Gene Summary

Gene:PRKCD; protein kinase C, delta
Aliases: MAY1, PKCD, ALPS3, CVID9, nPKC-delta
Summary:Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. Studies both in human and mice demonstrate that this kinase is involved in B cell signaling and in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation of a variety of cell types. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein kinase C delta type
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (66)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Line
  • Protein Kinase C-alpha
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Tumor Escape
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Protein Kinase C-delta
  • Cell Division
  • Isoenzymes
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
  • Acetophenones
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Cell Survival
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Flavonoids
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Up-Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription
  • Signal Transduction
  • rho-Associated Kinases
  • Indoles
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Tyrosine
  • Western Blotting
  • Membrane Proteins
  • p53 Protein
  • Chromosome 3
  • MicroRNAs
  • Tumor Markers
  • Xenograft Models
  • Apoptosis
  • Transfection
  • Phosphorylation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • RNA Interference
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRKCD (cancer-related)

Baumann U, Fernández-Sáiz V, Rudelius M, et al.
Disruption of the PRKCD-FBXO25-HAX-1 axis attenuates the apoptotic response and drives lymphomagenesis.
Nat Med. 2014; 20(12):1401-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We searched for genetic alterations in human B cell lymphoma that affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This approach identified FBXO25 within a minimal common region of frequent deletion in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). FBXO25 encodes an orphan F-box protein that determines the substrate specificity of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box)(FBXO25) ubiquitin ligase complex. An unbiased screen uncovered the prosurvival protein HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) as the bona fide substrate of FBXO25 that is targeted after apoptotic stresses. Protein kinase Cδ (PRKCD) initiates this process by phosphorylating FBXO25 and HAX-1, thereby spatially directing nuclear FBXO25 to mitochondrial HAX-1. Our analyses in primary human MCL identify monoallelic loss of FBXO25 and stabilizing HAX1 phosphodegron mutations. Accordingly, FBXO25 re-expression in FBXO25-deleted MCL cells promotes cell death, whereas expression of the HAX-1 phosphodegron mutant inhibits apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of FBXO25 significantly accelerated lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc mice and in a human MCL xenotransplant model. Together we identify a PRKCD-dependent proapoptotic mechanism controlling HAX-1 stability, and we propose that FBXO25 functions as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor and that HAX1 is a proto-oncogene in MCL.

Zhang QY, Li R, Zeng GF, et al.
Dihydromyricetin inhibits migration and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 expression.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(29):10082-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on the migration and invasion of human hepatic cancer cells.
METHODS: The hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 and MHCC97L were used in this study. The cells were cultured in RPIM-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. DHM was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted to various concentrations in medium before applying to cells. MTT assays were performed to measure the viability of the cells after DHM treatment. Wound healing and Boyden transwell assays were used to assess cancer cell motility. The invasive capacity of cancer cells was measured using Matrigel-coated transwell chambers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activity was examined by fluorescence analysis. Western blot was carried out to analyze the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-38, JNK, ERK1/2 and PKC-δ proteins. All data were analyzed by Student's t tests in GraphPad prism 5.0 software and are presented as mean ± SD.
RESULTS: DHM was found to strongly inhibit the migration of the hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 (without DHM, 24 h: 120 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 65 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001) and MHCC97L (without DHM, 24 h: 126 ± 7 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 74 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001). The invasive capacity of the cells was reduced by DHM treatment (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 67 ± 4 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 9 ± 3 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 117 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 45 ± 2 μmol/L, P < 0.001). MMP2/9 activity was also inhibited by DHM exposure (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 600 ± 26 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 100 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 504 ± 32 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM 24 h: 156 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed that DHM decreased the expression level of MMP-9 but had little effect on MMP-2. Further investigation indicated that DHM markedly reduced the phosphorylation levels of p38, ERK1/2 and JNK in a concentration-dependent manner but had no impact on the total protein levels. In addition, PKC-δ protein, a key protein in the regulation of MMP family protein expression, was up-regulated with DHM treatment.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that DHM inhibits the migration and invasion of hepatoma cells and may serve as a potential candidate agent for the prevention of HCC metastasis.

De Marco P, Romeo E, Vivacqua A, et al.
GPER1 is regulated by insulin in cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(5):739-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated insulin levels have been associated with an increased cancer risk as well as with aggressive and metastatic cancer phenotypes characterized by a poor prognosis. Insulin stimulates the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cancer cells through diverse transduction pathways, including estrogen signaling. As G protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) mediates rapid cell responses to estrogens, we evaluated the potential of insulin to regulate GPER1 expression and function in leiomyosarcoma cancer cells (SKUT-1) and breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which were used as a model system. We found that insulin transactivates the GPER1 promoter sequence and increases the mRNA and protein expression of GPER1 through the activation of the PRKCD/MAPK1/c-Fos/AP1 transduction pathway, as ascertained by means of specific pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing experiments. Moreover, cell migration triggered by insulin occurred through GPER1 and its main target gene CTGF, whereas the insulin-induced expression of GPER1 boosted cell-cycle progression and the glucose uptake stimulated by estrogens. Notably, a positive correlation between insulin serum levels and GPER1 expression was found in cancer fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients. Altogether, our data indicate that GPER1 may be included among the complex network of transduction signaling triggered by insulin that drives cells toward cancer progression.

Noh KH, Kim SH, Kim JH, et al.
API5 confers tumoral immune escape through FGF2-dependent cell survival pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(13):3556-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identifying immune escape mechanisms used by tumors may define strategies to sensitize them to immunotherapies to which they are otherwise resistant. In this study, we show that the antiapoptotic gene API5 acts as an immune escape gene in tumors by rendering them resistant to apoptosis triggered by tumor antigen-specific T cells. Its RNAi-mediated silencing in tumor cells expressing high levels of API5 restored antigen-specific immune sensitivity. Conversely, introducing API5 into API5(low) cells conferred immune resistance. Mechanistic investigations revealed that API5 mediated resistance by upregulating FGF2 signaling through a FGFR1/PKCδ/ERK effector pathway that triggered degradation of the proapoptotic molecule BIM. Blockade of FGF2, PKCδ, or ERK phenocopied the effect of API5 silencing in tumor cells expressing high levels of API5 to either murine or human antigen-specific T cells. Our results identify a novel mechanism of immune escape that can be inhibited to potentiate the efficacy of targeted active immunotherapies.

Płaszczyca A, Nilsson J, Magnusson L, et al.
Fusions involving protein kinase C and membrane-associated proteins in benign fibrous histiocytoma.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 53:475-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a mesenchymal tumor that most often occurs in the skin (so-called dermatofibroma), but may also appear in soft tissues (so-called deep BFH) and in the skeleton (so-called non-ossifying fibroma). The origin of BFH is unknown, and it has been questioned whether it is a true neoplasm. Chromosome banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, RNA sequencing, RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR were used to search for recurrent somatic mutations in a series of BFH. BFHs were found to harbor recurrent fusions of genes encoding membrane-associated proteins (podoplanin, CD63 and LAMTOR1) with genes encoding protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms PRKCB and PRKCD. PKCs are serine-threonine kinases that through their many phosphorylation targets are implicated in a variety of cellular processes, as well as tumor development. When inactive, the amino-terminal, regulatory domain of PKCs suppresses the activity of their catalytic domain. Upon activation, which requires several steps, they typically translocate to cell membranes, where they interact with different signaling pathways. The detected PDPN-PRKCB, CD63-PRKCD and LAMTOR1-PRKCD gene fusions are all predicted to result in chimeric proteins consisting of the membrane-binding part of PDPN, CD63 or LAMTOR1 and the entire catalytic domain of the PKC. This novel pathogenetic mechanism should result in constitutive kinase activity at an ectopic location. The results show that BFH indeed is a true neoplasm, and that distorted PKC activity is essential for tumorigenesis. The findings also provide means to differentiate BFH from other skin and soft tissue tumors. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Rare cancers.

Chen Y, Ke G, Han D, et al.
MicroRNA-181a enhances the chemoresistance of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma to cisplatin by targeting PRKCD.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 320(1):12-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are involved in regulating the response of cancer cells to various therapeutic interventions, but their involvement in the chemoresistance of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma is not fully understood. We found miR-181a was significantly up-regulated in specimens from patients with chemoresistant cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of miR-181a in regulating the chemoresistance of cervical cancer. Two human cervical squamous cancer cell lines, SiHa and Me180, were used. Enforced expression of miR-181a enhanced chemoresistance to cisplatin in cervical cancer cells through apoptosis reversion. In a nude mouse xenograft model, the overexpression of miR-181a markedly inhibited the therapeutic response to cisplatin. PRKCD, a target gene of miR-181a and a promoter of apoptosis, was negatively regulated by miR-181a. We found that the effect of miR-181a on chemoresistance was mediated by PRKCD. Additionally, silencing of PRKCD yielded an effect similar to that of miR-181a up-regulation and inhibited apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Our findings suggest that miR-181a may function as an oncogene and induce chemoresistance in cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells at least in part by down-regulating PRKCD, thus may provide a biomarker for predicting chemosensitivity to cisplatin in patients with cervical squamous cancer.

Gentilin E, Tagliati F, Filieri C, et al.
miR-26a plays an important role in cell cycle regulation in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas by modulating protein kinase Cδ.
Endocrinology. 2013; 154(5):1690-700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The functional aftermath of microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas has not been demonstrated. miRNAs represent diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as putative therapeutic targets; their investigation may shed light on the mechanisms that underpin pituitary adenoma development and progression. Drugs interacting with such pathways may help in achieving disease control also in the settings of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. We investigated the expression of 10 miRNAs among those that were found as most dysregulated in human pituitary adenoma tissues in the settings of a murine ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cell line, AtT20/D16v-F2. The selected miRNAs to be submitted to further investigation in AtT20/D16v-F2 cells represent an expression panel including 5 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated miRNAs. Among these, we selected the most dysregulated mouse miRNA and searched for miRNA targets and their biological function. We found that AtT20/D16v-F2 cells have a specific miRNA expression profile and that miR-26a is the most dysregulated miRNA. The latter is overexpressed in human pituitary adenomas and can control viable cell number in the in vitro model without involving caspase 3/7-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrated that protein kinase Cδ (PRKCD) is a direct target of miR-26a and that miR26a inhibition delays the cell cycle in G1 phase. This effect involves down-regulation of cyclin E and cyclin A expression via PRKCD modulation. miR-26a and related pathways, such as PRKCD, play an important role in cell cycle control of ACTH pituitary cells, opening new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of persistent/recurrent Cushing's disease.

Hernández-Maqueda JG, Luna-Ulloa LB, Santoyo-Ramos P, et al.
Protein kinase C delta negatively modulates canonical Wnt pathway and cell proliferation in colon tumor cell lines.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58540 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis coli (APC) gene is mutated or lost in most colon cancers. Alterations in Protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme expression and aberrant regulation also comprise early events in intestinal carcinomas. Here we show that PKCδ expression levels are decreased in colon tumor cell lines with respect to non-malignant cells. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed that PKCδ interacts specifically with both full-length (from non-malignant cells) and truncated APC protein (from cancerous cells) at the cytoplasm and at the cell nucleus. Selective inhibition of PKCδ in cancer SW480 cells, which do not possess a functional β-catenin destruction complex, did not affect β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity. However, in human colon carcinoma RKO cells, which have a normal β-catenin destruction complex, negatively affected β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, cell proliferation, and the expression of Wnt target genes C-MYC and CYCLIN D1. These negative effects were confirmed by siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ and by the expression of a dominant negative form of PKCδ in RKO cells. Remarkably, the PKCδ stably depleted cells exhibited augmented tumorigenic activity in grafted mice. We show that PKCδ functions in a mechanism that involves regulation of β-catenin degradation, because PKCδ inhibition induces β-catenin stabilization at the cytoplasm and its nuclear presence at the C-MYC enhancer even without Wnt3a stimulation. In addition, expression of a dominant form of PKCδ diminished APC phosphorylation in intact cells, suggesting that PKCδ may modulate canonical Wnt activation negatively through APC phosphorylation.

Arany S, Benoit DS, Dewhurst S, Ovitt CE
Nanoparticle-mediated gene silencing confers radioprotection to salivary glands in vivo.
Mol Ther. 2013; 21(6):1182-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Radiation treatment of head and neck cancers causes irreversible damage of the salivary glands (SG). Here, we introduce a preclinical mouse model for small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based gene silencing to provide protection of SG from radiation-induced apoptosis. Novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles complexed with siRNAs were introduced into mouse submandibular glands (SMG) by retroductal injection to modulate gene expression in vivo. To validate this approach, we first targeted Nkcc1, an ion transporter that is essential for saliva secretion. Nkcc1 siRNA delivery resulted in efficient knockdown, as quantified at the mRNA and the protein levels, and the functional result of Nkcc1 knockdown phenocopied the severe decrease in saliva secretion, characteristic of the systemic Nkcc1 gene knockout. To establish a strategy to prevent apoptotic cell loss due to radiation damage, siRNAs targeting the proapoptotic Pkcδ gene were administered into SMG before ionizing radiation. Knockdown of Pkcδ not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells during the acute phase of radiation damage, but also markedly improved saliva secretion at 3 months in irradiated animals, indicating that this treatment confers protection from hyposalivation. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle delivery of siRNAs targeting a proapoptotic gene is a localized, nonviral, and effective means of conferring radioprotection to the SGs.

Kuehn HS, Niemela JE, Rangel-Santos A, et al.
Loss-of-function of the protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) causes a B-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome in humans.
Blood. 2013; 121(16):3117-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Defective lymphocyte apoptosis results in chronic lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune phenomena. The prototype for human apoptosis disorders is the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is caused by mutations in the FAS apoptotic pathway. Recently, patients with an ALPS-like disease called RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder, in which somatic mutations in NRAS or KRAS are found, also were described. Despite this progress, many patients with ALPS-like disease remain undefined genetically. We identified a homozygous, loss-of-function mutation in PRKCD (PKCδ) in a patient who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulins and natural killer dysfunction associated with chronic, low-grade Epstein-Barr virus infection. This mutation markedly decreased protein expression and resulted in ex vivo B-cell hyperproliferation, a phenotype similar to that of the PKCδ knockout mouse. Lymph nodes showed intense follicular hyperplasia, also mirroring the mouse model. Immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes demonstrated expansion of CD5+CD20+ B cells. Knockdown of PKCδ in normal mononuclear cells recapitulated the B-cell hyperproliferative phenotype in vitro. Reconstitution of PKCδ in patient-derived EBV-transformed B-cell lines partially restored phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced cell death. In summary, homozygous PRKCD mutation results in B-cell hyperproliferation and defective apoptosis with consequent lymphocyte accumulation and autoantibody production in humans, and disrupts natural killer cell function.

Ke G, Liang L, Yang JM, et al.
MiR-181a confers resistance of cervical cancer to radiation therapy through targeting the pro-apoptotic PRKCD gene.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(25):3019-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to define the roles of miR-181a in determining sensitivity of cervical cancer to radiation therapy, to explore the underlying mechanism and to evaluate the potential of miR-181a as a biomarker for predicting radio-sensitivity. Tumor specimens from 18 patients with a histological diagnosis of squamous cervical carcinoma (stage IIIB) were used in the micro-RNA profiling and comparison. These patients never received any chemotherapy before radiation therapy. Human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and Me180, were used in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (animal) studies. Transfection of tumor cells with the mimic or inhibitor of miR-181a, and reporter gene assay, were performed to investigate the role of miR-181a in determining radio-sensitivity and the target gene. Higher expression of miR-181a was observed in human cervical cancer specimens and cell lines that were insensitive to radiation therapy, as compared with sensitive cancer specimens and the cell lines. We also found that miR-181a negatively regulated the expression of PRKCD, a pro-apoptotic protein kinase, via targeting its 3'-untranslated region (UTR), thereby inhibiting irradiation-induced apoptosis and decreasing G2/M block. The role of miR-181a in conferring cellular resistance to radiation treatment was validated both in cell culture models and in mouse tumor xenograft models. The effect of miR-181a on radio-resistance was mediated through targeting the 3'-UTR of PRKCD gene. Thus, the expression level of miR-181a in cervical cancer may serve as a biomarker for sensitivity to radiation therapy, and targeting miR-181a may represent a new approach to sensitizing cervical cancer to radiation treatment.

Zuo Y, Wu Y, Chakraborty C
Cdc42 negatively regulates intrinsic migration of highly aggressive breast cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(4):1399-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
The small GTPase Cdc42 has been implicated as an important regulator of cell migration. However, whether Cdc42 plays similar role in all cancer cells irrespective of metastatic potential remains poorly defined. Here, we show by using three different breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential, the role of Cdc42 in cell migration/invasion and its relationship with a number of downstream signaling pathways controlling cell migration. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Cdc42 in two highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and C3L5) resulted in enhancement, whereas the same in moderately metastatic (Hs578T) cell line resulted in inhibition of intrinsic cellular migration/invasion. Furthermore, Cdc42 silencing in MDA-MB-231 and C3L5 but not Hs578T cells was shown to be accompanied by increased RhoA activity and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2), and protein kinase A (PKA). Pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ, MEK-Erk1/2, or PKA was shown to inhibit migration of both control and Cdc42-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, introduction of constitutively active Cdc42 was shown to decrease migration/invasion of MDA-MB-231 and C3L5 but increase migration/invasion of Hs578T cells. This decreased migration/invasion of MDA-MB-231 and C3L5 cells was also shown to be accompanied by the decrease in the phosphorylations of PKCδ, Erk1/2, and PKA. These results suggested that endogenous Cdc42 could exert a negative regulatory influence on intrinsic migration/invasion and some potentially relevant changes in phosphorylation of PKCδ, Erk1/2, and PKA of some aggressive breast cancer cells.

McNamara S, Nichol JN, Wang H, Miller WH
Targeting PKC delta-mediated topoisomerase II beta overexpression subverts the differentiation block in a retinoic acid-resistant APL cell line.
Leukemia. 2010; 24(4):729-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoic acid (RA) relieves the maturation block in t(15:17) acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), leading to granulocytic differentiation. However, RA treatment alone invariably results in RA resistance, both in vivo and in vitro. RA-resistant cell lines have been shown to serve as useful models for elucidation of mechanisms of resistance. Previously, we identified topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) as a novel mediator of RA-resistance in APL cell lines. In this study, we show that both TOP2B protein stability and activity are regulated by a member of the protein kinase C (PRKC) family, PRKC delta (PRKCD). Co-treatment with a pharmacologic inhibitor of PRKCD and RA resulted in the induction of an RA responsive reporter construct, as well as the endogenous RA target genes, CEBPE, CYP26A1 and RIG-I. Furthermore, the co-treatment overcame the differentiation block in RA-resistant cells, as assessed by morphological analysis, restoration of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, induction of CD11c cell surface expression and an increase in nitro-blue-tetrazolium reduction. Cumulatively, our data suggest a model whereby inhibition of PRKCD decreases TOP2B protein levels, leading to a loss of TOP2B-mediated repressive effects on RA-induced transcription and granulocytic differentiation.

Kho DH, Bae JA, Lee JH, et al.
KITENIN recruits Dishevelled/PKC delta to form a functional complex and controls the migration and invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells.
Gut. 2009; 58(4):509-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: KITENIN was previously reported to promote metastasis in mouse colon tumour models; however, the signalling mechanism of KITENIN at the cellular level was unknown. Here the functional role of KITENIN with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) cell invasion and its expression in CRC tissues were investigated.
METHODS: The effect of KITENIN on cell motility was analysed in a migration and invasion assay upon its overexpression and knockdown. Immunoprecipitation was used to elucidate binding partners, and immunohistochemistry was used to study expression levels.
RESULTS: KITENIN overexpression enhanced the migration of rat intestinal epithelial cells, whereas a loss of invasiveness was observed in CRC cells after KITENIN knockdown. Mechanically, KITENIN served as a scaffolding molecule that simultaneously recruited both Dishevelled (Dvl) and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) through the membrane-spanning C-terminal region to form a complex that stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/activating protein-1 (AP-1) via a PKC delta component but also organised the actin filament via a Dvl component. The KITENIN complex controlled the invasiveness of CRC cells aetiologically harbouring various mutations in APC, beta-catenin or K-ras, in which AP-1 activation is redundant but the organisation of the actin filament is indispensable for cell motility. Clinically, KITENIN expression was significantly higher in colon cancer tissues from advanced stage (III, IV) than that of stage I CRC and also in corresponding metastatic tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: The functional KITENIN complex acts as an executor with regard to cell motility and thereby controls CRC cell invasion, which may contribute to promoting metastasis.

Jariwala U, Prescott J, Jia L, et al.
Identification of novel androgen receptor target genes in prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2007; 6:39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in both androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known about AR target genes that mediate the receptor's roles in disease progression.
RESULTS: Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Display, we discovered 19 novel loci occupied by the AR in castrate resistant C4-2B PCa cells. Only four of the 19 AR-occupied regions were within 10-kb 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. Three were located up to 4-kb 3' of the nearest gene, eight were intragenic and four were in gene deserts. Whereas the AR occupied the same loci in C4-2B (castrate resistant) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) PCa cells, differences between the two cell lines were observed in the response of nearby genes to androgens. Among the genes strongly stimulated by DHT in C4-2B cells--D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), Protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), Glutathione S- transferase theta 2 (GSTT2), Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), and Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1)--most were less strongly or hardly stimulated in LNCaP cells. Another AR target gene, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), was AR-stimulated in a ligand-independent manner, since it was repressed by AR siRNA knockdown, but not stimulated by DHT. We also present evidence for in vivo AR-mediated regulation of several genes identified by ChIP Display. For example, PRKCD and PYCR1, which may contribute to PCa cell growth and survival, are expressed in PCa biopsies from primary tumors before and after ablation and in metastatic lesions in a manner consistent with AR-mediated stimulation.
CONCLUSION: AR genomic occupancy is similar between LNCaP and C4-2B cells and is not biased towards 5' gene flanking sequences. The AR transcriptionally regulates less than half the genes nearby AR-occupied regions, usually but not always, in a ligand-dependent manner. Most are stimulated and a few are repressed. In general, response is stronger in C4-2B compared to LNCaP cells. Some of the genes near AR-occupied regions appear to be regulated by the AR in vivo as evidenced by their expression levels in prostate cancer tumors of various stages. Several AR target genes discovered in the present study, for example PRKCD and PYCR1, may open avenues in PCa research and aid the development of new approaches for disease management.

Endo K, Kohnoe S, Tsujita E, et al.
Modulation of anti-apoptosis by endogenous IAP expression in MKN45 human gastric cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2005 Jul-Aug; 25(4):2713-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to clarify differences in apoptotic signal transduction between gastric cancer cells and leukemia cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to study apoptotic signal transduction of gastric cancer cells, MKN45 gastric cancer cells expressing the wild-type p53 gene and U937 myeloid leukemia cells expressing a mutated p53 gene were prepared. Cisplatin (CDDP) was used to induce apoptosis. We compared apoptotic signal transduction downstream to mitochondria between those two lines.
RESULTS: In contrast to U937 cells, MKN45 gastric cancer cells revealed delayed response in release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol following caspase 3 activation. In signal pathways downstream of caspase 3 cleavage, of the three substrates detected, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and PKC (protein kinase c) delta were not activated in MKN45 cells compared with U937 cells, resulting in delayed appearance of DNA ladder formation during CDDP-induced apoptosis. MKN45 constitutively expressed cLAP1, regardless of CDDP treatment, compared with no expression in U937 Drug sensitivity testing showed that MKN45 was more resistant to CDDP than U937 cells.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that there is a delayed mitochondrial response and incomplete activation of caspase 3 in MKN45 gastric cancer cells compared with U937 leukemia cells. In addition, there was endogenous cLAP1 expression in MKN45 cells, which may be a factor in the presumed anti-apoptotic system in these human gastric cancer cells.

Barry JB, Giguère V
Epidermal growth factor-induced signaling in breast cancer cells results in selective target gene activation by orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(14):6120-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The orphan nuclear hormone receptor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha, NR3B1) is a constitutive transcription factor that is structurally and functionally related to the classic estrogen receptors. ERRalpha can recognize both the estrogen response element and its own binding site (ERRE) in either dimeric or monomeric forms. ERRalpha is also a phosphoprotein whose expression in human breast tumors correlates with that of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2, suggesting that its transcriptional activity could be regulated by signaling cascades. Here, we investigated growth factor regulation of ERRalpha function and found that it is phosphorylated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), an event that enhances its DNA binding. Interestingly, treatment with alkaline phosphatase shifts ERRalpha from a dimeric to a monomeric DNA-binding factor, and only the dimeric form interacts with the coactivator PGC-1alpha. In vitro, the DNA-binding domain of ERRalpha is selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), which increases its DNA-binding activity, whereas expression of constitutively active PKCdelta enhances TFF1 promoter activity via the ERRE. However, whereas treatment of MCF-7 cells with the phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate also enhances ERRalpha activation of the TFF1 promoter reporter, it does not affect ERRalpha activity on its own promoter. In agreement, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that ERRalpha and RNA polymerase II are preferentially recruited to the TFF1 promoter after EGF treatment, whereas recruitment of these factors to its own promoter is not affected. These results reveal a mechanism through which growth factor signaling can selectively activate ERRalpha target genes in breast cancer cells.

Iioka Y, Mishima K, Azuma N, et al.
Overexpression of protein kinase Cdelta enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity correlated with p53 in gastric cancer cell line.
Pathobiology. 2005; 72(3):152-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: An important issue in cancer therapy is to investigate the mechanism for cellular sensitivity to anticancer agents such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is one of the DNA-damaging agents and several factors including p53 are related to the sensitivity to cisplatin in cancer. Protein kinase C (PKC) delta is known as a positive regulator for cisplatin-induced cell death. In our present study, we examined whether overexpression of PKCdelta and p53 increases the sensitivity of the human gastric cancer cell line, MKN28, which has a mutation of p53 gene, to cisplatin.
METHODS: Cell viability and DNA content were measured in MKN28 with adenovirus-mediated expression of PKCdelta and p53 after exposure to cisplatin. In addition, the active form of caspase-3 was detected by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Overexpression of exogenous PKCdelta did not induce cell death in MKN28 but inhibited cell growth at 1 microg/ml cisplatin as compared to that by cisplatin alone. Moreover, overexpression of both wild-type p53 and exogenous PKCdelta in MKN28 increased cisplatin-induced cell death in MKN28.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PKCdelta, in cooperation with p53, possibly regulates cisplatin-induced caspase-3-mediated cell death in gastric cancer.

Kaur S, Parmar S, Smith J, et al.
Role of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) in the generation of the effects of IFN-alpha in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.
Exp Hematol. 2005; 33(5):550-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) induces antileukemic responses in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells are not known. We examined whether a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of proteins, PKC-delta, is activated during treatment of BCR-ABL cells with IFN-alpha and participates in the induction of interferon responses.
METHODS: Immunoblots and immune complex kinase assays were performed to study the phosphorylation and activation of PKC-delta in response to IFN-alpha in CML-derived cell lines. The effects of pharmacological inhibition of PKC-delta on the suppressive effects of IFN-alpha on leukemic CFU-GM progenitors from CML patients were assessed by clonogenic assays in methylcellulose.
RESULTS: IFN-alpha treatment of the sensitive CML-derived KT-1 cell line resulted in phosphorylation of PKC-delta and activation of its kinase domain. Such phosphorylation/activation of PKC-delta was required for phosphorylation of Stat1 on serine 727, as inhibition of PKC-delta activity blocked the IFN-alpha-dependent serine phosphorylation of Stat1 and IFN-alpha-inducible gene transcription. IFN-alpha treatment strongly inhibited leukemic CFU-GM progenitor colony formation from bone marrow or peripheral blood of patients with CML, and such inhibition was reversed by concomitant treatment of the cells with the PKC-delta pharmacologic inhibitor rottlerin.
CONCLUSION: Taken altogether, our data demonstrate that PKC-delta plays a critical role in Type I IFN signaling in BCR-ABL expressing cells, acting as a serine kinase for Stat1, to regulate transcriptional activation of interferon-regulated genes and induction of antileukemic responses.

De Servi B, Hermani A, Medunjanin S, Mayer D
Impact of PKCdelta on estrogen receptor localization and activity in breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(31):4946-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) function in breast cancer cells is a complex process involving different signalling mechanisms. One signal transduction component that appears to influence ER signalling is protein kinase C (PKC). PKCdelta is a particular isoenzyme of the novel PKC subfamily that plays a role in growth control, differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of PKCdelta on the regulation of the transcriptional activity of the human ERalpha. By using 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), Bryostatin1 and Rottlerin, we show that active PKCdelta is a proproliferative factor in estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. Furthermore, activation of PKCdelta by TPA resulted in activation and nuclear translocation of ERalpha and in an increase of ER-dependent reporter gene expression. Transfection and expression of the regulatory domain RDdelta of PKCdelta, which is inhibitory to PKCdelta, inhibited the TPA-induced ERalpha activation and translocation. ERalpha was not phosphorylated by PKCdelta; however, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) was identified as a substrate of PKCdelta. The expression of RDdelta resulted in a decrease of TPA-induced GSK3 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus. We suggest that GSK3 plays a role in the PKCdelta-related nuclear translocation of ERalpha.

Nabha SM, Glaros S, Hong M, et al.
Upregulation of PKC-delta contributes to antiestrogen resistance in mammary tumor cells.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(19):3166-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired resistance to tamoxifen (Tam) in breast cancer patients is a serious therapeutic problem. We have previously reported that protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) plays a major role in estrogen (E2)-mediated cell proliferation. To determine if PKC-delta is one of the major alternate signaling pathways that supports cell growth in the presence of Tam, we determined the levels of PKC isoforms in four different models of antiestrogen-resistant cells. Three out of four antiestrogen resistance cell lines (Tam/MCF-7, ICI/MCF-7 and HER-2/MCF-7) expressed significantly high levels of both total and activated PKC-delta levels compared to sensitive cells. Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha content and function are maintained in all the antiestrogen-resistant cell lines. Overexpressing active PKC-delta in Tam-sensitive MCF-7 cells (PKC-delta/MCF-7) led to Tam resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of PKC-delta by rottlerin (a relatively specific inhibitor of PKC-delta) or siRNA significantly inhibited estrogen- and Tam-induced growth in antiestrogen-resistant cells. PKC-delta levels are significantly higher in Tam-resistant tumors compared to Tam-sensitive tumors in xenograft model (P<0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that PKC-delta plays a major role in antiestrogen resistance in breast tumor cells and thus provides a new target for treatment.

Amos S, Martin PM, Polar GA, et al.
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation via protein kinase Cdelta/c-Src pathways in glioblastoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2005; 280(9):7729-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and protein kinase C (PKC) play important roles in glioblastoma invasive growth; however, the interaction between the EGFR and PKC is not well characterized in glioblastomas. Treatment with EGF stimulated global phosphorylation of the EGFR at Tyr(845), Tyr(992), Tyr(1068), and Tyr(1045) in glioblastoma cell lines (U-1242 MG and U-87 MG). Interestingly, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated phosphorylation of the EGFR only at Tyr(1068) in the two glioblastoma cell lines. Phosphorylation of the EGFR at Tyr(1068) was not detected in normal human astrocytes treated with the phorbol ester. PMA-induced phosphorylation of the EGFR at Tyr(1068) was blocked by bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), a PKC inhibitor, and rottlerin, a PKCdelta-specific inhibitor. In contrast, Go 6976, an inhibitor of classical PKC isozymes, had no effect on PMA-induced EGFR phosphorylation. Furthermore, gene silencing with PKCdelta small interfering RNA (siRNA), siRNA against c-Src, and mutant c-Src(S12C/S48A) and treatment with a c-Src inhibitor (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) abrogated PMA-induced EGFR phosphorylation at Tyr(1068). PMA induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of Src, which was blocked by both BIM and rottlerin. Inhibition of the EGFR with AG 1478 did not significantly alter PMA-induced EGFR Tyr(1068) phosphorylation, but completely blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of the EGFR. The effects of PMA on MAPK phosphorylation and glioblastoma cell proliferation were reduced by BIM, rottlerin, the MEK inhibitor U0126, and PKCdelta and c-Src siRNAs. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PMA transactivates the EGFR and increases cell proliferation by activating the PKCdelta/c-Src pathway in glioblastomas.

Perletti G, Marras E, Osti D, et al.
PKCdelta requires p53 for suppression of the transformed phenotype in human colon cancer cells.
J Cell Mol Med. 2004 Oct-Dec; 8(4):563-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that the delta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCdelta) acts as a tumor suppressor in HCT116 human colon cancer cells, and that p21(waf1/cip1) is an essential downstream effector of PKCdelta. Our data suggested that p53 might also be involved in the suppression of the neoplastic phenotype induced by PKCdelta. Here we show that homozygous knockout of p53 renders the HCT116 cell line unresponsive to PKCdelta overexpression. Whereas reconstitution of p53 alone did not modify the morphology and growth properties of HCT116/p53null cells, overexpression of both p53 and PKCdelta induced a number of alterations indicating suppression of the transformed phenotype. Interestingly, PKCdelta was ineffective when overexpressed in HT29 cells, a human colon cancer line characterized by the Arg273His dominant-negative mutation of p53. Thus, our data indicate that wild-type p53 is an essential effector of PKCdelta in human colon cancer cells.

Perletti G, Marras E, Dondi D, et al.
p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p53 are downstream effectors of protein kinase C delta in tumor suppression and differentiation in human colon cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 113(1):42-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that the delta isoform of protein kinase C (PKCdelta) is importantly involved in cell growth inhibition and tumor suppression in colon cancer cells. To investigate further the activity and mechanism of action of PKCdelta, we have retrovirally transduced a PKCdelta cDNA in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. PKCdelta-overexpressing cells (HCT116/PKCdelta) were growth-inhibited, showed marked morphologic changes and underwent multinucleation and phenotypic changes characteristic of mitotic catastrophe. Compared to controls, HCT116/PKCdelta cells showed a highly attenuated tumorigenic profile and poor anchorage-independent growth. In addition, transfected cells established junction-coordinated intercellular communications, expressed cell surface microvilli and overexpressed the colon differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase. HCT116/PKCdelta cells also produced the 89 kDa, carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of PARP. In HCT116/PKCdelta cells, p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p53 were transiently upregulated for 48 hr after PKCdelta transduction. In a p21 null subline of HCT116 cells (HCT116/p21null), overexpression of PKCdelta did not affect tumorigenicity or differentiation, indicating that p21 is essential for the antitumorigenic activity of PKCdelta. Similarly, overexpression of PKCdelta caused no significant phenotypic changes in HCT116/E6 cells, an HCT116 subline in which the p53 protein is downregulated by the human papillomavirus E6 gene product. We conclude that overexpression of PKCdelta in human colon cancer cells induces multiple antineoplastic effects that depend on the activities of p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p53.

Li SY, Yu B, An P, et al.
Effects of cell membrane phospholipid level and protein kinase C isoenzyme expression on hepatic metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004; 3(3):411-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanism of hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the relations between phospholipid contents of cellular membrane and isoenzyme expression of protein kinase C (PKC) and their effects on hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: High performance liquid chromatography was used to detect contents of cell membrane phospholipids: phosphatidylinosital (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in primary foci, paratumor mucosa and hepatic metastatic foci in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels of PKC-alpha, -betaII, -delta, -epsilon, -lambda, -zeta isoenzymes were detected with the QRT-PCR technique.
RESULTS: The levels of PI, PC and PE in primary foci and hepatic metastatic foci were higher than those in paratumor mucosa. The level of PE in hepatic metastatic foci was much higher than that in primary foci (t=98.88, P<0.01); but the levels of PI and PC were not significantly different between primary foci and hepatic metastatic foci (t=1.73, 1.36, P>0.05). The expression levels of PKC-betaII, -delta, -epsilon, -lambda, -zeta were enhanced in primary foci and hepatic metastatic foci, but the level of PKC-alpha in primary foci was decreased as compared with that in paratumor mucosa. The levels of PKC-delta, -epsilon, -lambda, -zeta in hepatic metastatic foci were higher than those in primary foci. A positive correlation was observed between the expression levels of PI, PC and PKC-betaII and also between those of PE and PKC-delta, -epsilon, -lambda, -zeta. However, there was a close negative correlation between PE and PKC-alpha.
CONCLUSION: Increased levels of PI and PC and decreased ratio of PKC-alpha to PKC-betaII are related to colorectal cancer genesis. Increased levels of PE, increased expression of PKC-delta, -epsilon, -lambda, -zeta isoenzymes and decreased level of PKC-alpha are related to hepatic metastasis in colorectal carcinoma.

Zhao KW, Li X, Zhao Q, et al.
Protein kinase Cdelta mediates retinoic acid and phorbol myristate acetate-induced phospholipid scramblase 1 gene expression: its role in leukemic cell differentiation.
Blood. 2004; 104(12):3731-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) was originally identified based on its capacity to promote transbilayer movement of membrane phospholipids, subsequent studies also provided evidence for its role in cell proliferation, maturation, and apoptosis. In this report, we investigate the potential role of PLSCR1 in leukemic cell differentiation. We show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an effective differentiation-inducing agent of acute promyelocytic leukemic (APL) cells, can elevate PLSCR1 expression in ATRA-sensitive APL cells NB4 and HL60, but not in maturation-resistant NB4-LR1 cells. ATRA- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocytic differentiation is accompanied by increased PLSCR1 expression, whereas only a slight or no elevation of PLSCR1 expression is observed in U937 cells differentiated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), sodium butyrate, or vitamin D3. Cell differentiation with ATRA and PMA, but not with vitamin D3 or DMSO, results in phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), and the PKCdelta-specific inhibitor rottlerin nearly eliminates the ATRA- and PMA-induced expression of PLSCR1, while ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of PKCdelta directly increases PLSCR1 expression. Finally, decreasing PLSCR1 expression with small interfering RNA inhibits ATRA/PMA-induced differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that as a protein induced upon PKCdelta activation, PLSCR1 is required for ATRA- and PMA-triggered leukemic cell differentiation.

Vallee S, Laforest S, Fouchier F, et al.
Cytokine-induced upregulation of NF-kappaB, IL-8, and ICAM-1 is dependent on colonic cell polarity: implication for PKCdelta.
Exp Cell Res. 2004; 297(1):165-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
As described for a long time, carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells form a polarized epithelium in culture, whereas HT29-D4 cells are nonpolarized and undifferentiated but can form a polarized monolayer when cultured in a galactose-supplemented medium. Using NF-kappaB translocation and IL-8 and ICAM-1 gene activation as an index, we have studied the relationship between the differentiation state and the cell response to cytokines. We found that differentiated Caco-2 and HT29-D4 cells were responsive to both cytokines TNFalpha- and IL-1beta-mediated activation of NF-kappaB but that undifferentiated HT29-D4 cells were unresponsive to IL-1beta. However, the expression of endogenous ICAM-1 and IL-8 genes was upregulated by these cytokines in either cell lines differentiated or not. Upregulation of ICAM-1 gene occurred when IL-1beta or TNFalpha was added to the basal, but not apical surface of the differentiated epithelia. Finally, it appeared that in polarized HT29-D4 cells, the IL-1beta-induced translocation of NF-kappaB was connected to PKCdelta translocation.

Woo JH, Lim JH, Kim YH, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits phorbol myristate acetate-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by inhibiting JNK and PKC delta signal transduction.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(10):1845-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and tumor metastasis correlate with the expression of endopeptidases known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The expression of MMPs is regulated by cytokines and signal transduction pathways, including those activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We found that resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes, significantly inhibits the PMA-induced increase in MMP-9 expression and activity. These effects of resveratrol are dose dependent and correlate with the suppression of MMP-9 mRNA expression levels. PMA caused about a 23-fold increase in MMP-9 promoter activity, which was suppressed by resveratrol. Transient transfection utilizing MMP-9 constructs, in which specific transcriptional factors were mutagenized, indicated that the effects of PMA and resveratrol were mediated via an activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB response element. Resveratrol inhibited PMA-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC)-delta activation. Therefore, we conclude that the MMP-9 inhibition activity of resveratrol and its inhibition of JNK and PKC-delta may have a therapeutic potential, given that a novel means of controlling growth and invasiveness of tumors.

Chu F, Chen LH, O'Brian CA
Cellular protein kinase C isozyme regulation by exogenously delivered physiological disulfides--implications of oxidative protein kinase C regulation to cancer prevention.
Carcinogenesis. 2004; 25(4):585-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
We reported previously that cystine produces regulatory responses in purified, recombinant human protein kinase C-delta (PKCdelta) and PKCepsilon via S-thiolation-triggered mechanisms that are consistent with a cancer preventive effect, i.e. stimulation of the pro-apoptotic, tumor-suppressive isozyme PKCdelta and inactivation of the growth-stimulatory, oncogenic isozyme PKCepsilon, at S-cysteinylation stoichiometries that correspond to modification of a single redox-regulatory cysteine (Cys) switch in each isozyme. In this report, we show that the oxidative regulatory responses of purified PKCdelta and PKCepsilon to cystine are recapitulated in disulfide-treated cells. We report that treatment of COS7-PKCepsilon transfectants with the cystine precursor cystine dimethyl ester (CDME) produced concentration- and time-dependent PKCepsilon inactivation that was associated with oxidative PKCepsilon modification manifested as attenuated band intensity in PKCepsilon immunoblot analyses, and that both PKCepsilon inactivation and modification were reversed by dithiothreitol (DTT) as well as by thioredoxin. We also show that CDME induced biphasic PKCdelta regulation in COS7-PKCdelta transfectants, with DTT-irreversible PKCdelta stimulation at low and DTT-reversible PKCdelta inactivation at high CDME concentrations. The degrees of PKCdelta versus PKCepsilon inactivation by CDME treatment of COS7-PKC transfectants indicate substantial resistance of PKCdelta to inactivation. The PKCdelta stimulatory response in COS7-PKCdelta cells was triggered only by the disulfide agent and not by its reduced thiol counterpart, providing evidence for an oxidative mechanism. Also paralleling the oxidative stimulation of purified PKCdelta by cystine, the stimulation of PKCdelta elicited by CDME treatment of cells involved a stable structural change, which was evident from the stability of the stimulated form of PKCdelta to immunoprecipitation. Demonstration of oxidative regulation of cellular PKCdelta and PKCepsilon by disulfides in this report provides evidence that redox-regulatory sites in PKCdelta and PKCepsilon may offer novel targets for development of cancer preventive or therapeutic agents that selectively inactivate PKCepsilon or stimulate PKCdelta.

Wang Q, Wang X, Evers BM
Induction of cIAP-2 in human colon cancer cells through PKC delta/NF-kappa B.
J Biol Chem. 2003; 278(51):51091-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) prevents apoptosis in certain cells; however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family members, including NAIP, cIAP-1, cIAP-2, XIAP/hILP, survivin, and BRUCE, block apoptosis by binding and potently inhibiting caspases. Activation of NF-kappa B contributes to cIAP-2 induction; however, the cellular mechanisms regulating cIAP-2 expression have not been entirely defined. In this study, we examined the role of the PKC and NF-kappa B pathways in the regulation of cIAP-2 in human colon cancers. We found that cIAP-2 mRNA levels were markedly increased in human colon cancer cells by treatment with the phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), or bryostatin 1. Inhibitors of the Ca2+-independent, novel PKC isoforms, but not inhibitors of MAPK, PI3-kinase, or PKA, blocked PMA-stimulated cIAP-2 mRNA expression, suggesting a role of PKC in PMA-mediated cIAP-2 induction. Pretreatment with the PKC delta-selective inhibitor rottlerin or transfection with an antisense PKC delta oligonucleotide inhibited PMA-induced cIAP-2 expression, whereas cotransfection with a PKC delta plasmid induced cIAP-2 promoter activity, which, taken together, identifies a role for PKC delta in cIAP-2 induction. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132 or inhibitors of NF-kappa B (e.g. PDTC and gliotoxin), decreased PMA-induced up-regulation of cIAP-2. PMA-induced NF-kappa B activation was blocked by either GF109203x, MG132, PDTC, or gliotoxin. Moreover, overexpression of PKC delta-induced cIAP-2 promoter activity and increased NF-kappa B transactivation, suggesting regulation of cIAP-2 expression by a PKC delta/NF-kappa B pathway. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a role for a PKC/NF-kappa B-dependent pathway in the regulation of cIAP-2 expression in human colon cancer cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism for the anti-apoptotic function mediated by the PKC delta/NF-kappa B/cIAP-2 pathway in certain cancers.

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