Gene Summary

Gene:RACK1; receptor for activated C kinase 1
Aliases: H12.3, HLC-7, PIG21, GNB2L1, Gnb2-rs1
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor of activated protein C kinase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Down-Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Xenograft Models
  • RNA Interference
  • Cell Movement
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Western Blotting
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Disease Progression
  • U937 Cells
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Breast Cancer
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • GNB2L1
  • Transcriptome
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • siRNA
  • Up-Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Young Adult
  • beta Catenin
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • AKT1
  • rho-Associated Kinases
  • VHL
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Chromosome 5
  • Transcription
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • S-Adenosylhomocysteine
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GNB2L1 (cancer-related)

Chen L, Min L, Wang X, et al.
Loss of RACK1 Promotes Metastasis of Gastric Cancer by Inducing a miR-302c/IL8 Signaling Loop.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(18):3832-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer represent the major reason for its poor prognosis. In this study, we found that loss of the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) promoted the metastasis of gastric cancer by enhancing the autocrine expression of IL8 in vitro and in vivo. microRNA (miRNA; miR) array identified that RACK1 modulated the expression of a series of miRNAs, including the miR-302 cluster, and RACK1 modulated the IL8 expression and tumor invasion through miRNA-302c. Moreover, upregulation of IL8 in turn decreased the level of miRNA-302c and induced IL8 expression in a feedback manner. Tissue microarray also indicated that RACK1 was correlated with invasion/metastasis phenotype, IL8 expression, as well as 5-year survival in clinical cases of gastric cancer. Together, our results imply that loss of RACK1 in gastric cancer links epigenetics to inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor metastasis.

Zhou T, Lv X, Guo X, et al.
RACK1 modulates apoptosis induced by sorafenib in HCC cells by interfering with the IRE1/XBP1 axis.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):3006-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sorafenib is one of the preferred drugs for the treatment of advanced primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its side-effects and acquired resistance limit its use. The unfolded protein response (UPR) induced by chemotherapeutics has been demonstrated to be required for tumor cells to maintain malignancy and therapy resistance. Activation of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway during the UPR is important for tumor survival under pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, we found that the UPR was activated and RACK1 was overexpressed in three human HCC cell lines and in HCC samples. Activation of the IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway plays a protective role when HCC cells encounter endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to in vitro sorafenib treatment. We then found that the interaction between IRE1 and RACK1 was essential for the activation of IRE1 signaling in sorafenib-treated cells. Exogenous overexpression of RACK1 enhanced the phosphorylation level of IRE1 and increased XBP1 mRNA splicing activity, which protected the HCC cells from sorafenib-induced apoptosis. However, the re-expression of RACK1 led HCC cells to regain susceptibility to sorafenib-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study suggests that the RACK1/IRE1 complex may contribute to activation of the UPR in HCC cells. Targeting RACK1 in combination with sorafenib administration is a potential strategy for clinical trials of advanced HCC treatment.

Cho IR, Kaowinn S, Moon J, et al.
Oncotropic H-1 parvovirus infection degrades HIF-1α protein in human pancreatic cancer cells independently of VHL and RACK1.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(5):2076-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of HIF-1α, a transcription factor responsive to hypoxia, is frequently observed in malignant tumors, which sometimes show resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Consequently, decrease of HIF-1α through virotherapy offers a logical strategy for the treatment of aggressive tumors. In this study, we found that infection with the oncolytic H-1 parvovirus decreased HIF-1α protein levels in pancreatic cancer cells under CoCl2 or hypoxia. The H-1 virus-induced decrease of HIF-1α was regulated by a proteasome-mediated pathway. Suppression of VHL, an E3 ligase and a critical regulator of HIF-1α, or enforced expression of UCP, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, failed to inhibit the H-1 virus-induced decrease of HIF-1α. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated suppression of RACK1, another regulator of HIF-1α, did not prevent H-1 viral infection from lowering HIF-1α protein levels. Although decrease of HIF-1α was observed after H-1 viral infection, constitutive expression of HIF-1α limited H-1 viral replication. After combined treatment with H-1 parvovirus and YC-1, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells was greater than after treatment with H-1 virus alone or YC-1 alone. Accordingly, we propose that H-1 parvovirus could be used with YC-1 as a potential therapeutic agent against aggressive tumors exhibiting hypoxia and increased levels of HIF-1α.

Wang N, Liu F, Cao F, et al.
RACK1 predicts poor prognosis and regulates progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through its epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(4):528-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RACK1 is known to be involved in tumor progression, and its prognostic value on many kinds of tumors has been identified. However, there are limited studies about the functional role of RACK1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: RACK1 expression was examined in 100 ESCC tissue samples using immunohistochemistry staining. RACK1 was knocked-down in ESCC cell lines by shRNA. The effects on cell proliferation, invasion and migration were examined in ESCC cell lines and nude mouse model. Vimentin and E-cadherin were introduced to further study the association between RACK1 and EMT.
RESULTS: RACK1 expression was significantly associated with the tumor length (P = 0.012), diameter<3 cm (P = 0.047), T stage (P = 0.032), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.038), respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox analyses revealed RACK1 expression was an independent predictor for OS (P = 0.030) and DFS (P = 0.027) in ESCC. Down-regulation of RACK1 inhibited cell proliferation, along with invasion and migration in vitro and in vivo. A significant positive correlation between RACK1 expression and vimentin (P = 0.0190) and an inverse correlation between RACK1 expression and E-cadherin (P = 0.0047) were found.
CONCLUSIONS: RACK1 predicted poor prognosis in ESCC, promoted tumor progression, and was involved in EMT of ESCC.

Choi YY, Lee SY, Lee WK, et al.
RACK1 is a candidate gene associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(6):4451-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage NSCLC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped 1,969 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 1,151 genes involved in carcinogenesis in 166 NSCLC patients who underwent curative surgery, using the Affymetrix custom-made GeneChip. A replication study was performed in an independent cohort of 626 patients.
RESULTS: Fifty six SNPs which were associated with both overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) with log-rank P values < 0.05 in discovery set were selected for validation. Among those, five SNPs (RACK1 rs1279736C>A and rs3756585T>G, C3 rs2287845T>C, PCAF rs17006625A>G, and PCM1 rs17691523C>G) were found to be significantly associated with survival in the same direction as the discovery set. In combined analysis, the rs1279736C>A and rs3756585T>G were most significantly associated with OS and DFS in multivariate analysis (P for OS = 4 × 10⁻⁵ and 7 × 10⁻⁵, respectively; and P for DFS = 0.003, both; under codominant model). In vitro promoter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the rs3756585 T-to-G change increased promoter activity and transcription factor binding of RACK1.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified five SNPs, especially RACK1 rs3756585T>G, as markers for prognosis of patients with surgically resected NSCLC.

Yu S, Xu Z, Zou C, et al.
Ion channel TRPM8 promotes hypoxic growth of prostate cancer cells via an O2 -independent and RACK1-mediated mechanism of HIF-1α stabilization.
J Pathol. 2014; 234(4):514-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The growth adaptation of cancer cells to a hypoxic tumour microenvironment is mostly regulated by hypoxia-induced transcription factor HIF-1. HIF-1 transcriptional activity is strictly controlled by protein levels of the HIF-1α subunit, which is tightly regulated by a well-characterized O2 -dependent ubiquitin ligase-proteasomal degradation pathway. The cold-sensitive Ca(2+) channel protein TRPM8 exhibits increased expression in advanced prostate cancer. However, its exact functional roles in prostate cancer growth regulation are unclear and controversial. In this work, we show that TRPM8 promotes in vitro hypoxic growth capacities, drug resistance, and in vivo tumourigenicity, accompanied with enhanced HIF-1α protein levels. These effects are further potentiated by TRPM8 agonists but suppressed by TRPM8 gene knockdown and blocking with antagonists or TRPM8 antibody. TRPM8-induced suppression of HIF-1α ubiquitination and enhanced HIF-1 transactivation were attenuated by forced RACK1 expression and TRPM8 overexpression reduced phospho-RACK1 levels, thus affecting its dimerization status, and promoted RACK1 binding to HIF-1α and calcineurin. These data indicate that TRPM8-induced increase of HIF-1α protein in hypoxia- or normoxia-exposed prostate cancer cells was mediated through a newly characterized Ca(2+) -dependent but O2 -independent mechanism involving binding of RACK1 to HIF-1α and RACK1-mediated ubiquitination of HIF-1α. Collectively, our study not only provides a mechanistic insight into how TRPM8 promotes the hypoxic growth adaptation of cancer cells via its promotion of RACK1-mediated stabilization of HIF-1α but also suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer by targeting TRPM8.

Zhou Z, Liu F, Zhang ZS, et al.
Human rhomboid family-1 suppresses oxygen-independent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(10):2719-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intermittent oxygen deficiency in cancers promotes prolonged inflammation, continuous angiogenesis, and increased drug resistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) has a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular responses to oxygen deficiency. The α-subunit of HIF1 (HIF1α) is degraded in normoxia but stabilized in hypoxia. However, the molecular mechanism that controls oxygen-independent degradation of HIF1α has remained elusive. Human rhomboid family-1 (RHBDF1) is a member of a large family of nonprotease rhomboids whose function is basically unknown. We report here that RHBDF1 expression in breast cancer is highly elevated and is strongly correlated with escalated disease progression, metastasis, poor prognosis, and poor response to chemotherapy. We show that RHBDF1 interaction with the receptor of activated protein-C kinase-1 (RACK1) in breast cancer cells prevents RACK1-assisted, oxygen-independent HIF1α degradation. In addition, we show that the HIF1α-stabilizing activity of RHBDF1 diminishes when the phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue on the RHBDF1 molecule is inhibited. These findings are consistent with the view that RHBDF1 is a critical component of a molecular switch that regulates HIF1α stability in cancer cells in hypoxia and that RHBDF1 is of potential value as a new target for cancer treatment.

Jin S, Mu Y, Wang X, et al.
Overexpressed RACK1 is positively correlated with malignant degree of human colorectal carcinoma.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(5):3393-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
RACK1 is a crucial scaffold and anchoring protein, which plays a vital role in multiple signaling pathways of tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to identify the correlation between expressions of RACK1 and malignant degrees in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. All together 157 CRC patients were enrolled, and their clinical data were analyzed. Expressions of RACK1 in CRC and pericarcinous tissues in these patients were determined by RT-PCR, Western-blot, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The correlation between RACK1 expressions and histological grades, as well as lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Results showed that the expressions of RACK1 were positively correlated with differentiation level and lymph node metastasis in CRC patients.

Li Q, Mao L, Wang R, et al.
Overexpression of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines: effects on apoptosis, migration and adhesion of cells.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(4):2409-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is the sole enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in methylation reaction. Previous studies have shown that its inhibition or deficiency leads to several human disorders such as severe coagulopathy, hepatopathy and myopathy. However, the effects of SAHH on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells have not been explored so far. To determine whether SAHH is involved in carcinogenesis of the esophagus, we investigated the expression of SAHH in ESCC and normal esophageal epithelial cells and found that SAHH was downregulated in ESCC cells compared with normal esophageal epithelial cells (P < 0.05). The overexpressed SAHH in ESCC cells promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited cell migration and adhesion, but did not affect the cell proliferation and cell cycle. Furthermore, an interaction of SAHH with receptor of activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) protein was detected by coimmunoprecipitation and an increased RACK1, which is caused by overexpression of SAHH, was verified by Western blotting. The findings mentioned above demonstrate that SAHH can promote apoptosis, inhibit migration and adhesion of ESCC cells suggesting that it may be involved in carcinogenesis of the esophagus.

Peng R, Jiang B, Ma J, et al.
Forced downregulation of RACK1 inhibits glioma development by suppressing Src/Akt signaling activity.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2195-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most common primary brain malignant tumor. Receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) is widely expressed in the central nervous system, and regulates multiple cellular processes including cell survival, proliferation, migration and metastasis. However, the role of RACK1 in glioma has never been revealed. The present study, for the first time, showed that RACK1 expression was significantly higher in glioma tissues and cell lines when compared with that in normal brain tissues, and was positively associated with the malignancy of glioma. siRNA-induced RACK1 downregulation significantly suppressed the proliferation and invasion of human glioma U87 and CHG-5 cells, while it promoted their apoptosis by upregulating Bax expression and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, forced downregulation of RACK1 notably inhibited tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. These findings suggest that RACK1 plays a critical role in the development and progression of glioma in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, siRNA-induced RACK1 downregulation markedly reduced the activity of Src/Akt signaling pathway, which plays an important role in the growth and behavior of human malignancies, indicating that siRNA-mediated RACK1 downregulation inhibited glioma probably via suppressing Src/Akt signaling activity. The present study highlighted the role of RACK1 in glioma, and demonstrated that RACK1 is a novel promising therapeutic target for glioma treatment.

Hu F, Tao Z, Wang M, et al.
RACK1 promoted the growth and migration of the cancer cells in the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(6):3893-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of hedgehog signaling has been involved in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by the mechanisms that are not fully understood. The receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) is involved in the progression of multiple cancers. However, its expression and function in ESCC have not been investigated. Here, we found that the expression of RACK1 was upregulated in ESCC clinical samples. Moreover, over-expression of RACK1 in ESCC cells promoted cell proliferation and migration, while downregulation of RACK1 impaired the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, RACK1 promoted the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells by activating hedgehog signaling. Taken together, our study suggested RACK1 might be an important therapeutic target in ESCC.

Tamm-Rosenstein K, Simm J, Suhorutshenko M, et al.
Changes in the transcriptome of the human endometrial Ishikawa cancer cell line induced by estrogen, progesterone, tamoxifen, and mifepristone (RU486) as detected by RNA-sequencing.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68907 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) are key players in the maturation of the human endometrium. The corresponding steroid hormone modulators, tamoxifen (TAM) and mifepristone (RU486) are widely used in breast cancer therapy and for contraception purposes, respectively.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profiling of the human endometrial Ishikawa cancer cell line treated with E2 and P4 for 3 h and 12 h, and TAM and RU486 for 12 h, was performed using RNA-sequencing. High levels of mRNA were detected for genes, including PSAP, ATP5G2, ATP5H, and GNB2L1 following E2 or P4 treatment. A total of 82 biomarkers for endometrial biology were identified among E2 induced genes, and 93 among P4 responsive genes. Identified biomarkers included: EZH2, MDK, MUC1, SLIT2, and IL6ST, which are genes previously associated with endometrial receptivity. Moreover, 98.8% and 98.6% of E2 and P4 responsive genes in Ishikawa cells, respectively, were also detected in two human mid-secretory endometrial biopsy samples. TAM treatment exhibited both antagonistic and agonistic effects of E2, and also regulated a subset of genes independently. The cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (CCND1) showed significant up-regulation following treatment with TAM. RU486 did not appear to act as a pure antagonist of P4 and a functional analysis of RU486 response identified genes related to adhesion and apoptosis, including down-regulated genes associated with cell-cell contacts and adhesion as CTNND1, JUP, CDH2, IQGAP1, and COL2A1.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in gene expression by the Ishikawa cell line were detected after treatments with E2, P4, TAM, and RU486. These transcriptome data provide valuable insight into potential biomarkers related to endometrial receptivity, and also facilitate an understanding of the molecular changes that take place in the endometrium in the early stages of breast cancer treatment and contraception usage.

Nahar-Gohad P, Sultan H, Esteban Y, et al.
RACK1 identified as the PCBP1-interacting protein with a novel functional role on the regulation of human MOR gene expression.
J Neurochem. 2013; 124(4):466-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Poly C binding protein 1 (PCBP1) is an expressional regulator of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) gene. We hypothesized the existence of a PCBP1 co-regulator modifying human MOR gene expression by protein-protein interaction with PCBP1. A human brain cDNA library was screened using the two-hybrid system with PCBP1 as the bait. Receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) protein, containing seven WD domains, was identified. PCBP1-RACK1 interaction was confirmed via in vivo validation using the two-hybrid system, and by co-immunoprecipitation with anti-PCBP1 antibody and human neuronal NMB cell lysate, endogenously expressing PCBP1 and RACK1. Further co-immunoprecipitation suggested that RACK1-PCBP1 interaction occurred in cytosol alone. Single and serial WD domain deletion analyses demonstrated that WD7 of RACK1 is the key domain interacting with PCBP1. RACK1 over-expression resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of MOR promoter activity using p357 plasmid containing human MOR promoter and luciferase reporter gene. Knock-down analysis showed that RACK1 siRNA decreased the endogenous RACK1 mRNA level in NMB, and elevated MOR mRNA level as indicated by RT-PCR. Likewise, a decrease of RACK1 resulted in an increase of MOR proteins, verified by (3) H-diprenorphine binding assay. Collectively, this study reports a novel role of RACK1, physically interacting with PCBP1 and participating in the regulation of human MOR gene expression in neuronal NMB cells.

Ruan Y, Sun L, Hao Y, et al.
Ribosomal RACK1 promotes chemoresistance and growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(7):2554-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Coordinated translation initiation is coupled with cell cycle progression and cell growth, whereas excessive ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation often lead to tumor transformation and survival. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and aggressive cancers worldwide and generally displays inherently high resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that RACK1, the receptor for activated C-kinase 1, was highly expressed in normal liver and frequently upregulated in HCC. Aberrant expression of RACK1 contributed to in vitro chemoresistance as well as in vivo tumor growth of HCC. These effects depended on ribosome localization of RACK1. Ribosomal RACK1 coupled with PKCβII to promote the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which led to preferential translation of the potent factors involved in growth and survival. Inhibition of PKCβII or depletion of eIF4E abolished RACK1-mediated chemotherapy resistance of HCC in vitro. Our results imply that RACK1 may function as an internal factor involved in the growth and survival of HCC and suggest that targeting RACK1 may be an efficacious strategy for HCC treatment.

Trerotola M, Li J, Alberti S, Languino LR
Trop-2 inhibits prostate cancer cell adhesion to fibronectin through the β1 integrin-RACK1 axis.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(11):3670-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Trop-2 is a transmembrane glycoprotein upregulated in several human carcinomas, including prostate cancer (PrCa). Trop-2 has been suggested to regulate cell-cell adhesion, given its high homology with the other member of the Trop family, Trop-1/EpCAM, and its ability to bind the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-7. However, a role for Trop-2 in cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix has never been postulated. Here, we show for the first time that Trop-2 expression in PrCa cells correlates with their aggressiveness. Using either shRNA-mediated silencing of Trop-2 in cells that endogenously express it, or ectopic expression of Trop-2 in cells that do not express it, we show that Trop-2 inhibits PrCa cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN). In contrast, expression of another transmembrane receptor, α(v) β(5) integrin, does not affect cell adhesion to this ligand. We find that Trop-2 does not modulate either protein or activation levels of the prominent FN receptors, β(1) integrins, but acts through increasing β(1) association with the adaptor molecule RACK1 and redistribution of RACK1 to the cell membrane. As a result of Trop-2 expression, we also observe activation of Src and FAK, known to occur upon β(1) -RACK1 interaction. These enhanced Src and FAK activities are not mediated by changes in either the activity of IGF-IR, which is known to bind RACK1, or IGF-IR's ability to associate with β(1) integrins. In summary, our data demonstrate that the transmembrane receptor Trop-2 is a regulator of PrCa cell adhesion to FN through activation of the β(1) integrin-RACK1-FAK-Src signaling axis.

Li G, Ji XD, Gao H, et al.
EphB3 suppresses non-small-cell lung cancer metastasis via a PP2A/RACK1/Akt signalling complex.
Nat Commun. 2012; 3:667 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eph receptors are implicated in regulating the malignant progression of cancer. Here we find that despite overexpression of EphB3 in human non-small-cell lung cancer, as reported previously, the expression of its cognate ligands, either ephrin-B1 or ephrin-B2, is significantly downregulated, leading to reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of EphB3. Forced activation of EphB3 kinase in EphB3-overexpressing non-small-cell lung cancer cells inhibits cell migratory capability in vitro as well as metastatic seeding in vivo. Furthermore, we identify a novel EphB3-binding protein, the receptor for activated C-kinase 1, which mediates the assembly of a ternary signal complex comprising protein phosphatase 2A, Akt and itself in response to EphB3 activation, leading to reduced Akt phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cell migration. Our study reveals a novel tumour-suppressive signalling pathway associated with kinase-activated EphB3 in non-small-cell lung cancer, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy by activating EphB3 signalling, thus inhibiting tumour metastasis.

Shi S, Deng YZ, Zhao JS, et al.
RACK1 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer tumorigenicity through activating sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(11):7845-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a deadly disease due to lack of effective diagnosis biomarker and therapeutic target. Much effort has been made in defining gene defects in NSCLC, but its full molecular pathogenesis remains unexplored. Here, we found RACK1 (receptor of activated kinase 1) was elevated in most NSCLC, and its expression level correlated with key pathological characteristics including tumor differentiation, stage, and metastasis. In addition, RACK1 activated sonic hedgehog signaling pathway by interacting with and activating Smoothened to mediate Gli1-dependent transcription in NSCLC cells. And silencing RACK1 dramatically inhibited in vivo tumor growth and metastasis by blocking the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. These results suggest that RACK1 represents a new promising diagnosis biomarker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Lu F, Zhang C, Wu WJ, Wu YM
RACK1 downregulation suppresses migration and proliferation of neuroblastoma cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(5):1646-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, whose molecular mechanism on clinically heterogeneous behavior is still unclear. Receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of growth and migration in many types of cells. Two types of human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE (2), were used to explore the role of RACK1 in neuroblastoma cell migration and proliferation. Cell migration and proliferation were detected by a transwell system and colorimetric bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) ELISA, respectively. The expressions of RACK1, N-Myc, phospho-Src(Tyr416), phospho-Src(Tyr527), phospho-Akt, phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-p38 were analyzed by Western blotting. The expression of RACK1 was then repressed by target RNA interference (RNAi) in both types of neuroblastoma cells, and the expression of signaling molecules, migration and proliferation of cells was analyzed. Compared with SK-N-SH, the migration and proliferation of SK-N-BE(2) cells was remarkably higher which was accompanied by higher expression of RACK1 and phospho-Src(Tyr416). RACK1 RNAi repressed cell migration and proliferation, and decreased the expression of phospho-Src(Tyr416) in both cell lines. In summary, RACK1 was expressed in the neuroblastoma cells and positively regulated cell migration and proliferation probably via modulating the activation of Src on Tyr416 residue.

Deng YZ, Yao F, Li JJ, et al.
RACK1 suppresses gastric tumorigenesis by stabilizing the β-catenin destruction complex.
Gastroenterology. 2012; 142(4):812-823.e15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been involved in gastric tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not fully understood. The receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1, GNB2L1) is involved in development of different tumor types, but its expression and function have not been investigated in gastric tumors.
METHODS: We analyzed expression of RACK1 in gastric tumor samples and their matched normal tissues from 116 patients using immunohistochemistry. Effects of knockdown with small interfering RNAs or overexpression of RACK1 in gastric cancer cell lines were evaluated in cell growth and tumor xenograft. RACK1 signaling pathways were investigated in cells and zebrafish embryos using immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, microinjection, and in situ hybridization assays.
RESULTS: Expression of RACK1 was reduced in gastric tumor samples and correlated with depth of tumor infiltration and poor differentiation. Knockdown of RACK1 in gastric cancer cells accelerated their anchorage-independent proliferation in soft agar, whereas overexpression of RACK1 reduced their tumorigenicity in nude mice. RACK1 formed a complex with glycogen synthase kinase Gsk3β and Axin to promote the interaction between Gsk3β and β-catenin and thereby stabilized the β-catenin destruction complex. On stimulation of Wnt3a, RACK1 repressed Wnt signaling by inhibiting recruitment of Axin by Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2). Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between expression of RACK1 and localization of β-catenin to the cytoplasm/nucleus in human gastric tumor samples.
CONCLUSIONS: RACK1 negatively regulates Wnt signaling pathway by stabilizing the β-catenin destruction complex and act as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer cells.

Li J, Guo Y, Feng X, et al.
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1): a regulator for migration and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(4):563-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Receptor of activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) has been identified as an anchoring or adaptor protein in multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways. Our previous study has showed that the expression of RACK1 was paralleled with proliferation and correlated with metastasis and clinical outcome. However, the underlined mechanism has not been uncovered.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first selected a most effective siRNA among three siRNAs (siRNA-1, siRNA-2 and siRNA-3) targeting different regions in the RACK1 mRNA and re-evaluated the anticancer effect of RACK1 silencing on HSC-3 and Cal-27 cell lines by cell growth inhibition. And then, we investigated whether knockdown of RACK1 could inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion in these two cell lines. To further understand the molecular mechanism of RACK1 in these processes, the expressions of EGFR, pEGFR, HER2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by western blot.
RESULTS: We verified that the silence of RACK1 gene in two OSCC cell lines could not only inhibit cell proliferation but also decrease the invasion, migration and adhesion capability of the tumor cells. Further, western blot analysis deduced that it might be related to the decrease in protein expression of EGFR, pEGFR, HER2, MMP-2 and MMP-9.
CONCLUSION: Our results clearly showed the significance of RACK1-induced OSCC cell migration, invasion and adhesion, which could explain the underlined mechanism of the effect of the gene on metastasis and clinical outcome. Also, our results confirmed its role to be a prognostic indicator and a promising drug target for OSCC cell metastasis.

Myklebust LM, Akslen LA, Varhaug JE, Lillehaug JR
Receptor for activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1) is overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Thyroid. 2011; 21(11):1217-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) has been shown to be overexpressed in several types of cancers such as breast, colon, melanomas, and lung. RACK1 is linked to Ras-Raf-mediated signal transduction and transformed foci formation of 3T3 cells in vitro, and since this pathway is central in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) oncogenesis, we hypothesized that RACK1 could play a role in the development or maintenance of PTC. No report on RACK1 expression in thyroid tissue is available; the present study was therefore aimed at identifying possible correlation of RACK1 expression at the mRNA or protein level in normal thyroid tissue compared to PTC.
METHODS: We used TaqMan quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to study the RACK1 gene and protein expression in matched tumor and nontumor samples from 59 PTC patients. The tumor samples were divided into two main categories, low-risk (group 1-3) and high-risk (group 4-6), in accordance with both histological classification and clinical appearance.
RESULTS: RACK1 mRNA and protein levels were found highly overexpressed in tumor samples, whereas Ki-Ras mRNA was found to be relatively unchanged. B-Raf mRNA expression was low and detected only in tumor samples. Sequencing analysis detected no mutations in RACK1 or Ki-Ras, but 62.7% of the patients harbored the B-Raf single-nucleotide substitution T1799A (codon V600E). Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in tumor cells. Poorly differentiated and undifferentiated PTCs expressed significantly higher RACK1 mRNA levels than well-differentiated PTCs (p<0.017).
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings point to an important role of RACK1 protein in PTC development and progression. Our data also emphasize the importance of assessing protein expression and not only mRNA levels.

Otsuka M, Takata A, Yoshikawa T, et al.
Receptor for activated protein kinase C: requirement for efficient microRNA function and reduced expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24359 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that control physiological and pathological processes. A global reduction in miRNA abundance and function is a general trait of human cancers, playing a causal role in the transformed phenotype. Here, we sought to newly identify genes involved in the regulation of miRNA function by performing a genetic screen using reporter constructs that measure miRNA function and retrovirus-based random gene disruption. Of the six genes identified, RACK1, which encodes "receptor for activated protein kinase C" (RACK1), was confirmed to be necessary for full miRNA function. RACK1 binds to KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), a member of the Dicer complex, and is required for the recruitment of mature miRNAs to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In addition, RACK1 expression was frequently found to be reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma. These findings suggest the involvement of RACK1 in miRNA function and indicate that reduced miRNA function, due to decreased expression of RACK1, may have pathologically relevant roles in liver cancers.

Romanuik TL, Wang G, Morozova O, et al.
LNCaP Atlas: gene expression associated with in vivo progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer.
BMC Med Genomics. 2010; 3:43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is no cure for castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC) and the mechanisms underlying this stage of the disease are unknown.
METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptome of human LNCaP prostate cancer cells as they progress to CRPC in vivo using replicate LongSAGE libraries. We refer to these libraries as the LNCaP atlas and compared these gene expression profiles with current suggested models of CRPC.
RESULTS: Three million tags were sequenced using in vivo samples at various stages of hormonal progression to reveal 96 novel genes differentially expressed in CRPC. Thirty-one genes encode proteins that are either secreted or are located at the plasma membrane, 21 genes changed levels of expression in response to androgen, and 8 genes have enriched expression in the prostate. Expression of 26, 6, 12, and 15 genes have previously been linked to prostate cancer, Gleason grade, progression, and metastasis, respectively. Expression profiles of genes in CRPC support a role for the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (CCNH, CUEDC2, FLNA, PSMA7), steroid synthesis and metabolism (DHCR24, DHRS7, ELOVL5, HSD17B4, OPRK1), neuroendocrine (ENO2, MAOA, OPRK1, S100A10, TRPM8), and proliferation (GAS5, GNB2L1, MT-ND3, NKX3-1, PCGEM1, PTGFR, STEAP1, TMEM30A), but neither supported nor discounted a role for cell survival genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo gene expression atlas for LNCaP was sequenced and support a role for the androgen receptor in CRPC.

Cao XX, Xu JD, Xu JW, et al.
RACK1 promotes breast carcinoma migration/metastasis via activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 126(3):555-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to gain a mechanistic understanding of the role of RACK1 in breast carcinoma migration/metastasis. Migration assays were conducted in breast carcinoma cell lines. siRNA targeting RACK1 as well as the Rho kinase inhibitor were also applied. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence were used to study the RACK1/RhoA interaction. GTP-Rho pull-down assays were performed to assess the activation of RhoA. We also conducted immunohistochemistry in 160 breast carcinoma samples. Experiments in vitro showed that RACK1 promotes migration via interaction with RhoA and activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. Immunohistochemistry in 160 samples revealed that RACK1 is strongly correlated with accepted tumor spread indicators and RhoA (all P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated a correlation between higher RACK1 expression and shorter survival times (P < 0.001). RACK1 is a prognostic factor that promotes breast carcinoma migration/metastasis by interacting with RhoA and activating the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway.

Rodrigues-Lisoni FC, Peitl P, Vidotto A, et al.
Genomics and proteomics approaches to the study of cancer-stroma interactions.
BMC Med Genomics. 2010; 3:14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The development and progression of cancer depend on its genetic characteristics as well as on the interactions with its microenvironment. Understanding these interactions may contribute to diagnostic and prognostic evaluations and to the development of new cancer therapies. Aiming to investigate potential mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment might contribute to a cancer phenotype, we evaluated soluble paracrine factors produced by stromal and neoplastic cells which may influence proliferation and gene and protein expression.
METHODS: The study was carried out on the epithelial cancer cell line (Hep-2) and fibroblasts isolated from a primary oral cancer. We combined a conditioned-medium technique with subtraction hybridization approach, quantitative PCR and proteomics, in order to evaluate gene and protein expression influenced by soluble paracrine factors produced by stromal and neoplastic cells.
RESULTS: We observed that conditioned medium from fibroblast cultures (FCM) inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in Hep-2 cells. In neoplastic cells, 41 genes and 5 proteins exhibited changes in expression levels in response to FCM and, in fibroblasts, 17 genes and 2 proteins showed down-regulation in response to conditioned medium from Hep-2 cells (HCM). Nine genes were selected and the expression results of 6 down-regulated genes (ARID4A, CALR, GNB2L1, RNF10, SQSTM1, USP9X) were validated by real time PCR.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant and common denominator in the results was the potential induction of signaling changes associated with immune or inflammatory response in the absence of a specific protein.

Subauste MC, Ventura-Holman T, Du L, et al.
RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2009; 8(23):2297-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evasion of apoptosis plays an important role in colon cancer progression. Following loss of the Apc tumor suppressor gene in mice, the gene encoding Fem1b is upregulated early in neoplastic intestinal epithelium. Fem1b is a pro-apoptotic protein that interacts with Fas, TNFR1 and Apaf-1, and increased expression of Fem1b induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Fem1b is a homolog of FEM-1, a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. To study Fem1b regulation in colon cancer progression, we used apoptotis-sensitive SW480 cells, derived from a primary colon cancer, and their isogenic, apoptosis-resistant counterparts SW620 cells, derived from a subsequent metastatic lesion in the same patient. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor increased Fem1b protein levels in SW620 cells, but not in SW480 cells. In SW620 cells we found that endogenous Fem1b co-immunoprecipitates in complexes with RACK1, a protein known to mediate ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of other pro-apoptotic proteins and to be upregulated in colon cancer. Full-length Fem1b, or the N-terminal region of Fem1b, associated with RACK1 when co-expressed in HEK293T cells, and RACK1 stimulated ubiquitination of Fem1b. RACK1 overexpression in SW620 cells led to downregulation of Fem1b protein levels. Conversely, downregulation of RACK1 led to upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis, and this apoptosis was inhibited by blocking Fem1b protein upregulation. In conclusion, RACK1 downregulates levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Fem1b in metastatic, apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells, which may promote apoptosis-resistance during progression of colon cancer.

Egidy G, Julé S, Bossé P, et al.
Transcription analysis in the MeLiM swine model identifies RACK1 as a potential marker of malignancy for human melanocytic proliferation.
Mol Cancer. 2008; 7:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease. Few experimental animal models of metastatic melanoma exist. MeLiM minipigs exhibit spontaneous melanoma. Cutaneous and metastatic lesions are histologically similar to human's. However, most of them eventually spontaneously regress. Our purpose was to investigate whether the MeLiM model could reveal markers of malignancy in human melanocytic proliferations.
RESULTS: We compared the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) between normal pig skin melanocytes and melanoma cells from an early pulmonary metastasis of MeLiM minipigs. Tag identification revealed 55 regulated genes, including GNB2L1 which was found upregulated in the melanoma library. In situ hybridisation confirmed GNB2L1 overexpression in MeLiM melanocytic lesions. GNB2L1 encodes the adaptor protein RACK1, recently shown to influence melanoma cell lines tumorigenicity. We studied the expression of RACK1 by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in tissues specimens of normal skin, in cutaneous and metastatic melanoma developped in MeLiM minipigs and in human patients. In pig and human samples, the results were similar. RACK1 protein was not detected in normal epidermal melanocytes. By contrast, RACK1 signal was highly increased in the cytoplasm of all melanocytic cells of superficial spreading melanoma, recurrent dermal lesions and metastatic melanoma. RACK1 partially colocalised with activated PKCalphabeta. In pig metastases, additional nuclear RACK1 did not associate to BDNF expression. In human nevi, the RACK1 signal was low.
CONCLUSION: RACK1 overexpression detected in situ in human melanoma specimens characterized cutaneous and metastatic melanoma raising the possibility that RACK1 can be a potential marker of malignancy in human melanoma. The MeLiM strain provides a relevant model for exploring mechanisms of melanocytic malignant transformation in humans. This study may contribute to a better understanding of melanoma pathophysiology and to progress in diagnosis.

Mamidipudi V, Dhillon NK, Parman T, et al.
RACK1 inhibits colonic cell growth by regulating Src activity at cell cycle checkpoints.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(20):2914-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we showed that Src tyrosine kinases are activated early in the development of human colon cancer and are suppressed as intestinal cells differentiate. We identified RACK1 as an endogenous substrate, binding partner and inhibitor of Src. Here we show (by overexpressing RACK1, depleting Src or RACK1 and utilizing cell-permeable peptides that perturb RACK1's interaction with Src) that RACK1 regulates growth of colon cells by suppressing Src activity at G(1) and mitotic checkpoints, and consequently delaying cell cycle progression. Activated Src rescues RACK1-inhibited growth of HT-29 cells. Conversely, inhibiting Src abolishes growth promoted by RACK1 depletion in normal cells. Two potential mechanisms whereby RACK1 regulates mitotic exit are identified: suppression of Src-mediated Sam68 phosphorylation and maintenance of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1-cyclin B complex in an active state. Our results reveal novel mechanisms of cell cycle control in G(1) and mitosis of colon cells. The significance of this work lies in the discovery of a mechanism by which the growth of colon cancer cells can be slowed, by RACK1 suppression of an oncogenic kinase at critical cell cycle checkpoints. Small molecules that mimic RACK1 function may provide a powerful new approach to the treatment of colon cancer.

Yoon SY, Kim JM, Oh JH, et al.
Gene expression profiling of human HBV- and/or HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma cells using expressed sequence tags.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(2):315-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. To identify novel target genes that are related to liver carcinogenesis, we examined new genes that are differentially expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) frequency. Eleven libraries were constructed from seven HCC cell lines and three normal liver tissue samples obtained from Korean patients. An analysis of gene expression profiles for HCC was performed using the frequency of ESTs obtained from these cDNA libraries. Genes were identified (n=120) as being either up- or down-regulated in human liver cancer cells. Among these, 14 genes (FTL, K-ALPHA1, LDHA, RPL4, ENO1, ANXA2, RPL9, RPL10, RPL13A, GNB2L1, AMBP, GC, A1BG, and SERPINC1), in addition to previously well-known liver cancer related genes, were confirmed to be differentially expressed in seven liver cancer cell lines and 17 HCC tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, 73 genes, in which there was a significant difference (P>0.99) between HBV- and HCV-associated HCC cells, were selected. Of these, expression patterns of 14 (RPLP0, AKR1C, KRT8, GPX4, RPS15, ID1, RPS21, VIM, EEF1G, EIF4A1, HLA-C, FN1, CD44, and RPS10) were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in four of HBV- and three of HCV-associated HCC cell lines. Among those genes, an immunohistochemical analysis for ANXA2 showed that it is expressed at high levels in HCC. Using an analysis of EST frequency, the newly identified genes, especially ANXA2, represent potential biomarkers for HCC and useful targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with HCC involving virological etiology.

Fomenkov A, Zangen R, Huang YP, et al.
RACK1 and stratifin target DeltaNp63alpha for a proteasome degradation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells upon DNA damage.
Cell Cycle. 2004; 3(10):1285-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
p53 family members with a transactivation (TA) domain induce cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis. However, DeltaNp63 isotypes lacking the TA-domain promote cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vgammavo. Although p53, TAp63 or TAp73 are stabilized upon DNA damage, we found that the genotoxic stress agents induced a dramatic decrease and phosphorylation of DeltaNp63alpha in squamous cell carcinoma cells. Further work revealed that RACK1 physically associated with the p63alpha C-terminal domain through its WD40 domain. However, stratifin binds with phosphorylated DeltaNp63alpha in response to cisplatin. Upon DNA damage induced by cisplatin, stratifin mediated a nuclear export of DeltaNp63alpha into cytoplasm and then RACK1 targeted latter into a proteasome degradation pathway possibly serving as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of both stratifin and RACK1 inhibited a nuclear export and protein degradation of DeltaNp63alpha, respectively. Our data suggest that modification and down regulation of DeltaNp63alpha is one of the major determinants of the cellular response to DNA damage in human head and neck cancers.

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