ODC1; ornithine decarboxylase 1 (2p25)

Gene Summary

Gene:ODC1; ornithine decarboxylase 1
Aliases: ODC
Summary:This gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway which catalyzes ornithine to putrescine. The activity level for the enzyme varies in response to growth-promoting stimuli and exhibits a high turnover rate in comparison to other mammalian proteins. Originally localized to both chromosomes 2 and 7, the gene encoding this enzyme has been determined to be located on 2p25, with a pseudogene located on 7q31-qter. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ornithine decarboxylase
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Arginine and proline metabolism KEGG
- Urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (8)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Stomach CancerODC1 and Stomach Cancer View Publications8
Skin CancerODC1 and Skin Cancer View Publications8
Colorectal CancerODC1 and Colorectal Cancer View Publications6
NeuroblastomaODC1 and Neuroblastoma View Publications3
Esophageal CancerODC1 and Esogapheal Cancer View Publications3
Prostate CancerODC1 and Prostate Cancer View Publications2
Breast CancerODC1 and Breast Cancer View Publications2
Rectal CancerODC1 and Rectal Cancer View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: ODC1 (cancer-related)

Symes AJ, Eilertsen M, Millar M, et al.
Quantitative analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 protein over-expression in human prostate cancer tissue.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e84295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer.

Related: Prostate Cancer NDRG1 gene

Jacobson BA, Thumma SC, Jay-Dixon J, et al.
Targeting eukaryotic translation in mesothelioma cells with an eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotide.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e81669 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant cap-dependent translation is implicated in tumorigenesis in multiple tumor types including mesothelioma. In this study, disabling the eIF4F complex by targeting eIF4E with eIF4E-specific antisense oligonucleotide (4EASO) is assessed as a therapy for mesothelioma.
METHODS: Mesothelioma cells were transfected with 4EASO, designed to target eIF4E mRNA, or mismatch-ASO control. Cell survival was measured in mesothelioma treated with 4EASO alone or combined with either gemcitabine or pemetrexed. Levels of eIF4E, ODC, Bcl-2 and β-actin were assessed following treatment. Binding to a synthetic cap-analogue was used to study the strength of eIF4F complex activation following treatment.
RESULTS: eIF4E level and the formation of eIF4F cap-complex decreased in response to 4EASO, but not mismatch control ASO, resulting in cleavage of PARP indicating apoptosis. 4EASO treatment resulted in dose dependent decrease in eIF4E levels, which corresponded to cytotoxicity of mesothelioma cells. 4EASO resulted in decreased levels of eIF4E in non-malignant LP9 cells, but this did not correspond to increased cytotoxicity. Proteins thought to be regulated by cap-dependent translation, Bcl-2 and ODC, were decreased upon treatment with 4EASO. Combination therapy of 4EASO with pemetrexed or gemcitabine further reduced cell number.
CONCLUSION: 4EASO is a novel drug that causes apoptosis and selectively reduces eIF4E levels, eIF4F complex formation, and proliferation of mesothelioma cells. eIF4E knockdown results in decreased expression of anti-apoptotic and pro-growth proteins and enhances chemosensitivity.

Related: Apoptosis EIF4E Mesothelioma Pemetrexed Gemcitabine

Weerawatanakorn M, Yang JR, Tsai ML, et al.
Inhibitory effects of Momordica grosvenori Swingle extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mouse skin.
Food Funct. 2014; 5(2):257-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous data showed that the Momordica grosvenori Swingle extract (MSE) exhibited the anti-inflammatory effect through markedly suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Regarding the link between inflammation and carcinogenesis, we further investigated the bio-molecular mechanisms of both anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities in vivo using a TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate)-stimulated mouse skin model. Pretreatment with MSE in mouse skin has led to the reduction of TPA-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) subunits as well as phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 subsequent reduction of IκBα degradation. In addition, the MSE inhibitory effect on upstream of NFκB was found to involve the transcriptional effects of MAPK signaling as indicated by strong suppression on TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal regulate kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Moreover, MSE significantly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-TPA-induced skin tumor formation in mice measured by the tumor multiplicity of papillomas at 20 weeks. The results suggested that MSE contained promising functional ingredients capable of preventing inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.

Related: AKT1 Skin Cancer

Pietilä M, Dhungana H, Uimari A, et al.
Systemic overexpression of antizyme 1 in mouse reduces ornithine decarboxylase activity without major changes in tissue polyamine homeostasis.
Transgenic Res. 2014; 23(1):153-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polyamines, spermidine, spermine and their precursor putrescine, are ubiquitous cell components essential for normal cell growth. Increased polyamine levels and enhanced biosynthesis have been associated with malignant transformation and tumor formation, and thus, the polyamines have been considered to be a meaningful target to cancer therapies. However, clinical cancer treatment trials using inhibitors of polyamine synthesis have been unsuccessful probably due to compensatory uptake of polyamines from extracellular sources. The antizyme proteins regulate both polyamine biosynthesis and transport, and thus, the antizymes could provide an efficient approach to control cellular proliferation compared to the mere inhibition of biosynthesis. To define the role of antizymes in proliferative processes associated with the whole animal, we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing mouse antizyme 1 gene under its own regulatory sequences. Antizyme 1 protein was abundantly expressed in various organs and the expressed antizyme protein was functional as ornithine decarboxylase activity was significantly reduced in all tissues analyzed. However, antizyme 1 overexpression caused only minor changes in tissue polyamine levels demonstrating the challenges in using the "antizyme approach" to deplete polyamines in a living animal. Neither were there any changes in cellular proliferation in the proliferative tissues of transgenic animals. Interestingly though, there was occurrence of abnormally high level of apoptosis in the non-proliferating part of the colon epithelia. Otherwise, the transgenic founder mice appeared healthy and out of seven founders six were fertile. However, none of the founders could transmit the transgene suggesting that the antizyme 1 overexpression may be deleterious to transgenic gametes.

Wang W, Xu CX, Hou GS, et al.
Downregulation of tumstatin expression by overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2042-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor angiogenesis, a pivotal process for cancer growth and metastasis, requires both upregulation of pro‑angiogenic molecules and downregulation of anti‑angiogenic molecules. Anti-angiogenesis therapy represents a promising way for cancer treatment. Tumstatin, a novel endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, pathological angiogenesis and tumor growth. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), overexpressed in various cancers, is associated with cell transformation, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. We found that the expression of tumstatin was suppressed in ODC-overexpressing human cancer cells and renal carcinoma tissues. We presumed that ODC overexpression may downregulate the expression of tumstatin. To be able to test this hypothesis, we generated HEK293 cells that overexpress ODC (ODC transfectants) and characterized the following experimental groups: PBS-treated group, mock transfectants, ODC transfectants, ODC transfectants transfected with pcDNA-ODCr (an antisense ODC-expressing plasmid) group and putrescine-treated group. The effect of ODC overexpression on tumstatin expression was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and dual luciferase reporter assay. ODC-overexpressing cells and putrescine-treated cells showed suppressed tumstatin mRNA and protein expression, and decreased tumstatin gene promoter activity. Thus, ODC overexpression suppresses the expression of tumstatin, which may provide fundamental evidence for the combination of anti-angiogenic therapy and conventional therapy for cancer treatment.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Angiogenesis and Cancer

Tomasi ML, Ryoo M, Skay A, et al.
Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(12):1902-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70-75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell.

Related: Apoptosis Liver Cancer

Koomoa DL, Geerts D, Lange I, et al.
DFMO/eflornithine inhibits migration and invasion downstream of MYCN and involves p27Kip1 activity in neuroblastoma.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1219-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric tumor. NB patients over 18 months of age at the time of diagnosis are often in the later stages of the disease, present with widespread dissemination, and often possess MYCN tumor gene amplification. MYCN is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes including ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines. Inhibiting ODC in NB cells produces many deleterious effects including G(1) cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, and decreased tumor growth, making ODC a promising target for drug interference. DFMO treatment leads to the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) protein and causes p27(Kip1)/Rb-coupled G(1) cell cycle arrest in MYCN-amplified NB tumor cells through a process that involves p27(Kip1) phosphorylation at residues Ser10 and Thr198. While p27(Kip1) is well known for its role as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, recent studies have revealed a novel function of p27(Kip1) as a regulator of cell migration and invasion. In the present study we found that p27(Kip1) regulates the migration and invasion in NB and that these events are dependent on the state of phosphorylation of p27(Kip1). DFMO treatments induced MYCN protein downregulation and phosphorylation of Akt/PKB (Ser473) and GSK3-β (Ser9), and polyamine supplementation alleviated the DFMO-induced effects. Importantly, we provide strong evidence that p27(Kip1) mRNA correlates with clinical features and the survival probability of NB patients.

Related: CDKN1B Neuroblastoma Signal Transduction MYCN (n-myc)

Raj KP, Zell JA, Rock CL, et al.
Role of dietary polyamines in a phase III clinical trial of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and sulindac for prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 108(3):512-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The polyamine-inhibitory regimen difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)+sulindac has marked efficacy in preventing metachronous colorectal adenomas. Polyamines are synthesised endogenously and obtained from dietary sources. Here we investigate dietary polyamine intake and outcomes in the DFMO+sulindac colorectal adenoma prevention trial.
METHODS: Dietary polyamine data were available for 188 of 267 patients completing the study. Total dietary polyamine content was derived by the sum of dietary putrescine, spermine and spermidine values and categorised into two groups: highest (>75-100%) vs the lower three quartiles (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75%). Baseline tissue polyamine concentration and ODC1 genotype were determined. Logistic regression models were used for risk estimation.
RESULTS: A significant interaction was detected between dietary polyamine group and treatment with regard to adenoma recurrence (P=0.012). Significant metachronous adenoma risk reduction was observed after DFMO+sulindac treatment in dietary polyamine quartiles 1-3 (risk ratio (RR) 0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.42; P<0.0001) but not in quartile 4 (RR 1.51; 95% CI 0.53-4.29; P=0.44). However, a lower number of events in the placebo group within dietary quartile 4 confound the aforementioned risk estimates.
CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings reveal complex relationships between diet and therapeutic prevention, and they support further clinical trial-based investigations where the dietary intervention itself is controlled.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Funakoshi-Tago M, Sumi K, Kasahara T, Tago K
Critical roles of Myc-ODC axis in the cellular transformation induced by myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated JAK2 V617F mutant.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e52844 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The acquired mutation (V617F) of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is observed in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In the screening of genes whose expression was induced by JAK2 (V617F), we found the significant induction of c-Myc mRNA expression mediated by STAT5 activation. Interestingly, GSK-3β was inactivated in transformed Ba/F3 cells by JAK2 (V617F), and this enhanced the protein expression of c-Myc. The enforced expression of c-Myc accelerated cell proliferation but failed to inhibit apoptotic cell death caused by growth factor deprivation; however, the inhibition of GSK-3β completely inhibited the apoptosis of cells expressing c-Myc. Strikingly, c-Myc T58A mutant exhibited higher proliferative activity in a growth-factor-independent manner; however, this mutant failed to induce apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of c-Myc significantly inhibited the proliferation of transformed cells by JAK2 (V617F), suggesting that c-Myc plays an important role in oncogenic activity of JAK2 (V617F). Furthermore, JAK2 (V617F) induced the expression of a target gene of c-Myc, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), known as the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. An ODC inhibitor, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), prevented the proliferation of transformed cells by JAK2 (V617F). Importantly, administration of DFMO effectively delayed tumor formation in nude mice inoculated with transformed cells by JAK2 (V617F), resulting in prolonged survival; therefore, ODC expression through c-Myc is a critical step for JAK2 (V617F)-induced transformation and DFMO could be used as effective therapy for MPNs.

Related: Apoptosis JAK2 gene

Gupta NK, Gupta KP
Effects of C-Phycocyanin on the representative genes of tumor development in mouse skin exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012; 34(3):941-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), a biliprotein from the sea weed, has been shown to have the beneficial effects like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective properties and is used as food supplement. We are showing the effect of C-Phycocyanin on the early events altered by tumor promoter. TPA induced the expression of critical events of tumorigenesis like ornithine decarboxylase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6 and pSTAT3 in mouse skin after 5h of application, whereas expression of transglutaminase2 was decreased at this time point. This TPA-caused altered expression of genes was prevented in presence of C-Phycocyanin. This prevention by C-Phycocyanin appeared to be dependent on the dose of C-Phycocyanin used. The results are useful for the detailed study on the preventive effect of C-Phycocyanin on TPA induced tumor promotion.

Related: COX2 (PTGS2) Skin Cancer

Morozov AV, Morozov VA, Astakhova TM, et al.
[DNA vaccine encoding alpha-fetoprotein with fused ornithine decarboxylase degradation signal significantly suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in mice].
Mol Biol (Mosk). 2012 May-Jun; 46(3):434-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most frequent malignancies in humans. HCC therapy is not efficient and the usual outcome is poor. In this regard, novel approaches to treat and prevent HCC are urgently needed. The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a serological marker of HCC. Recently it has been shown, that the DNA vaccines expressing AFP are capable in generating immune response against AFP. However, both, the immunization procedures and DNA vaccines used before were complex and not always very effective. We have shown that DNA vaccine encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with fused ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) degradation signal induced a strong Th-1 immune response against RT in mice. Using this approach we designed a set of novel DNA vaccines bearing AFP and ODC degradation signal. Results obtained on transfected cells demonstrated efficient expression and fast proteasomal degradation of the recombinant AFP. The anti-tumor immune response stimulation was shown in immunized animals and most importantly a notable retardation of tumor growth was observed as a result of protective vaccination.

Vargas AJ, Wertheim BC, Gerner EW, et al.
Dietary polyamine intake and risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96(1):133-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are the polyamines required for human cell growth. The inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, decreases tumor growth and the development of colorectal adenomas. A database was developed to estimate dietary polyamine exposure and relate exposure to health outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that high polyamine intake would increase risk of colorectal adenoma and that the allelic variation at ODC G>A +316 would modify the association.
DESIGN: Polyamine exposure was estimated in subjects pooled (n = 1164) from the control arms of 2 randomized trials for colorectal adenoma prevention [Wheat Bran Fiber low-fiber diet arm (n = 585) and Ursodeoxycholic Acid placebo arm (n = 579)] by using baseline food-frequency questionnaire data. All subjects had to have a diagnosis of colorectal adenoma to be eligible for the trial.
RESULTS: A dietary intake of polyamines above the median amount in the study population was associated with 39% increased risk of colorectal adenoma at follow-up (adjusted OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.83) in the pooled sample. In addition, younger participants (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.08), women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.00), and ODC GG genotype carriers (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.53) had significantly increased odds of colorectal adenoma if they consumed above-median polyamine amounts.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a role for dietary polyamines in colorectal adenoma risk. Corroboration of these findings would confirm a previously unrecognized, modifiable dietary risk factor for colorectal adenoma.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Smirnova OA, Isaguliants MG, Hyvonen MT, et al.
Chemically induced oxidative stress increases polyamine levels by activating the transcription of ornithine decarboxylase and spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase in human hepatoma HUH7 cells.
Biochimie. 2012; 94(9):1876-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biogenic polyamines spermine and spermidine participate in numerous cellular processes including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Specifically, they counteract oxidative stress, an alteration of cell redox balance involved in generation and progression of various pathological states including cancer. Here, we investigated how chemically induced oxidative stress affects polyamine metabolism, specifically the expression and activities of enzymes catalyzing polyamine synthesis (ornithine decarboxylase; ODC) and degradation (spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase; SSAT), in human hepatoma cells. Oxidative stress induced the up-regulation of ODC and SSAT gene transcription mediated by Nrf2, and in case of SSAT, also by NF-κB transcription factors. Activation of transcription led to the elevated intracellular activities of both enzymes. The balance in antagonistic activities of ODC and SSAT in the stressed hepatoma cells was shifted towards polyamine biosynthesis, which resulted in increased intracellular levels of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. Accumulation of putrescine is indicating for accelerated degradation of polyamines by SSAT - acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO) pathway generating toxic products that promote carcinogenesis, whereas accelerated polyamine synthesis via activation of ODC is favorable for proliferation of cells including those sub-lethally damaged by oxidative stress.

Kumar KN, Raja SB, Vidhya N, Devaraj SN
Ellagic acid modulates antioxidant status, ornithine decarboxylase expression, and aberrant crypt foci progression in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-instigated colon preneoplastic lesions in rats.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(14):3665-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoprevention offers a novel approach to control the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC), which is a fatal cause of malignancies in both Western and Asia countries. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) functions as a cell transition factor by regulating the biosynthesis of polyamines, which, allied with aberrant crypt foci (ACF) proliferation, cause early lesions of CRC. This study exemplifies the chemopreventive efficacy of ellagic acid (EA) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) initiated CRC in rats. Subcutaneous injection of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 2 weeks) to the rats resulted in elevated expression of ODC, a genetic marker for CRC, and its transcription factor myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-myc). Furthermore, increased levels of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxides with diminished levels of antioxidants including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione were also observed in the tissues of DMH-intoxicated rats. Oral supplementation of EA significantly influences maintenance of antioxidant status and transcriptional inactivation of ODC expression, reducing ACF proliferation and/or progression, thus signifying the chemopreventive efficacy of EA against CRC.

Kingsley K, Truong K, Low E, et al.
Soy protein extract (SPE) exhibits differential in vitro cell proliferation effects in oral cancer and normal cell lines.
J Diet Suppl. 2011; 8(2):169-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prior research has demonstrated that specific isoflavones derived from soy may exhibit antitumor effects against many cancers, including oral cancer. Most of this prior research involved isolation and testing of individual soy components, such as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein, which exhibit cytotoxicity against cancerous cells but may also have residual cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Few studies have evaluated whole soy extract, containing a combination of these isoflavones, and other bioreactive compounds, which may function synergistically and more effectively against oral cancers. This study compared the antiproliferative effects of whole soy protein extract (SPE) on CAL 27 and SCC25 oral cancer cell lines in vitro. Administration of SPE significantly inhibited oral cancer growth and exerted these effects at lower concentrations compared with another class of flavonoids (proanthocyanidins) that were previously tested on these cell lines. This SPE-induced growth inhibition correlated with down-regulated mRNA expression in the oral cancer cell-cycle promoter ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), as well as upregulation of caspase-2 and caspase-8, initiators and effectors of apoptosis. These results suggest that SPE may represent a potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic option for oral cancer. Moreover, SPE may be more effective than other flavonoids currently used and may be effective at lower concentrations that approximate physiologic serum levels (0-2 μmol/l). This study may help to explain why diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and soy protein are associated with protection against development and progression of oral cancers, although further study is needed to develop specific public health recommendations for oral cancer treatment and prevention.

Related: Oral Cancer

Welsh PA, Sass-Kuhn S, Prakashagowda C, et al.
Spermine synthase overexpression in vivo does not increase susceptibility to DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis or Min-Apc intestinal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2012; 13(6):358-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between elevated polyamine biosynthesis and neoplastic growth, but the specific contribution of spermine synthase to epithelial tumor development has never been explored in vivo. Mice with widespread overexpression of spermine synthase (CAG-SpmS) exhibit decreased spermidine levels, increased spermine and a significant rise in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio. We characterized the response of CAG-SpmS mice to two-stage skin chemical carcinogenesis as well as spontaneous intestinal carcinogenesis induced by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor in Apc (Min) (/+) (Min) mice. CAG-SpmS mice maintained the canonical increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, polyamine content and epidermal thickness in response to tumor promoter treatment of the skin. The induction of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity and its product decarboxylated AdoMet were impaired in CAG-SpmS mice, and the spermine:spermidine ratio was increased 3-fold in both untreated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/TPA skin carcinogenesis was not altered in CAG-SpmS mice, and SpmS overexpression did not modify the previously described tumor resistance of mice with targeted antizyme expression or the enhanced tumor response in mice with targeted spermidine/spermine-N ( 1) -acetyltransferase expression. CAG-SpmS/Min mice also exhibited elevated spermine:spermidine ratios in the small intestine and colon, yet their tumor multiplicity and size was similar to Min mice. Therefore, studies in two of the most widely used tumorigenesis models demonstrate that increased spermine synthase activity and the resulting elevation of the spermine:spermidine ratio does not alter susceptibility to tumor development initiated by c-Ha-Ras mutation or Apc loss.

Related: APC Skin Cancer

Origanti S, Nowotarski SL, Carr TD, et al.
Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA is stabilized in an mTORC1-dependent manner in Ras-transformed cells.
Biochem J. 2012; 442(1):199-207 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Upon Ras activation, ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) is markedly induced, and numerous studies suggest that ODC expression is controlled by Ras effector pathways. ODC is therefore a potential target in the treatment and prevention of Ras-driven tumours. In the present study we compared ODC mRNA translation profiles and stability in normal and Ras12V-transformed RIE-1 (rat intestinal epithelial) cells. While translation initiation of ODC increased modestly in Ras12V cells, ODC mRNA was stabilized 8-fold. Treatment with the specific mTORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 1] inhibitor rapamycin or siRNA (small interfering RNA) knockdown of mTOR destabilized the ODC mRNA, but rapamycin had only a minor effect on ODC translation initiation. Inhibition of mTORC1 also reduced the association of the mRNA-binding protein HuR with the ODC transcript. We have shown previously that HuR binding to the ODC 3'UTR (untranslated region) results in significant stabilization of the ODC mRNA, which contains several AU-rich regions within its 3'UTR that may act as regulatory sequences. Analysis of ODC 3'UTR deletion constructs suggests that cis-acting elements between base 1969 and base 2141 of the ODC mRNA act to stabilize the ODC transcript. These experiments thus define a novel mechanism of ODC synthesis control. Regulation of ODC mRNA decay could be an important means of limiting polyamine accumulation and subsequent tumour development.

Moussavi M, Moshgabadi N, Fazli L, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor and ornithine decarboxylase 5'UTRs enable preferential expression in human prostate cancer cells and in prostate tumors of PTEN(-/-) transgenic mice.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2012; 19(1):19-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we have taken advantage of over-expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in prostate cancer cells to design a viral-based targeting system of prostate cancer. Three different lengths of 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs) derived from either fibroblast growth factor-2 (FU-FGF2-GW) or ornithine decarboxylase (FU-ODC149-GW and FU-ODC274-GW) were inserted upstream of enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in a lentiviral backbone. Both nonmalignant control (PNT1B and BPH-1) and neoplastic (LNCaP, C4-2, DU145 and PC-3) prostate cell lines were transfected with each plasmid or virus alone, or in the presence of siRNA against eIF4E, and their expression was monitored via GFP protein levels. Two 5'UTRs (FU-FGF2-GW and FU-ODC-GW) were selected as being most sensitive to eIF4E status. Lentiviruses containing these sequences were injected directly into the prostates of PTEN(-/-) (tumor-bearing) and control mice. Immunofluorescence data and western blot analyses determined that a lentivirus containing a 5'UTR derived from FGF-2 is the best candidate for directing selective gene expression in the prostate tumors of PTEN(-/-) mice in vivo. This study demonstrates that judicious selection of a complex 5'UTR can enhance selective targeting of viral-based gene therapies for prostate cancer.

Related: EIF4E PTEN Prostate Cancer

Paz EA, Garcia-Huidobro J, Ignatenkos NA
Polyamines in cancer.
Adv Clin Chem. 2011; 54:45-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polyamines are organic cations shown to control gene expression at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational levels. Multiple cellular oncogenic pathways are involved in regulation of transcription and translation of polyamine-metabolizing enzymes. As a consequence of genetic alterations, expression levels and activities of polyamine-metabolizing enzymes change rapidly during tumorigenesis resulting in high levels of polyamines in many human epithelial tumors. This review summarizes the mechanisms of polyamine regulation by canonical tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, as well as the role of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (EIF5A) in cancer. The importance of research utilizing pharmaceutical inhibitors and cancer chemopreventive strategies targeting the polyamine pathway is also discussed.

Related: APC Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Wang MF, Liao YF, Hung YC, et al.
Hydroxydibenzoylmethane induces apoptosis through repressing ornithine decarboxylase in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.
Exp Mol Med. 2011; 43(4):189-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and a target for chemoprevention. Hydroxydibenzoylmethane (HDB), a derivative of dibenzoylmethane of licorice, is a promising chemopreventive agent. In this paper, we investigated whether HDB would inhibit the ODC pathway to enhance apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. We found ODC enzyme activity was reduced during HDB treatment. Overexpression of ODC in HL-60 parental cells could reduce HDB-induced apoptosis, which leads to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)), through lessening intracellular ROS. Furthermore, ODC overexpression protected cytochrome c release and the activation of caspase-3 following HDB treatment. The results demonstrated HDB-induced apoptosis was through a mechanism of down-regulation of ODC and occurred along a ROS-dependent mitochondria-mediated pathway.

Related: Apoptosis CASP3 Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer

Ikeuchi H, Kinjo T, Klinman DM
Effect of suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides on the development of inflammation-induced papillomas.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011; 4(5):752-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammation contributes to the development of papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in the well-established 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate (TPA) model of skin carcinogenesis. Synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) containing repetitive TTAGGG motifs have been shown to block deleterious inflammatory reactions in murine models of autoimmunity, pneumonitis, and shock. This article examines whether treatment with suppressive (Sup) ODN can interfere with DMBA/TPA-induced inflammation, thereby reducing papilloma formation. Results indicate that Sup ODN block TPA-dependent skin hyperplasia, edema, and leukocytic infiltration. Sup ODN also inhibit the upregulation of genes encoding pro-oncogenic chemokines and other markers of inflammation including CXCL2, CCL2, COX-2, and ODC (ornithine decarboxylase). Of greatest import, Sup ODN reduce papilloma formation in a dose- and sequence-dependent manner. These findings suggest that Sup ODN may provide a novel means of preventing inflammation and associated oncogenesis.

Related: CXCL2 COX2 (PTGS2) Skin Cancer

Cai CJ, Ye SJ, Zhu W, et al.
[Study on invasion and metastasis-associated genes of lung cancer related with NM23-H1 gene].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010; 41(6):941-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study on invasion and metastasis-associated genes of lung cancer related with NM23-H1 gene.
METHODS: Human gene expression chip based on the subtracted cDNA libraries was constructed. After microarray hybridization, clones sequencing, sequence homology search, the information of differently expressed genes in human large cell lung cancer cell line of L9981 and L9981-nm23-H1 were obtained and then further confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Gene expression profiling chips of differently expressed genes in human large cell lung cancer cell line L9981 and L9981-nm23-H1 were successfully constructed. After microarray hybridization, sequence homology search, 19 differentially expressed genes were observed. After real-time quantitative PCR evaluation, we found that the mRNA of 8 genes including PSMA7, SBDS, ODC1, YARS, CSDA, PTP4A1, SHPRH and TOMM7 was up-regulated in the cell line of L9981 after transfected with NM23-H1 gene, whereas the mRNA of PKM2 and GMNN was down-regulated.
CONCLUSION: NM23-H1 gene may be the upstream regulator of metastasis-associated genes, which can regulate the downstream genes to achieve a series of lung cancer metastatic potential.

Related: Lung Cancer NME1

Zell JA, McLaren CE, Chen WP, et al.
Ornithine decarboxylase-1 polymorphism, chemoprevention with eflornithine and sulindac, and outcomes among colorectal adenoma patients.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010; 102(19):1513-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ornithine decarboxylase-1 (ODC1) polymorphism at position +316 affects binding by transcriptional activators and repressors and modulates the risk of metachronous colorectal adenomas, particularly in association with aspirin use. We investigated the effects of ODC1 after treatment with difluoromethylornithine (eflornithine)/sulindac or placebo. Two hundred twenty-eight colorectal adenoma patients in a randomized phase III trial were genotyped for ODC1. We used Wilcoxon rank sums tests on non-normally distributed continuous variables across two genotype groups, χ(2) or Fisher exact test to assess the association between baseline categorical variables and genotype group, and log binomial regression for the primary (adenoma recurrence) and secondary outcomes (tissue polyamine response, cardiovascular toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and ototoxicity). All statistical tests were two-sided. In binomial regression models with variables age, sex, race, aspirin use, treatment, and ODC1 genotype, treatment was the only statistically significant factor associated with differences in adenoma recurrence or tissue polyamine response. A statistically significant interaction was detected between ODC1 genotype and treatment with respect to adenoma recurrence (placebo group: GG, 50%, AA/GA: 34%; treatment group: GG, 11%, AA/GA, 21%; P(interaction) = .038). Excess ototoxicity was observed among ODC1 AA patients receiving treatment, but the interaction of genotype and treatment on ototoxicity was not statistically significant (P = .45).

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Nowotarski SL, Shantz LM
Cytoplasmic accumulation of the RNA-binding protein HuR stabilizes the ornithine decarboxylase transcript in a murine nonmelanoma skin cancer model.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(41):31885-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the first and usually rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Under normal physiological conditions, polyamine content and ODC enzyme activity are highly regulated. However, the induction of ODC activity is an early step in neoplastic transformation. The studies described here use normal mouse keratinocytes (C5N cells), and spindle carcinoma cells (A5 cells) to explore the regulation of ODC in nonmelanoma skin cancer development. Previous results have shown that induction of ODC activity is both necessary and sufficient for the promotion of skin tumors. We see a marked increase in ODC enzyme activity in A5 cells compared with C5N keratinocytes, which correlates with a 4-fold stabilization of ODC mRNA. These data suggest that ODC is post-transcriptionally regulated in skin tumor development. Thus, we sought to investigate whether the ODC transcript interacts with the RNA-binding protein HuR, which is known to bind to and stabilize its target mRNAs. We show that HuR is able to bind to the ODC 3'-UTR in A5 cells but not in C5N cells. Immunofluorescence results reveal that HuR is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of A5 cells, whereas C5N cells exhibit strictly nuclear localization of HuR. Knockdown experiments in A5 cells showed that when HuR is depleted, ODC RNA becomes less stable, and ODC enzyme activity decreases. Together, these data support the hypothesis that HuR plays a causative role in ODC up-regulation during nonmelanoma skin cancer development by binding to and stabilizing the ODC transcript.

Related: Soft Tissue Sarcomas Skin Cancer

Chen S, Blank JL, Peters T, et al.
Genome-wide siRNA screen for modulators of cell death induced by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(11):4318-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple pathways have been proposed to explain how proteasome inhibition induces cell death, but mechanisms remain unclear. To approach this issue, we performed a genome-wide siRNA screen to evaluate the genetic determinants that confer sensitivity to bortezomib (Velcade (R); PS-341). This screen identified 100 genes whose knockdown affected lethality to bortezomib and to a structurally diverse set of other proteasome inhibitors. A comparison of three cell lines revealed that 39 of 100 genes were commonly linked to cell death. We causally linked bortezomib-induced cell death to the accumulation of ASF1B, Myc, ODC1, Noxa, BNIP3, Gadd45alpha, p-SMC1A, SREBF1, and p53. Our results suggest that proteasome inhibition promotes cell death primarily by dysregulating Myc and polyamines, interfering with protein translation, and disrupting essential DNA damage repair pathways, leading to programmed cell death.

Related: Melanoma Bortezomib

Hughes DJ, Hlavatá I, Soucek P, et al.
Ornithine decarboxylase G316A genotype and colorectal cancer risk.
Colorectal Dis. 2011; 13(8):860-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a modifier of adenomatous polyposis coli-dependent tumourigenesis. The G316 > A polymorphism in intron 1 of the ODC gene lies between two myc-binding domains and alters the expression of the gene to affect polyamine metabolism. This variant may be associated with recurrence of colorectal adenoma. We examined whether this variant also modified the susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHOD: The G316 > A variant was analysed in a large (n = 754) CRC case-controlled series of hospital patient volunteers (n = 627) in the Czech Republic, and the relationship with cancer risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: After adjusting for age and sex, G316 > A was associated with no decrease in CRC risk for either heterozygotes [odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.23] or rare allele homozygotes (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.61-1.37).
CONCLUSION: The G316 > A functional variant in the ODC gene is unlikely to make much impact on reducing CRC risk regardless of the reduction in risk found for the recurrence of colorectal adenoma.

Linsalata M, Cavallini A, Messa C, et al.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG influences polyamine metabolism in HGC-27 gastric cancer cell line: a strategy toward nutritional approach to chemoprevention of gastric cance.
Curr Pharm Des. 2010; 16(7):847-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoprevention by dietary constituents has recently emerged as a novel approach to control gastric cancer incidence. Over the past years, functional foods and food supplements, especially probiotics, have received much attention as potential dietary cancer prevention agents. The precise mechanisms by which these lactic cultures exert their antitumorigenic activities are not fully elucidated, but there is some evidence of their influence on cell proliferation and growth. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) are the key enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively. These polycationic compounds are significantly associated with cancer risk and represent a specific markers for neoplastic proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) (L. GG) homogenate on polyamine biosynthesis and polyamine degradation as well as on resulting polyamine levels in HGC-27 human gastric cancer cells. The influence of this probiotic on cell proliferation was also evaluated. Administration of probiotic homogenate significantly reduced both ODC mRNA and activity as well as polyamine content and neoplastic proliferation. Besides, an increase in both SSAT mRNA and activity occurred after LGG administration in HGC-27. These data suggest that a nutritional component such as the probiotic L. GG could be proposed in an alternative approach to prevention of gastric cancer. This strategy could overcome the limitations due to a prolonged use of drugs and/or the occurrence of their adverse effects, and it could reasonably also start at a young age.

Related: Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Kaul D, Wu CL, Adkins CB, et al.
Assessing prostate cancer growth with mRNA of spermine metabolic enzymes.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2010; 9(9):736-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Statistical data from prostate cancer (PCa) clinics indicates that a large patient population discovered by annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening may have a latent form of the disease. However, current medical tests cannot differentiate slow from fast growing PCa, resulting in many unnecessary radical treatments and morbidities. It is thus necessary to find new screening tests that enable us to differentiate between fast- and slow-growing tumors. Inspired by the reported functions of spermine in carcinogenesis, we analyzed spermine and mRNA expression levels of rate-limiting enzymes in the spermine metabolic pathway for nine cases of PCa with accurately defined PSA velocity (Vpsa). Using MR spectroscopy, histopathology, laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR techniques, we analyzed relationships between changes in spermine levels, mRNA expression levels of spermine anabolic and catabolic enzymes and human prostate cancer growth rates represented by serum Vpsa. The expression levels of spermine anabolic enzymes: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AMD1) in benign epithelia surrounding cancer glands was logarithmically reduced with the increase of Vpsa (ODC1, p < 0.016; AMD1, p < 0.048), and antizyme (OAZ1) expression in cancer cells was increased with the increase of Vpsa (p < 0.001). Finally, we observed an inverse correlation between ODC1 and OAZ1 (p < 0.019) measured in cancer cells. These correlations may function to evaluate the aggressiveness of human prostate cancer, and assist patients and clinicians to select appropriate treatment strategies based on biological activities of individual tumors.

Related: Prostate Cancer

Grimminger PP, Schneider PM, Metzger R, et al.
Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA expression in curatively resected non-small-cell lung cancer.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2010; 11(2):114-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The effect of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) on the pathogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poorly investigated. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the potential role of ODC mRNA expression as a prognostic biomarker in patients with curatively resected NSCLC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 91 tumor and matching nontumorous lung tissue samples from patients with NSCLC were analyzed using a quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. The relative ODC mRNA expression was measured in tumorous and nontumorous lung tissue using beta-actin as a reference gene. Squamous cell carcinoma was found in 43 patients (47%), adenocarcinoma in 33 (36%), and large-cell carcinoma in 15 of the patients (17%). All patients' disease was R0 resected.
RESULTS: Ornithine decarboxylase was detected in all 91 tumor and nontumorous lung tissue samples. The median tumorous expression of 9.11 (range, 0.92-155.35) was significantly elevated compared with the median ODC expression of 7.89 (range, 0.0-45.8) in nontumorous lung tissue. Ornithine decarboxylase expression levels were not associated with any clinicopathologic parameters. Using an ODC/beta-actin ratio of 10 as a cutoff, tumorous ODC (tODC) expression is a significant prognostic factor in NSCLC. The ODC ratio between tumorous and nontumorous expression was even more prognostic. Moreover, Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed ODC expression to be an independent prognostic factor.
CONCLUSION: In this study, ODC is shown to have a prognostic potential in NSCLC. Low levels of tODC expression are associated with a more aggressive tumor biology. Also, an increase of ODC mRNA expression during carcinogenesis seems to have a favorable prognostic effect. Measuring the ODC expression in patients with NSCLC could aid in further chemotherapy decisions. Our results suggest that further investigation of ODC mRNA expression in NSCLC may be warranted.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Geerts D, Koster J, Albert D, et al.
The polyamine metabolism genes ornithine decarboxylase and antizyme 2 predict aggressive behavior in neuroblastomas with and without MYCN amplification.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(9):2012-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High polyamine (PA) levels and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) overexpression are well-known phenomena in many aggressive cancer types. We analyzed the expression of ODC and ODC-activity regulating genes antizymes 1-3 (OAZ1-3) and antizyme inhibitors 1-2 (AZ-IN1-2) in human neuroblastoma (NB) tumors and correlated these with genetic and clinical features of NB. Since ODC is a known target gene of MYCN, the correlation between ODC and MYCN was of special interest. Data were obtained from Affymetrix micro-array analysis of 88 NB tumor samples. In addition, mRNA expression levels of ODC, OAZ2 and MYCN in a MYCN-inducible NB cell line were determined by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ODC mRNA expression in NB tumors was significantly predictive of decreased overall survival probability and correlated with several unfavorable clinical NB characteristics (all p < 0.005). Interestingly, high ODC mRNA expression also showed significant correlation with poor survival prognosis in Kaplan-Meier analyses stratified for patients without MYCN amplification, suggesting an additional role for ODC independent of MYCN. Conversely, high OAZ2 mRNA expression correlated with increased survival and with several favorable clinical NB characteristics (all p < 0.003). In addition, we provide first evidence of a role for MYCN-associated transcription factors MAD2 and MAD7 in ODC regulation. In NB cell cultures, ectopic overexpression of MYCN altered ODC but not OAZ2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that elevated ODC and low OAZ2 mRNA expression levels correlate with several unfavorable genetic and clinical features in NB, offering new insights into PA pathways and PA metabolism-targeting therapy in NB.

Related: Neuroblastoma


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ODC1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ODC1.htm Accessed: date

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