Gene Summary

Gene:NFKB2; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 2
Aliases: p52, p100, H2TF1, LYT10, CVID10, LYT-10, NF-kB2, p49/p100
Summary:This gene encodes a subunit of the transcription factor complex nuclear factor-kappa-B (NFkB). The NFkB complex is expressed in numerous cell types and functions as a central activator of genes involved in inflammation and immune function. The protein encoded by this gene can function as both a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on its dimerization partner. The p100 full-length protein is co-translationally processed into a p52 active form. Chromosomal rearrangements and translocations of this locus have been observed in B cell lymphomas, some of which may result in the formation of fusion proteins. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (28)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Mutation
  • Protein Binding
  • NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
  • Base Sequence
  • Lymphoma
  • Western Blotting
  • Transcription
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Translocation
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Transcription Factors
  • Promoter Regions
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Oncogenes
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Skin Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • NF-kappa B
  • Cyclin D1
  • Cancer DNA
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transfection
  • Chromosome 10
  • Transcription Factor RelB
  • Apoptosis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NFKB2 (cancer-related)

Dewert N, Amschler K, Lorenz V, Schön MP
The IKKα-dependent non-canonical pathway of NF-κB activation is constitutively active and modulates progression-related functions in a subset of human melanomas.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2016; 308(10):733-742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Owing to activation of several resistance-mediating pathways including NF-κB signaling, metastasized melanoma is almost universally resistant against chemotherapy. Given that blocking of NF-κB either by proteasome-, pan-IKK- or selective IKKβ-inhibitors may increase the susceptibility of melanoma cells to chemotherapy, we have assessed the role of the second kinase within the IKK complex, IKKα. While expression of IKKα and overall activation of NF-κB were heterogeneous, the IKKα-specific p100/p52 processing was detected in a small subset of melanomas (1/9 primary and 1/12 metastatic melanomas) as well as in 1/8 melanoma cell lines. Down-modulation of IKKα by siRNA resulted in diminution of doxorubicin-induced NF-κB activation, constitutive and TNFα-stimulated expression of CXCL8 and ICAM-1, and cell migration. In contrast, overexpression of IKKα in melanoma cells did not significantly affect progression-related functions. Thus, IKKα may be a worthwhile target only in selected individualized therapies but not in general melanoma therapy.

de Oliveira KA, Kaergel E, Heinig M, et al.
A roadmap of constitutive NF-κB activity in Hodgkin lymphoma: Dominant roles of p50 and p52 revealed by genome-wide analyses.
Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NF-κB is widely involved in lymphoid malignancies; however, the functional roles and specific transcriptomes of NF-κB dimers with distinct subunit compositions have been unclear.
METHODS: Using combined ChIP-sequencing and microarray analyses, we determined the cistromes and target gene signatures of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB species in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells.
RESULTS: We found that the various NF-κB subunits are recruited to regions with redundant κB motifs in a large number of genes. Yet canonical and non-canonical NF-κB dimers up- and downregulate gene sets that are both distinct and overlapping, and are associated with diverse biological functions. p50 and p52 are formed through NIK-dependent p105 and p100 precursor processing in HL cells and are the predominant DNA binding subunits. Logistic regression analyses of combinations of the p50, p52, RelA, and RelB subunits in binding regions that have been assigned to genes they regulate reveal a cross-contribution of p52 and p50 to canonical and non-canonical transcriptomes. These analyses also indicate that the subunit occupancy pattern of NF-κB binding regions and their distance from the genes they regulate are determinants of gene activation versus repression. The pathway-specific signatures of activated and repressed genes distinguish HL from other NF-κB-associated lymphoid malignancies and inversely correlate with gene expression patterns in normal germinal center B cells, which are presumed to be the precursors of HL cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide insights that are relevant for lymphomas with constitutive NF-κB activation and generally for the decoding of the mechanisms of differential gene regulation through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling.

Lin YW, Lee LM, Lee WJ, et al.
Melatonin inhibits MMP-9 transactivation and renal cell carcinoma metastasis by suppressing Akt-MAPKs pathway and NF-κB DNA-binding activity.
J Pineal Res. 2016; 60(3):277-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all urological malignancies because of its potent metastasis potential. Melatonin exerts multiple tumor-suppressing activities through antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and anti-angiogenic actions and has been tested in clinical trials. However, the antimetastastic effect of melatonin and its underlying mechanism in RCC are unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin at the pharmacologic concentration (0.5-2 mm) considerably reduced the migration and invasion of RCC cells (Caki-1 and Achn). Furthermore, we found that melatonin suppressed metastasis of Caki-1 cells in spontaneous and experimental metastasis animal models. Mechanistic investigations revealed that melatonin transcriptionally inhibited MMP-9 by reducing p65- and p52-DNA-binding activities. Moreover, the Akt-mediated JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways were involved in melatonin-regulated MMP-9 transactivation and cell motility. Clinical samples revealed an inverse correlation between melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and MMP-9 expression in normal kidney and RCC tissues. In addition, a higher survival rate was found in MTNR1A(high) /MMP-9(low) patients than in MTNR1A(low) /MMP-9(high) patients. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of melatonin-induced molecular regulation in suppressing RCC metastasis and suggest that melatonin has potential therapeutic applications for metastastic RCC.

Gao CC, Xu XL, Li F, et al.
Silencing pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) increases the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7555-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) is a new oncogene that activates signaling pathways that play a critical role in resistance to gemcitabine. We thus speculated that PAUF also plays a role in resistance to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells. We established BxPC-3 cell lines with stable PAUF knockdown (BxPC-3_shPAUF) and controls (BxPC-3_shCtrl) and evaluated sensitivity to gemcitabine in vitro by MTT and flow cytometry. We established a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer to examine PAUF function in gemcitabine resistance in vivo. Gene chip microarrays were performed to identify differentially expressed genes in BxPC-3_shPAUF and BxPC-3_shCtrl cells. Silencing PAUF increased the sensitivity of BxPC-3 cells to gemcitabine in vitro and in vivo. PAUF-knockdown BxPC-3 cell lines treated with gemcitabine showed increased proliferation inhibition and apoptosis compared with controls. Gemcitabine exhibited a more pronounced effect on reduction of BxPC-3_shPAUF tumors than BxPC-3_shCtrl tumors. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assays confirmed a significantly higher apoptotic rate of BXPC-3_shPAUF tumors compared with BXPC-3_shCtrl tumors. Gene array showed that PAUF function in gemcitabine sensitivity might involve MRP2, MRP3, MDR1, PIK3R1, and NFkB2 genes. PAUF could be considered as a key molecular target for sensitizing pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine.

Griffin GK, Sholl LM, Lindeman NI, et al.
Targeted genomic sequencing of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma reveals recurrent alterations in NF-κB regulatory genes.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(1):67-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm with a variable and unpredictable clinical course. The genetic alterations that drive tumorigenesis in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma are largely unknown. One recent study performed BRAF sequencing and found V600E mutations in 5 of 27 (19%) cases. No other recurrent genetic alterations have been reported. The aim of the present study was to identify somatic alterations in follicular dendritic cell sarcoma by targeted sequencing of a panel of 309 known cancer-associated genes. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 13 cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and submitted for hybrid capture-based enrichment and massively parallel sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Recurrent loss-of-function alterations were observed in tumor suppressor genes involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB activation (5 of 13 cases, 38%) and cell cycle progression (4 of 13 cases, 31%). Loss-of-function alterations in the NF-κB regulatory pathway included three cases with frameshift mutations in NFKBIA and two cases with bi-allelic loss of CYLD. Both cases with CYLD loss were metastases and carried concurrent alterations in at least one cell cycle regulatory gene. Alterations in cell cycle regulatory genes included two cases with bi-allelic loss of CDKN2A, one case with bi-allelic loss of RB1, and one case with a nonsense mutation in RB1. Last, focal copy-number gain of chromosome 9p24 including the genes CD274 (PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2) was noted in three cases, which represents a well-described mechanism of immune evasion in cancer. These findings provide the first insight into the unique genomic landscape of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and suggest shared mechanisms of tumorigenesis with a subset of other tumor types, notably B-cell lymphomas.

Leonard B, McCann JL, Starrett GJ, et al.
The PKC/NF-κB signaling pathway induces APOBEC3B expression in multiple human cancers.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(21):4538-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the antiviral DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B has been linked to somatic mutagenesis in many cancers. Human papillomavirus infection accounts for APOBEC3B upregulation in cervical and head/neck cancers, but the mechanisms underlying nonviral malignancies are unclear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways responsible for APOBEC3B upregulation. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the diacylglycerol mimic phorbol-myristic acid resulted in specific and dose-responsive increases in APOBEC3B expression and activity, which could then be strongly suppressed by PKC or NF-κB inhibition. PKC activation caused the recruitment of RELB, but not RELA, to the APOBEC3B promoter, implicating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Notably, PKC was required for APOBEC3B upregulation in cancer cell lines derived from multiple tumor types. By revealing how APOBEC3B is upregulated in many cancers, our findings suggest that PKC and NF-κB inhibitors may be repositioned to suppress cancer mutagenesis, dampen tumor evolution, and decrease the probability of adverse outcomes, such as drug resistance and metastasis.

Li Y, Zhou QL, Sun W, et al.
Non-canonical NF-κB signalling and ETS1/2 cooperatively drive C250T mutant TERT promoter activation.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(10):1327-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional reactivation of TERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is necessary for cancer progression in about 90% of human cancers. The recent discovery of two prevalent somatic mutations-C250T and C228T-in the TERT promoter in various cancers has provided insight into a plausible mechanism of TERT reactivation. Although the two hotspot mutations create a similar binding motif for E-twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors, we show that they are functionally distinct, in that the C250T unlike the C228T TERT promoter is driven by non-canonical NF-κB signalling. We demonstrate that binding of ETS to the mutant TERT promoter is insufficient in driving its transcription but this process requires non-canonical NF-κB signalling for stimulus responsiveness, sustained telomerase activity and hence cancer progression. Our findings highlight a previously unrecognized role of non-canonical NF-κB signalling in tumorigenesis and elucidate a fundamental mechanism for TERT reactivation in cancers, which if targeted could have immense therapeutic implications.

Dorman SN, Baranova K, Knoll JH, et al.
Genomic signatures for paclitaxel and gemcitabine resistance in breast cancer derived by machine learning.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(1):85-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasingly, the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy agents for breast cancer has been related to changes in the genomic profile of tumors. We investigated correspondence between growth inhibitory concentrations of paclitaxel and gemcitabine (GI50) and gene copy number, mutation, and expression first in breast cancer cell lines and then in patients. Genes encoding direct targets of these drugs, metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and those previously associated with chemoresistance to paclitaxel (n = 31 genes) or gemcitabine (n = 18) were analyzed. A multi-factorial, principal component analysis (MFA) indicated expression was the strongest indicator of sensitivity for paclitaxel, and copy number and expression were informative for gemcitabine. The factors were combined using support vector machines (SVM). Expression of 15 genes (ABCC10, BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, BMF, FGF2, FN1, MAP4, MAPT, NFKB2, SLCO1B3, TLR6, TMEM243, TWIST1, and CSAG2) predicted cell line sensitivity to paclitaxel with 82% accuracy. Copy number profiles of 3 genes (ABCC10, NT5C, TYMS) together with expression of 7 genes (ABCB1, ABCC10, CMPK1, DCTD, NME1, RRM1, RRM2B), predicted gemcitabine response with 85% accuracy. Expression and copy number studies of two independent sets of patients with known responses were then analyzed with these models. These included tumor blocks from 21 patients that were treated with both paclitaxel and gemcitabine, and 319 patients on paclitaxel and anthracycline therapy. A new paclitaxel SVM was derived from an 11-gene subset since data for 4 of the original genes was unavailable. The accuracy of this SVM was similar in cell lines and tumor blocks (70-71%). The gemcitabine SVM exhibited 62% prediction accuracy for the tumor blocks due to the presence of samples with poor nucleic acid integrity. Nevertheless, the paclitaxel SVM predicted sensitivity in 84% of patients with no or minimal residual disease.

Gautrey H, Jackson C, Dittrich AL, et al.
SRSF3 and hnRNP H1 regulate a splicing hotspot of HER2 in breast cancer cells.
RNA Biol. 2015; 12(10):1139-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the oncogene HER2 occurs in 20-30% of invasive breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. A number of different splice variants of HER2 have been identified which produce functionally different proteins. Previously these splice variants have been investigated separately, but in the present study we collectively look at the expression and regulation of a group of HER2 splice variants produced by a splicing hotspot. Initial investigation in a cohort of tumor samples showed large variations in HER2 variant expression between patient samples. RNA interference studies identified 2 splicing factors involved in the regulation of splicing within this region, hnRNP H1 and SRSF3. siRNA targeting hnRNP H1 increases levels of X5 and the oncogenic variant Δ16HER2. Furthermore RNA chromatography assays demonstrated binding of hnRNP H1 to RNA in this region. Additionally the proto-oncogene SRSF3 was also identified as an important regulator of splicing with SRSF3 knockdown resulting in changes in all the splice variants located at the hotspot. Most notably knockdown of SRSF3 resulted in a switch from the oncogenic Δ16HER2 to p100 which inhibits cell proliferation. Binding of SRSF3 to RNA within this region was also demonstrated by RNA chromatography and more specifically 2 SRSF3 binding sites were identified within exon 15. SRSF3 and hnRNP H1 are the first splicing factors identified which regulate the production of these functionally distinct HER2 splice variants and therefore maybe important for the regulation of HER2 signaling.

Ok CY, Xu-Monette ZY, Li L, et al.
Evaluation of NF-κB subunit expression and signaling pathway activation demonstrates that p52 expression confers better outcome in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in association with CD30 and BCL2 functions.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(9):1202-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor with a well-described oncogenic role. Study for each of five NF-κB pathway subunits was only reported on small cohorts in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this large cohort (n=533) of patients with de novo DLBCL, we evaluated the protein expression frequency, gene expression signature, and clinical implication for each of these five NF-κB subunits. Expression of p50, p52, p65, RELB, and c-Rel was 34%, 12%, 20%, 14%, and 23%, whereas p50/p65, p50/c-Rel, and p52/RELB expression was 11%, 11%, and 3%, respectively. NF-κB subunits were expressed in both germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, but p50 and p50/c-Rel were associated with ABC-DLBCL. p52, RELB, and p52/RELB expressions were associated with CD30 expression. p52 expression was negatively associated with BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) expression and BCL2 rearrangement. Although p52 expression was associated with better progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.0170), singular expression of the remaining NF-κB subunits alone did not show significant prognostic impact in the overall DLBCL cohort. Expression of p52/RELB was associated with better overall survival (OS) and PFS (P=0.0307 and P=0.0247). When cases were stratified into GCB- and ABC-DLBCL, p52 or p52/RELB dimer expression status was associated with better OS and PFS (P=0.0134 and P=0.0124) only within the GCB subtype. However, multivariate analysis did not show p52 expression to be an independent prognostic factor. Beneficial effect of p52 in GCB-DLBC appears to be its positive correlation with CD30 and negative correlation with BCL2 expression. Gene expression profiling (GEP) showed that p52(+) GCB-DLBCL was distinct from p52(-) GCB-DLBCL. Collectively, our data suggest that DLBCL patients with p52 expression might not benefit from therapy targeting the NF-κB pathway.

Nadiminty N, Tummala R, Liu C, et al.
NF-κB2/p52:c-Myc:hnRNPA1 Pathway Regulates Expression of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Enzalutamide Sensitivity in Prostate Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(8):1884-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Alternative splicing of the AR to generate constitutively active, ligand-independent variants is one of the principal mechanisms that promote the development of resistance to next-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide. Here, we demonstrate that the splicing factor heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein A1 (hnRNPA1) plays a pivotal role in the generation of AR splice variants such as AR-V7. hnRNPA1 is overexpressed in prostate tumors compared with benign prostates, and its expression is regulated by NF-κB2/p52 and c-Myc. CRPC cells resistant to enzalutamide exhibit higher levels of NF-κB2/p52, c-Myc, hnRNPA1, and AR-V7. Levels of hnRNPA1 and AR-V7 are positively correlated with each other in prostate cancer. The regulatory circuit involving NF-κB2/p52, c-Myc, and hnRNPA1 plays a central role in the generation of AR splice variants. Downregulation of hnRNPA1 and consequently of AR-V7 resensitizes enzalutamide-resistant cells to enzalutamide, indicating that enhanced expression of hnRNPA1 may confer resistance to AR-targeted therapies by promoting the generation of splice variants. These findings may provide a rationale for cotargeting these pathways to achieve better efficacy through AR blockade.

Aouizerat BE, Dhruva A, Paul SM, et al.
Phenotypic and Molecular Evidence Suggests That Decrements in Morning and Evening Energy Are Distinct but Related Symptoms.
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015; 50(5):599-614.e3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Little is known about energy levels in oncology patients and their family caregivers.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify latent classes of participants, based on self-reported energy levels and evaluate for differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics between these classes.
METHODS: Energy subscale scores from the Lee Fatigue Scale were used to determine latent class membership. Morning and evening energy scores were obtained just before, during, and for four months after the completion of radiation therapy. Genetic associations were evaluated for 15 proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes.
RESULTS: Two latent classes with distinct morning energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger, female, not married/partnered, black, and had more comorbidities, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the low morning energy class. Two polymorphisms (IL2 rs1479923 and NFKB1 rs4648110) were associated with morning energy latent class membership. Two latent classes with distinct evening energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger and male and who had more comorbidities, decreased body weight, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the moderate evening energy class. Five different polymorphisms (IL1R2 rs4141134, IL6 rs4719714, IL17A rs8193036, NFKB2 rs1056890, and TNFA rs1800683) were associated with evening energy latent class membership.
CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence that decrements in morning and evening energy are associated with different phenotypic risk factors and cytokine gene variations.

Sharma R, Williams PJ, Gupta A, et al.
A dominant-negative F-box deleted mutant of E3 ubiquitin ligase, β-TrCP1/FWD1, markedly reduces myeloma cell growth and survival in mice.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):21589-602 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment of multiple myeloma with bortezomib can result in severe adverse effects, necessitating the development of targeted inhibitors of the proteasome. We show that stable expression of a dominant-negative F-box deleted (∆F) mutant of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, SCFβ-TrCP/FWD1, in murine 5TGM1 myeloma cells dramatically attenuated their skeletal engraftment and survival when inoculated into immunocompetent C57BL/KaLwRij mice. Similar results were obtained in immunodeficient bg-nu-xid mice, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of host recipient immune status. Bone marrow stroma offered no protection for 5TGM1-∆F cells in cocultures treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF), indicating a cell-autonomous anti-myeloma effect. Levels of p100, IκBα, Mcl-1, ATF4, total and cleaved caspase-3, and phospho-β-catenin were elevated in 5TGM1-∆F cells whereas cIAP was down-regulated. TNF also activated caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2, correlating with the enhanced susceptibility of 5TGM1-∆F cells to apoptosis. Treatment of 5TGM1 tumor-bearing mice with a β-TrCP1/FWD1 inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), significantly reduced tumor burden in bone. PDTC also increased levels of cleaved Mcl-1 and caspase-3 in U266 human myeloma cells, correlating with our murine data and validating the development of specific β-TrCP inhibitors as an alternative therapy to nonspecific proteasome inhibitors for myeloma patients.

Seagle BL, Yang CP, Eng KH, et al.
TP53 hot spot mutations in ovarian cancer: selective resistance to microtubule stabilizers in vitro and differential survival outcomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 138(1):159-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To test if TP53 hot spot mutations (HSMs) confer differential chemotherapy resistance or survival outcomes, the effects of microtubule stabilizers on human ovarian carcinoma cells (OCCs) expressing TP53 HSMs were studied in vitro. Survival outcomes of patients with high grade serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGS EOC) expressing matched HSMs were compared using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.
METHODS: Growth inhibition of OCCs transfected with a HSM (m175, m248 or m273) was measured during treatment with paclitaxel, epothilone B (epoB), or ixabepilone. Effects of epoB on p53 expression, phosphorylation, and acetylation, as well as p53-regulated expression of p21 and mdm2 proteins, were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of p53 target genes P21, GADD45, BAX, PIDD, NF-kB2, PAI-1, and MDR1 was measured by RT-PCR. identified patients with codon R175, R248 or R273 HSMs from TCGA data. Survival outcomes were characterized.
RESULTS: p53-m248 confers chemoresistance and is not acetylated during epoB treatment. m273 demonstrated high MDR1 expression and resistance to paclitaxel. P21, GADD45 and PAI-1 expression were down-regulated in mutant OCCs. Optimally cytoreduced patients with codon R273 (n=17), R248 (n=13), R175 (n=7) HSMs, or any other TP53 mutation demonstrated median 14.9, 17.6, 17.8 and 16.9months (p=0.806) progression free survival and 84.1, 33.6, 62.1 and 44.5months (p=0.040) overall survival, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Human OCCs harboring different TP53 HSMs were selectively resistant to microtubule stabilizers. Patients with different HSMs had significantly different overall survival. Both in vitro data and clinical experience support further studying the outcomes of particular TP53 HSMs.

Savlı H, Akkoyunlu RU, Çine N, et al.
Deregulated Levels of the NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel Genes in Ukrainian Patients with Leukemia and Lymphoma in the Post-Chernobyl Period.
Turk J Haematol. 2016; 33(1):8-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor in cancer and NF-κB activation has been seen in angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Relationships between specific NF-κB gene networks, leukemogenesis, and radiation exposure are still unknown. Our aim was to study the expression levels of the NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel genes in hematological malignancies in the post-Chernobyl period.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed gene expression levels of NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel in 49 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 8 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 3 acute myeloid leukemia, 3 chronic myeloid leukemia, 2 hairy cell leukemia, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 2 T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Expression levels of NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel genes were found to be deregulated.
CONCLUSION: These results could be accepted as specific gene traces to radiation-induced leukemia or as potential candidates for new diagnostic biomarker studies. Larger experiments and non-exposed control malignant cell populations are needed to clarify these suggestions.

Crescenzo R, Abate F, Lasorsa E, et al.
Convergent mutations and kinase fusions lead to oncogenic STAT3 activation in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(4):516-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
A systematic characterization of the genetic alterations driving ALCLs has not been performed. By integrating massive sequencing strategies, we provide a comprehensive characterization of driver genetic alterations (somatic point mutations, copy number alterations, and gene fusions) in ALK(-) ALCLs. We identified activating mutations of JAK1 and/or STAT3 genes in ∼20% of 88 [corrected] ALK(-) ALCLs and demonstrated that 38% of systemic ALK(-) ALCLs displayed double lesions. Recurrent chimeras combining a transcription factor (NFkB2 or NCOR2) with a tyrosine kinase (ROS1 or TYK2) were also discovered in WT JAK1/STAT3 ALK(-) ALCL. All these aberrations lead to the constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway, which was proved oncogenic. Consistently, JAK/STAT3 pathway inhibition impaired cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

Boddicker RL, Kip NS, Xing X, et al.
The oncogenic transcription factor IRF4 is regulated by a novel CD30/NF-κB positive feedback loop in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2015; 125(20):3118-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are generally aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas with poor overall survival rates following standard therapy. One-third of PTCLs express interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4), a tightly regulated transcription factor involved in lymphocyte growth and differentiation. IRF4 drives tumor growth in several lymphoid malignancies and has been proposed as a candidate therapeutic target. Because direct IRF4 inhibitors are not clinically available, we sought to characterize the mechanism by which IRF4 expression is regulated in PTCLs. We demonstrated that IRF4 is constitutively expressed in PTCL cells and drives Myc expression and proliferation. Using an inhibitor screen, we identified nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) as a candidate regulator of IRF4 expression and cell proliferation. We then demonstrated that the NF-κB subunits p52 and RelB were transcriptional activators of IRF4. Further analysis showed that activation of CD30 promotes p52 and RelB activity and subsequent IRF4 expression. Finally, we showed that IRF4 transcriptionally regulates CD30 expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel positive feedback loop involving CD30, NF-κB, and IRF4; further evidence for this mechanism was demonstrated in human PTCL tissue samples. Accordingly, NF-κB inhibitors may represent a clinical means to disrupt this feedback loop in IRF4-positive PTCLs.

Chang TP, Poltoratsky V, Vancurova I
Bortezomib inhibits expression of TGF-β1, IL-10, and CXCR4, resulting in decreased survival and migration of cutaneous T cell lymphoma cells.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(6):2942-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokines, TGF-β1 and IL-10, is a hallmark of the advanced stages of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), where it has been associated with suppressed immunity, increased susceptibility to infections, and diminished antitumor responses. Yet, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of TGF-β1 and IL-10 in CTCL, and about their function in regulating the CTCL cell responses. In this article, we show that TGF-β1 and IL-10 expression in CTCL cells is regulated by NF-κB and suppressed by bortezomib (BZ), which has shown promising results in the treatment of CTCL. However, although the TGF-β1 expression is IκBα dependent and is regulated by the canonical pathway, the IL-10 expression is IκBα independent, and its inhibition by BZ is associated with increased promoter recruitment of p52 that characterizes the noncanonical pathway. TGF-β1 suppression decreases CTCL cell viability and increases apoptosis, and adding exogenous TGF-β1 increases viability of BZ-treated CTCL cells, indicating TGF-β1 prosurvival function in CTCL cells. In addition, TGF-β1 suppression increases expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-17 in CTCL cells, suggesting that TGF-β1 also regulates the IL-8 and IL-17 expression. Importantly, our results demonstrate that BZ inhibits expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in CTCL cells, resulting in their decreased migration, and that the CTCL cell migration is mediated by TGF-β1. These findings provide the first insights into the BZ-regulated TGF-β1 and IL-10 expression in CTCL cells, and indicate that TGF-β1 has a key role in regulating CTCL survival, inflammatory gene expression, and migration.

Kolberg M, Pedersen S, Bastani NE, et al.
Tomato paste alters NF-κB and cancer-related mRNA expression in prostate cancer cells, xenografts, and xenograft microenvironment.
Nutr Cancer. 2015; 67(2):305-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tomatoes may protect against prostate cancer development, possibly through targeting signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We investigated whether tomato paste could modulate NF-κB activity and cancer-related gene expression in human derived prostate cancer cells (PC3) and PC3 xenografts. PC3-cells were stably transduced with an NF-κB-luciferase construct, and treated with tomato extracts or vehicle control. Nude mice bearing PC3 xenografts were fed a Western-like diet with or without 10% tomato paste for 6.5 wk. The tomato diet significantly inhibited TNFα stimulated NF-κB activity in cultured PC3 cells, and modulated the expression of genes associated with inflammation, apoptosis, and cancer progression. Accumulation of lycopene occurred in liver, xenografts, and serum of mice fed tomato diet. Tomato paste in the diet did not affect tumor size in mice; however, there was a trend toward inhibition of NF-κB activity in the xenografts. The effect of tomato on gene expression was most prominent in the xenograft microenvironment, where among others NFKB2, STAT3, and STAT6 showed higher expression levels after tomato treatment. Our findings support biological activity of tomatoes in cancer-related inflammation.

Zhao Q, Fu W, Jiang H, et al.
Clinicopathological implications of nuclear factor κB signal pathway activation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(4):524-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although abnormal activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), only a few studies have dealt with the relation of NF-κB activation to clinical outcomes in this disease. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of 147 consecutive DLBCL patients, examined paraffin-embedded tissues from 120 of them to identify the activation of the NF-κB pathway by using immunohistochemical staining, and performed an overall survival (OS) analysis. Expression of P-p65 and p52 was found in 30.0% (n = 36) and 35.8% (n = 43) of the patients, respectively. Coexpression of these factors was found in 16.7% (n = 14) of the cases. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to P-p65 and/or p52 expression: P-p65(+) only, p52(+) only, both P-p65(+) and p52(+), and both P-p65(-) and p52(-). The 3-year OS rates in the 4 groups were 51.3%, 68.3%, 34.6%, and 85.8%, respectively (P = .006). Univariate analysis showed that early stage (P = .032), low International Prognostic Index score (P = .001), less than 2 extranodal metastases (P = .014), complete remission with chemotherapy (P < .0001), germinal-center B-cell-like subtype (P = .049), Ki-67 < 75% (P = .017), and P-p65(-) (P = .002) or p52(-) (P = .031) were associated with longer 3-year OS. Multivariate analysis indicated that P-p65 expression was an independent prognostic factor for shorter OS (P = .032). In conclusion, NF-κB pathway activation markers P-p65 and p52 predict poor survival in DLBCL patients.

Rwigemera A, Mamelona J, Martin LJ
Comparative effects between fucoxanthinol and its precursor fucoxanthin on viability and apoptosis of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(1):207-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated whether low doses of the natural carotenoid fucoxanthin and/or of its metabolite fucoxanthinol are effective against proliferation of estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 and estrogen-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: These cell lines were stimulated with 10 to 20 μM fucoxanthin and/or fucoxanthinol, followed by cell viability assays, Annexin V immunofluorescence to evaluate apoptosis, as well as mRNA and protein extractions for changes in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) members' expressions and nuclear translocations.
RESULTS: Fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol reduced the viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner as a result of increased apoptosis. In both cell lines, modulatory actions of fucoxanthinol on members of the NF-κB pathway were more pronounced than that of fucoxanthin.
CONCLUSION: In MDA-MB-231 cells, fucoxanthinol reduced nuclear levels of NF-κB members' p65, p52 and RelB. Fucoxanthinol and fucoxanthin could be effective for the treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer.

Abate F, Todaro M, van der Krogt JA, et al.
A novel patient-derived tumorgraft model with TRAF1-ALK anaplastic large-cell lymphoma translocation.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(6):1390-401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL) carrying anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have a relatively good prognosis, aggressive forms exist. We have identified a novel translocation, causing the fusion of the TRAF1 and ALK genes, in one patient who presented with a leukemic ALK+ ALCL (ALCL-11). To uncover the mechanisms leading to high-grade ALCL, we developed a human patient-derived tumorgraft (hPDT) line. Molecular characterization of primary and PDT cells demonstrated the activation of ALK and nuclear factor kB (NFkB) pathways. Genomic studies of ALCL-11 showed the TP53 loss and the in vivo subclonal expansion of lymphoma cells, lacking PRDM1/Blimp1 and carrying c-MYC gene amplification. The treatment with proteasome inhibitors of TRAF1-ALK cells led to the downregulation of p50/p52 and lymphoma growth inhibition. Moreover, a NFkB gene set classifier stratified ALCL in distinct subsets with different clinical outcome. Although a selective ALK inhibitor (CEP28122) resulted in a significant clinical response of hPDT mice, nevertheless the disease could not be eradicated. These data indicate that the activation of NFkB signaling contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of TRAF1-ALK ALCL. ALCL hPDTs are invaluable tools to validate the role of druggable molecules, predict therapeutic responses and implement patient specific therapies.

Shen M, Duan X, Zhou P, et al.
Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes bladder cancer in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(2):783-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common tumor of the urinary system. Chronic inflammation in the papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)may contribute to carcinogenesis, including that of BCa, via poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) is upregulated in BCa via activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The mRNA expression of LTβR in 81 BCa, 10 chronic cystitis and 23 healthy bladder mucosa tissues was investigated by reverse transcription-fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR), and protein expression was studied in 73 BCa, 30 cystitis and 15 healthy paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Both LTβR mRNA and protein were upregulated in BCa and cystitis compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The mRNA level of the downstream NF-κB canonical pathway p65 gene and of the non-canonical pathway RelB gene were higher in the BCa and cystitis groups compared to the healthy one. The level of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) protein of the canonical NF-κB pathway and that of p52, a protein of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, were also higher in the BCa and cystitis group compared to the healthy group. The levels of these proteins significantly correlated to the pathological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of BCa patients (P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LTβR and NF-κB pathway proteins. Thus, LTβR signaling may be involved in promoting BCa through the NF-κB pathway, and which may represent the molecular link between inflammation and BCa.

Iannetti A, Ledoux AC, Tudhope SJ, et al.
Regulation of p53 and Rb links the alternative NF-κB pathway to EZH2 expression and cell senescence.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(9):e1004642 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There are two major pathways leading to induction of NF-κB subunits. The classical (or canonical) pathway typically leads to the induction of RelA or c-Rel containing complexes, and involves the degradation of IκBα in a manner dependent on IκB kinase (IKK) β and the IKK regulatory subunit NEMO. The alternative (or non-canonical) pathway, involves the inducible processing of p100 to p52, leading to the induction of NF-κB2(p52)/RelB containing complexes, and is dependent on IKKα and NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK). Here we demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, the alternative NF-κB pathway subunits NF-κB2 and RelB have multiple, but distinct, effects on the expression of key regulators of the cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein stability. Specifically, following siRNA knockdown, quantitative PCR, western blot analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) show that NF-κB2 regulates the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, while RelB, through the regulation of genes such as PSMA5 and ANAPC1, regulates the stability of p21WAF1 and the tumour suppressor p53. These combine to regulate the activity of the retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leading to induction of polycomb protein EZH2 expression. Moreover, our ChIP analysis demonstrates that EZH2 is also a direct NF-κB target gene. Microarray analysis revealed that in fibroblasts, EZH2 antagonizes a subset of p53 target genes previously associated with the senescent cell phenotype, including DEK and RacGAP1. We show that this pathway provides the major route of crosstalk between the alternative NF-κB pathway and p53, a consequence of which is to suppress cell senescence. Importantly, we find that activation of NF-κB also induces EZH2 expression in CD40L stimulated cells from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients. We therefore propose that this pathway provides a mechanism through which microenvironment induced NF-κB can inhibit tumor suppressor function and promote tumorigenesis.

Miaskowski C, Cataldo JK, Baggott CR, et al.
Cytokine gene variations associated with trait and state anxiety in oncology patients and their family caregivers.
Support Care Cancer. 2015; 23(4):953-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Anxiety is common among cancer patients and their family caregivers (FCs) and is associated with poorer outcomes. Recently, associations between inflammation and anxiety were identified. However, the relationship between variations in cytokine genes and anxiety warrants investigation. Therefore, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics associated with trait and state anxiety were evaluated in a sample of 167 oncology patients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs.
METHODS: Using multiple regression analyses, the associations between participants' demographic and clinical characteristics as well as variations in cytokine genes and trait and state anxiety were evaluated.
RESULTS: In the bivariate analyses, a number of phenotypic characteristics were associated with both trait and state anxiety (e.g., age, functional status). However, some associations were specific only to trait anxiety (e.g., number of comorbid conditions) or state anxiety (e.g., participation with a FC). Variations in three cytokine genes (i.e., interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL1 receptor 2 (IL1R2), nuclear factor kappa beta 2 (NFKB2)) were associated with trait anxiety, and variations in two genes (i.e., IL1R2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)) were associated with state anxiety.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both trait and state anxiety need to be assessed in oncology patients and their FCs. Furthermore, variations in cytokine genes may contribute to higher levels of anxiety in oncology patients and their FCs.

Golozar A, Beaty TH, Gravitt PE, et al.
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk Chinese populations: Possible role for vascular epithelial growth factor A.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(16):2855-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms involved in wound healing play some role in carcinogenesis in multiple organs, likely by creating a chronic inflammatory milieu. This study sought to assess the role of genetic markers in selected inflammation-related genes involved in wound healing (interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1b, IL-1 Receptor type I (IL-1Ra), IL-1 Receptor type II (IL-1Rb), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member (TNFRSF)1A, nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB)1, NF-kB2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A and P-53) in risk to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: We genotyped 125 tag single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s in 410 cases and 377 age and sex matched disease-free individuals from Nutritional Intervention Trial (NIT) cohort, and 546 cases and 556 controls individually matched for age, sex and neighbourhood from Shanxi case-control study, both conducted in high-risk areas of north-central China (1985-2007). Cox proportional-hazard models and conditional logistic regression models were used for SNPs analyses for NIT and Shanxi, respectively. Fisher's inverse test statistics were used to obtain gene-level significance.
RESULTS: Multiple SNPs were significantly associated with OSCC in both studies, however, none retained their significance after a conservative Bonferroni adjustment. Empiric p-values for tag SNPs in VEGFA in NIT were highly concentrated in the lower tail of the distribution, suggesting this gene may be influencing risk. Permutation tests confirmed the significance of this pattern. At the gene level, VEGFA yielded an empiric significance (P=0.027) in NIT. We also observed some evidence for interaction between environmental factors and some VEGFA tag SNPs.
CONCLUSION: Our finding adds further evidence for a potential role for markers in the VEGFA gene in the development and progression of early precancerous lesions of oesophagus.

Alexander K, Cooper B, Paul SM, et al.
Evidence of associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and quality of life in patients with cancer and their family caregivers.
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014; 41(5):E267-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To identify latent classes of individuals with distinct quality-of-life (QOL) trajectories, to evaluate for differences in demographic characteristics between the latent classes, and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes.
DESIGN: Descriptive, longitudinal study.
SETTING: Two radiation therapy departments located in a comprehensive cancer center and a community-based oncology program in northern California.
SAMPLE: 168 outpatients with prostate, breast, brain, or lung cancer and 85 of their family caregivers (FCs).
METHODS: Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was employed to identify latent classes of individuals based on QOL scores measured prior to, during, and for four months following completion of radiation therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in 16 candidate cytokine genes were tested between the latent classes. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationships among genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and QOL GMM group membership.
MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: QOL latent class membership and variations in cytokine genes.
FINDINGS: Two latent QOL classes were found: higher and lower. Patients and FCs who were younger, identified with an ethnic minority group, had poorer functional status, or had children living at home were more likely to belong to the lower QOL class. After controlling for significant covariates, between-group differences were found in SNPs in interleukin 1 receptor 2 (IL1R2) and nuclear factor kappa beta 2 (NFKB2). For IL1R2, carrying one or two doses of the rare C allele was associated with decreased odds of belonging to the lower QOL class. For NFKB2, carriers with two doses of the rare G allele were more likely to belong to the lower QOL class.
CONCLUSIONS: Unique genetic markers in cytokine genes may partially explain interindividual variability in QOL.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Determination of high-risk characteristics and unique genetic markers would allow for earlier identification of patients with cancer and FCs at higher risk for poorer QOL. Knowledge of these risk factors could assist in the development of more targeted clinical or supportive care interventions for those identified.

Yu J, Wang Y, Yan F, et al.
Noncanonical NF-κB activation mediates STAT3-stimulated IDO upregulation in myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer.
J Immunol. 2014; 193(5):2574-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy for cancer treatment is achieved through the activation of competent immune effector cells and the inhibition of immunosuppressive cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Although MDSCs have been shown to contribute to breast cancer development, the mechanism underlying MDSC-mediated immunosuppression is unclear. We have identified a poorly differentiated MDSC subset in breast cancer-suppressing T cell function through STAT3-dependent IDO upregulation. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of IDO in MDSCs. MDSCs were induced by coculturing human CD33(+) myeloid progenitors with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Increased STAT3 activation in MDSCs was correlated with activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, including increased NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protein level, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB kinase α and p100, and RelB-p52 nuclear translocation. Blocking STAT3 activation with the small molecule inhibitor JSI-124 significantly inhibited the accumulation of NIK and IDO expression in MDSCs. Knockdown of NIK in MDSCs suppressed IDO expression but not STAT3 activation. RelB-p52 dimers were found to directly bind to the IDO promoter, leading to IDO expression in MDSCs. IL-6 was found to stimulate STAT3-dependent, NF-κB-mediated IDO upregulation in MDSCs. Furthermore, significant positive correlation between the numbers of pSTAT3(+) MDSCs, IDO(+) MDSCs, and NIK(+) MDSCs was observed in human breast cancers. These results demonstrate a STAT3/NF-κB/IDO pathway in breast cancer-derived MDSCs, which provides insight into understanding immunosuppressive mechanisms of MDSCs in breast cancer.

Chang TP, Kim M, Vancurova I
Analysis of TGFβ1 and IL-10 transcriptional regulation in CTCL cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1172:329-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immunosuppressive cytokines transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) regulate a variety of biological processes including differentiation, proliferation, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and host defense. Aberrant expression of TGFβ1 and IL-10 has been associated with many types of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, as well as with many types of cancer and leukemia. Patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) have high levels of malignant CD4+ T cells expressing IL-10 and TGFβ1 that suppress the immune system and diminish the antitumor responses. The transcriptional regulation of TGFβ1 and IL-10 expression is orchestrated by several transcription factors, including NFκB. However, while the transcriptional regulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes by NFκB has been studied extensively, much less is known about the NFκB regulation of immunosuppressive genes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to analyze the transcriptional regulation of TGFβ1 and IL-10 by measuring recruitment of NFκB p65, p50, c-Rel, Rel-B, and p52 subunits to TGFβ1 and IL-10 promoters in human CTCL Hut-78 cells.

Cui Y, Nadiminty N, Liu C, et al.
Upregulation of glucose metabolism by NF-κB2/p52 mediates enzalutamide resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(3):435-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolic pathways to facilitate fast proliferation. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of NF-κB2/p52 (p52) in prostate cancer cells promotes cell growth and leads to castration resistance through aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR). In addition, these cells become resistant to enzalutamide. In this study, we investigated the effects of p52 activation on glucose metabolism and on response to enzalutamide therapy. Data analysis of gene expression arrays showed that genes including GLUT1 (SLC2A1), PKM2, G6PD, and ME1 involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism were altered in LNCaP cells overexpressing p52 compared with the parental LNCaP cells. We demonstrated an increased amount of glucose flux in the glycolysis pathway, as well as the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) upon p52 activation. The p52-overexpressing cells increase glucose uptake and are capable of higher ATP and lactate production compared with the parental LNCaP cells. The growth of p52-overexpressing cells depends on glucose in the culture media and is sensitive to glucose deprivation compared with the parental LNCaP cells. Targeting glucose metabolism by the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose synergistically inhibits cell growth when combined with enzalutamide, and resensitizes p52-overexpressing cells to enzalutamide treatment. These results suggest that p52 modulates glucose metabolism, enhances glucose flux to glycolysis and PPPs, thus facilitating fast proliferation of the cells. Co-targeting glucose metabolism together with AR axis synergistically inhibits cell growth and restores enzalutamide-resistant cells to enzalutamide treatment.

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