Research IndicatorsGraph generated 02 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: KIAA1524 (cancer-related)
Liu P, Xiang Y, Liu X, et al.Cucurbitacin B Induces the Lysosomal Degradation of EGFR and Suppresses the CIP2A/PP2A/Akt Signaling Axis in Gefitinib-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Molecules. 2019; 24(3) [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation are initially sensitive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment, but soon develop an acquired resistance. The treatment effect of EGFR-TKIs-resistant NSCLC patients still faces challenges. Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a triterpene hydrocarbon compound isolated from plants of various families and genera, elicits anticancer effects in a variety of cancer types. However, whether CuB is a viable treatment option for gefitinib-resistant (GR) NSCLC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of CuB. We report that CuB inhibited the growth and invasion of GR NSCLC cells and induced apoptosis. The inhibitory effect of CuB occurred through its promotion of the lysosomal degradation of EGFR and the downregulation of the cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A/protein phosphatase 2A/Akt (CIP2A/PP2A/Akt) signaling axis. CuB and cisplatin synergistically inhibited tumor growth. A xenograft tumor model indicated that CuB inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Immunohistochemistry results further demonstrated that CuB decreased EGFR and CIP2A levels in vivo. These findings suggested that CuB could suppress the growth and invasion of GR NSCLC cells by inducing the lysosomal degradation of EGFR and by downregulating the CIP2A/PP2A/Akt signaling axis. Thus, CuB may be a new drug candidate for the treatment of GR NSCLC.
The roles of miR-548b-3p in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain undiscovered. This study aims to explore the roles and mechanisms of miR-548b-3p in HCC. Using TCGA database, we found that miR-548b-3p expression was lower in HCC compared to the normal tissues, which was further confirmed by RT-qPCR of 20 cases of surgically resected HCC and corresponding normal tissues. miR-548b-3p mimic and inhibitor were transfected into Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 cells, respectively. MTT, colony formation, and cell cycle assays showed that miR-548b-3p mimic suppressed cell growth and G1/S cell cycle transition. In contrast, miR-548b-3p inhibitor facilitated cell growth and cell cycle transition. miR-548b-3p mimic also increased cisplatin sensitivity by upregulating apoptosis rate. JC-1 staining showed that miR-548b-3p mimic downregulated mitochondrial membrane potential, while miR-548b-3p inhibitor showed the opposite effects in SK-Hep-1 cells. Using prediction software, we found that CIP2A was on the target list of miR-548b-3p. miR-548b-3p mimic downregulated CIP2A and its downstream target protein c-Myc. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that CIP2A was as a direct target of miR-548b-3p. CIP2A depletion partly reduced the effect of miR-548b-3p mimic/inhibitor on c-Myc. CIP2A depletion also reduced the effect of miR-548b-3p mimic/inhibitor on proliferation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that miR-548b-3p was downregulated in HCC. miR-548b-3p regulates proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial function by targeting CIP2A in HCC.
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains difficult to be targeted. SET and cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) are intrinsic protein-interacting inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and frequently overexpressed in cancers, whereas reactivating PP2A activity has been postulated as an anti-cancer strategy. Here we explored this strategy in TNBC.
METHODS: Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was analyzed. TNBC cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. The apoptotic cells were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot. A SET-PP2A protein-protein interaction antagonist TD19 was used to disrupt signal transduction. In vivo efficacy of TD19 was tested in MDA-MB-468-xenografted animal model.
FINDINGS: TCGA data revealed upregulation of SET and CIP2A and positive correlation of these two gene expressions in TNBC tumors. Ectopic SET or CIP2A increased cell viability, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells. Notably ERK inhibition increased PP2A activity. ERK activation is known crucial for Elk-1 activity, a transcriptional factor regulating CIP2A expression, we hypothesized an oncogenic feedforward loop consisting of pERK/pElk-1/CIP2A/PP2A. This loop was validated by knockdown of PP2A and ectopic expression of Elk-1, showing reciprocal changes in loop members. In addition, ectopic expression of SET increased pAkt, pERK, pElk-1 and CIP2A expressions, suggesting a positive linkage between SET and CIP2A signaling. Moreover, TD19 disrupted this CIP2A-feedforward loop by restoring PP2A activity, demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity. Mechanistically, TD19 downregulated CIP2A mRNA via inhibiting pERK-mediated Elk-1 nuclear translocation thereby decreased Elk-1 binding to the CIP2A promoter.
INTERPRETATION: These findings suggested that a novel oncogenic CIP2A-feedforward loop contributes to TNBC progression and targeting SET to disrupt this oncogenic CIP2A loop showed therapeutic potential in TNBC.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the expression of P90 Ribosomal Protein S6 kinase 4 (RSK4) in colorectal cancer cells and its biological function.
METHODS: We selected early SW480 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines, using Lipofectamine™ 2000 transfection reagent carrying RSK4 gene transfected into cells to establish the colorectal cancer cell lines with high expression of RSK4. RT-PCR and western blot (WB) analysis confirmed RSK4 expression in SW480 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. We used methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) assay and flow cytometry to detect the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. After transfection of RSK4, the effect of RSK4 on the RNA levels associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer cells was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and the expression of EMT-related protein was detected by WB analysis.
RESULTS: After transfection of RSK4 overexpression, the MTT assay detected that RSK4 could significantly inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells in vitro; flow cytometry detected that S-phase cells decreased significantly, and G0/1 cells increased significantly (P < 0.05). The invasion ability of SW480 and HCT116 cells transfected with RSK4 was markedly lower than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Fluorescent quantitative PCR and WB analysis showed that the expression of EMT-associated molecular E-cadherin was remarkably increased and the expression of Snail was significantly decreased (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: RSK4 gene in colorectal cancer cell lines with low expression of RSK4 after transfection can inhibit the growth and invasion of tumor cells. RSK4 gene may inhibit EMT and inhibit metastasis of colorectal cancer cells, may be a potential tumor suppressor gene and inhibit tumor distant metastasis, and may provide the biological basis for new therapeutic targets.
Fujiki H, Sueoka E, Watanabe T, Suganuma MThe concept of the okadaic acid class of tumor promoters is revived in endogenous protein inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A, SET and CIP2A, in human cancers.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(12):2339-2349 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The okadaic acid class of tumor promoters, which are inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), induced tumor promotion in mouse skin, rat glandular stomach, and rat liver. Endogenous protein inhibitors of PP2A, SET and CIP2A, were up-regulated in various human cancers, so it is vital to review the essential mechanisms of tumor promotion by the okadaic acid class compounds, together with cancer progression by SET and CIP2A in humans.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The first part of this review introduces the okadaic acid class compounds and the mechanism of tumor promotion: (1) inhibition of PP1 and PP2A activities of the okadaic acid class compounds; (2) some topics of tumor promotion; (3) TNF-α gene expression as a central mediator in tumor promotion; (4) exposure to the okadaic acid class of tumor promoters in relation to human cancer. The second part emphasizes the overexpression of SET and CIP2A in cancer progression, and the anticancer activity of SET antagonists as follows: (5) isolation and characterization of SET; (6) isolation and characterization of CIP2A; (7) progression of leukemia with SET; (8) progression of breast cancer with SET and CIP2A; (9) progression of lung cancer with SET; (10) anti-carcinogenic effects of SET antagonists OP449 and FTY720; and also (11) TNF-α-inducing protein of Helicobacter pylori, which is a clinical example of the okadaic acid pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of endogenous protein inhibitors of PP2A, SET and CIP2A, is tightly linked to the progression of various human cancers, as well as Alzheimer's disease.
Li X, Dong M, Zhou J, et al.C6orf106 accelerates pancreatic cancer cell invasion and proliferation via activating ERK signaling pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 454(1-2):87-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
C6orf106 was highly expressed in lung and breast cancer, and proposed as clinicopathologic factor for the development of those types of cancer. However, its expression in pancreatic cancer and the mechanism that C6orf106 functions as an oncogene has not been confirmed. In the present study, we found that C6orf106 was also up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, C6orf106 expression was associated with advanced T stage (P = 0.010), positive regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.012), and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.006). In vitro experiments also showed that C6orf106 served a tumor enhancer in pancreatic cancer, through increasing the expression of Snail, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1, and reducing the expression of E-cadherin via activating extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)- p90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (P90RSK) signaling pathway. The addition of ERK inhibitor PD98059 counteracted the upregulation of Snail, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1, and restored the expression of E-cadherin, which indicated that C6orf106 was an upstream factor of ERK signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study indicates that C6orf106 facilitates invasion and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, likely via activating ERK-P90RSK signaling pathway.
Meyer HJ, Leifels L, Hamerla G, et al.ADC-histogram analysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Associations with different histopathological features including expression of EGFR, VEGF, HIF-1α, Her 2 and p53. A preliminary study.
Magn Reson Imaging. 2018; 54:214-217 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived from Diffusion-weighted images are able to reflect tumor microstructure, such as cellularity, extracellular matrix or proliferation potential. This present study sought to correlate prognostic relevant histopathologic parameters with ADC values derived from a whole lesion measurement in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with histological proven primary HNSCC were prospectively acquired. Histogram analysis was derived from ADC maps. In all cases, expression of Hif1-alpha, VEGF, EGFR, p53, p16, Her 2 were analyzed.
RESULTS: In the overall patient sample, ADCmax correlated with p53 expression (p = -0.446, p = 0.009) and ADCmode correlated with Her2-expression (p = -0.354, p = 0.047). In the p16 positive group there were several correlations. P25, P90 and entropy correlated with Hif1-alpha (p = -0.423, p = 0.05, p = -0.494, p = 0.019, p = 0.479, p = 0.024, respectively). Kurtosis correlated with P53 expression (p = -0.466, p = 0.029). For p16 negative carcinomas the following associations could be identified. Mode correlated with VEGF-expression (p = -0.657, p = 0.039). ADCmax, P75, P90, and Std correlated with p53-expression (p = -0.827, p = 0.002, p = -0.736, p = 0.01, p = -0.836, p = 0.001 and p = -0.70, p = 0.016, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences of ADC histogram parameters between p16 positive and p16 negative carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: ADC histogram values can reflect different histopathological features in HNSCC. Associations between ADC histogram analysis parameters and histopathology depend on p16 status.
Wang N, Zhou F, Guo J, et al.Euxanthone suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer via targeting CIP2A/PP2A pathway.
Life Sci. 2018; 209:498-506 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for over 600,000 deaths annually worldwide. Euxanthone is a flavonoid compound extracted from Polygala caudata, with documented anti-neoplastic actions. The current study aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of euxanthone in CRC.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to analyze the effect of euxanthone on the cell viability, and apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay. The in vitro migratory capacity was determined by wound healing and the invasiveness was assessed by Transwell assay. Western blotting was used to determine the level of relevant proteins. Furthermore, a CRC xenograft murine model was used to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of euxanthone in vivo. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was then performed to identify the potential targets of euxanthone. To validate the role of cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) in the anti-cancer effects of euxanthone, plasmid overexpressing CIP2A and shRNA targeting CIP2A were used in in vitro assays.
KEY FINDINGS: Euxanthone decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in CRC cells, in addition to restraining migration, invasion and EMT. Similarly, euxanthone also effectively suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. iTRAQ analysis identified CIP2A as the primary target responsible for the anticancer effects of euxanthone. The mediatory role of CIP2A was validated when the anticancer activity of euxanthone was significantly blocked by CIP2A overexpression, while CIP2A knockdown sensitized the CRC cells to euxanthone.
SIGNIFICANCE: Euxanthone exerts anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo in CRC by targeting CIP2A/PP2A signaling.
Zhang Y, Huang P, Liu X, et al.Polyphyllin I inhibits growth and invasion of cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells by partially inhibiting CIP2A/PP2A/Akt signaling axis.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2018; 137(3):305-312 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aberrant expression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) indicates poor prognosis and promotes EMT and metastasis. EMT, a crucial cellular process that occurs during cancer progression and metastasis, has been reported to promote drug resistance in several previous studies. Consequently, ongoing research has been focused on exploring therapeutic options for preventing EMT to delay or reverse drug resistance. Polyphyllin I (PPI) is a natural component extracted from Paris polyphylla that displays anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we investigated whether PPI can be used in the cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/DDP. The results demonstrated that PPI treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and EMT. TGF-β1 is known to promote EMT-induced metastasis in numerous tumor types. PPI inhibited the invasion of TGFβ1-induced SGC7901/DDP cells in vitro. PPI also increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of E-cadherin but decreased the expression levels of vimentin. Further examination of the mechanism revealed that the CIP2A/PP2A/Akt pathway is partially involved in this regulation of EMT-related biomarkers and invasion. Furthermore, xenograft tests also confirmed the antitumor effects of PPI in vivo. We propose that PPI could be developed as a candidate drug for treating cancer invasion and migration.
Poor response and chemotherapy resistance to cisplatin (DDP)‑based therapy frequently lead to treatment failure in advanced bladder cancer; however the underlying mechanism is extremely complex and unclear. Furthermore, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), a recently identified human oncoprotein, has been shown to play important regulatory roles in cancer cell survival. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation of CIP2A with sensitivity to DDP in bladder cancer cells. In the present study, knockdown of CIP2A was performed using short hairpin‑RNA. IC50 determination was used to estimate the chemosensitivity of cells to DDP. Apoptosis and DNA damage indicators were tested in vitro and in vivo to clarify the role of CIP2A in enhancing DDP sensitivity. We observed that CIP2A knockdown enhanced DDP sensitivity. CIP2A depletion accelerated the process of DNA damage caused by DDP treatment. Furthermore, DDP triggered inhibition of CIP2A by preventing AKT Ser473 phosphorylation. In vivo, CIP2A suppression increased the cytotoxicity of DDP, which resulted in a decrease in the subcutaneous tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Our findings revealed that the mechanism underlying the involvement of CIP2A in DDP sensitivity enhancement is that CIP2A mediates DDP‑induced cell apoptosis and DNA damage. CIP2A is a potential target to improve the response to DDP‑based therapy in bladder cancer patients.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an adaptive response to various stress conditions and plays emerging roles in cancer. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), one of the three major ER stress transducers, has been shown to contribute to chemoresistance by altering cancer cell survival. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an oncogene, and its expression has been correlated with the prognosis of patients with cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between ER stress-related ATF signaling and CIP2A. We found that CIP2A expression was positively correlated with ATF6 expression by analyzing publicly available RNA sequence data of patients with colorectal cancer (The Cancer Genome Atlas, TCGA). In addition, we demonstrated that tunicamycin-induced ER stress in vitro upregulated ATF6 and CIP2A. Mechanistically, we found that ATF6 directly bound to the CIP2A promoter and induced CIP2A gene expression, which contributed to colon cancer cell survival. Furthermore, knockdown of CIP2A reduced the viability of cells under ER stress. Most importantly, immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray from a colon cancer patient cohort showed that higher expression levels of ATF6 and CIP2A were associated with a trend toward poor prognosis. Taken together, our results show that ER stress-related ATF6 upregulates CIP2A and contributes to the prognosis of colon cancer. Targeting CIP2A may disrupt ER stress-mediated colon cancer cell survival and thus improve the prognosis of patients with colon cancer.
CIP2A, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, was initially recognized as an oncoprotein. Recently several studies revealed that CIP2A could function as a prognosis biomarker, however, the result remained not comprehensive, partly due to small number of patients included individually. Here we carried out a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the prognostic significance of CIP2A in solid tumors. All eligible studies were identified through searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science database. In this meta-analysis, 22 studies involving 4,579 participants were included, and we verified that CIP2A over-expression was significantly related with poor overall survival (pooled HR = 1.844, 95% CI = 1.528-2.225, P<0.001) and short disease free survival (pooled HR = 1.808, 95% CI = 1.591-2.055, P<0.001) in solid tumors. Additionally, subgroup analysis suggested that the trend of a poor overall survival with an increased CIP2A expression was present in East-Asian and European patients, as well as in lung cancer and colorectal cancer. To sum up, CIP2A over-expression was associated with poor survival in human solid tumors and might be a predictive factor of poor prognosis.
Etem EÖ, Ceylan GG, Özaydın S, et al.The increased expression of Piezo1 and Piezo2 ion channels in human and mouse bladder carcinoma.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(8):1025-1031 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Piezo1/2, a mechanically activated ion channel, is believed to play an important role in bladder carcinogenesis process. Piezo1/2 expression has not been previously reported in urinary bladder carcinoma, and little is known about its significance in bladder carcinogenesis.
OBJECTIVES: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the Piezo1 and Piezo2 expression as developmental in mouse bladder tissue and bladder cancer tissue of mice and humans.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The detection of developmental expression was performed on P0-P90 days in bladder tissue of Balb/c strain mice. Mice were divided into bladder cancer (n = 40) and control groups (n = 10). Bladder cancer in mice was created by using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). In the study, 60 human subjects were included, whose normal tissues were used as controls. After the histopathological evaluation, the expression of Piezo1/2 genes was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry in tumor and normal tissues.
RESULTS: In developmental period of the mice, Piezo1 expression increased on days 21 and 90, whereas Piezo2 expression increased on day 7 and decreased on day 90 in mouse bladder tissues. There was a significant increase in the expression of Piezo1/2 in both cancer groups compared to the control group. Piezo1 expression was significantly increased at tumor size, stage and grade. Piezo2 expression was upregulated in high grade tumors in human subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: The developmental changes of Piezo expression on specific days demonstrate the role of these channels in bladder cancer development. The dysfunction of Piezo1/2 expression may contribute to the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer by causing proliferative changes and angiogenesis. The expression of Piezo1/2 can provide new prognostic information for disease progression.
Czaplinska D, Gorska M, Mieczkowski K, et al.RSK1 promotes murine breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2018; 56(1):11-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), representing over 15% of all breast cancers, has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes. There is no effective targeted treatment available for the TNBC sufferers. Ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) have been previously proposed as drug targets for TNBC based on observations that 85% of these tumors express activated RSKs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein we examined an involvement of RSK1 (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1) in a regulation of TNBC growth and metastatic spread in an animal model, which closely imitates human disease. Mice were inoculated into mammary fat pad with 4T1 cells or their RSK1-depleted variant. We examined tumor growth and formation of pulmonary metastasis. Boyden chamber, wound healing and soft agarose assays were performed to evaluate cells invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth.
RESULTS: We found that RSK1 promoted tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. After 35 days all animals inoculated with control cells developed tumors while in the group injected with RSK1-negative cells, there were 75% tumor-bearing mice. Average tumor mass was estimated as 1.16 g and 0.37 g for RSK1-positive vs. -negative samples, respectively (p < 0.0001). Quantification of the macroscopic pulmonary metastases indicated that mice with RSK1-negative tumors developed approximately 85% less metastatic foci on the lung surface (p < 0.001). This has been supported by in vitro data presenting that RSK1 promoted anchorage-independent cell growth and migration. Moreover, RSK1 knock-down corresponded with decreased expression of cell cycle regulating proteins, i.e. cyclin D3, CDK6 and CDK4.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that RSK1 supports tumor growth and metastatic spread in vivo as well as in vitro migration and survival in non-adherent conditions. Further studies of RSK1 involvement in TNBC progression may substantiate our findings, laying the foundations for development of anti-RSK1-based therapeutic strategies in the management of patients with TNBC.
In most mammalian cells, the primary cilium is a microtubule-enriched protrusion of the plasma membrane and acts as a key coordinator of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis. The primary cilium is generated from the basal body, and cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), the overexpression of which stabilizes c-MYC to support the malignant growth of tumor cells, is localized in the centrosome. Here, we show that CIP2A overexpression induces primary cilia disassembly through the activation of Aurora A kinase, and CIP2A depletion increases ciliated cells and cilia length in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE1) cells. CIP2A depletion also shifts metabolism toward the glycolytic pathway by altering the expression of metabolic genes related to glycolysis. However, glycolytic activation in CIP2A-depleted cells does not depend on cilia assembly, even though enhanced cilia assembly alone activates glycolytic metabolism. Collectively, these data suggest that CIP2A promotes primary cilia disassembly and that CIP2A depletion induces metabolic reprogramming independent of primary cilia.
Yang X, Qu K, Tao J, et al.Inhibition of CIP2A attenuates tumor progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting cellular senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 495(2):1807-1814 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CIP2A is a recent identified oncogene that inhibits protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and stabilizes c-Myc in cancer cells. To investigate the potential oncogenic role and prognostic value of CIP2A, we comprehensively analyzed the CIP2A expression levels in pan-cancer and observed high expression level of CIP2A in majority cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on a validation cohort including 60 HCC and 20 non-tumorous tissue samples, we further confirmed the high mRNA and protein expression levels of CIP2A in HCC, and found high CIP2A mRNA expression level was associated with unfavorable overall and recurrence-free survival in patients with HCC. Mechanistic investigations revealed that inhibition of CIP2A significantly attenuated cellular proliferation in vitro and tumourigenicity in vivo. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that CIP2A might be involved in regulating cell cycle. Our experimental data further confirmed CIP2A knockdown induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. We found accumulated cellular senescence in HCC cells with CIP2A knockdown, companying expression changes of senescence associated proteins (p21, CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, MCM7 and FoxM1). Mechanistically, CIP2A knockdown repressed FoxM1 expression and induced FoxM1 dephosphorylation. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A by phosphatase inhibitor rescued the repression of FoxM1. Taken together, our results showed that CIP2A was highly expressed in HCC. Inhibition of CIP2A induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular senescence via repressing FoxM1 transcriptional activity, suggesting a potential anti-cancer target for patients with HCC.
Accumulating studies have provided concrete evidence that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) is a key signaling molecule involved in cell proliferation, transformation, and cancer development. RSK2 is known to be an etiological gene of Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (CLS). Recently, signaling analysis and molecular biological approaches have provided concrete evidence that RSK2 plays an essential role in human cancers. Here, we will extensively discuss signaling pathways regulating RSK2 activity, the role of RSK2 in human cancer development, inhibitors suppressing RSK2 activity, and why RSK2 is an important target to develop drugs for human cancers.
Chen XD, Tang SX, Zhang JH, et al.CIP2A, an oncoprotein, is associated with cell proliferation, invasion and migration in laryngeal carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(2):1005-1012 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in otorhinolaryngology. Moreover, experimental investigation showed that cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) expressed highly in various cancers. Therefore, we investigated whether CIP2A can regulate the proliferation, invasion and migration by RNA interference in Hep-2 cells and AMC-NH-8 cells and further affect the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. Overexpression of CIP2A was evaluated in tumor tissue and laryngeal cancer cell lines (Hep-2 and AMC-NH-8 cells) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot assay. In a follow-up experiment, we confirmed that CIP2A siRNA effectively suppressed the cell proliferation at 48 and 72 h, and arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 in Hep-2 cells and AMC-NH-8 cells. The invasion and migration of cell in siRNA CIP2A group were markedly inhibited. Moreover, the experimental results showed that the expression levels of invasion- and migration-related genes, including E-cadherin, metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) and matrix metalloproteinases-2/9 (MMP-2/9), were regulated by CIP2A siRNA. Phosphorylation levels of PI3K and AKT proteins were reduced by CIP2A siRNA. Importantly, it suggested signaling through PI3K/Akt as a critical mechanism by which CIP2A siRNA may suppress cell proliferation, invasion and migration in laryngeal carcinoma cells.
Liu X, Duan C, Ji J, et al.Cucurbitacin B induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing CIP2A/PP2A/mTORC1 signaling axis in human cisplatin resistant gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(1):271-278 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a human oncoprotein that is overexpressed in multiple kinds of tumors including gastric cancer (GC). Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) over-activation is detected in GC and many other cancers. Previous study found that CIP2A/mTORC1 controls cell growth and autophagy through direct association. CIP2A plays an 'oncogenic nexus' in several cancer types to participate in the tumorigenic transformation and chemoresistance. In the present study, we investigated whether Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a natural compound found in Cucurbitaceae, can be used in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human GC cell line SGC7901/DDP. Results demonstrated that CuB treatment significantly suppressed SGC7901/DDP cell proliferation, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, and autophagy. The activation of autophagy was mediated through CuB-induced inhibition of mTORC1. Furthermore, CuB inhibited mTORC1 via the activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) which is mediated by CIP2A inhibition. These findings indicated that CuB can inhibit the proliferation, induce caspase-dependent apoptosis, and autophagy of SGC7901/DDP cells by suppressing CIP2A/PP2A/mTORC1 signaling axis. Thus, CuB may be a novel effective candidate to treat DDP-resistant human GC cells.
BACKGROUND: Fibronectin (FN) is associated with tumorigenesis and progression in bladder cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms causing this remain largely unknown. Furthermore, cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) has been shown to play important regulatory roles in cancer proliferation. Here, we investigated whether FN regulates CIP2A expression to promote bladder cancer cell proliferation.
METHODS: The correlations of stromal FN with CIP2A and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression were analyzed in a cohort bladder cancer patients. The roles of FN and CIP2A in regulating bladder cancer cell proliferation were evaluated in cell and animal models. Cycloheximide treatment was used to determine the effects of CIP2A on β-catenin stabilization. The CIP2A-β-catenin interaction was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprcipitation.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that stromal FN expression correlated positively with the levels of CIP2A and PCNA in bladder cancer tissues. Meanwhile, in human bladder cancer cell lines (T24 and J82), exogenous FN significantly promoted cell proliferation, however, CIP2A depletion inhibited this process. Furthermore, the interaction between CIP2A and β-catenin enhanced the stabilization of β-catenin, which was involved in FN-induced cell proliferation. In vivo, CIP2A depletion repressed FN-accelerated subcutaneous xenograft growth rates.
CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal that CIP2A is a crucial mediator of FN-induced bladder cancer cell proliferation via enhancing the stabilization of β-catenin. Promisingly, FN and CIP2A could serve as potential therapeutic targets for bladder cancer treatment.
Signaling pathways can generate different cellular responses to the same cytotoxic agents. Current quantitative models for predicting these differential responses are usually based on large numbers of intracellular gene products or signals at different levels of signaling cascades. Here, we report a study to predict cellular sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) using high-throughput cellular imaging and machine-learning methods. We measured and compared 1170 protein phosphorylation events in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines based on different signals, subcellular regions, and time points within one hour of TNFα treatment. We found that two spatiotemporal-specific changes in an intermediate signaling protein, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), are sufficient to predict the TNFα sensitivity of these cell lines. Our models could also predict the combined effects of TNFα and other kinase inhibitors, many of which are not known to target RSK directly. Therefore, early spatiotemporal-specific changes in intermediate signals are sufficient to represent the complex cellular responses to these perturbations. Our study provides a general framework for the development of rapid, signaling-based cytotoxicity screens that may be used to predict cellular sensitivity to a cytotoxic agent, or identify co-treatments that may sensitize or desensitize cells to the agent.
Approximately 25% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have
Burton LJ, Dougan J, Jones J, et al.Targeting the Nuclear Cathepsin L CCAAT Displacement Protein/Cut Homeobox Transcription Factor-Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells with the Z-FY-CHO Inhibitor.
Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 37(5) [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes tumor migration and invasion by downregulating epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and upregulating mesenchymal markers such as vimentin. Cathepsin L (Cat L) is a cysteine protease that can proteolytically activate CCAAT displacement protein/cut homeobox transcription factor (CUX1). We hypothesized that nuclear Cat L may promote EMT via CUX1 and that this could be antagonized with the Cat L-specific inhibitor Z-FY-CHO. Mesenchymal prostate (ARCaP-M and ARCaP-E overexpressing Snail) and breast (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 overexpressing Snail) cancer cells expressed lower E-cadherin activity, higher Snail, vimentin, and Cat L activity, and a p110/p90 active CUX1 form, compared to epithelial prostate (ARCaP-E and ARCaP-Neo) and breast (MCF-7 and MCF-7 Neo) cancer cells. There was increased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter in mesenchymal cells compared to epithelial prostate and breast cells. Treatment of mesenchymal cells with the Cat L inhibitor Z-FY-CHO led to nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of Cat L, decreased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter, reversed EMT, and decreased cell migration/invasion. Overall, our novel data suggest that a positive feedback loop between Snail-nuclear Cat L-CUX1 drives EMT, which can be antagonized by Z-FY-CHO. Therefore, Z-FY-CHO may be an important therapeutic tool to antagonize EMT and cancer progression.
Mounting evidence supports a major role for the Na
Liu H, Qiu H, Song Y, et al.Cip2a promotes cell cycle progression in triple-negative breast cancer cells by regulating the expression and nuclear export of p27Kip1.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(14):1952-1964 [PubMed
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is very aggressive and currently has no specific therapeutic targets; as a consequence, TNBC exhibits poor clinical outcome. In this study, we showed that cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (Cip2a) represents a promising target in TNBC because Cip2a was highly expressed in TNBC cells and tumor tissues, and its expression showed an inverse correlation with overall survival in patients with TNBC. We found that inhibition of Cip2a in TNBC cells induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, inhibited cell proliferation and delayed tumor growth in the xenograft model. Moreover, Cip2a markedly decreased the expression and nuclear localization of p27Kip1 and this is critical for the ability of Cip2a to promote TNBC progression. Mechanistically, our studies showed that Cip2a promoted p27Kip1 phosphoration at Ser10 via inhibiting Akt-associated PP2A activity, which seems to relocalize p27Kip1 to the cytoplasm in TNBC cells. On the other hand, Cip2a also recruited c-myc to mediate the transcriptional inhibition of p27Kip1. Notably, we observed negative correlation between Cip2a and p27Kip1 expression in TNBC specimens. In addition, our data showed that Cip2a depletion could sensitize TNBC to PARP inhibition. Collectively, these data suggested that Cip2a effectively promotes TNBC cell cycle progression and tumor growth via regulation of PP2A/c-myc/p27Kip1 signaling, which could serve as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC patients.
Genistein is a soy isoflavone with phytoestrogen and tyrosine kinase inhibitory properties. High intake of soy/genistein has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Despite the advances in genistein-mediated antitumor studies, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated genistein-induced regulation of the cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), a novel oncogene frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, and its functional impact on genistein-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. We demonstrated that genistein induced downregulation of CIP2A in MCF-7-C3 and T47D breast cancer cells, which was correlated with its growth inhibition and apoptotic activities. Overexpression of CIP2A attenuated, whereas CIP2A knockdown sensitized, genistein-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. We further showed that genistein-induced downregulation of CIP2A involved both transcriptional suppression and proteasomal degradation. In particular, genistein at higher concentrations induced concurrent downregulation of E2F1 and CIP2A. Overexpression of E2F1 attenuated genistein-induced downregulation of CIP2A mRNA, indicating the role of E2F1 in genistein-induced transcriptional suppression of CIP2A. Taken together, our results identified CIP2A as a functional target of genistein and demonstrated that modulation of E2F1-mediated transcriptional regulation of CIP2A contributes to its downregulation. These data advance our understanding of genistein-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis, and support further investigation on CIP2A as a therapeutic target of relevant anticancer agents.
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a bone and soft tissue sarcoma affecting mostly children and young adults. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a well-known target of EWS/FLI1, the main driver of ES, with an oncogenic role in ES. We have previously described how CAV1 is able to induce metastasis in ES via matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In the present study we showed how CAV1 silencing in ES reduced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Accordingly, chemical inhibition of MEK1/2 resulted in reduction in MMP-9 expression and activity that correlated with reduced migration and invasion. IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 1 (IQGAP1) silencing reduced MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, IQGAP1 silenced cells showed a marked decrease in their migratory and invasive capacity. We demonstrated that CAV1 and IQGAP1 localize in close proximity at the cellular edge, thus IQGAP1 could be the connecting node between CAV1 and MEK/ERK in ES metastatic phenotype. Analysis of the phosphorylation profile of CAV1-silenced cells showed a decrease of p-ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6). RPS6 can be phosphorylated by p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK) proteins. CAV1-silenced cells showed reduced levels of p-RSK1 and treatment with U0126 provoked the same effect. Despite not affecting ERK1/2 and RPS6 phosphorylation status neither MMP-9 expression nor activity, RSK1 silencing resulted in a reduced migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and reduced incidence of metastases in vivo in a novel orthotopic model. The present work provides new insights into CAV1-driven metastatic process in ES unveiling novel key nodes.
Zheng Z, Qiao Z, Chen W, et al.CIP2A regulates proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(3):2705-9 [PubMed
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the most common causes of mortality from hematological malignancy in China. Recent studies have demonstrated that cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) may exhibit a role in promoting the growth of cancer; however, the function of CIP2A in MM remains unknown. In the present study, the expression and molecular mechanism underlying the effects of CIP2A in patients with MM and in MM cell lines were elucidated. Firstly, the expression of CIP2A was detected in patients with MM and in MM cell lines by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, silencing of CIP2A with short hairpin RNA was performed in MM cells, and the impact on the proliferation and apoptosis of RPMI‑8226 cells was analyzed (as endogenous CIP2A is highly expressed in RPMI‑8226 cell lines compared with other cells). CIP2A was significantly elevated in patients with MM and in MM cell lines, and silencing of CIP2A could inhibit the proliferation ability of RPMI‑8226 cells in vitro. In addition, CIP2A knockdown induced apoptosis and led to substantial reduction of c‑Myc protein levels in MM cell lines. This study suggested that CIP2A inhibition may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with MM.
Cai F, Zhang L, Xiao X, et al.Cucurbitacin B reverses multidrug resistance by targeting CIP2A to reactivate protein phosphatase 2A in MCF-7/adriamycin cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):1180-6 [PubMed
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Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a human oncoprotein that is overexpressed in various tumors. A previous study found that CIP2A expression is associated with doxorubicin (Dox) resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether cucurbitacin B (CuB), a natural anticancer compound found in Cucurbitaceae, reversed multidrug resistance (MDR) and downregulated CIP2A expression in MCF-7/Adriamycin (MCF-7/Adr) cells, a human breast multidrug-resistant cancer cell line. CuB treatment significantly suppressed MCF-7/Adr cell proliferation, and reversed Dox resistance. CuB treatment also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, decreased phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt). The suppression of pAkt was mediated through CuB-induced activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Furthermore, CuB activated PP2A through the suppression of CIP2A. Silencing CIP2A enhanced CuB-induced growth inhibition, apoptosis and MDR inhibition in MCF-7/Adr cells. In conclusion, we found that enhancement of PP2A activity by inhibition of CIP2A promotes the reversal of MDR induced by CuB.
Abdulrahman N, Jaballah M, Poomakkoth N, et al.Inhibition of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase attenuates cell migration and proliferation of the human lung adenocarcinoma through phospho-GSK-3β and osteopontin.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 418(1-2):21-9 [PubMed
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p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) constitutes a family of serine/threonine kinases that have been shown to be involved in cell proliferation of various malignancies via direct or indirect effects on the cell-cycle machinery. We investigated the role of p90RSK in lung adenocarcinomas and whether the inhibition of p90RSK diminishes cancer progression. Moreover, we investigated the involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and osteopontin (OPN) in the p90RSK-induced lung adenocarcinoma progression. p90RSK, OPN, and GSK-3β protein expressions were examined in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line in the presence and absence of BI-D1870 (BID), a p90RSK inhibitor. Gene expression of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic markers namely Bcl2 and Bax, respectively, were studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line was characterized for cell proliferation using the MTT assay and cell migration using the scratch migration assay. Our study revealed that total RSK1 protein expression is over expressed in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, an effect which is significantly reduced upon pretreatment with BID (69.32 ± 12.41 % of control; P < 0.05). The inhibition of p90RSK also showed a significant suppression of cell proliferation (54.3 ± 6.73 % of control; P < 0.01) and cell migration (187.90 ± 16.10 % of control; P < 0.01). Treatment of the A549 cells with BID regressed the expression of Bcl2 mRNA (56.92 ± 6.07 % of control; P < 0.01). BID also regressed protein expression of OPN (79.57 ± 5.32 % of control; P < 0.05) and phospho-GSK-3β (73.04 ± 8.95 % of control; P < 0.05). The p90RSK has an essential role in promoting tumor growth and proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). BID may serve as an alternative cancer treatment in NSCLC.