Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: IRF2 (cancer-related)
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a group of closely related proteins collectively referred to as the IRF family. Members of this family were originally recognized for their roles in inflammatory responses; however, recent research has suggested that they are also involved in tumor biology. This review focusses on current knowledge of the roles of IRF-1 and IRF-2 in human cancer, with particular attention paid to the impact of IRF-1 inactivation. The different mechanisms underlying IRF-1 inactivation and their implications for human cancers and the potential importance of IRF-1 in immunotherapy are also summarized.
Jin JJ, Liu YH, Si JM, et al.Overexpression of miR-1290 contributes to cell proliferation and invasion of non small cell lung cancer by targeting interferon regulatory factor 2.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 95:113-120 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are small endogenous non-coding RNAs, which can frequently emerge as regulators in many cancer types. MiR-1290 was found to be abnormally elevated in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the underlying molecular mechanism still needs to be investigated. Here, we demonstrated that miR-1290 expression levels were remarkably upregulated in NSCLC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Higher miR-1290 expression levels positively associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor stage. Functional assays showed that upregulated miR-1290 expression in NSCLC cells enhanced cell proliferation, cell colony formation and invasion capacities in vitro. Furthermore, we found that miR-1290 promoted cell proliferation related protein CDK2 and CDK4 expression and enhanced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) process by downregulating E-cadherin expression and upregulating N-cadherin expression. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that Interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) was a direct target of miR-1290. Overexpression of miR-1290 can degrade IRF2 mRNA and downregulated IRF2 protein expression in NSCLC cells. Upregulated IRF2 could partly rescue the promoting effects induced by miR-1290 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasion of NSCLC. Additionally, we confirmed that reduced miR-1290 expression could suppress tumor growth using a tumor xenograft model in vivo. Thus, we concluded that miR-1290 may serve as a potential target of NSCLC treatment.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) most frequently occurs in southern China and southeast Asia. Epidemiology studies link NPC to genetic predisposition, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and environmental factors. Genetic studies indicate that mutations in chromatin-modifying enzymes are the most frequent genetic alterations in NPC. Here, we used H3K27ac chromatin immune precipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to define the NPC epigenome in primary NPC biopsies, NPC xenografts, and an NPC cell line, and compared them to immortalized normal nasopharyngeal or oral epithelial cells. We identified NPC-specific enhancers and found these enhancers were enriched with nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), IFN-responsive factor 1 (IRF1) and IRF2, and ETS family members ETS1 motifs. Normal cell-specific enhancers were enriched with basic leucine zipper family members and TP53 motifs. NPC super-enhancers with extraordinarily broad and high H3K27ac signals were also identified, and they were linked to genes important for oncogenesis including ETV6. ETV6 was also highly expressed in NPC biopsies by immunohistochemistry. High ETV6 expression correlated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, we defined the EBV episome epigenetic landscapes in primary NPC tissue.
Zhang F, Zhu J, Li J, et al.IRF2-INPP4B axis participates in the development of acute myeloid leukemia by regulating cell growth and survival.
Gene. 2017; 627:9-14 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous disease, which results in the fact that patient management has remained disappointingly uniform. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying AML needs to be further investigated. Here in this study, we identify the interferon-regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) as a novel regulator in human AML. We show that IRF2 knockdown inhibits growth, colony formation of OCI/AML-2, OCI/AML-3, and THP-1 cells. In addition, IRF2 knockdown induces apoptosis of AML cells by regulating the apoptotic effectors Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase 3. Further mechanism analysis shows that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type-II (INPP4B) contributes to the effects of IRF2 on apoptosis and growth of AML cells. IRF2 binds INPP4B promoter and promotes INPP4B expression in AML cells. Restoration of the expression of INPP4B blocks the effects of IRF2 knockdown on apoptosis and colony formation in OCI/AML-2 and OCI/AML-3 cells. In conclusion, IRF2 serves as an important regulator in AML by targeting INPP4B. Therefore, IRF2 may be a potential target for AML treatment.
Wang X, Zhang X, Wang G, et al.Hsa-miR-513b-5p suppresses cell proliferation and promotes P53 expression by targeting IRF2 in testicular embryonal carcinoma cells.
Gene. 2017; 626:344-353 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Previous studies have reported the miR-513b is located on the X chromosome and is preferentially expressed in testis. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-513b involved in spermatogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that hsa-miR-513b-5p was highly expressed in the testes of infertile males with maturation arrest compared with normal controls. Overexpression of hsa-miR-513b-5p suppressed testicular embryonal carcinoma (NT2) cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro, whereas silencing of hsa-miR-513b-5p reversed these effects. In addition, we found that interferon regulatory transcription factor 2 (IRF2) was a direct and functional target of hsa-miR-513b-5p. Silencing of endogenous IRF2 enhanced hsa-miR-513b-5p-mediated effects on cell proliferation in NT2 cells, whereas overexpression of IRF2 reversed these effects. Moreover, immunoblotting showed that overexpression of hsa-miR-513b-5p or silencing of endogenous IRF2 could promote the expression of P53. Moreover, overexpression of hsa-miR-513b-5p in the absence of p53 could also induce cell apoptosis. Together, our results suggest that hsa-miR-513b-5p suppresses NT2 cell proliferation and promotes P53 protein expression by targeting IRF2, and abnormal testicular hsa-miR-513b-5p expression may contribute to maturation arrest.
Ma Y, Walsh MJ, Bernhardt K, et al.CRISPR/Cas9 Screens Reveal Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cell Host Dependency Factors.
Cell Host Microbe. 2017; 21(5):580-591.e7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. These B cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. To identify host dependency factors resulting from these EBV+, B cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These highlighted 57 BL and 87 LCL genes uniquely important for their growth and survival. LCL hits were enriched for EBV-induced genes, including viral super-enhancer targets. Our systematic approach uncovered key mechanisms by which EBV oncoproteins activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and evade tumor suppressor responses. LMP1-induced cFLIP was found to be critical for LCL defense against TNFα-mediated programmed cell death, whereas EBV-induced BATF/IRF4 were critical for BIM suppression and MYC induction in LCLs. Finally, EBV super-enhancer-targeted IRF2 protected LCLs against Blimp1-mediated tumor suppression. Our results identify viral transformation-driven synthetic lethal targets for therapeutic intervention.
Lung cancer is the major form of cancer resulting in cancer-related mortality around the world. MicroRNAs are endogenous small non-coding single-stranded RNAs, which can engage in the regulation of gene expression. In this study, miR-18a-5p significantly upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and NSCLC cell lines, suggesting an oncogenic function in lung cancer. Additionally, miR-18a-5p can promote carcinogenesis by directly targeting interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2). Further experiments indicated that IRF2 can increase cell apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation and migration ability. Our study demonstrates that miR-18a-5p promotes autophagy in NSCLC. Collectively, these results indicate that miR-18a-5p can not only promote NSCLC by suppressing IRF2, but also will be a promising target in the near future.
Cancer related inflammation (CRI) plays an important role in the development of esophageal cancer (EC), and the target gene analysis shows that miR-302b potential target genes closely correlated to CRI important signaling pathways. The present study was to evaluate the inhibition of miR-302b on CRI in EC and its mechanism. We found that the expression levels of miR-302b in EC cells were lower than that in Het-1A cells, while TE11 with the lowest expression and OE33 with the highest. Inflammatory stimuli at 48 h significantly reduced expression of miR-302b in EC cells, but had no effect in Het-1A. After up-regulation of miR-302b in TE11 and down-regulation of miR-302b in OE33, it was found that miR-302b reduced CRI key transcription factors and representative cytokines. Then, over-expressed of miR-302b significantly altered potential target genes protein expressions and there was a negative correlation between miR-302b and potential target genes protein expressions (ERBB4, IRF2 and CXCR4) in EC tissues. Then reporter gene analysis revealed that miR-302b post-transcriptionally regulated expression of target genes by specific area of 3'-UTR. Transfected by target genes shRNA plasmids together could get the same effects of miR-302b on protein expression of CRI key transcription factors. Furthermore, miR-302b was able to repress tumor growth and transcription factors protein expression in vivo. These finding suggests that miR-302b inhibits key transcription factors and cytokines by targeting ERBB4, IRF2 and CXCR4, implicating its role in the inhibition of CRI in EC.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to screen multiple genes biomarkers based on gene expression data for predicting the survival of ovarian cancer patients.
METHODS: Two microarray data of ovarian cancer samples were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The data in the training set were used to construct Reactome functional interactions network, which then underwent Markov clustering, supervised principal components, Cox proportional hazard model to screen significantly prognosis related modules. The distinguishing ability of each module for survival was further evaluated by the testing set. Gene Ontology (GO) functional and pathway annotations were performed to identify the roles of genes in each module for ovarian cancer.
RESULTS: The network based approach identified two 7-gene functional interaction modules (31: DCLRE1A, EXO1, KIAA0101, KIN, PCNA, POLD3, POLD2; 35: DKK3, FABP3, IRF1, AIM2, GBP1, GBP2, IRF2) that are associated with prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. These network modules are related to DNA repair, replication, immune and cytokine mediated signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: The two 7-gene expression signatures may be accurate predictors of clinical outcome in patients with ovarian cancer and has the potential to develop new therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer patients.
Ronchetti D, Manzoni M, Agnelli L, et al.lncRNA profiling in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia identifies transcriptional fingerprints with relevance in clinical outcome.
Blood Cancer J. 2016; 6(9):e468 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a novel class of functional RNA molecules with an important emerging role in cancer. To elucidate their potential pathogenetic role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a biologically and clinically heterogeneous neoplasia, we investigated lncRNAs expression in a prospective series of 217 early-stage Binet A CLL patients and 26 different subpopulations of normal B-cells, through a custom annotation pipeline of microarray data. Our study identified a 24-lncRNA-signature specifically deregulated in CLL compared with the normal B-cell counterpart. Importantly, this classifier was validated on an independent data set of CLL samples. Belonging to the lncRNA signature characterizing distinct molecular CLL subgroups, we identified lncRNAs recurrently associated with adverse prognostic markers, such as unmutated IGHV status, CD38 expression, 11q and 17p deletions, and NOTCH1 mutations. In addition, correlation analyses predicted a putative lncRNAs interplay with genes and miRNAs expression. Finally, we generated a 2-lncRNA independent risk model, based on lnc-IRF2-3 and lnc-KIAA1755-4 expression, able to distinguish three different prognostic groups in our series of early-stage patients. Overall, our study provides an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in CLL, and contributes to the discovery of novel molecular markers with clinical relevance associated with the disease.
Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue- tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4(+) T cell-mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells.
Liu F, Yu X, Huang H, et al.Upregulation of microRNA-450 inhibits the progression of lung cancer in vitro and in vivo by targeting interferon regulatory factor 2.
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(1):283-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non‑coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in human lung cancer development. The majority of studies have focused on either non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In the present study, we investigated a plausible mechanism of action of miR‑450 in these types of lung cancer. We found that the level of miR‑450 was decreased in lung cancer cell lines, as well as in solid tumors. As exemplified in the H510A (SCLC) and H2291 (NSCLC) cells, transfection with lentivirus carrying miR‑450 upregulated miR‑450 expression and significantly attenuated lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion, as well as the growth of implantated tumors. Interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) was also verified to be a direct target of miR‑450 in lung cancer cells. The overexpression of IRF2 in the H510A and H2291 cells abrogated the inhibitory effects of miR‑450 on lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Taken together, in this study, we identified a novel role of miR‑450 in lung cancer. miR-450 targets IRF2 and thus supresses lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
Both oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities are attributed to the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. Moreover, NF-kB may positively or negatively regulate proliferation. The molecular determinants of these opposing roles of NF-kB are unclear. Using primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) as a model, we show that increased RelA levels and consequent increase in basal transcriptional activity of RelA induces IRF1, a target gene. Induced IRF1 upregulates STAT1 and IRF7, and in consort, these factors induce the expression of interferon response genes. Activation of the interferon pathway down-regulates CDK4 and up-regulates p27 resulting in Rb hypo-phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Stimulation of HMEC with IFN-γ elicits similar phenotypic and molecular changes suggesting that basal activity of RelA and IFN-γ converge on IRF1 to regulate proliferation. The anti-proliferative RelA-IRF1-CDK4 signaling axis is retained in ER+/HER2- breast tumors analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Using immuno-histochemical analysis of breast tumors, we confirm the negative correlation between RelA levels and proliferation rate in ER+/HER2- breast tumors. These findings attribute an anti-proliferative tumor-suppressor role to basal RelA activity. Inactivation of Rb, down-regulation of RelA or IRF1, or upregulation of CDK4 or IRF2 rescues the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 induced proliferation arrest in HMEC and are points of disruption in aggressive tumors. Activity of the RelA-IRF1-CDK4 axis may explain favorable response to CDK4/6 inhibition observed in patients with ER+ Rb competent tumors.
Andres SA, Bickett KE, Alatoum MA, et al.Interaction between smoking history and gene expression levels impacts survival of breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 152(3):545-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In contrast to studies focused on cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer occurrence, this study explored the influence of smoking on breast cancer recurrence and progression. The goal was to evaluate the interaction between smoking history and gene expression levels on recurrence and overall survival of breast cancer patients. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted for 48 cigarette smokers, 50 non-smokers, and the total population separately to determine which gene expressions and gene expression/cigarette usage interaction terms were significant in predicting overall and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. Using methods similar to Andres et al. (BMC Cancer 13:326, 2013a; Horm Cancer 4:208-221, 2013b), multivariable analyses revealed CENPN, CETN1, CYP1A1, IRF2, LECT2, and NCOA1 to be important predictors for both breast carcinoma recurrence and mortality among smokers. Additionally, COMT was important for recurrence, and NAT1 and RIPK1 were important for mortality. In contrast, only IRF2, CETN1, and CYP1A1 were significant for disease recurrence and mortality among non-smokers, with NAT2 additionally significant for survival. Analysis of interaction between smoking status and gene expression values using the combined samples revealed significant interactions between smoking status and CYP1A1, LECT2, and CETN1. Signatures consisting of 7-8 genes were highly predictive for breast cancer recurrence and overall survival among smokers, with median C-index values of 0.8 and 0.73 for overall survival and recurrence, respectively. In contrast, median C-index values for non-smokers was only 0.59. Hence, significant interactions between gene expression and smoking status can play a key role in predicting breast cancer patient outcomes.
Chen YJ, Wu H, Zhu JM, et al.MicroRNA-18a modulates P53 expression by targeting IRF2 in gastric cancer patients.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 31(1):155-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: MicroRNA-18a (miR-18a) has been reported to be upregulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues compared with normal gastric tissues. However, little is known about its prognostic value and biological roles.
METHODS: In this study, miR-18a expression in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues was validated by in situ hybridization, and the predictive values of miR-18a were explored. The biological roles of miR-18a and the underlying signal pathway were investigated in GC cell lines.
RESULTS: Overexpressed intra-tumoral miR-18a was associated with poor survival rate and was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival rate (P < 0.001) in GC patients. Forced expression of miR-18a remarkably enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in GC cells, while inhibition of miR-18a caused the opposite effects. Further study showed that miR-18a suppressed the expression of interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) by directly binding to its 3'-untranslated region. Moreover, miR-18a expression levels are inversely correlated with IRF2 in human GC tissues. Western blot showed that forced expression of miR-18a could not only downregulate the expression of IRF2, but also inhibit the expression of P53, suggesting that IRF2 might play as a tumor suppressor by regulating P53 signaling in GC.
CONCLUSION: miR-18a modulated P53 expression by directly targeting IRF2 and had a high predictive value for prognosis of GAC patients. These results may lead to identification of therapeutic candidates of GC.
Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors) pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product) to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555) and rectal cancer (n = 754) cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035). Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR) were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP < 0.05); JAK2 (PARTP = 0.0086), PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098), and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059) had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP < 0.05). SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002). Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1) were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP < 0.05). The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74) and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78) for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer. We characterised HCC associated with infection compared with non-HBV-related HCC to understand interactions between viral and hepatocyte genomic alterations and their relationships with clinical features.
METHODS: Frozen HBV (n=86) or non-HBV-related (n=90) HCC were collected in two French surgical departments. Viral characterisation was performed by sequencing HBS and HBX genes and quantifying HBV DNA and cccDNA. Nine genes were screened for somatic mutations and expression profiling of 37 genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis was studied.
RESULTS: HBX revealed frequent non-sense, frameshift and deletions in tumours, suggesting an HBX inactivation selected in HCC. The number of viral copies was frequently lower in tumour than in non-tumour tissues (p=0.0005) and patients with low HBV copies in the non-tumour liver tissues presented additional risk factor (HCV, alcohol or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, p=0.006). P53 was the most frequently altered pathway in HBV-related HCC (47%, p=0.001). Furthermore, TP53 mutations were associated with shorter survival only in HBV-related HCC (p=0.02) whereas R249S mutations were identified exclusively in migrants. Compared with other aetiologies, HBV-HCC were more frequently classified in tumours subgroups with upregulation of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and a progenitor phenotype. Finally, in HBV-related HCC, transcriptomic profiles were associated with specific gene mutations (HBX, TP53, IRF2, AXIN1 and CTNNB1).
CONCLUSIONS: Integrated genomic characterisation of HBV and non-HBV-related HCC emphasised the immense molecular diversity of HCC closely related to aetiologies that could impact clinical care of HCC patients.
Sakai T, Mashima H, Yamada Y, et al.The roles of interferon regulatory factors 1 and 2 in the progression of human pancreatic cancer.
Pancreas. 2014; 43(6):909-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant diseases worldwide. Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 1 and IRF2 function as a tumor suppressor and oncoprotein, respectively, in several types of cancers. We investigated whether IRF1 and IRF2 are involved in the progression of pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We examined the expressions of IRF1 and IRF2 in pancreatic cancer specimens and analyzed the association with clinicopathologic features. We evaluated the biological effects of IRF1 and IRF2 using a pancreatic cancer cell line.
RESULTS: The expression levels of IRF1 and IRF2 were decreased and increased, respectively, in the pancreatic cancer cells compared with those observed in the paired normal areas. A higher expression of IRF1 was associated with better features of tumor differentiation, infiltration depth, tumor size, and survival, whereas that of IRF2 was associated with a worse feature of tumor infiltration depth. Interferon regulatory factor 2-overexpressing PANC-1 cells exhibited an increase in cell growth, less apoptotic features, and chemoresistance to gemcitabine treatment. In contrast, IRF1-overexpressing cells exhibited the opposite characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: Interferon regulatory factors 1 and 2 may regulate the progression of pancreatic cancer by functioning as an antioncoprotein and oncoprotein, respectively. These molecules may serve as potential targets of therapy.
Kneitz B, Krebs M, Kalogirou C, et al.Survival in patients with high-risk prostate cancer is predicted by miR-221, which regulates proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of prostate cancer cells by inhibiting IRF2 and SOCS3.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(9):2591-603 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A lack of reliably informative biomarkers to distinguish indolent and lethal prostate cancer is one reason this disease is overtreated. miR-221 has been suggested as a biomarker in high-risk prostate cancer, but there is insufficient evidence of its potential utility. Here we report that miR-221 is an independent predictor for cancer-related death, extending and validating earlier findings. By mechanistic investigations we showed that miR-221 regulates cell growth, invasiveness, and apoptosis in prostate cancer at least partially via STAT1/STAT3-mediated activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. miR-221 directly inhibits the expression of SOCS3 and IRF2, two oncogenes that negatively regulate this signaling pathway. miR-221 expression sensitized prostate cancer cells for IFN-γ-mediated growth inhibition. Our findings suggest that miR-221 offers a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in high-risk prostate cancer.
High-throughput short-read sequencing of exomes and whole cancer genomes in multiple human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cohorts confirmed previously identified frequently mutated somatic genes, such as TP53, CTNNB1 and AXIN1, and identified several novel genes with moderate mutation frequencies, including ARID1A, ARID2, MLL, MLL2, MLL3, MLL4, IRF2, ATM, CDKN2A, FGF19, PIK3CA, RPS6KA3, JAK1, KEAP1, NFE2L2, C16orf62, LEPR, RAC2, and IL6ST. Functional classification of these mutated genes suggested that alterations in pathways participating in chromatin remodeling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, JAK/STAT signaling, and oxidative stress play critical roles in HCC tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, because there are few druggable genes used in HCC therapy, the identification of new therapeutic targets through integrated genomic approaches remains an important task. Because a large amount of HCC genomic data genotyped by high density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays is deposited in the public domain, copy number alteration (CNA) analyses of these arrays is a cost-effective way to reveal target genes through profiling of recurrent and overlapping amplicons, homozygous deletions and potentially unbalanced chromosomal translocations accumulated during HCC progression. Moreover, integration of CNAs with other high-throughput genomic data, such as aberrantly coding transcriptomes and non-coding gene expression in human HCC tissues and rodent HCC models, provides lines of evidence that can be used to facilitate the identification of novel HCC target genes with the potential of improving the survival of HCC patients.
Camicia R, Bachmann SB, Winkler HC, et al.BAL1/ARTD9 represses the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic IFNγ-STAT1-IRF1-p53 axis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 9):1969-80 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The B-aggressive lymphoma-1 protein and ADP-ribosyltransferase BAL1/ARTD9 has been recently identified as a risk-related gene product in aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). BAL1 is constitutively expressed in a subset of high-risk DLBCLs with an active host inflammatory response and has been suggested to be associated with interferon-related gene expression. Here we identify BAL1 as a novel oncogenic survival factor in DLBCL and show that constitutive overexpression of BAL1 in DLBCL tightly associates with intrinsic interferon-gamma (IFNγ) signaling and constitutive activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1. Remarkably, BAL1 stimulates the phosphorylation of both STAT1 isoforms, STAT1α and STAT1β, on Y701 and thereby promotes the nuclear accumulation of the antagonistically acting and transcriptionally repressive isoform STAT1β. Moreover, BAL1 physically interacts with both STAT1α and STAT1β through its macrodomains in an ADP-ribosylation-dependent manner. BAL1 directly inhibits, together with STAT1β, the expression of tumor suppressor and interferon response factor (IRF)-1. Conversely, BAL1 enhances the expression of the proto-oncogenes IRF2 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma (BCL)-6 in DLBCL. Our results show for the first time that BAL1 represses the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic IFNγ-STAT1-IRF1-p53 axis and mediates proliferation, survival and chemo-resistance in DLBCL. As a consequence constitutive IFNγ-STAT1 signaling does not lead to apoptosis but rather to chemo-resistance in DLBCL overexpressing BAL1. Our results suggest that BAL1 may induce an switch in STAT1 from a tumor suppressor to an oncogene in high-risk DLBCL.
Eto M, Kamba T, Miyake H, et al.STAT3 polymorphism can predict the response to interferon-α therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Eur Urol. 2013; 63(4):745-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In our 2007 retrospective study, we reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor) (STAT3) gene were significantly associated with better response to interferon (IFN)-α in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively confirm those results, the Japan Immunotherapy SNPs-Study Group for Kidney Cancer conducted this trial.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this multicenter, prospective study, 203 eligible patients were enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between the antitumor effects of IFN-α and 11 SNPs (STAT3-2, STAT3-0, SOCS3-1, IL4R-34, PTGS1-3, PTGS1-4, PTGS1-5, PTGS2-12, IRF2-67, ICSBP-38, and TAP2-5) in eight genes in 180 patients who received IFN-α for >12 wk.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients were treated with three doses per week of IFN-α 5 million IU.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We analyzed the association of response to IFN-α and overall survival (OS) with genetic polymorphisms using a chi-square test and a logistic regression model.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The response rate of IFN-α was 13.8% (28 of 203 patients; 9 complete responses [CRs], 19 partial responses [PRs]). The CR rate of 4.4% was higher than we expected. Response to IFN-α was not associated with any of the 11 SNPs examined. However, when we assessed patients with CR, PR, and stable disease >24 wk as a group representing those with clinical response, a significant association was observed between STAT3-2 (rs1905341) and the clinical response of IFN-α (p=0.039). Namely, C/C genotype of STAT3-2 was significantly associated with the clinical response of IFN-α and OS. These results were generated in Japanese patients and should be studied in other ethnic groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study demonstrating that a STAT3 polymorphism can be a predictive marker for treatment with IFN-α for patients with mRCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Here, we performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 125 HCC tumors and whole-exome sequencing on 24 of these tumors. We identified 135 homozygous deletions and 994 somatic mutations of genes with predicted functional consequences. We found new recurrent alterations in four genes (ARID1A, RPS6KA3, NFE2L2 and IRF2) not previously described in HCC. Functional analyses showed tumor suppressor properties for IRF2, whose inactivation, exclusively found in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related tumors, led to impaired TP53 function. In contrast, inactivation of chromatin remodelers was frequent and predominant in alcohol-related tumors. Moreover, association of mutations in specific genes (RPS6KA3-AXIN1 and NFE2L2-CTNNB1) suggested that Wnt/β-catenin signaling might cooperate in liver carcinogenesis with both oxidative stress metabolism and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. This study provides insight into the somatic mutational landscape in HCC and identifies interactions between mutations in oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations related to specific risk factors.
Cui L, Deng Y, Rong Y, et al.IRF-2 is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes the growth of pancreatic cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(1):247-55 [PubMed
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant diseases in the world. Interferon regulator factor 2 (IRF-2), an interferon regulatory factor, has been known to act as an oncogene in distinct types of cancer. In this study, we found that the expression of IRF-2 was up-regulated in primary pancreatic cancer samples and associated with tumor size, differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis stage, and survival of the patients. In pancreatic cancer cells, knockdown on the expression of IRF-2 inhibited cell growth in the liquid culture and on the soft agar. Mechanistically, IRF-2 modulated the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through regulating proliferation and apoptosis effectors, such as cyclin D1 and BAX. Collectively, these results suggest that IRF-2 plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer and down-regulation of IRF-2 would be a new treatment target for pancreatic cancer.
Russ AC, Sander S, Lück SC, et al.Integrative nucleophosmin mutation-associated microRNA and gene expression pattern analysis identifies novel microRNA - target gene interactions in acute myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica. 2011; 96(12):1783-91 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are regulators of gene expression, which act mainly by decreasing mRNA levels of their multiple targets. Deregulated microRNA expression has been shown for acute myeloid leukemia, a disease also characterized by altered gene expression associated with distinct genomic aberrations such as nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations. To shed further light on the role of deregulated microRNA and gene expression in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation we performed an integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression data sets.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Both microRNA and gene expression profiles were investigated in samples from a cohort of adult cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia patients (n=43; median age 46 years, range 23-60 years) with known NPM1 mutation status (n=23 mutated, n=20 wild-type) and the data were integratively analyzed. Putative microRNA-mRNA interactions were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. For selected microRNAs, sensitivity of microRNA-overexpressing cells to cytarabine treatment was tested by FACS viability and cell proliferation assays.
RESULTS: Our integrative approach of analyzing both microRNA- and gene expression profiles in parallel resulted in a refined list of putative target genes affected by NPM1 mutation-associated microRNA deregulation. Of 177 putative microRNA - target mRNA interactions we identified and validated 77 novel candidates with known or potential involvement in leukemogenesis, such as IRF2-miR-20a, KIT-miR-20a and MN1-miR-15a. Furthermore, our data showed that deregulated expression of tumor suppressor microRNAs, such as miR-29a and miR-30c, might contribute to sensitivity to cytarabine, which is observed in NPM1 mutated acute myeloid leukemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our observations highlight that integrative data analysis approaches can improve insights into leukemia biology, and lead to the identification of novel microRNA - target gene interactions of potential relevance for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.
Interferons (IFNs) are proteins involved in many functions including antiviral and antimicrobial response, apoptosis, cell cycle control and mediating other cytokines. IFN gamma (IFNG) is a proinflammatory cytokine that modulates many immune-related genes. In this study we examine genetic variation in IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2 and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) to determine associations with colon and rectal cancer and survival after diagnosis. We include data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 959 controls). Five tagSNPs in IFNG, IRF2 and IRF3 were associated with colon cancer and eight tagSNPs in IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IRF2, IRF4, IRF6 and IRF8 were associated with rectal cancer. IRF3 rs2304204 was associated with the strongest direct association and IRF2 3775554 with the strongest inverse association for colon cancer [odds ratios (ORs) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.82 for recessive model and 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97 for unrestricted model]. For rectal cancer, IFNGR1 rs3799488 was directly associated with risk (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.04-5.09 for recessive model), whereas IRF6 rs861020 was inversely associated with risk (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.95). Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms interacted significant with both NF-κB1 and IL6 and with aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cigarette smoking. Using a summary score to estimate mutational load, we observed a hazard rate ratio (HRR) close to 5.00 (95% CI 2.73-8.99) for both colon and rectal (HRR 4.83, 95% CI 2.34-10.05) cancer for those in the category having the most at-risk genotypes. These data suggest the importance of IFN-signaling pathway on colon and rectal cancer risk and survival after diagnosis.
Zhang H, Ma H, Wang Q, et al.Analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 4q in hepatocellular carcinoma using high-throughput SNP array.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 23(2):445-55 [PubMed
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To identify tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on chromosome 4q using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we first scanned for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 40 SNPs on chromosome 4q and discovered 2 hot regions: 4q24-26 and 4q34.3-35. We then further scanned for LOH of 338 SNPs in genes around 4q34.3-35 and discovered 3 genes with the most frequent LOH: nei endonuclease VIII-like 3 (NEIL3), interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) and inhibitor of growth family member 2 (ING2). A review of the literature indicates only ING2 might be a TSG associated with HCC.
Masumi A, Ito M, Mochida K, et al.Enhanced RIG-I expression is mediated by interferon regulatory factor-2 in peripheral blood B cells from hepatitis C virus-infected patients.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 391(4):1623-8 [PubMed
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Chronic hepatitis C patients carry the risk of developing into B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). To clarify the mechanisms underlying this association, we first investigated the molecular markers of B cells from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. CD19-positive cells were isolated as B cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus and IFN-related gene expression was analyzed. We found that RIG-I and IRF-2 expression were up-regulated in CD19-positive cells from the infected patients. In vitro luciferase reporter analysis using human cell lines indicated that IRF-2 activates the human RIG-I promoter. IRF-2 expression levels were enhanced by HCV cDNA transfection in Huh7 cells. In addition, we observed much less induction in the interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) after Sendai virus (SenV) stimulation of CD19-positive cells from infected patients versus healthy controls, thereby suggesting an impairment of RIG-I downstream signaling in HCV-infected patients. Hence, we found that the failure of the anti-viral response with enhanced IRF-2 oncogenic protein expression in blood B cells from HCV-infected patients. Our results provide important information to better understand the role of IRFs in the cause of HCV chronic infection.
Choo A, Palladinetti P, Holmes T, et al.siRNA targeting the IRF2 transcription factor inhibits leukaemic cell growth.
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(1):175-83 [PubMed
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Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 1 and its functional antagonist IRF2 were originally discovered as transcription factors that regulate the interferon-beta gene. Control of cell growth has led to the definition of IRF1 as a tumour suppressor gene and IRF2 as an oncogene. Clinically, approximately 70% of cases of acute myeloid leukaemia demonstrate dysregulated expression of IRF1 and/or IRF2. Our previous studies have shown that human leukaemic TF-1 cells exhibit abnormally high expression of both IRF1 and IRF2, the latter acting to abrogate IRF1 tumour suppression, making these cells ideal for analysis of down-regulation of IRF2 expression. A novel G418 screening protocol was developed and used for identifying effective siRNA that targets IRF2 (siIRF2). Using optimized siIRF2 in leukaemic TF-1 cells, IRF2 was down-regulated by approximately 70% at both mRNA and protein levels. Phenotypically, this resulted in growth inhibition associated with G2/M arrest as well as induction of polyploidy, differentiation and apoptosis. In contrast to these results, siIRF2 targeting did not affect normal haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell growth. These results indicate the potential utility of IRF2 inhibition as a therapeutic approach to cancer.
Restoration of the tumor-suppression function by gene transfer of the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (MDA7)/interleukin 24 (IL-24) successfully induces apoptosis in melanoma tumors in vivo. To address the molecular mechanisms involved, we previously revealed that MDA7/IL-24 treatment of melanoma cells down-regulates interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 expression and concomitantly up-regulates IRF-2 expression, which competes with the activity of IRF-1 and reverses the induction of IRF-1-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interferons (IFNs) influence melanoma cell survival by modulating apoptosis. A class I IFN (IFN-alpha) has been approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma with some limited success. A class II IFN (IFN-gamma), on the other hand, supports melanoma cell survival, possibly through constitutive activation of iNOS expression. We therefore conducted this study to explore the molecular pathways of MDA7/IL-24 regulation of apoptosis via the intracellular induction of IFNs in melanoma. We hypothesized that the restoration of the MDA7/IL-24 axis leads to upregulation of class I IFNs and induction of the apoptotic cascade. We found that MDA7/IL-24 induces the secretion of endogenous IFN-beta, another class I IFN, leading to the arrest of melanoma cell growth and apoptosis. We also identified a series of apoptotic markers that play a role in this pathway, including the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas-FasL. In summary, we described a novel pathway of MDA7/IL-24 regulation of apoptosis in melanoma tumors via endogenous IFN-beta induction followed by IRF regulation and TRAIL/FasL system activation.