p = 0.019), and DSS rates (GATA5: p = 0.037). Several combinations improved prediction for progression. Multivariate analyses indicated that among the combinations remaining as independent predictors, two genes-MSH6 and THBS1-already provided the most significant predictive assessment for progression (p = 0.004). The major limitation of this study is related to its retrospective design.
CONCLUSIONS: The methylation status of TSGs was associated with the clinical outcome of patients with T1G3 tumours undergoing BCG treatment under three clinical end points: recurrence, progression, and DSS. The methylation status of TSGs distinguished patients responding to BCG from those who may require a more aggressive therapeutic intervention.
Dhir M, Yachida S, Van Neste L, et al.Sessile serrated adenomas and classical adenomas: an epigenetic perspective on premalignant neoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(8):1889-98 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The diagnosis of sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) is challenging, and there is a great deal of interobserver variability amongst pathologists in differentiating SSAs from hyperplastic polyps (HPPs). The aim of this study was (i) to assess the utility of epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation in differentiating SSAs from HPPs and (ii) to identify common methylation based molecular markers potentially useful for early detection of premalignant neoplastic lesions of gastrointestinal tract. A total of 97 primary patient adenoma samples were obtained from The Johns Hopkins Hospital pathology archive with IRB approval and HIPAA compliance. We analyzed the promoter associated CpG island methylation status of 17 genes using nested multiplex methylation specific PCR (MSP). Methylation of CDX2, hMLH1 and TLR2 was detected in SSAs and SSAs with dysplasia but not in HPPs. A subset of genes including EVL, GATAs (4 and 5), HIN-1, SFRPs (1, 2, 4 and 5), SOX17 and SYNE1 were methylated frequently in all premalignant gastrointestinal adenomas including tubular adenomas, villous adenomas, SSAs and SSAs with dysplasia but infrequently in non-premalignant polyps such as HPPs. Methylation of CDX2, hMLH1 and TLR2 may be of diagnostic utility in differentiating, histologically challenging cases of SSAs from HPPs. Genes such as EVL, GATAs, HIN-1, SFRPs, SOX17 and SYNE1, which are frequently methylated in all types of tested premalignant adenomas, may be useful as biomarkers in stool-based strategies for early detection of these adenomas and CRCs in future.
Jonckheere N, Velghe A, Ducourouble MP, et al.The mouse Muc5b mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and GATA-6 transcription factors.
FEBS J. 2011; 278(2):282-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MUC5B is one of the major mucin genes expressed in the respiratory tract. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that MUC5B is expressed in human lung adenocarcinomas and during lung morphogenesis. Moreover, in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, a converse correlation between MUC5B and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression, a lung-specific transcription factor, has been established. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the regulation of MUC5B expression in the lung are largely unknown. In order to better understand the biological role of MUC5B in lung pathophysiology, we report the characterization of the promoter region of the mouse Muc5b mucin gene. The promoter is flanked by a TATA box (TACATAA) identical to that in the human gene. Human and murine promoters share 67.5% similarity over the first 170 nucleotides. By RT-PCR, co-transfection studies and gel-shift assays, we show that Muc5b promoter activity is completely inhibited by TTF-1, whereas factors of the GATA family (GATA-4/GATA-5/GATA-6) are activators. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that Muc5b is a target gene of transcription factors (TTF-1, GATA-6) involved in lung differentiation programs during development and carcinogenesis, and identify TTF-1 as a strong repressor of Muc5b. The characterization of the structural and functional features of the Muc5b mucin gene will provide us with a strong base to develop studies in murine models aimed at the identification of its biological role in lung pathophysiology.
Zerilli F, Bonanno C, Shehi E, et al.Methylation-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detecting hypermethylated DNA in simplex and multiplex formats.
Clin Chem. 2010; 56(8):1287-96 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation of gene promoters and the associated silencing of tumor suppressor genes are recognized as mechanisms contributing to tumor development. Therefore, detection of promoter hypermethylation is becoming important for diagnosis, prognosis, and aiding the design of cancer therapies. We describe a novel isothermal method for the detection of DNA hypermethylation.
METHODS: Methylation-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MS-LAMP) is a novel adaptation of LAMP. MS-LAMP was used for the highly specific detection of hypermethylated CpGs in the promoters of the CDKN2A [cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4)], GATA5 (GATA binding protein 5), and DAPK1 (death-associated protein kinase 1) genes. The reactions occurred under isothermal conditions with 3 primer sets specific for methylated promoters. Both turbidimetry and fluorescence were used for detection. The MS-LAMP assay was validated with bisulfite-treated plasmid and genomic DNA controls of known methylation status and was applied to detect hypermethylation in 18 clinical tumor samples. A multiplex MS-LAMP for CDKN2A, GATA5, and DAPK1 was also validated with the aid of synthetic positive and negative controls.
RESULTS: The MS-LAMP assay showed high specificity with plasmid and genomic DNA targets in reactions carried out in <1 h. The assay had a detection limit of approximately 30 copies of methylated target sequence and a selectivity of 0.5% methylated DNA in a mixture with unmethylated DNA. Compared with methylation-specific PCR, the MS-LAMP assay detected lower rates of methylation in lung adenocarcinoma samples. Simultaneous multiplex detection of hypermethylation in the 3 targets (CDKN2A, GATA5, and DAPK1) was readily achieved with the MS-LAMP assay in both the turbidimetric and fluorescence detection formats.
CONCLUSIONS: MS-LAMP provides a highly specific isothermal method for methylation detection and is well suited for multiplex approaches.
AIM: To understand the implication of GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation in gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Methylation status of GATA-4 and GATA-5 CpG islands in human gastric mucosa samples, including normal gastric biopsies from 45 outpatients, gastric dysplasia [low-grade gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), n = 30; indefinite, n = 77], and 80 paired sporadic gastric carcinomas (SGC) as well as the adjacent non-neoplastic gastric tissues was analyzed by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and confirmed by denatured high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect protein expression. The correlation between GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation and clinicopathological characteristics of patients including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was analyzed.
RESULTS: GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation was frequently observed in SGCs (53.8% and 61.3%, respectively) and their corresponding normal tissues (41.3% and 46.3%) by MSP. The result of MSP was consistent with that of DHPLC. Loss of both GATA-4 and GATA-5 proteins was associated with their methylation in SGCs (P = 0.01). Moreover, a high frequency of GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation was found in both gastric low-grade GIN (57.1% and 69.0%) and indefinite for dysplasia (42.9% and 46.7%), respectively. However, GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation was detected only in 4/32 (12.5%) and 3/39 (7.7%) of normal gastric biopsies. GATA-4 methylation in both normal gastric mucosa and low-grade GIN was also significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P = 0.023 and 0.027, two-sides).
CONCLUSION: Epigenetic inactivation of GATA-4 (and GATA-5) by methylation of CpG islands is an early frequent event during gastric carcinogenesis and is significantly correlated with H. pylori infection.
Worthley DL, Whitehall VL, Buttenshaw RL, et al.DNA methylation within the normal colorectal mucosa is associated with pathway-specific predisposition to cancer.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(11):1653-62 [PubMed
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There are two major molecular pathways to sporadic colorectal cancer, the chromosomal instability (CIN) and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) pathways. This study recruited 166 patients undergoing colonoscopy. Biopsy samples were collected from the cecum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. DNA methylation was quantified at 'type A' (ESR1, GATA5, HIC1, HPP1, SFRP1) and 'type C' markers (MGMT, MLH1, CDKN2A, MINT2, MINT31, IGF2, CACNA1G, NEUROG1, SOCS1, RUNX3), and LINE-1. 'Type A' genes are frequently methylated in normal and neoplastic tissues, proportional to tissue age. 'Type C' methylation is more specific for neoplasia. The last five 'type C' markers comprise a CIMP panel. The mean 'type A' and CIMP-panel methylation Z-scores were calculated. In all, 88 patients had adenomatous lesions, 32 had proximal serrated polyps (PSPs) and 50 were normal. Most 'type A' genes showed direct correlations between methylation and age (ESR1, rho=0.66, P<0.0001), with higher methylation distally (ESR1, P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, 'type A' methylation was inversely associated with colorectal adenomas (odds ratio=0.23, P<0.001), the precursor to CIN cancers. CIMP-panel methylation was significantly associated with advanced PSPs (odds ratio=5.1, P=0.009), the precursor to CIMP cancers. DNA methylation in normal mucosa varied with age and region and was associated with pathway-specific pathology. In the future, the colorectal field could yield important information and potentially inform clinical practice.
Hellebrekers DM, Lentjes MH, van den Bosch SM, et al.GATA4 and GATA5 are potential tumor suppressors and biomarkers in colorectal cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15(12):3990-7 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The transcription factors GATA4 and GATA5 are involved in gastrointestinal development and are inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in colorectal cancer. Here, we evaluated GATA4/5 promoter methylation as potential biomarkers for noninvasive colorectal cancer detection, and investigated the role of GATA4/5 in colorectal cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Promoter methylation of GATA4/5 was analyzed in colorectal tissue and fecal DNA from colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls using methylation-specific PCR. The potential function of GATA4/5 as tumor suppressors was studied by inducing GATA4/5 overexpression in human colorectal cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: GATA4/5 methylation was observed in 70% (63/90) and 79% (61/77) of colorectal carcinomas, respectively, and was independent of clinicopathologic features. Methylation frequencies in normal colon tissues from noncancerous controls were 6% (5 of 88, GATA4; P < 0.001) and 13% (13 of 100, GATA5; P < 0.001). GATA4/5 overexpression suppressed colony formation (P < 0.005), proliferation (P < 0.001), migration (P < 0.05), invasion (P < 0.05), and anchorage-independent growth (P < 0.0001) of colorectal cancer cells. Examination of GATA4 methylation in fecal DNA from two independent series of colorectal cancer patients and controls yielded a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 55-88%] and specificity of 84% (95% CI, 74-95%) for colorectal cancer detection in the training set, and a sensitivity of 51% (95% CI, 37-65%) and specificity of 93% (95% CI, 84-100%) in the validation set.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation of GATA4/5 is a common and specific event in colorectal carcinomas, and GATA4/5 exhibit tumor suppressive effects in colorectal cancer cells in vitro. GATA4 methylation in fecal DNA may be of interest for colorectal cancer detection.
De Jong WK, Verpooten GF, Kramer H, et al.Promoter methylation primarily occurs in tumor cells of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(1):363-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The distribution of promoter methylation throughout the lungs of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. In this explorative study, we assessed the methylation status of the promoter region of 11 genes in brush samples of 3 well-defined endobronchial locations in patients with NSCLC and in brushes of former and current smokers without NSCLC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methylation status of RASSF1A, GATA4, GATA5, SFRP1, RARbeta2, DAPK, MGMT, p16, p14, CHFR and APC2 was determined in all samples using real-time methylation-specific PCR.
RESULTS: Ten patients with NSCLC and 18 non-NSCLC controls were included. Eight patients had one or more methylated genes in their tumor brush. Promoter methylation of genes in proximal or contralateral locations was much less frequent than in tumor brushes, and almost exclusively occurred in normal tissue if the same gene was also methylated in the tumor brush.
CONCLUSION: Promoter methylation almost exclusively occurred in tumor cells of patients with NSCLC.
Bonanno C, Shehi E, Adlerstein D, Makrigiorgos GMMS-FLAG, a novel real-time signal generation method for methylation-specific PCR.
Clin Chem. 2007; 53(12):2119-27 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Aberrant promoter methylation is a major mechanism for silencing tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Detection of hypermethylation is used as a molecular marker for early cancer diagnosis, as a prognostic index, or to define therapeutic targets for reversion of aberrant methylation. We report on a novel signal generation technology for real-time PCR to detect gene promoter methylation.
METHODS: FLAG (fluorescent amplicon generation) is a homogeneous signal generation technology based on the exceptionally thermostable endonuclease PspGI. FLAG provides real-time signal generation during PCR by PspGI-mediated cleavage of quenched fluorophores at the 5' end of double-stranded PCR products. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) applied on bisulfite-treated DNA was adapted to a real-time format (methylation-specific FLAG; MS-FLAG) for quantifying methylation in the promoter of CDKN2A (p16), GATA5, and RASSF1. We validated MS-FLAG on plasmids and genomic DNA with known methylation status and applied it to detection of methylation in a limited number of clinical samples. We also conducted bisulfite sequencing on these samples.
RESULTS: Real-time PCR results obtained via MS-FLAG agreed with results obtained via conventional, gel-based MSP. The new technology showed high specificity, sensitivity (2-3 plasmid copies), and selectivity (0.01% of methylated DNA) on control samples. It enabled correct prediction of the methylation status of all 3 gene promoters in 21 lung adenocarcinoma samples, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. We also developed a multiplex MS-FLAG assay for GATA5 and RASSF1 promoters.
CONCLUSION: MS-FLAG provides a new, quantitative, high-throughput method for detecting gene promoter methylation and is a convenient alternative to agarose gel-based MSP for screening methylation. In addition to methylation, FLAG-based real-time signal generation may have broad applications in DNA diagnostics.
Fu B, Guo M, Wang S, et al.Evaluation of GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation profiles in human pancreatic cancers indicate promoter methylation patterns distinct from other human tumor types.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2007; 6(10):1546-52 [PubMed
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The GATA-4 and GATA-5 transcription factors are increasingly recognized as playing a role in carcinogenesis of human tumors derived of endodermal and mesodermal origin. The pancreas is derived from endodermal tissues suggesting GATA-4 and GATA-5 gene methylation may play a critical role in the biology of human pancreatic cancer as well. We investigated GATA-4 and -5 by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in normal and neoplastic pancreatic tissues, including isogenic xenografts or cultured cell lines derived from the coexistent primary cancer and/or metastases in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. The relationship of promoter methylation was correlated with mRNA expression for each gene, and methylation patterns were correlated with known clinicopathologic features of patients. GATA-4 demonstrated a significantly lower methylation frequency than GATA-5 in low passage pancreatic cancer xenografts or cell lines (1/34 versus 21/34, p < 0.001). GATA-4 and -5 were also evaluated in microdissected samples of normal duct epithelium and cancer from pancreas cancer tissues which confirmed infrequent GATA-4 methylation in pancreatic cancers as well as in normal duct epithelium. GATA-4 was frequently overexpressed at the mRNA level with 27 of 30 (90%) pancreatic cancers showing >5.0-fold overexpression compared to normal duct epithelial cells. By contrast, high frequency methylation of GATA-5 was confirmed in pancreatic cancers tissues, but was rarely methylated in normal duct epithelium, indicating hypermethylation of this gene during pancreatic cancer development. GATA-5 mRNA expression did not correlate with its promoter hypermethylation, and treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine only partially restored mRNA expression suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms of GATA-5 expression. The presence of GATA-5 methylation showed a trend towards worse long-term survival (14.0 +/- 9.2 months versus 19.5 +/- 3.9 months, p = 0.06). While hypermethylation of GATA-5 seems to be a universal feature among human tumors, infrequent methylation of GATA-4, and its corresponding overexpression, appears unique to pancreatic cancer from other tumor types reported thus far.
Lyon CM, Klinge DM, Liechty KC, et al.Radiation-induced lung adenocarcinoma is associated with increased frequency of genes inactivated by promoter hypermethylation.
Radiat Res. 2007; 168(4):409-14 [PubMed
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Epigenetic inactivation of genes by promoter hypermethylation, a major mechanism in the initiation and progression of tobacco-induced cancer, has also been associated with lung cancer induced through environmental and occupational exposures. Our previous study of gene methylation in workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise identified a significantly higher prevalence for methylation of the p16 gene (CDKN2A) in adenocarcinomas from workers compared to tumors from non-worker controls. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether genes in addition to p16 are "targeted" for silencing and whether overall gene methylation was more common in radiation-induced adenocarcinoma. A significant increase in the prevalence of methylation of GATA5 was seen in tumors from workers compared to tumors from controls. The prevalence for methylation of PAX5 beta and H-cadherin did not differ in tumors from workers and controls. Evaluating the frequency for methylation of a five-gene panel revealed that 93% of adenocarcinomas from workers compared to 66% of tumors from controls were methylated for at least one gene. Moreover, a twofold increase was seen in the number of tumors methylated for three or more genes for tumors from workers compared to controls. Increased frequency for inactivation of genes by promoter hypermethylation and targeting of tumor suppressor genes such as GATA5 may be factors that contribute to the increased risk for lung cancer associated with radiation exposure.
The use of 5-methylcytosine demethylating agents in conjunction with inhibitors of histone deacetylation may offer a new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. Monitoring the efficacy of gene demethylating treatment directly within the tumour may be difficult due to tumour location. This study determined the positive and negative predictive values of sputum and serum for detecting gene methylation in primary lung cancer. A panel of eight genes was evaluated by comparing methylation detected in the primary tumour biopsy to serum and sputum obtained from 72 patients with Stage III lung cancer. The prevalence for methylation of the eight genes in sputum (21-43%) approximated to that seen in tumours, but was 0.7-4.3-fold greater than detected in serum. Sputum was superior to serum in classifying the methylation status of genes in the tumour biopsy. The positive predictive value of the top four genes (p16, DAPK, PAX5 beta, and GATA5) was 44-72% with a negative predictive value for these genes > or =70%. The highest specificity was seen for the p16 gene, and this was associated with a odds ratio of six for methylation in the tumour when this gene was methylated in sputum. In contrast, for serum, the individual sensitivity for all genes was 6-27%. Evaluating the combined effect of methylation of at least one of the four most significant genes in sputum increased the positive predictive value to 86%. These studies demonstrate that sputum can be used effectively as a surrogate for tumour tissue to predict the methylation status of advanced lung cancer where biopsy is not feasible.
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have demonstrated that members of the GATA-binding protein (GATA) family (GATA4 and GATA5) might have pivotal roles in the transcriptional upregulation of mucin genes (MUC2, MUC3 and MUC4) in gastrointestinal epithelium. The zinc-finger GATA3 transcription factor has been reported to be involved in the growth control and differentiation of breast epithelial cells. In SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) studies we observed an intriguing significant correlation between GATA3 and MUC1 mRNA expression in breast carcinomas. We therefore designed the present study to elucidate whether MUC1 expression is regulated by GATA3 in breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Promoter sequence analysis of the MUC1 gene identified six GATA cis consensus elements in the 5' flanking region (GATA1, GATA3 and four GATA-like sequences). Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays were employed to study the presence of a functional GATA3-binding site. GATA3 and MUC1 expression was analyzed in vitro with a GATA3 knockdown assay. Furthermore, expression of GATA3 and MUC1 genes was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on breast cancer-specific tissue microarrays.
RESULTS: We confirmed the presence of a functional GATA3-binding site on the MUC1 promoter region in the MCF7 cell line. We determined that GATA3 knockdown assays led to a decrease in MUC1 protein expression in MCF7 and T47D cells. In addition, we detected a statistically significant correlation in expression between GATA3 and MUC1 genes at the mRNA and protein levels both in normal breast epithelium and in breast carcinomas (p = 0.01). GATA3 expression was also highly associated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.0001) and tumor grade (p = 0.004) in breast carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence indicating that GATA3 is probably a mediator for the transcriptional upregulation of MUC1 expression in some breast cancers.
Dunlop EA, Percy MJ, Boland MP, et al.Induction of signalling in non-erythroid cells by pharmacological levels of erythropoietin.
Neurodegener Dis. 2006; 3(1-2):94-100 [PubMed
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Erythropoiesis is maintained by the hormone erythropoietin (Epo) binding to its cognate receptor (EpoR) on erythroid progenitor cells. The Epo-EpoR interaction initiates a signal transduction process that regulates the survival, growth and differentiation of these cells. Originally perceived as highly lineage-restricted, Epo is now recognised to have pleiotropic effects extending beyond the maintenance of red cell mass. Functional interactions between Epo and EpoR have been demonstrated in numerous cells and tissues. EpoR expression on neoplastic cells leads to concern that recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anaemia in cancer patients, may augment tumour growth. Here we demonstrate that EPO, at pharmacological concentrations, can activate three major signalling cascades, viz. the Jak2/STAT5, Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines. EpoR synthesis is normally under the control of GATA-1, but NSCLC cells exhibit decreased GATA-1 levels compared to GATA-2, -3 and -6, suggesting that GATA-1 is not essential for EpoR production. The increased Epo-induced signalling was not associated with a growth advantage for the NSCLC cells.
Guo M, House MG, Akiyama Y, et al.Hypermethylation of the GATA gene family in esophageal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 119(9):2078-83 [PubMed
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The GATA family of transcription factors promotes the normal development of the gastrointestinal tract during embryogenesis and determines tissue differentiation in adult gut epithelium. Loss of GATA-4 and GATA-5 has been reported in human gastric and colon cancer. We examined GATA-4,-5 and -6 gene expression in established esophageal squamous cancer cell lines and the relationship to DNA methylation in the promoter region of these genes. GATA-4 and GATA-5 expression was absent in most esophageal cancer cell lines, but was restored upon treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. For each of the cell lines without detectable GATA gene expression, aberrant methylation of the promoter region CpG-island was detected by methylation specific PCR. We confirmed these results with genomic bisulfite sequencing. GATA-6 expression was found in each of the cell lines. GATA-4/-5 promoter methylation was not detected in normal esophageal mucosa, but GATA-4 methylation was present in 27 of 44 (61%) squamous carcinomas and 31 of 44 (71%) adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, while GATA-5 methylation was present in 14 of 44 (32%) squamous carcinomas and 24 of 44 (55%) adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Our studies demonstrate frequent silencing of GATA-4 and GATA-5, but not GATA-6, in human esophageal neoplasia associated with gene promoter hypermethylation.
Huggins GS, Wong JY, Hankinson SE, De Vivo IGATA5 activation of the progesterone receptor gene promoter in breast cancer cells is influenced by the +331G/A polymorphism.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(3):1384-90 [PubMed
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Previously, a modest association was observed between the progesterone receptor +331G/A gene variant and breast cancer risk. Here, in a larger sample of breast cancer cases and controls (n = 1,322/n = 1,953) nested in the Nurses' Health Study cohort, we confirm a significant association (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.79) and suggest a molecular model. The association of the +331G/A variant with breast cancer was particularly strong among obese women (body mass index > 30; odds ratio, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-5.90). To help understand the molecular mechanism by which this variant may predispose women to breast cancer, we identified nearby transcription factor binding sites. This search predicted a binding site for the GATA family of transcriptional regulators adjacent to this hPR polymorphism. Importantly, we found GATA3, GATA4, and GATA6 are expressed in normal breast tissue and two breast cancer cell lines, whereas GATA5 is minimally expressed in normal mammary tissue and more strongly expressed in two breast cancer cell lines. This finding was relevant because GATA5 bound the site adjacent to the +331G/A polymorphism, and activated the hPR (-711 to +822)-luciferase reporter plasmid in breast cancer cells. Overexpression of GATA5 increased expression of the endogenous hPR transcript, and GATA5 more strongly activated an hPR promoter construct encoding the PR-B isoform. Finally, hPR promoter constructs including the +331A were more strongly activated by GATA5 than constructs including +331G. Our findings suggest that GATA5 interacts with the +331G/A polymorphism to stimulate hPR-B expression in mammary cells, which may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility.
Wakana K, Akiyama Y, Aso T, Yuasa YInvolvement of GATA-4/-5 transcription factors in ovarian carcinogenesis.
Cancer Lett. 2006; 241(2):281-8 [PubMed
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To clarify the role of GATA transcription factors in ovarian carcinogenesis, we analyzed the expression and methylation states of GATA-4/-5/-6 in eight human ovarian cancer cell lines. GATA-4/-5 were methylated in three and two cell lines without their expression, respectively. Methylation of GATA-4/-5 was also detected in nine and five of 15 primary ovarian cancers, respectively. GATA-6 was not methylated in any cases. We transiently over-expressed GATA-5 in the JHOC-5 cell line using an adenovirus system, resulting in that apoptosis was induced and apoptosis-related genes, such as Apaf-1, were up-regulated. These data suggest that GATA-4/-5 may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis.