Gene Summary

Gene:NGFR; nerve growth factor receptor
Aliases: CD271, p75NTR, TNFRSF16, p75(NTR), Gp80-LNGFR
Summary:Nerve growth factor receptor contains an extracellular domain containing four 40-amino acid repeats with 6 cysteine residues at conserved positions followed by a serine/threonine-rich region, a single transmembrane domain, and a 155-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The cysteine-rich region contains the nerve growth factor binding domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 16
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NGFR (cancer-related)

Zhang H, Gao B, Shi B
Identification of Differentially Expressed Kinase and Screening Potential Anticancer Drugs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:2832980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aim. We aim to identify protein kinases involved in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in order to provide potential therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitors and unfold possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods. The gene expression profile of GSE27155 was analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes and mapped onto human protein kinases database. Correlation of kinases with PTC was addressed by systematic literature search, GO and KEGG pathway analysis. Results. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that "mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway" expression was extremely enriched, followed by "neurotrophin signaling pathway," "focal adhesion," and "GnRH signaling pathway." MAPK, SRC, PDGFRa, ErbB, and EGFR were significantly regulated to correct these pathways. Kinases investigated by the literature on carcinoma were considered to be potential novel molecular therapeutic target in PTC and application of corresponding kinase inhibitors could be possible therapeutic tool. Conclusion. SRC, MAPK, and EGFR were the most important differentially expressed kinases in PTC. Combined inhibitors may have high efficacy in PTC treatment by targeting these kinases.

Ying J, Wang J, Ji H, et al.
Transcriptome analysis of phycocyanin inhibitory effects on SKOV-3 cell proliferation.
Gene. 2016; 585(1):58-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis has inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth. In this research, the transcriptome study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of PC inhibition on human ovarian cancer cell SKOV-3 proliferation. The PC IC50 was 216.6μM and 163.8μM for 24h and 48h exposure, respectively, as determined by CCK-8 assay. The morphological changes of SKOV-3 cells after PC exposure were recorded using HE staining. Cells arrested in G2/M stages as determined by flow cytometry. The transcriptome analysis showed that 2031 genes (with > three-fold differences) were differentially expressed between the untreated and the PC-treated cells, including 1065 up-regulated and 966 down-regulated genes. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis identified 18 classical pathways that were remarkably enriched, such as neurotrophin signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathway. qPCR results further showed that PTPN12, S100A2, RPL26, and LAMA3 increased while HNRNPA1P10 decreased in PC-treated cells. Molecules and genes in those pathways may be potential targets to develop treatments for ovarian cancer.

Sheng X, Bowen N, Wang Z
GLI pathogenesis-related 1 functions as a tumor-suppressor in lung cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2016; 15:25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GLI pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1) was originally identified in glioblastomas and its expression was also found to be down-regulated in prostate cancer. Functional studies revealed both growth suppression and proapoptotic activities for GLIPR1 in multiple cancer cell lines. GLIPR1's role in lung cancer has not been investigated. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a protein arginine methyltransferase and forms a stoichiometric complex with the WD repeat domain 77 (WDR77) protein. Both PRMT5 and WDR77 are essential for growth of lung epithelial and cancer cells. But additional gene products that interact genetically or biochemichally with PRMT5 and WDR77 in the control of lung cancer cell growth are not characterized.
METHODS: DNA microarray and immunostaining were used to detect GLIPR1 expression during lung development and lung tumorigenesis. GLIPR1 expression was also analyzed in the TCGA lung cancer cohort. The consequence of GLIPR1 on growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in the nude mice was observed.
RESULTS: We found that GLIPR1 expression is negatively associated with PRMT5/WDR77. GLIPR1 is absent in growing epithelial cells at the early stages of mouse lung development and highly expressed in the adult lung. Expression of GLIPR1 was down-regulated during lung tumorigenesis and its expression suppressed growth of lung cancer cells in the tissue culture and lung tumor xenografts in mice. GLIPR1 regulates lung cancer growth through the V-Erb-B avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ErbB3).
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a novel pathway that PRMT5/WDR77 regulates GLIPR1 expression to control lung cancer cell growth and GLIPR1 as a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

Yamaguchi T, Okumura T, Hirano K, et al.
p75 neurotrophin receptor expression is a characteristic of the mitotically quiescent cancer stem cell population present in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(5):1943-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitotically quiescent cancer stem cells (CSC) are hypothesized to exhibit a more aggressive phenotype involving greater therapeutic resistance and metastasis. The aim of our study was to develop a method for identifying quiescent CSC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) based on their expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and other proposed CSC markers, such as CD44 and CD90. Double immunostaining of surgical ESCC specimens revealed that the mean Ki-67-labeling index of the p75NTR-positive cells was significantly lower than that of the p75NTR-negative cells. Real-time PCR analysis of sorted fractions of ESCC cell lines (KYSE cells) revealed that stem cell-related genes (Nanog, p63 and Bmi-1) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes (N-cadherin and fibronectin) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the p75NTR-positive fractions than in the CD44-positive or CD90-positive fractions. In addition, the p75NTR-positive fractions exhibited significantly higher colony formation in vitro, significantly enhanced tumor formation in mice, and significantly greater chemoresistance against cisplatin (CDDP) than the CD44‑positive or CD90‑positive fractions. Furthermore, in both the cultured cells and those from the mouse xenograft tumors, the p75NTR‑positive/CD44-negative and p75NTR‑positive/CD90-negative KYSE cell fractions contained significantly higher proportions of mitotically quiescent cells. These results suggest that the mitotically quiescent CSC population in ESCC can be identified and isolated based on their p75NTR expression, providing researchers with a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target.

Park J, Shim MK, Jin M, et al.
Methyl syringate, a TRPA1 agonist represses hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 in lung cancer cells.
Phytomedicine. 2016; 23(3):324-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously found that methyl syringate is a specific and selective agonist of the human transient receptor potential channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and suppresses food intake and gastric emptying in imprinting control region mice. Because TRPA1 has been implicated in inflammatory responses, and inflammation and tumorigenesis are stimulated by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway in hypoxic cancer cells.
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of methyl syringate on hypoxia-induced COX-2 in human distal lung epithelial A549 cells.
STUDY DESIGN: The effect of the methyl syringate on suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in A549 cells were determined by Western blot and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The anti-invasive effect of methyl syringate was evaluated on A549 cells using matrigel invasion assay.
RESULTS: Methyl syringate suppressed hypoxia-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity and reduced hypoxia-induced cell migration and invasion and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects were antagonized by a TRPA1 antagonist, implying their mediation by the TRPA1 pathway.
CONCLUSION: Together, these results indicate that methyl syringate inhibits the hypoxic induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion through TRPA1 activation. These findings suggest that methyl syringate could be effective to suppress hypoxia-induced inflammation and indicate an additional functional effect of methyl syringate.

Yang YP, Wang S, Li X, Schor NF
Cell Line-Dependent Variability of Coordinate Expression of p75NTR and CRABP1 and Modulation of Effects of Fenretinide on Neuroblastoma Cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:7568287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a childhood neural crest tumor. Fenretinide, a retinoic acid analogue, induces accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and consequent apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) enhances the antineuroblastoma cell efficacy of fenretinide in vitro. We examined the role of the retinoid binding protein, CRABP1, in p75NTR-mediated potentiation of the efficacy of fenretinide. Knockdown and overexpression, respectively, of either p75NTR or CRABP1 were effected in neuroblastoma cell lines using standard techniques. Expression was determined by qRT-PCR and confirmed at the protein level by Western blot. Metabolic viability was determined by Alamar blue assay. While protein content of CRABP1 correlated roughly with that of p75NTR in the three neuroblastoid or epithelioid human neuroblastoma cell lines studied, manipulation of p75NTR expression resulted in cell line-dependent, variable change in CRABP1 expression. Furthermore, in some cell lines, induced expression of CRABP1 in the absence of p75NTR did not alter cell sensitivity to fenretinide treatment. The effects of manipulation of p75NTR expression on CRABP1 expression and the effects of CRABP1 expression on fenretinide efficacy are therefore neuroblastoma cell line-dependent. Potentiation of the antineuroblastoma cell effects of fenretinide by p75NTR is not mediated solely through CRABP1.

So WK, Cheng JC, Liu Y, et al.
Sprouty4 mediates amphiregulin-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9197-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sprouty (SPRY) proteins are well-characterized factors that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of cellular signaling pathways. The down-regulation of SPRY4 expression has been reported in human ovarian cancer. However, the specific roles and mechanisms by which SPRY4 affects ovarian cancer progression are completely unknown. Amphiregulin (AREG) binds exclusively to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and has been considered to be a dominant autocrine/paracrine EGFR ligand in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we first examined the effects of AREG on SPRY4 expression and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process in two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrated that treatment with AREG up-regulated SPRY4 expression by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In addition, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of SPRY4 attenuated the AREG-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin by inhibiting the expression of SNAIL but not SLUG. In contrast, overexpression of SPRY4 enhanced AREG-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin by increasing the expression of SNAIL. Moreover, SPRY4 knockdown attenuated AREG-induced cell migration and invasion. Overexpression of SPRY4 enhanced AREG-induced cell invasion. This study reveals that SPRY4 is involved in EGFR-mediated human ovarian cancer progression.

Carroll SL
The Challenge of Cancer Genomics in Rare Nervous System Neoplasms: Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors as a Paradigm for Cross-Species Comparative Oncogenomics.
Am J Pathol. 2016; 186(3):464-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Comprehensive genomic analyses of common nervous system cancers provide new insights into their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Although analogous studies of rare nervous system tumors are needed, there are major barriers to performing such studies. Cross-species comparative oncogenomics, identifying driver mutations in mouse cancer models and validating them in human tumors, is a promising alternative. Although still in its infancy, this approach is being applied to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), rare Schwann cell-derived malignancies that occur sporadically, after radiotherapy, and in neurofibromatosis type 1. Studies of human neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumors suggest that NF1 tumor suppressor loss in Schwann cells triggers cell-autonomous and intercellular changes, resulting in development of benign neurofibromas; subsequent neurofibroma-MPNST progression is caused by aberrant growth factor signaling and mutations affecting the p16(INK4A)-cyclin D1-CDK4-Rb and p19(ARF)-Mdm2-p53 cell cycle pathways. Mice with Nf1, Trp53, and/or Cdkn2a mutations that overexpress the Schwann cell mitogen neuregulin-1 or overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor validate observations in human tumors and, to various degrees, model human tumorigenesis. Genomic analyses of MPNSTs arising in neuregulin-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing mice and forward genetic screens with Sleeping Beauty transposons implicate additional signaling cascades in MPNST pathogenesis. These studies confirm the utility of mouse models for MPNST driver gene discovery and provide new insights into the complexity of MPNST pathogenesis.

Garcia JR, Gombos DS, Prospero CM, et al.
Expression of Angiogenic Factors in Invasive Retinoblastoma Tumors Is Associated With Increase in Tumor Cells Expressing Stem Cell Marker Sox2.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(12):1531-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Progression of retinoblastoma is associated with increased tumor angiogenesis. However, a clear relationship between the expression of angiogenic markers in specific regions of the tumor and tumor progression has not been established. This study investigates the association between angiogenic factors in retinoblastomas with choroidal and/or optic nerve invasion (high-risk/invasive retinoblastoma) and expression of Sox2, a stem cell marker.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the expression of angiogenic factors and markers of tumor invasiveness, such as the stem cell marker Sox2, in retinoblastoma tissues.
DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate coexpression of the angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), and endoglin (CD105); markers of glial differentiation (vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein); and a neural stem cell marker (Sox2). Expression was assessed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic ocular tissues collected from enucleated eyes of patients with retinoblastoma. During qualitative data interpretation, evaluating pathologists were masked to patient grouping.
RESULTS: Expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in noninvasive (non-high-risk feature) retinoblastoma tumors was lower than in the invasive, or high-risk feature tumors. Moreover, our data indicate that the tumor cells, and not the surrounding stroma, secrete VEGF-A and that angiogenesis is mostly localized to the iris. Finally, our data showed that the expression of the neural stem cell marker Sox2 is associated with eyes with increased VEGF-A expression and tumor invasiveness.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of angiogenic factors, with a concomitant increase in expression of the stem cell marker Sox2 observed in retinoblastoma tissues, may partially explain the aggressiveness of these tumors. The complex interaction of angiogenic and stem cell-related pathways in these tumors, especially in high-risk feature retinoblastoma, suggests that targeting tumor cells capable of secreting vasculogenic factors, as well as proangiogenic genes and signaling pathways, may be necessary for development of effective antimetastatic retinoblastoma drugs.

Sajadimajd S, Yazdanparast R, Akram S
Involvement of Numb-mediated HIF-1α inhibition in anti-proliferative effect of PNA-antimiR-182 in trastuzumab-sensitive and -resistant SKBR3 cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):5413-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trastuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) that is overexpressed in about 25 % of breast cancer patients. However, primary and/or acquired resistance to trastuzumab develops in most affected persons. In this study, we explored the functional role of miR-182 inhibition with aiming the sensitization of SKBR3 cells to trastuzumab. Cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation, and migration capacities of SKBR3(S) (sensitive) and SKBR3(R) (resistant) cells were assessed to determine the anti-proliferative effects of PNA-antimiR-182. In addition, the expression levels of miR-182, mRNA of FOXO1, and Bim as well as the protein levels of HER2 and Notch1 signaling factors were evaluated by stem-loop RT-qPCR, RT-qPCR, and Western blot, respectively. The results indicated that miR-182 might play a causal role in the mechanism of trastuzumab. In line with that, PNA-antimiR-182 inhibited synergistically the viability of both the sensitive and resistant cell groups. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of PNA-anitmiR-182 on migration in SKBR3 cells was more than the induction of apoptosis. In addition, PNA-antimiR-182 reduced the levels of NICD, Hes1, HIF-1α, and p-Akt in both cell groups, while it augmented the intracellular content of FOXO1 and Numb suppressor proteins. In other words, PNA-antimiR-182-mediated upregulation of Numb was associated with downregulation of HIF-1α and Hes1. Consequently, downregulation of miR-182 might find therapeutical value for overcoming trastuzumab resistance. Graphical Abstract The crosstalk between HER2 and Notch1 signaling pathway is mediated by miR-182.

Pasini L, Re A, Tebaldi T, et al.
TrkA is amplified in malignant melanoma patients and induces an anti-proliferative response in cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:777 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor tyrosine-kinase TrkA is a well-known determinant of the melanocytic lineage, through modulation of the MAPK and AKT cascades. While TrkA gene is frequently rearranged in cancers, its involvement in malignant melanoma (MM) development is still unclear.
METHODS: We analyzed a dataset of primary cutaneous MM (n = 31) by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), to identify genomic amplifications associated with tumor progression. The analysis was validated by genomic quantitative PCR (qPCR) on an extended set of cases (n = 64) and the results were correlated with the clinical outcome. To investigate TrkA molecular pathways and cellular function, we generated inducible activation of the NGF-TrkA signaling in human MM cell lines.
RESULTS: We identified amplification of 1q23.1, where the TrkA locus resides, as a candidate hotspot implicated in the progression of MM. Across 40 amplicons detected, segmental amplification of 1q23.1 showed the strongest association with tumor thickness. By validation of the analysis, TrkA gene amplification emerged as a frequent event in primary melanomas (50 % of patients), and correlated with worse clinical outcome. However, experiments in cell lines revealed that induction of the NGF-TrkA signaling produced a phenotype of dramatic suppression of cell proliferation through inhibition of cell division and pronounced intracellular vacuolization, in a way straightly dependent on NGF activation of TrkA. These events were triggered via MAPK activity but not via AKT, and involved p21(cip1) protein increase, compatibly with a mechanism of oncogene-induced growth arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings point to TrkA as a candidate oncogene in MM and support a model in which the NGF-TrkA-MAPK pathway may mediate a trade-off between neoplastic transformation and adaptive anti-proliferative response.

Streiter S, Fisch B, Sabbah B, et al.
The importance of neuronal growth factors in the ovary.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2016; 22(1):3-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase β receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research.

Berghoff J, Jaisimha AV, Duggan S, et al.
Gamma-secretase-independent role for cadherin-11 in neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR)) mediated glioblastoma cell migration.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015; 69:41-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) undergoes γ-secretase-mediated regulated intramembrane proteolysis and is involved in glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. Consistent with previous reports, in this study we show that p75NTR increases U87-MG glioblastoma cell migration, which is reversed by inhibition of γ-secretase activity. However, we show that expression or stabilization of the γ-secretase-generated p75(NTR) intracellular domain (ICD) is not sufficient to induce U87-MG glioblastoma cell migration, and that exogenous expression of p75(NTR) ICD inhibits p75(NTR)-mediated glioblastoma cell (U87-MG and U373-MG) migration. To identify pathways and to determine how p75(NTR) mediates glioblastoma migration we utilized a microarray approach to assess differential gene expression profiles between parental U87-MG and cells stably expressing wild-type p75(NTR), a γ-secretase cleavage-resistant chimeric p75(NTR) mutant (p75FasTM) and the γ-secretase-generated p75(NTR)-ICD, which mimics constitutively cleaved p75(NTR) receptor. In our microarray data analysis we identified a subset of genes that were constitutively up-regulated in wild-type p75(NTR) cells, which were also repressed in p75(NTR) ICD expressing cells. Furthermore, our data revealed among the many differentially expressed genes, cadherin-11 (Cdh-11), matrix metalloproteinase 12 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 as constitutively up-regulated in wild-type p75(NTR) cells, independent of γ-secretase activity. Consistent with a role in glioblastoma migration, we found that U87-p75(NTR) cells express higher levels of Cdh-11 protein and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cdh-11 resulted in a significant decrease in p75(NTR)-mediated glioblastoma cell migration. Therefore, we hypothesize that p75(NTR) can impact U87-MG glioblastoma cell migration in a γ-secretase-independent manner through modulation of specific genes, including Cdh-11, and that both γ-secretase-independent and -dependent mechanisms are involved in p75(NTR)-mediated U87-MG glioblastoma cell migration.

Liu F, Hon GC, Villa GR, et al.
EGFR Mutation Promotes Glioblastoma through Epigenome and Transcription Factor Network Remodeling.
Mol Cell. 2015; 60(2):307-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification and mutations are the most common oncogenic events in glioblastoma (GBM), but the mechanisms by which they promote aggressive tumor growth are not well understood. Here, through integrated epigenome and transcriptome analyses of cell lines, genotyped clinical samples, and TCGA data, we show that EGFR mutations remodel the activated enhancer landscape of GBM, promoting tumorigenesis through a SOX9 and FOXG1-dependent transcriptional regulatory network in vitro and in vivo. The most common EGFR mutation, EGFRvIII, sensitizes GBM cells to the BET-bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in a SOX9, FOXG1-dependent manner. These results identify the role of transcriptional/epigenetic remodeling in EGFR-dependent pathogenesis and suggest a mechanistic basis for epigenetic therapy.

Goldberg K, Bar-Joseph H, Grossman H, et al.
Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Alleviates Tamoxifen-Induced Endometrial Hyperplasia.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(12):2840-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen is a cornerstone component of adjuvant endocrine therapy for patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Its significant adverse effects include uterine hyperplasia, polyps, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Excessive angiogenesis, a hallmark of tumorigenesis, is a result of disrupted balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. VEGF is a pro-angiogenic factor shown to be elevated by tamoxifen in the uterus. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent anti-angiogenic factor that suppresses strong pro-angiogenic factors, such as VEGF. Our aim was to investigate whether angiogenic balance plays a role in tamoxifen-induced uterine pathologies, elucidate the molecular impairment in that network, and explore potential intervention to offset the proposed imbalance elicited by tamoxifen. Using in vivo mouse models, we demonstrated that tamoxifen induced a dose-dependent shift in endogenous uterine angiogenic balance favoring VEGF over PEDF. Treatment with recombinant PEDF (rPEDF) abrogated tamoxifen-induced uterine hyperplasia and VEGF elevation, resulting in reduction of blood vessels density. Exploring the molecular mechanism revealed that tamoxifen promoted survival and malignant transformation pathways, whereas rPEDF treatment prevents these changes. Activation of survival pathways was decreased, demonstrated by reduction in AKT phosphorylation concomitant with elevation in JNK phosphorylation. Estrogen receptor-α and c-Myc oncoprotein levels were reduced. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms tamoxifen induces in the uterus, which may become the precursor events of subsequent endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. We demonstrate that rPEDF may serve as a useful intervention to alleviate the risk of tamoxifen-induced endometrial pathologies.

Hillis J, O'Dwyer M, Gorman AM
Neurotrophins and B-cell malignancies.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(1):41-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurotrophins and their receptors act as important proliferative and pro-survival factors in a variety of cell types. Neurotrophins are produced by multiple cell types in both pro- and mature forms, and can act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. The p75(NTR) and Trk receptors can elicit signalling in response to the presence or absence of their corresponding neurotrophin ligands. This signalling, along with neurotrophin and receptor expression, varies between different cell types. Neurotrophins and their receptors have been shown to be expressed by and elicit signalling in B lymphocytes. In general, most neurotrophins are expressed by activated B-cells and memory B-cells. Likewise, the TrkB95 receptor is seen on activated B-cells, while TrkA and p75(NTR) are expressed by both resting and active B-cells as well as memory B-cells. Nerve growth factor stimulates B-cell proliferation, memory B-cell survival, antibody production and CD40 expression. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is involved in B-cell maturation in the bone marrow through TrkB95. Overall neurotrophins and their receptors have been shown to be involved in B-cell proliferation, development, differentiation, antibody secretion and survival. As well as expression and activity in healthy B-cells, the neurotrophins and their receptors can contribute to B-cell malignancies including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. They are involved in B-cell malignancy survival and potentially in drug resistance.

Wang L, Zhi X, Zhu Y, et al.
MUC4-promoted neural invasion is mediated by the axon guidance factor Netrin-1 in PDAC.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):33805-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neural invasion (NI) is an important oncological feature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the underlying mechanism of NI in PDAC remains unclear. In this study, we found that MUC4 was overexpressed in PDAC tissues and high expression of MUC4 indicated a higher NI incidence than low expression. In vitro, MUC4 knockdown inhibited the migration and invasion of PDAC cells and impaired the migration of PDAC cells along nerve in dorsal root ganglia (DRG)-PDAC cell co-culture assay. In vivo, MUC4 knockdown suppressed the NI of PDAC cells in a murine NI model. Mechanistically, our data revealed that MUC4 silencing resulted in decreased netrin-1 expression and re-expression of netrin-1 in MUC4-silenced cells rescued the capability of NI. Furthermore, we identified that decreased netrin-1 expression was owed to the downregulation of HER2/AKT/NF-κB pathway in MUC4-silenced cells. Additionally, MUC4 knockdown also resulted in the downregulation of pFAK, pSrc, pJNK and MMP9. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel role of MUC4 in potentiating NI via netrin-1 through the HER2/AKT/NF-κB pathway in PDAC.

Nahas GR, Murthy RG, Patel SA, et al.
The RNA-binding protein Musashi 1 stabilizes the oncotachykinin 1 mRNA in breast cancer cells to promote cell growth.
FASEB J. 2016; 30(1):149-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Substance P and its truncated receptor exert oncogenic effects. The high production of substance P in breast cancer cells (BCCs) is caused by the enhancement of tachykinin (TAC)1 translation by cytosolic factor. In vitro translational studies and mRNA stabilization analyses indicate that BCCs contain the factor needed to increase TAC1 translation and to stabilize the mRNA. Prediction of protein folding, RNA-shift analysis, and proteomic analysis identified a 40 kDa molecule that interacts with the noncoding exon 7. Western blot analysis and RNA supershift identified Musashi 1 (Msi1) as the binding protein. Ectopic expression of TAC1 in nontumorigenic breast cells (BCs) indicates that TAC1 regulates its stability by increasing Msi1. Using a reporter gene system, we showed that Msi1 competes with microRNA (miR)130a and -206 for the 3' UTR of exon 7/TAC1. In the absence of Msi1 and miR130a and -206, reporter gene activity decreased, indicating that Msi1 expression limits TAC1 expression. Tumor growth was significantly decreased when nude BALB/c mice were injected with Msi1-knockdown BCCs. In summary, the RNA-binding protein Msi1 competes with miR130a and -206 for interaction with TAC1 mRNA, to stabilize and increase its translation. Consequently, these interactions increase tumor growth.

Lund RR, Leth-Larsen R, Caterino TD, et al.
NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015; 14(11):2988-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths and remains the most significant challenge to management of the disease. Metastases are established through a complex multistep process involving intracellular signaling pathways. To gain insight to proteins central to specific steps in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation, the nuclear, cytosol, and mitochondria proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, identifying a number of proteins that exhibited altered expression in isogenic metastatic versus nonmetastatic cancer cell lines, including NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), l-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Niemann-pick c1 protein (NPC1), and nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (NRH2). The altered expression levels were validated at the protein and transcriptional levels, and analysis of breast cancer biopsies from two cohorts of patients demonstrated a significant correlation between high CYB5R3 expression and poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (DFS: p = .02, OS: p = .04). CYB5R3 gene knock-down using siRNA in metastasizing cells led to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. The cellular effects of CYB5R3 knock-down showed signaling alterations associated with extravasation, TGFβ and HIFα pathways, and apoptosis. The decreased apoptosis of CYB5R3 knock-down metastatic cancer cell lines was confirmed in functional assays. Our study reveals a central role of CYB5R3 in extravasation/colonization of cancer cells and demonstrates the ability of our quantitative, comparative proteomic approach to identify key proteins of specific important biological processes that may also prove useful as potential biomarkers of clinical relevance. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001391.

Bender RJ, Mac Gabhann F
Dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor and semaphorin ligand-receptor families in prostate cancer metastasis.
BMC Syst Biol. 2015; 9:55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is central to cancer angiogenesis. However, targeting VEGF as an anti-cancer therapeutic approach has shown success for some tumor types but not others. Here we examine the expression of the expanded VEGF family in prostate cancer, including the Semaphorin (Sema) family members that compete with VEGFs for Neuropilin binding and can themselves have pro- or anti-angiogenic activity.
RESULTS: First, we used multivariate statistical methods, including partial least squares and clustering, to examine VEGF/Sema gene expression variability in previously published prostate cancer microarray datasets. We show that unlike some cancers, such as kidney cancer, primary prostate cancer is characterized by both a down-regulation of the pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family and a down-regulation of anti-angiogenic members of the Sema family. We found pro-lymphangiogenic signatures, including the genes encoding VEGFC and VEGFD, associated with primary tumors that ultimately became aggressive. In contrast to primary prostate tumors, prostate cancer metastases showed increased expression of key pro-angiogenic VEGF family members and further repression of anti-angiogenic class III Sema family members. Given the lack of success of VEGF-targeting molecules so far in prostate cancer, this suggests that the reduction in anti-angiogenic Sema signaling may potentiate VEGF signaling and even promote resistance to VEGF-targeting therapies. Inhibition of the VEGF 'accelerator' may need to be accompanied by promotion of the Sema 'brake' to block cancer angiogenesis. To leverage our mechanistic understanding, and to link multigene expression changes to outcomes, we performed individualized computational simulations of competitive VEGF and Sema receptor binding across many tumor samples. The simulations suggest that loss of Sema expression promotes angiogenesis by lowering plexin signaling, not by potentiating VEGF signaling via relaxation of competition.
CONCLUSIONS: The combined analysis of bioinformatic data with computational modeling of ligand-receptor interactions demonstrated that enhancement of angiogenesis in prostate cancer metastases may occur through two different routes: elevation of VEGFA and reduction of class 3 Semaphorins. Therapeutic inhibition of angiogenesis in metastatic prostate cancer should account for both of these routes.

Zheng KL, He TL, Ji WP, et al.
Alternative splicing of NUMB, APP and VEGFA as the features of pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):6181-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common form of malignancy in pancreatic carcinoma. Here we report our discovery on the correlations between transcriptional alternative splicing (AS) of NUMB, APP, VEGFA and PDAC in patients.
METHODS: The expression of NUMB, APP, VEGFA from patient samples was determined by qRT-PCR. AS of these genes was examined through laser induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis. Correlation between the AS of the genes and results from clinical laboratory examinations were analyzed. Expression of NOTHC1 and NOTCH4 as downstream target genes was examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: Quantitative results indicated that expression of NUMB was significantly lower in tumor tissues (TT) than in para-tumor tissues (TP) (P<0.05), while APP (P<0.01) and VEGFA (P<0.05) were significantly higher. AS transcript percentage of NUMB PRR(S) was lower in TT than TP (P<0.05). AS transcript percentage of VEGFA (105+185) was significantly lower in TT than TP (P<0.05) compared to higher expression of VEGFA (206+338) (P<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that AS transcript of NUMB PRR(L) correlated with tumor size (P<0.01), while AS transcripts of APP and VEGFA correlated with results of laboratory examinations. To reveal the correlation between AS and its downstream targets, NOTCH1 and NOTCH4 were selected as NUMB gene targets and detected to be significantly higher in TT than TP (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Alternative splicing of APP, VEGFA and NUMB may play an important role in pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Among the 3 genes, PRR(L) form of NUMB gene is highly expressed in TT and positively correlated with tumor size, while PRR(S) is lacking in TT and negatively correlated with NOTCH expression suggesting that PRR(S) might be protective in tumorogenesis and shows NOTCH pathway down regulation ability.

Higashi M, Kolla V, Iyer R, et al.
Retinoic acid-induced CHD5 upregulation and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromodomain-helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) is an important tumor suppressor gene deleted from 1p36.31 in neuroblastomas (NBs). High CHD5 expression is associated with a favorable prognosis, but deletion or low expression is frequent in high-risk tumors. We explored the role of CHD5 expression in the neuronal differentiation of NB cell lines.
METHODS: NB cell lines SH-SY5Y (SY5Y), NGP, SK-N-DZ, IMR5, LAN5, SK-N-FI, NB69 and SH-EP were treated with 1-10 μM 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) for 3-12 days. qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to measure mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Morphological differences were examined by both phase contrast and immunofluorescence studies.
RESULTS: Treatment of SY5Y cells with 13cRA caused upregulation of CHD5 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner (1, 5, or 10 μM for 7 or 12 days) and also induced neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, both NGP and SK-N-DZ cells showed CHD5 upregulation and neuronal differentiation after 13cRA treatment. In contrast, 13cRA treatment of IMR5, LAN5, or SK-N-FI induced neither CHD5 expression nor neuronal differentiation. NB69 cells showed two different morphologies (neuronal and substrate adherent) after 12 days treatment with 10 μM of 13cRA. CHD5 expression was high in the neuronal cells, but low/absent in the flat, substrate adherent cells. Finally, NGF treatment caused upregulation of CHD5 expression and neuronal differentiation in SY5Y cells transfected to express TrkA (SY5Y-TrkA) but not in TrkA-null parental SY5Y cells, and both changes were blocked by a pan-TRK inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 13cRA induces neuronal differentiation only in NB cells that upregulate CHD5. In addition, NGF induced CHD5 upregulation and neuronal differentiation only in TrkA expressing cells. Together, these results suggest that CHD5 is downstream of TrkA, and CHD5 expression may be crucial for neuronal differentiation induced by either 13cRA or TrkA/NGF signaling.

Lee MS, Jeong MH, Lee HW, et al.
PI3K/AKT activation induces PTEN ubiquitination and destabilization accelerating tumourigenesis.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7769 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The activity of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is known to be suppressed via post-translational modification. However, the mechanism and physiological significance by which post-translational modifications lead to PTEN suppression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that PTEN destabilization is induced by EGFR- or oncogenic PI3K mutation-mediated AKT activation in cervical cancer. EGFR/PI3K/AKT-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of PTEN are dependent on the MKRN1 E3 ligase. These processes require the stabilization of MKRN1 via AKT-mediated phosphorylation. In cervical cancer patients with high levels of pAKT and MKRN1 expression, PTEN protein levels are low and correlate with a low 5-year survival rate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PI3K/AKT signals enforce positive-feedback regulation by suppressing PTEN function.

Nakayama H, Huang L, Kelly RP, et al.
Infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells and endothelial cells are inhibited by class 3 semaphorins.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(1):126-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Class 3 semaphorins were discovered as a family of axon guidance molecules, but are now known to be involved in diverse biologic processes. In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic potential of SEMA3E and SEMA3F (SEMA3E&F) in infantile hemangioma (IH). IH is a common vascular tumor that involves both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Our lab has identified and isolated hemangioma stem cells (HemSC), glucose transporter 1 positive (GLUT1(+)) endothelial cells (designated as GLUT1(sel) cells) based on anti-GLUT1 magnetic beads selection and GLUT1-negative endothelial cells (named HemEC). We have shown that these types of cells play important roles in hemangiogenesis. We report here that SEMA3E inhibited HemEC migration and proliferation while SEMA3F was able to suppress the migration and proliferation in all three types of cells. Confocal microscopy showed that stress fibers in HemEC were reduced by SEMA3E&F and that stress fibers in HemSC were decreased by SEMA3F, which led to cytoskeletal collapse and loss of cell motility in both cell types. Additionally, SEMA3E&F were able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced sprouts in all three types of cells. Further, SEMA3E&F reduced the level of p-VEGFR2 and its downstream p-ERK in HemEC. These results demonstrate that SEMA3E&F inhibit IH cell proliferation and suppress the angiogenic activities of migration and sprout formation. SEMA3E&F may have therapeutic potential to treat or prevent growth of highly proliferative IH.

Ranjit M, Motomura K, Ohka F, et al.
Applicable advances in the molecular pathology of glioblastoma.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2015; 32(3):153-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Comprising more than 80% of malignant brain tumors, glioma has proven to be a daunting cause of mortality in a vast majority of the human population. Progressive and extensive research on malignant glioma has substantially enhanced our understanding of glioma cell biology and molecular pathology. Subtypes of glioma such as astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma are currently grouped together into one pathological class, where they show many differences in histology and molecular etiology. This indicates that it may be beneficial to consider a new and radical subclassification. Thus, we summarize recent developments in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) subtypes, immunohistochemical analyses useful for diagnoses and the biological evaluation and therapeutic implications of gliomas in this review.

Ahmad I, Fernando A, Gurgel R, et al.
Merlin status regulates p75(NTR) expression and apoptotic signaling in Schwann cells following nerve injury.
Neurobiol Dis. 2015; 82:114-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
After nerve injury, Schwann cells (SCs) dedifferentiate, proliferate, and support axon regrowth. If axons fail to regenerate, denervated SCs eventually undergo apoptosis due, in part, to increased expression of the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75(NTR). Merlin is the protein product of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene implicated in SC tumorigenesis. Here we explore the contribution of merlin to SC responses to nerve injury. We find that merlin becomes phosphorylated (growth permissive) in SCs following acute axotomy and following gradual neural degeneration in a deafness model, temporally correlated with increased p75(NTR) expression. p75(NTR) levels are elevated in P0SchΔ39-121 transgenic mice that harbor an Nf2 mutation in SCs relative to wild-type mice before axotomy and remain elevated for a longer period of time following injury. Replacement of wild-type, but not phospho-mimetic (S518D), merlin isoforms suppresses p75(NTR) expression in primary human schwannoma cultures which otherwise lack functional merlin. Despite elevated levels of p75(NTR), SC apoptosis following axotomy is blunted in P0SchΔ39-121 mice relative to wild-type mice suggesting that loss of functional merlin contributes to SC resistance to apoptosis. Further, cultured SCs from mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knock-out of Nf2 confirm that SCs lacking functional merlin are less sensitive to p75(NTR)-mediated cell death. Taken together these results point to a model whereby loss of axonal contact following nerve injury results in merlin phosphorylation leading to increased p75(NTR) expression. Further, they demonstrate that merlin facilitates p75(NTR)-mediated apoptosis in SCs helping to explain how neoplastic SCs that lack functional merlin survive long-term in the absence of axonal contact.

de Vries M, van der Mey AG, Hogendoorn PC
Tumor Biology of Vestibular Schwannoma: A Review of Experimental Data on the Determinants of Tumor Genesis and Growth Characteristics.
Otol Neurotol. 2015; 36(7):1128-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Provide an overview of the literature on vestibular schwannoma biology with special attention to tumor behavior and targeted therapy.
BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors originating from the eighth cranial nerve and arise due to inactivation of the NF2 gene and its product merlin. Unraveling the biology of these tumors helps to clarify their growth pattern and is essential in identifying therapeutic targets.
METHODS: PubMed search for English-language articles on vestibular schwannoma biology from 1994 to 2014.
RESULTS: Activation of merlin and its role in cell signaling seem as key aspects of vestibular schwannoma biology. Merlin is regulated by proteins such as CD44, Rac, and myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1. The tumor-suppressive functions of merlin are related to receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Merlin mediates the Hippo pathway and acts within the nucleus by binding E3 ubiquiting ligase CRL4. Angiogenesis is an important mechanism responsible for the progression of these tumors and is affected by processes such as hypoxia and inflammation. Inhibiting angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor seems to be the most successful pharmacologic strategy, but additional therapeutic options are emerging.
CONCLUSION: Over the years, the knowledge on vestibular schwannoma biology has significantly increased. Future research should focus on identifying new therapeutic targets by investigating vestibular schwannoma (epi)genetics, merlin function, and tumor behavior. Besides identifying novel targets, testing new combinations of existing treatment strategies can further improve vestibular schwannoma therapy.

Créancier L, Vandenberghe I, Gomes B, et al.
Chromosomal rearrangements involving the NTRK1 gene in colorectal carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 365(1):107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene, which encodes the high affinity nerve growth factor receptor (tropomyosin related kinase, TRKA), have been observed in several epithelial cancers, such as colon cancer, papillary thyroid carcinoma or non small cell lung cancer. The various NTRK1 fusions described so far lead to constitutive activation of TRKA kinase activity and are oncogenic. We further investigated here the existence and the frequency of NTRK1 gene rearrangements in colorectal cancer. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, we analyzed a series of human colorectal cancers. We identified two TRKA positive cases over 408, with NTRK1 chromosomal rearrangements. One of these rearrangements is a TPM3-NTRK1 fusion already observed in colon cancer, while the second one is a TPR-NTRK1 fusion never described in this type of cancer. These findings further confirm that translocations in the NTRK1 gene are recurring events in colorectal cancer, although occurring at a low frequency (around 0.5%).

Kobayashi K, Ando M, Saito Y, et al.
Nerve Growth Factor Signals as Possible Pathogenic Biomarkers for Perineural Invasion in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015; 153(2):218-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The molecular mechanisms underlying perineural invasion (PNI)-a characteristic pathological feature of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC)-remain largely unclear. Recently, nerve growth factor (NGF) has been implicated in perineural invasion in certain malignancies. Overexpression of Myb related to the MYB-NFIB fusion gene in ACC has also been correlated with perineural invasion and survival. However, this concept is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of NGF together with its receptors, tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) and p75NRT, and Myb in ACC and assess their relationship with perineural invasion and survival.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review.
SETTING: The University of Tokyo Hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 37 patients with ACC surgically treated from 1991 to 2011. We examined expression levels of NGF, TrkA, p75NRT, and Myb in the ACC specimens and their correlations with PNI and prognosis.
RESULTS: NGF, TrkA, p75NRT, and Myb overexpression rates were 65%, 65%, 30%, and 62%, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient revealed a strong correlation between NGF/TrkA immunostaining and PNI (NGF: r = 0.68, P < .0001; TrkA: r = 0.53, P = .0007). Moreover, NGF overexpression was significantly associated with worse 8-year local control rate (27% vs 80%, P = .005). However, p75NRT and Myb expression was related to neither perineural invasion nor survival.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that NGF and TrkA overexpression, but not Myb and p75NRT overexpression, may contribute to PNI and thus cause local recurrence in patients with ACC.

Xue F, Shen R, Chen X
Analysis of gene profiles in glioma cells identifies potential genes, miRNAs, and target sites of migratory cells.
Tumori. 2015 Sep-Oct; 101(5):542-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To explore the potential molecular mechanisms involved in migratory glioma cells.
METHODS: The gene expression profiles of GSE28167, employing human malignant glioma U251MG cells cultured on strictly aligned versus randomly oriented electrospun nanofibers of polycaprolactone, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Gene differential expression analysis was carried out by the package of Gene Expression Omnibus query and limma in R language. The Gene Set Analysis Toolkit V2 was used for pathway analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to screen for target sites of transcription factors, miRNA and small drug molecules.
RESULTS: Totally 586 differentially expressed genes were identified and the differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in the pathway of muscle cell TarBase, MAPK cascade, adipogenesis and epithelium TarBase. Thirty-two significant target sites of transcription factors, such as hsa_RTAAACA_V$FREAC2_01, were screened. The top 20 potential miRNAs including MIR-124A, MIR-34A and MIR-34C were screened for a constructing gene-miRNA interaction network. Small molecules that can inhibit the motility of glioma cells such as diclofenamide and valinomycin were mined. By integrating the regulatory relationships among transcription factors, miRNAs and differentially expressed genes, we found that 7 differentially expressed genes, including SOX4, ANKRD28 and CCND1, might play crucial roles in the migration of glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The screened migration-associated genes, significant pathways, and small molecules give us new insight for the mechanism of migratory glioma cells. Interest in such genes as potential target genes in the treatment of glioblastoma justifies functional validation studies.

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