Gene Summary

Gene:NCOA2; nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Aliases: SRC2, TIF2, GRIP1, KAT13C, NCoA-2, bHLHe75
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene functions as a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear hormone receptors, including steroid, thyroid, retinoid, and vitamin D receptors. The encoded protein acts as an intermediary factor for the ligand-dependent activity of these nuclear receptors, which regulate their target genes upon binding of cognate response elements. This gene has been found to be involved in translocations that result in fusions with other genes in various cancers, including the lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A) gene in acute myeloid leukemia, the ETS variant 6 (ETV6) gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and the hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1 (HEY1) gene in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NCOA2 (cancer-related)

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Viset T, Heim S
Gene fusions AHRR-NCOA2, NCOA2-ETV4, ETV4-AHRR, P4HA2-TBCK, and TBCK-P4HA2 resulting from the translocations t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) and t(4;5)(q24;q31) in a soft tissue angiofibroma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2455-2462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We present an angiofibroma of soft tissue with the karyotype 46,XY,t(4;5)(q24;q31),t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21)[8]/46,XY,t(1;14)(p31;q32)[2]/46,XY[3]. RNA‑sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in‑frame TBCK‑P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out‑of‑frame P4HA2‑TBCK fusion transcripts. The putative TBCK‑P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese‑like domain, and the Tre‑2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4‑hydroxylase. The t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) three‑way chromosomal translocation targeted AHRR (on 5p15), NCOA2 (on 8q13), and ETV4 (on 17q21) generating the in‑frame fusions AHRR‑NCOA2 and NCOA2‑ETV4 as well as an out‑of‑frame ETV4‑AHRR transcript. In the AHRR‑NCOA2 protein, the C‑terminal part of AHRR is replaced by the C‑terminal part of NCOA2 which contains two activation domains. The NCOA2‑ETV4 protein would contain the helix‑loop‑helix, PAS_9 and PAS_11, CITED domains, the SRC‑1 domain of NCOA2 and the ETS DNA‑binding domain of ETV4. No fusion gene corresponding to t(1;14)(p31;q32) was found. Our findings indicate that, in spite of the recurrence of AHRR‑NCOA2 in angiofibroma of soft tissue, additional genetic events (or fusion genes) might be required for the development of this tumor.

Minchenko DO, Riabovol OO, Tsymbal DO, et al.
Inhibition of IRE1 signaling affects the expression of genes encoded glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells.
Endocr Regul. 2016; 50(3):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1), which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and some related proteins (SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, NNT) and their hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of the glioma growth.
METHODS: The expression of NR3C1,SGK1,SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells, transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia, was studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function up-regulates the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells in comparison with the control glioma cells, with more significant changes for NR3C1, SGK1, and NNT genes. At the same time, the expression of SGK3 gene is strongly down-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1. We have also shown that hypoxia increases the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes but decreases SGK3 and NCOA1 genes expression in control glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in U87 glioma cells enhances the eff ect of hypoxia on the expression of SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes, but decreases the sensitivity of NR3C1 gene to hypoxic condition. Furthermore, the expression of NCOA1 gene is resistant to hypoxia in control glioma cells, but NCOA2 and ARHGAP35 genes are resistant to this condition in glioma cells without functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation demonstrate that inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function affects the expression of NR3C1, SGK1, SGK3, NCOA1, NCOA2, ARHGAP35, and NNT genes in U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and that all these genes are regulated by hypoxia preferentially through IRE1 signaling pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Jeong JW, Kono M, Hasegawa-Murakami Y, et al.
Angiofibroma of Soft Tissue on the Cheek: Diagnosis Confirmed by Gene Rearrangement in NCOA2.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2017; 97(1):133-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
is missing (Short communication).

Zhang X, Peng D, Xi Y, et al.
G9a-mediated methylation of ERα links the PHF20/MOF histone acetyltransferase complex to hormonal gene expression.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10810 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The euchromatin histone methyltransferase 2 (also known as G9a) methylates histone H3K9 to repress gene expression, but it also acts as a coactivator for some nuclear receptors. The molecular mechanisms underlying this activation remain elusive. Here we show that G9a functions as a coactivator of the endogenous oestrogen receptor α (ERα) in breast cancer cells in a histone methylation-independent manner. G9a dimethylates ERα at K235 both in vitro and in cells. Dimethylation of ERαK235 is recognized by the Tudor domain of PHF20, which recruits the MOF histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex to ERα target gene promoters to deposit histone H4K16 acetylation promoting active transcription. Together, our data suggest the molecular mechanism by which G9a functions as an ERα coactivator. Along with the PHF20/MOF complex, G9a links the crosstalk between ERα methylation and histone acetylation that governs the epigenetic regulation of hormonal gene expression.

Silva MP, Barros-Silva JD, Vieira J, et al.
NCOA2 is a candidate target gene of 8q gain associated with clinically aggressive prostate cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(4):365-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate carcinomas harboring 8q gains are associated with poor clinical outcome, but the target genes of this genomic alteration remain to be unveiled. In this study, we aimed to identify potential 8q target genes associated with clinically aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), genome-wide mRNA expression, and protein expression analyses. Using FISH, we first characterized the relative copy number of 8q (assessed with MYC flanking probes) of a series of 50 radical prostatectomy specimens, with available global gene expression data and typed for E26 transformation specific (ETS) rearrangements, and then compared the gene expression profile of PCa subsets with and without 8q24 gain using Significance Analysis of Microarrays. In the subset of tumors with ERG fusion genes (ERG+), five genes were identified as significantly overexpressed (false discovery rate [FDR], ≤ 5%) in tumors with relative 8q24 gain, namely VN1R1, ZNF417, CDON, IKZF2, and NCOA2. Of these, only NCOA2 is located in 8q (8q13.3), showing a statistically higher mRNA expression in the subgroup with relative 8q gain, both in the ERG+ subgroup and in the whole series (P = 0.000152 and P = 0.008, respectively). Combining all the cases with NCOA2 overexpression, either at the mRNA or at the protein level, we identified a group of tumors with NCOA2 copy-number increase, independently of ETS status and relative 8q24 gain. Furthermore, for the first time, we detected a structural rearrangement involving NCOA2 in PCa. These findings warrant further studies with larger series to evaluate if NCOA2 relative copy-number gain presents prognostic value independently of the well-established poor prognosis associated with MYC relative copy-number gain.

Cheung N, Fung TK, Zeisig BB, et al.
Targeting Aberrant Epigenetic Networks Mediated by PRMT1 and KDM4C in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(1):32-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional deregulation plays a major role in acute myeloid leukemia, and therefore identification of epigenetic modifying enzymes essential for the maintenance of oncogenic transcription programs holds the key to better understanding of the biology and designing effective therapeutic strategies for the disease. Here we provide experimental evidence for the functional involvement and therapeutic potential of targeting PRMT1, an H4R3 methyltransferase, in various MLL and non-MLL leukemias. PRMT1 is necessary but not sufficient for leukemic transformation, which requires co-recruitment of KDM4C, an H3K9 demethylase, by chimeric transcription factors to mediate epigenetic reprogramming. Pharmacological inhibition of KDM4C/PRMT1 suppresses transcription and transformation ability of MLL fusions and MOZ-TIF2, revealing a tractable aberrant epigenetic circuitry mediated by KDM4C and PRMT1 in acute leukemia.

Alaggio R, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
A Molecular Study of Pediatric Spindle and Sclerosing Rhabdomyosarcoma: Identification of Novel and Recurrent VGLL2-related Fusions in Infantile Cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(2):224-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma (ScRMS) and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (SRMS) have been recently reclassified as a stand-alone pathologic entity, separate from embryonal RMS. Genetically, a subset of the congenital cases display NCOA2 gene rearrangements, whereas tumors occurring in older children or adults harbor MYOD1 gene mutations with or without coexisting PIK3CA mutations. Despite these recent advances, a significant number of tumors lack known genetic alterations. In this study we sought to investigate a large group of pediatric SRMS/ScRMS, spanning a diverse clinical and pathologic spectrum, by using a combined fluorescence in situ hybridization, targeted DNA, and whole-transcriptome sequencing methodology for a more definitive molecular classification. A total of 26 SRMS and ScRMS cases were selected from the 2 participating institutions for the molecular analysis. Ten of the 11 congenital/infantile SRMS showed recurrent fusion genes: with novel VGLL2 rearrangements seen in 7 (63%), including VGLL2-CITED2 fusion in 4 and VGLL2-NCOA2 in 2 cases. Three (27%) cases harbored the previously described NCOA2 gene fusions, including TEAD1-NCOA2 in 2 and SRF-NCOA2 in 1. All fusion-positive congenital/infantile SRMS patients with available long-term follow-up were alive and well, none developing distant metastases. Among the remaining 15 SRMS patients older than 1 year, 10 (67%) showed MYOD1 L122R mutations, most of them following a fatal outcome despite an aggressive multimodality treatment. All 4 cases harboring coexisting MYOD1/PIK3CA mutations shared sclerosing morphology. All 5 fusion/mutation-negative SRMS cases presented as intra-abdominal or paratesticular lesions.

Villagran MA, Gutierrez-Castro FA, Pantoja DF, et al.
Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 467(4):1039-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells.

Nilsson EM, Laursen KB, Whitchurch J, et al.
MiR137 is an androgen regulated repressor of an extended network of transcriptional coregulators.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):35710-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) play crucial roles in male development and the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The AR functions as a ligand dependent transcription factor which recruits multiple enzymatically distinct epigenetic coregulators to facilitate transcriptional regulation in response to androgens. Over-expression of AR coregulators is implicated in cancer. We have shown that over-expression of KDM1A, an AR coregulator, contributes to PCa recurrence by promoting VEGFA expression. However the mechanism(s) whereby AR coregulators are increased in PCa remain poorly understood. In this study we show that the microRNA hsa-miR-137 (miR137) tumor suppressor regulates expression of an extended network of transcriptional coregulators including KDM1A/LSD1/AOF1, KDM2A/JHDM1A/FBXL11, KDM4A/JMJD2A, KDM5B JARID1B/PLU1, KDM7A/JHDM1D/PHF8, MED1/TRAP220/DRIP205 and NCoA2/SRC2/TIF2. We show that expression of miR137 is increased by androgen in LnCaP androgen PCa responsive cells and that the miR137 locus is epigenetically silenced in androgen LnCaP:C4-2 and PC3 independent PCa cells. In addition, we found that restoration of miR137 expression down-regulates expression of VEGFA, an AR target gene, which suggests a role of miR137 loss also in cancer angiogenesis. Finally we show functional inhibition of miR137 function enhanced androgen induction of PSA/KLK3 expression. Our data indicate that miR137 functions as an androgen regulated suppressor of androgen signaling by modulating expression of an extended network of transcriptional coregulators. Therefore, we propose that epigenetic silencing of miR137 is an important event in promoting androgen signaling during prostate carcinogenesis and progression.

Suh JH, Chattopadhyay A, Sieglaff DH, et al.
Similarities and Distinctions in Actions of Surface-Directed and Classic Androgen Receptor Antagonists.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0137103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) surface-directed antagonist MJC13 inhibits AR function and proliferation of prostate cancer (PC) cells. These effects are related to arrest of an AR/chaperone complex in the cytoplasm. Here, we compared MJC13 and classic AR antagonists such as flutamide and bicalutamide. Microarray analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR reveals that MJC13 and flutamide inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent genes in LNCaP PC cells. Both compounds are equally effective on a genome wide basis and as effective as second generation AR antagonists (MDV3100, ARN-509) at selected genes. MJC13 inhibits AR binding to the prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoter more strongly than flutamide, consistent with different mechanisms of action. Examination of efficacy of MJC13 in conditions that reflect aspects castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) reveals that it inhibits flutamide activation of an AR mutant (ART877A) that emerges during flutamide withdrawal syndrome, but displays greatly restricted gene-specific activity in 22Rv1 cells that express a constitutively active truncated AR and is inactive against glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which can co-opt androgen-dependent signaling networks in CRPC. Importantly, MJC13 inhibits AR interactions with SRC2 and β-catenin in the nucleus and, unlike flutamide, strongly inhibits amplification of AR activity obtained with transfected SRC2 and β-catenin. MJC13 also inhibits DHT and β-catenin-enhanced cell division in LNCaP cells. Thus, a surface-directed antagonist can block AR activity in some conditions in which a classic antagonist fails and may display utility in particular forms of CRPC.

Espín-Pérez A, de Kok TM, Jennen DG, et al.
Distinct genotype-dependent differences in transcriptome responses in humans exposed to environmental carcinogens.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(10):1154-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Considering genetic variability in population studies focusing on the health risk assessment of exposure to environmental carcinogens may provide improved insights in individual environmental cancer risks. Therefore, the current study aims to determine the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the relationship between exposure and gene expression, by identifying exposure-dependently coregulated genes and genetic pathways. Statistical analysis based on mixed models, was performed to relate gene expression data from 134 subjects to exposure measurements of multiple carcinogens, 28 polymorphisms, age, sex and biomarkers of cancer risk. We evaluated the combined exposure to cadmium, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene and 1-OH-pyrene, and the outcome was biologically interpreted by using ConsensusPathDB, thereby focusing on carcinogenesis-related pathways. We found generic and carcinogenesis-related pathways deregulated in both sexes, but males showed a stronger transcriptome response than females. We highlighted NOTCH1, CBR1, ITGB3, ITGA4, ADI1, HES1, NCOA2 and SMARCA2 in view of their direct link with cancer development. Two of these, NOTCH1 and ITGB3, are also known to respond to PCBs and cadmium chloride exposure in rodents and to lead in humans. Subjects carrying a high number of risk alleles appear more responsive to combined carcinogen exposure with respect to the induced expression of some of these cancer-related genes, which may be indicative of increased cancer risk as a consequence of environmental factors.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, et al.
The recurrent chromosomal translocation t(12;18)(q14~15;q12~21) causes the fusion gene HMGA2-SETBP1 and HMGA2 expression in lipoma and osteochondrolipoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(3):884-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumors in adults. They often carry chromosome aberrations involving 12q13~15 leading to rearrangements of the HMGA2 gene in 12q14.3, with breakpoints occurring within or outside of the gene. Here, we present eleven lipomas and one osteochondrolipoma with a novel recurrent chromosome aberration, t(12;18)(q14~15;q12~21). Molecular studies on eight of the tumors showed that full-length HMGA2 transcript was expressed in three and a chimeric HMGA2 transcript in five of them. In three lipomas and in the osteochondrolipoma, exons 1-3 of HMGA2 were fused to a sequence of SETBP1 on 18q12.3 or an intragenic sequence from 18q12.3 circa 10 kbp distal to SETBP1. In another lipoma, exons 1-4 of HMGA2 were fused to an intronic sequence of GRIP1 which maps to chromosome band 12q14.3, distal to HMGA2. The ensuing HMGA2 fusion transcripts code for putative proteins which contain amino acid residues of HMGA2 corresponding to exons 1-3 (or exons 1-4 in one case) followed by amino acid residues corresponding to the fused sequences. Thus, the pattern is similar to the rearrangements of HMGA2 found in other lipomas, i.e., disruption of the HMGA2 locus leaves intact exons 1-3 which encode the AT-hooks domains and separates them from the 3'-terminal part of the gene. The fact that the examined osteochondrolipoma had a t(12;18) and a HMGA2-SETBP1 fusion identical to the findings in the much more common ordinary lipomas, underscores the close developmental relationship between the two tumor types.

Schulten HJ, Al-Mansouri Z, Baghallab I, et al.
Comparison of microarray expression profiles between follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas of the thyroid.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16 Suppl 1:S7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and follicular adenoma (FA) are histologically closely related tumors and differential diagnosis remains challenging. RNA expression profiling is an established method to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying the histopathology of diseases.
METHODS: BRAF mutational status was established by direct sequencing the hotspot region of exon 15 in six FVPTCs and seven FAs. Whole-transcript arrays were employed to generate expression profiles in six FVPTCs, seven FAs and seven normal thyroid tissue samples. The threshold of significance for differential expression on the gene and exon level was a p-value with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 and a fold change cutoff > 2. Two dimensional average linkage hierarchical clustering was generated using differentially expressed genes. Network, pathway, and alternative splicing utilities were employed to interpret significance of expression data on the gene and exon level.
RESULTS: Expression profiling in FVPTCs and FAs, all of which were negative for a BRAF mutation, revealed 55 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed, 40 of which were upregulated and 15 downregulated in FVPTCs vs. FAs. Amongst the most significantly upregulated genes in FVPTCs were GABA B receptor, 2 (GABBR2), neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM), extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST2), and retinoid X receptor, gamma (RXRG). The most significantly downregulated genes in FVPTCs included interaction protein for cytohesin exchange factors 1 (IPCEF1), G protein-coupled receptor 155 (GPR155), Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4), chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1), and glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1). Alternative splicing analysis detected 87 genes, 52 of which were also included in the list of 55 differentially expressed genes. Network analysis demonstrated multiple interactions for a number of differentially expressed molecules including vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor (VDR), SMAD family member 9 (SMAD9), v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT), and RXRG.
CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies using whole-transcript expression arrays to compare expression profiles between FVPTCs and FAs. A set of differentially expressed genes has been identified that contains valuable candidate genes to differentiate both histopathologically related tumor types on the molecular level.

Sajjad EA, Sikora K, Paciejewski T, et al.
Intraparenchymal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the frontal lobe--a case report and molecular detection of specific gene fusions from archival FFPE sample.
Clin Neuropathol. 2015 Sep-Oct; 34(5):288-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor of cartilaginous origin characterized by its bimorphic pattern composed of highly undifferentiated small round cells separated by islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. It exhibits higher malignancy and earlier occurrence in comparison to classic chondrosarcomas. Recently identified HEY1-NCOA2 and IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusions confirm their distinct molecular origin and pose a promising diagnostic marker. The majority of cases arise from craniofacial bones. In this study, we present a rare case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma encompassed within the brain parenchyma of the frontal lobe without any dural or bone attachment. We demonstrate histopathological findings and confirm the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion in a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival sample using simple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. IRF2BP2-CDX1 gene fusion was absent in the analyzed sample. The clinical follow-up is also presented with a review of treatment modalities for this entity.

Yu J, Wu WK, Liang Q, et al.
Disruption of NCOA2 by recurrent fusion with LACTB2 in colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(2):187-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing were used to discover novel gene fusions in a case of colon cancer. A tumor-specific LACTB2-NCOA2 fusion originating from intra-chromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 8 was identified at both DNA and RNA levels. Unlike conventional oncogenic chimeric proteins, the fusion product lacks functional domain from respective genes, indicative of an amorphic rearrangement. This chimeric LACTB2-NCOA2 transcript was detected in 6 out of 99 (6.1%) colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, where NCOA2 was significantly downregulated. Enforced expression of wild-type NCOA2 but not the LACTB2-NCOA2 fusion protein impaired the pro-tumorigenic phenotypes of CRC cells, whereas knockdown of endogenous NCOA2 in normal colonocytes had opposite effects. Mechanistically, NCOA2 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling through simultaneously upregulating inhibitors and downregulating stimulators of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Collectively, our data supports that NCOA2 is a novel negative growth regulatory gene repressing the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in CRC, where recurrent fusion with LACTB2 contributes to its disruption.

Dasgupta S, Putluri N, Long W, et al.
Coactivator SRC-2-dependent metabolic reprogramming mediates prostate cancer survival and metastasis.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(3):1174-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic pathway reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cell growth and survival and supports the anabolic and energetic demands of these rapidly dividing cells. The underlying regulators of the tumor metabolic program are not completely understood; however, these factors have potential as cancer therapy targets. Here, we determined that upregulation of the oncogenic transcriptional coregulator steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2), also known as NCOA2, drives glutamine-dependent de novo lipogenesis, which supports tumor cell survival and eventual metastasis. SRC-2 was highly elevated in a variety of tumors, especially in prostate cancer, in which SRC-2 was amplified and overexpressed in 37% of the metastatic tumors evaluated. In prostate cancer cells, SRC-2 stimulated reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to generate citrate via retrograde TCA cycling, promoting lipogenesis and reprogramming of glutamine metabolism. Glutamine-mediated nutrient signaling activated SRC-2 via mTORC1-dependent phosphorylation, which then triggered downstream transcriptional responses by coactivating SREBP-1, which subsequently enhanced lipogenic enzyme expression. Metabolic profiling of human prostate tumors identified a massive increase in the SRC-2-driven metabolic signature in metastatic tumors compared with that seen in localized tumors, further implicating SRC-2 as a prominent metabolic coordinator of cancer metastasis. Moreover, SRC-2 inhibition in murine models severely attenuated the survival, growth, and metastasis of prostate cancer. Together, these results suggest that the SRC-2 pathway has potential as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Moriya K, Katayama S, Onuma M, et al.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma diagnosed on FISH for HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene.
Pediatr Int. 2014; 56(5):e55-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) is an extremely rare subtype of chondrosarcoma that has a small round-cell sarcoma with focal cartilaginous differentiation, often with a pericytomatous vascular pattern. The non-cartilaginous components are usually dominant, and such lesions might be confused with other small round-cell tumors. Recently, a tumor-specific HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene was identified in MC. Here we report the case of a 9-year-old boy who was diagnosed with MC by detection of HEY1-NCOA2 fusion signals in almost 50% of tumor cells in tissue sections on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this way, the tumor was definitively diagnosed as MC. This case suggests that the detection of the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene on FISH is of diagnostic value for MC.

Weber D, Wiese C, Gessler M
Hey bHLH transcription factors.
Curr Top Dev Biol. 2014; 110:285-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hey bHLH transcription factors are direct targets of canonical Notch signaling. The three mammalian Hey proteins are closely related to Hes proteins and they primarily repress target genes by either directly binding to core promoters or by inhibiting other transcriptional activators. Individual candidate gene approaches and systematic screens identified a number of Hey target genes, which often encode other transcription factors involved in various developmental processes. Here, we review data on interaction partners and target genes and conclude with a model for Hey target gene regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how expression of Hey proteins affects processes like cell fate decisions and differentiation, e.g., in cardiovascular, skeletal, and neural development or oncogenesis and how this relates to the observed developmental defects and phenotypes observed in various knockout mice.

Fukuda Y, Motoi T, Kato I, et al.
Angiofibroma of soft tissue with fibrohistiocytic features and intratumor genetic heterogeneity of NCOA2 gene rearrangement revealed by chromogenic in situ hybridization: a case report.
Pathol Int. 2014; 64(5):237-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a recently described soft tissue tumor that is characterized by fibroblastic spindle tumor cells with arborizing capillary proliferation. Cytogenetically, it harbors a specific fusion gene involving the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. We report here additional new pathological and cytogenetic features. A soft tissue tumor in the left thigh of 73-year-old female was investigated. Microscopically, histiocytoid tumor cells were scattered in an edematous background with branching capillary proliferation. Immunohistochemically, we identified that the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers such as CD68 and CD163. Rearrangement of the NCOA2 gene was detected successfully by chromogenic in situ hybridization; however, abnormal signal patterns were observed in only a small subset of tumor cells. Unlike typical tumors with bland spindle cells, the present tumor needs to be distinguished from myxoid, dendritic and clear cell tumors. This case may suggest that angiofibroma of soft tissue is not in the center of the fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor group, but rather shows a fibrohistiocytic nature. We also found intratumor genetic heterogeneity, which is uncommon for a translocation-associated tumor. Therefore, careful evaluation is required to detect the gene rearrangement in this tumor entity.

Sugita S, Aoyama T, Kondo K, et al.
Diagnostic utility of NCOA2 fluorescence in situ hybridization and Stat6 immunohistochemistry staining for soft tissue angiofibroma and morphologically similar fibrovascular tumors.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(8):1588-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Soft tissue angiofibroma (STA), a recently suggested new histologic entity, is a benign fibrovascular soft tissue tumor composed of bland spindle-shaped tumor cells with abundant collagenous to myxoid stroma and branching small vessels. The lesion has a characteristic AHRR-NCOA2 fusion gene derived from chromosomal translocation of t(5;8)(p15;q13). However, morphologically similar tumors containing abundant fibrovascular and myxoid stroma can complicate diagnosis. We designed an original DNA probe for detecting NCOA2 split signals on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and estimated its utility with 20 fibrovascular tumors: 4 each of STAs, solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs), and cellular angiofibromas and 3 each of low-grade myxofibrosarcomas, myxoid liposarcomas, and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas. We also performed FISH for 13q14 deletion and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, retinoblastoma protein, and MUC-4 expression. Furthermore, IHC for Stat6 was conducted in the 20 cases analyzed by FISH and in an additional 26 SFTs. We found moderate to strong nuclear Stat6 expression in all SFTs but no expression in the other tumors. Both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expressions were observed in STAs, SFTs, and cellular angiofibromas. Expression of retinoblastoma protein was found in less than 10% of cells in all tumor types except myxoid liposarcoma. The low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas were strongly positive for MUC-4. All STAs showed NCOA2 split signals on FISH. All tumors, regardless of histologic type, had 13q14 deletion. The NCOA2 FISH technique is a practical method for confirming STA diagnosis. The combination of NCOA2 FISH and Stat6 IHC proved effective for the differential diagnosis of STA, even when using small biopsy specimens.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, et al.
Chromosome aberrations and HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene in a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):40-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are fast-growing tumors that account for 2-10% of primary chondrosarcomas. Cytogenetic information is restricted to 12 cases that did not show a specific aberration pattern. Recently, two fusion genes were described in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas: a recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 found in tumors that had not been cytogenetically characterized and an IRF2BP2-CDX1 found in a tumor carrying a t(1;5)(q42;q32) translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. Here, we present the cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in which the patient had two histologically indistinguishable tumor lesions, one in the neck and one in the thigh. An abnormal clone with the G-banding karyotype 46,XX,add(6)(q23),add(8)(p23),del(10)(p11),+12,-15[6] was found in the neck tumor whereas a normal karyotype, 46,XX, was found in the tumor of the thigh. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing showed that exon 4 of HEY1 was fused to exon 13 of NCOA2 in the sample from the thigh lesion; we did not have spare material to perform a similar analysis of the neck tumor. Examining the published karyotypes we observed numerical or structural aberrations of chromosome 8 in the majority of the karyotyped mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. Chromosome 8 was also structurally affected in the present study. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind this nonrandom involvement are unknown, but the presence on 8q of two genes, HEY1 and NCOA2, now known to be involved in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma tumorigenesis is, of course, suggestive.

Agaram NP, Chen CL, Zhang L, et al.
Recurrent MYOD1 mutations in pediatric and adult sclerosing and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas: evidence for a common pathogenesis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(9):779-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sclerosing and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are rare types of RMS recently reclassified as a stand-alone pathologic entity, separate from embryonal RMS (ERMS). Although sclerosing and spindle cell RMS share clinical and morphologic features, a pathogenetic link based on shared molecular alterations has not been established. Spindle cell RMS in children have been associated with a less aggressive clinical course compared to adults. Recently, recurrent MYOD1 mutations were described in 44% of adult spindle cell RMS, but no pediatric tumors or sclerosing RMS were studied for comparison. Thus, we investigated 16 RMS (5 sclerosing and 11 spindle cell) in children and adults for the presence of MYOD1 mutations by targeted Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Remarkably, all 5 sclerosing RMS and 4 of 11 spindle cell RMS showed the MYOD1 p.L122R hot-spot mutation. Of the five pediatric tumors, 2/2 sclerosing RMS and 2/3 spindle cell RMS showed MYOD1 mutations. Three of nine MYOD1-mutant RMS showed coexistent PIK3CA mutations, while no MDM2 amplifications were identified. All four pediatric MYOD1-mutated RMS patients died of the disease at 12-35 months following diagnosis. In conclusion, spindle cell and sclerosing RMS show recurrent MYOD1 mutations, in keeping with a single pathologic entity, regardless of age at presentation. This group however, is distinct from the infantile RMS associated with NCOA2 fusions. Although our study suggests that pediatric MYOD1-mutant RMS follow an aggressive behavior with high mortality, further studies are required to confirm this finding.

Yan F, Yu Y, Chow DC, et al.
Identification of verrucarin a as a potent and selective steroid receptor coactivator-3 small molecule inhibitor.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Members of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family are overexpressed in numerous types of cancers. In particular, steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) has been recognized as a critical coactivator associated with tumor initiation, progression, recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance where it interacts with multiple nuclear receptors and other transcription factors to enhance their transcriptional activities and facilitate cross-talk between pathways that stimulate cancer progression. Because of its central role as an integrator of growth signaling pathways, development of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) against SRCs have the potential to simultaneously disrupt multiple signal transduction networks and transcription factors involved in tumor progression. Here, high-throughput screening was performed to identify compounds able to inhibit the intrinsic transcriptional activities of the three members of the SRC family. Verrucarin A was identified as a SMI that can selectively promote the degradation of the SRC-3 protein, while affecting SRC-1 and SRC-2 to a lesser extent and having no impact on CARM-1 and p300 protein levels. Verrucarin A was cytotoxic toward multiple types of cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations, but not toward normal liver cells. Moreover, verrucarin A was able to inhibit expression of the SRC-3 target genes MMP2 and MMP13 and attenuated cancer cell migration. We found that verrucarin A effectively sensitized cancer cells to treatment with other anti-cancer drugs. Binding studies revealed that verrucarin A does not bind directly to SRC-3, suggesting that it inhibits SRC-3 through its interaction with an upstream effector. In conclusion, unlike other SRC SMIs characterized by our laboratory that directly bind to SRCs, verrucarin A is a potent and selective SMI that blocks SRC-3 function through an indirect mechanism.

Jangani M, Poolman TM, Matthews L, et al.
The methyltransferase WBSCR22/Merm1 enhances glucocorticoid receptor function and is regulated in lung inflammation and cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(13):8931-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glucocorticoids (GC) regulate cell fate and immune function. We identified the metastasis-promoting methyltransferase, metastasis-related methyltransferase 1 (WBSCR22/Merm1) as a novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulator relevant to human disease. Merm1 binds the GR co-activator GRIP1 but not GR. Loss of Merm1 impaired both GR transactivation and transrepression by reducing GR recruitment to its binding sites. This was accompanied by loss of GR-dependent H3K4Me3 at a well characterized promoter. Inflammation promotes GC resistance, in part through the actions of TNFα and IFNγ. These cytokines suppressed Merm1 protein expression by driving ubiquitination of two conserved lysine residues. Restoration of Merm1 expression rescued GR transactivation. Cytokine suppression of Merm1 and of GR function was also seen in human lung explants. In addition, striking loss of Merm1 protein was observed in both inflammatory and neoplastic human lung pathologies. In conclusion, Merm1 is a novel regulator of chromatin structure affecting GR recruitment and function, contributing to loss of GC sensitivity in inflammation, with suppressed expression in pulmonary disease.

Wagner M, Koslowski M, Paret C, et al.
NCOA3 is a selective co-activator of estrogen receptor α-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:570 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1) gene encodes a membrane-associated protein which is selectively expressed in the placental syncytiotrophoblast and in murine fetal tissues during embryonic development. In contrast to its transcriptional repression in all other adult normal tissues, PLAC1 is frequently activated and highly expressed in a variety of human cancers, in particular breast cancer, where it associates with estrogen receptor α (ERα) positivity. In a previous study, we showed that ERα-signaling in breast cancer cells transactivates PLAC1 expression in a non-classical pathway. As the members of the p160/nuclear receptor co-activator (NCOA) family, NCOA1, NCOA2 and NCOA3 are known to be overexpressed in breast cancer and essentially involved in estrogen-mediated cancer cell proliferation we asked if these proteins are involved in the ERα-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Applying quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), Western Blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we analyzed the involvement of NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3 in the ERα-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. RNAi-mediated silencing of NCOA3, qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and ERα activation assays were used to examine the role of NCOA3 in the ERα-mediated regulation of PLAC1 in further detail. Transcript expression of NCOA3 and PLAC1 in 48 human breast cancer samples was examined by qRT-PCR and statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test.
RESULTS: We detected selective recruitment of NCOA3 but not NCOA1 or NCOA2 to the PLAC1 promoter only in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrate that silencing of NCOA3 results in a remarkable decrease of PLAC1 expression levels in MCF-7 cells which cannot be restored by treatment with estradiol (E₂). Moreover, significant higher transcript levels of PLAC1 were found only in ERα-positive human breast cancer samples which also show a NCOA3 overexpression.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified NCOA3 as a selective co-activator of ERα-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our data introduce PLAC1 as novel target gene of NCOA3 in breast cancer, supporting the important role of both factors in breast cancer biology.

Shima H, Yamagata K, Aikawa Y, et al.
Bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 is critical for leukemogenesis associated with MOZ-TIF2 fusion.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 99(1):21-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations that involve the monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) gene are typically associated with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and often predict a poor prognosis. Overexpression of HOXA9, HOXA10, and MEIS1 was observed in AML patients with MOZ fusions. To assess the functional role of HOX upregulation in leukemogenesis by MOZ-TIF2, we focused on bromodomain-PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), a component of the MOZ complex that carries out histone acetylation for generating and maintaining proper epigenetic programs in hematopoietic cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 forms a stable complex with BRPF1, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MOZ-TIF2 and BRPF1 interact with HOX genes in MOZ-TIF2-induced AML cells. Depletion of BRPF1 decreased the MOZ localization on HOX genes, resulting in loss of transformation ability induced by MOZ-TIF2. Furthermore, mutant MOZ-TIF2 engineered to lack histone acetyltransferase activity was incapable of deregulating HOX genes as well as initiating leukemia. These data indicate that MOZ-TIF2/BRPF1 complex upregulates HOX genes mediated by MOZ-dependent histone acetylation, leading to the development of leukemia. We suggest that activation of BRPF1/HOX pathway through MOZ HAT activity is critical for MOZ-TIF2 to induce AML.

De Mattos-Arruda L, Bidard FC, Won HH, et al.
Establishing the origin of metastatic deposits in the setting of multiple primary malignancies: the role of massively parallel sequencing.
Mol Oncol. 2014; 8(1):150-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to define whether targeted capture massively parallel sequencing can be employed to determine the origin of metastatic deposits in cases of synchronous primary malignancies and metastases in distinct anatomical sites. DNA samples extracted from synchronous tumor masses in the breast, adnexal, and pelvic-peritoneal regions from a 62-year-old BRCA1 germline mutation carrier were subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing using a platform comprising 300 cancer genes known to harbor actionable mutations. In addition to BRCA1 germline mutations, all lesions harbored somatic loss of the BRCA1 wild-type allele and TP53 somatic mutations. The primary breast cancer displayed a TP53 frameshift (p.Q317fs) mutation, whereas and the adnexal lesion harbored a TP53 nonsense (p.R213*) mutation, consistent with a diagnosis of two independent primary tumors (i.e. breast and ovarian cancer). The adnexal tumor and all pelvic-peritoneal implants harbored identical TP53 (p.R213*) and NCOA2 (p.G952R) somatic mutations. Evidence of genetic heterogeneity within and between lesions was observed, both in terms of somatic mutations and copy number aberrations. The repertoires of somatic genetic aberrations found in the breast, ovarian, and pelvic-peritoneal lesions provided direct evidence in support of the distinct origin of the breast and ovarian cancers, and established that the pelvic-peritoneal implants were clonally related to the ovarian lesion. These observations were consistent with those obtained with immunohistochemical analyses employing markers to differentiate between carcinomas of the breast and ovary, including WT1 and PAX8. Our results on this case of a patient with BRCA1-mutant breast and ovarian cancer demonstrate that massively parallel sequencing may constitute a useful tool to define the relationship, clonality and intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity between primary tumor masses and their metastatic deposits in patients with multiple primary malignancies and synchronous metastases.

Yoshida H, Miyachi M, Sakamoto K, et al.
PAX3-NCOA2 fusion gene has a dual role in promoting the proliferation and inhibiting the myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(49):5601-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed a complex chromosomal translocation in a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and showed that it generates the fusion gene PAX3 (paired box 3)-NCOA2 (nuclear receptor coactivator 2). To understand the role of this translocation in RMS tumorigenesis, we established two types of stable mouse myoblast C2C12 cell lines expressing PAX3-NCOA2 and PAX3-FOXO1A (forkhead box O1A), respectively. Compared with control cells, PAX3-NCOA2 cells grew faster, were more motile, were less anchorage dependent, progressed more quickly through the G1/S phase of cell cycle and showed greater transcriptional activation of the PAX3 consensus-binding site. However, PAX3-NCOA2 cells proliferated more slowly and differentiated more weakly than did PAX3-FOXO1A cells. Both PAX3-NCOA2 cells and PAX3-FOXO1A cells formed tumors in nude mice, although the PAX3-NCOA2-induced tumors grew more slowly. Our results may explain why NCOA2 rearrangement is mainly found in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, which has a better prognosis than alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which expresses the PAX3-FOXO1A fusion gene. These results indicate that the PAX3-NCOA2 fusion gene has a dual role in the tumorigenesis of RMS: promotion of the proliferation and inhibition of the myogenic differentiation of RMS cells.

Tan JA, Bai S, Grossman G, et al.
Mechanism of androgen receptor corepression by CKβBP2/CRIF1, a multifunctional transcription factor coregulator expressed in prostate cancer.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 382(1):302-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor coregulator Casein kinase IIβ-binding protein 2 or CR6-interacting factor 1 (CKβBP2/CRIF1) binds the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells and in response to dihydrotestosterone localizes with AR on the prostate-specific antigen gene enhancer, but does not bind DNA suggesting CKβBP2/CRIF1 localization in chromatin is determined by AR. In this study we show also that CKβBP2/CRIF1 inhibits wild-type AR and AR N-terminal transcriptional activity, binds to the AR C-terminal region, inhibits interaction of the AR N- and C-terminal domains (N/C interaction) and competes with p160 coactivator binding to the AR C-terminal domain, suggesting CKβBP2/CRIF1 interferes with AR activation functions 1 and 2. CKβBP2/CRIF1 is expressed mainly in stromal cells of benign prostatic hyperplasia and in stroma and epithelium of prostate cancer. CKβBP2/CRIF1 protein is increased in epithelium of androgen-dependent prostate cancer compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia and decreased slightly in castration recurrent epithelium compared to androgen-dependent prostate cancer. The multifunctional CKβBP2/CRIF1 is a STAT3 interacting protein and reported to be a coactivator of STAT3. CKβBP2/CRIF1 is expressed with STAT3 in prostate cancer where STAT3 may help to offset the AR repressor effect of CKβBP2/CRIF1 and allow AR regulation of prostate cancer growth.

Yepuru M, Wu Z, Kulkarni A, et al.
Steroidogenic enzyme AKR1C3 is a novel androgen receptor-selective coactivator that promotes prostate cancer growth.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(20):5613-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) may occur by several mechanisms including the upregulation of androgen receptor (AR), coactivators, and steroidogenic enzymes, including aldo keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). AKR1C3 converts weaker 17-keto androgenic precursors to more potent 17-hydroxy androgens and is consistently the major upregulated gene in CRPC. The studies in the manuscript were undertaken to examine the role of AKR1C3 in AR function and CRPC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: LNCaP cells stably transfected with AKR1C3 and VCaP cells endogenously expressing AKR1C3 were used to understand the effect of AKR1C3 on prostate cancer cell and tumor growth in nude mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, and co-immunoprecipitation studies were used to understand the recruitment of AKR1C3, intracellular localization of AKR1C3 and its interaction with AR in cells, tumor xenograft, and in Gleason sum 7 CRPC tissues. Cells were transiently transfected for AR transactivation. Novel small-molecule AKR1C3-selective inhibitors were synthesized and characterized in androgen-dependent prostate cancer and CRPC models.
RESULTS: We identified unique AR-selective coactivator- and prostate cancer growth-promoting roles for AKR1C3. AKR1C3 overexpression promotes the growth of both androgen-dependent prostate cancer and CRPC xenografts, with concomitant reactivation of androgen signaling. AKR1C3 interacted with AR in prostate cancer cells, xenografts, and in human CRPC samples and was recruited to the promoter of an androgen-responsive gene. The coactivator and growth-promoting functions of AKR1C3 were inhibited by an AKR1C3-selective competitive inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS: AKR1C3 is a novel AR-selective enzymatic coactivator and may represent the first of more than 200 known nuclear hormone receptor coactivators that can be pharmacologically targeted.

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