Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: RAD54L (cancer-related)
Tanori M, Pannicelli A, Pasquali E, et al.Cancer risk from low dose radiation in Ptch1
DNA Repair (Amst). 2019; 74:70-79 [PubMed
] Related Publications
DSBs are harmful lesions produced through endogenous metabolism or by exogenous agents such as ionizing radiation, that can trigger genomic rearrangements. We have recently shown that exposure to 2 Gy of X-rays has opposite effects on the induction of Shh-dependent MB in NHEJ- and HR-deficient Ptch1
BACKGROUND: Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs, defined as WHO grades II and III) with 1p19q codeletion have increased chemosensitivity when compared to LGGs without 1p19q codeletion, but the mechanism is currently unknown.
METHODS: RNAseq data from 515 LGG patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were analyzed to compare the effect of expression of the 9 DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not. Chemosensitivity of cells with DNA repair genes knocked down was tested using MTS cell proliferation assay in HS683 cell line and U251 cell line.
RESULTS: The expression of 9 DNA repair genes on 1p and 19q was significantly lower in 1p19q-codeleted tumors (n = 175) than in tumors without the codeletion (n = 337) (p < 0.001). In LGG patients who received chemotherapy, lower expression of LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH was associated with longer PFS and OS. This difference between chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups in the association of gene expression with survival was not observed in non-DNA repair genes located on chromosome arms 1p and 19q. MTS assays showed that knockdown of DNA repair genes LIG1, POLD1, PNKP, RAD54L and MUTYH significantly inhibited recovery in response to temozolomide when compared with control group (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that reduced expression of DNA repair genes on chromosome arms 1p and 19q may account for the increased chemosensitivity of LGGs with 1p19q codeletion.
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) develop in about 20-30% of breast cancer (BC) patients. BCBM are associated with dismal prognosis not at least due to lack of valuable molecular therapeutic targets. The aim of the study was to identify new molecular biomarkers and targets in BCBM by using complementary state-of-the-art techniques.
METHODS: We compared array expression profiles of three BCBM with 16 non-brain metastatic BC and 16 primary brain tumors (prBT) using a false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05 and fold change (FC) > 2. Biofunctional analysis was conducted on the differentially expressed probe sets. High-density arrays were employed to detect copy number variations (CNVs) and whole exome sequencing (WES) with paired-end reads of 150 bp was utilized to detect gene mutations in the three BCBM.
RESULTS: The top 370 probe sets that were differentially expressed between BCBM and both BC and prBT were in the majority comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included, e.g. the coding genes BCL3, BNIP3, BNIP3P1, BRIP1, CASP14, CDC25A, DMBT1, IDH2, E2F1, MYCN, RAD51, RAD54L, and VDR. A number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were comparably overexpressed in BCBM and included SNORA1, SNORA2A, SNORA9, SNORA10, SNORA22, SNORA24, SNORA30, SNORA37, SNORA38, SNORA52, SNORA71A, SNORA71B, SNORA71C, SNORD13P2, SNORD15A, SNORD34, SNORD35A, SNORD41, SNORD53, and SCARNA22. The top canonical pathway was entitled, role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response. Network analysis revealed key nodes as Akt, ERK1/2, NFkB, and Ras in a predicted activation stage. Downregulated genes in a data set that was shared between BCBM and prBT comprised, e.g. BC cell line invasion markers JUN, MMP3, TFF1, and HAS2. Important cancer genes affected by CNVs included TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, ERBB2, IDH1, and IDH2. WES detected numerous mutations, some of which affecting BC associated genes as CDH1, HEPACAM, and LOXHD1.
CONCLUSIONS: Using complementary molecular genetic techniques, this study identified shared and unshared molecular events in three highly aberrant BCBM emphasizing the challenge to detect new molecular biomarkers and targets with translational implications. Among new findings with the capacity to gain clinical relevance is the detection of overexpressed snoRNAs known to regulate some critical cellular functions as ribosome biogenesis.
Liao YH, Ren JT, Zhang W, et al.Polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes and the risk and survival of breast cancer.
J Gene Med. 2017; 19(9-10) [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibody of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was found to associate with breast cancer (BC), whereas IgA positivity was related to a series of genetic markers in the genes of homologous recombination repair system (HRRs). We assessed the associations of the polymorphisms in HRR genes with the risk and survival of BC.
METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 1551 bc cases and 1605 age-matched healthy controls between October 2008 and March 2012 in the Guangzhou Breast Cancer Study (GZBCS), China, and the case population were followed up until 31 January 2016. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes in HRR system were genotyped. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazards ratios (HRs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk and prognostic effect, respectively.
RESULTS: RFC1 rs6829064 (AA) was associated with an increased BC risk [OR = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.73] compared to the wild genotype (GG). NRM rs1075496 (GT/TT versus GG) was associated with a worse progression-free survival (PFS) and the HR was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.01-1.78), particularly among advanced patients. LIG3 rs1052536 (CT/TT versus CC) was associated with a better PFS and the HR was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.53-0.93). However, RAD54L rs1710286 and RPA1 rs11078676 were not observed to be associated with either the risk or survival of BC.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that the polymorphisms in HRR genes were associated with BC risk (RFC1 rs6829064) and prognosis (NRM rs1075496 and LIG3 rs1052536), whereas RAD54L rs1710286 and RPA1 rs11078676 had null associations with BC.
Cancers with loss-of-function mutations in
Shinozuka K, Tang H, Jones RB, et al.Impact of Polymorphic Variations of Gemcitabine Metabolism, DNA Damage Repair, and Drug-Resistance Genes on the Effect of High-Dose Chemotherapy for Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016; 22(5):843-9 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The goal of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in gemcitabine metabolism, DNA damage repair, multidrug resistance, and alkylator detoxification influence the clinical outcome of patients with refractory/relapsed lymphoid malignancies receiving high-dose gemcitabine/busulfan/melphalan (Gem/Bu/Mel) with autologous stem cell support. We evaluated 21 germline SNPs of the gemcitabine metabolism genes CDA, deoxycytidine kinase, and hCNT3; DNA damage repair genes RECQL, X-ray repair complementing 1, RAD54L, ATM, ATR, MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, TREX1, EXO1, and TP73; and multidrug-resistance genes MRP2 and MRP5; as well as glutathione-S-transferase GSTP1 in 153 patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma or myeloma receiving Gem/Bu/Mel. We studied the association of genotypes with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and nonhematological grade 3 or 4 toxicity. CDA C111T and TREX1 Ex14-460C>T genotypes had a significant effect on OS (P = .007 and P = .005, respectively), and CDA C111T, ATR C340T, and EXO1 P757L genotypes were significant predictors for severe toxicity (P = .037, P = .024, and P = .025, respectively) in multivariable models that adjusted for clinical variables. The multi-SNP risk score analysis identified the combined genotypes of TREX1 Ex14-460 TT and hCNT3 Ex5 +25A>G AA as significant predictors for OS and the combination of MRP2 Ex10 + 40GG/GA and MLH1 IVS12-169 TT as significant predictor for PFS. Polymorphic variants of certain genes involved in gemcitabine metabolism and DNA damage repair pathways may be potential biomarkers for clinical outcome in patients with refractory/relapsed lymphoid tumors receiving Gem/Bu/Mel.
Gee HE, Buffa FM, Harris AL, et al.MicroRNA-Related DNA Repair/Cell-Cycle Genes Independently Associated With Relapse After Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 93(5):1104-14 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Local recurrence and distant failure after adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer remain significant clinical problems, incompletely predicted by conventional clinicopathologic markers. We had previously identified microRNA-139-5p and microRNA-1274a as key regulators of breast cancer radiation response in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate standard clinicopathologic markers of local recurrence in a contemporary series and to establish whether putative target genes of microRNAs involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control could better predict radiation therapy response in vivo.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: With institutional ethics board approval, local recurrence was measured in a contemporary, prospectively collected series of 458 patients treated with radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Additionally, independent publicly available mRNA/microRNA microarray expression datasets totaling >1000 early-stage breast cancer patients, treated with adjuvant radiation therapy, with >10 years of follow-up, were analyzed. The expression of putative microRNA target biomarkers--TOP2A, POLQ, RAD54L, SKP2, PLK2, and RAG1--were correlated with standard clinicopathologic variables using 2-sided nonparametric tests, and to local/distant relapse and survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: We found a low rate of isolated local recurrence (1.95%) in our modern series, and that few clinicopathologic variables (such as lymphovascular invasion) were significantly predictive. In multiple independent datasets (n>1000), however, high expression of RAD54L, TOP2A, POLQ, and SKP2 significantly correlated with local recurrence, survival, or both in univariate and multivariate analyses (P<.001). Low RAG1 expression significantly correlated with local recurrence (multivariate, P=.008). Additionally, RAD54L, SKP2, and PLK2 may be predictive, being prognostic in radiation therapy-treated patients but not in untreated matched control individuals (n=107; P<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of DNA repair and cell cycle control can identify patients at high risk of treatment failure in those receiving radiation therapy for early breast cancer in independent cohorts. These should be further investigated prospectively, especially TOP2A and SKP2, for which targeted therapies are available.
Zhang H, Liu Y, Zhou K, et al.Genetic variations in the homologous recombination repair pathway genes modify risk of glioma.
J Neurooncol. 2016; 126(1):11-17 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Accumulative epidemiological evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway play an important role in glioma susceptibility. However, the effects of such SNPs on glioma risk remain unclear. We used a used a candidate pathway-based approach to elucidate the relationship between glioma risk and 12 putative functional SNPs in genes involved in the HR pathway. Genotyping was conducted on 771 histologically-confirmed glioma patients and 752 cancer-free controls from the Chinese Han population. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated both for each SNP individually and for grouped analyses, examining the effects of the numbers of adverse alleles on glioma risk, and evaluated their potential gene-gene interactions using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR). In the single-locus analysis, two variants, the NBS1 rs1805794 (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.76, P = 0.001), and RAD54L rs1048771 (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.17-2.22, P = 0.002) were significantly associated with glioma risk. When we examined the joint effects of the risk-conferring alleles of these three SNPs, we found a significant trend indicating that the risk increases as the number of adverse alleles increase (P = 0.005). Moreover, the MDR analysis suggested a significant three-locus interaction model involving NBS1 rs1805794, MRE11 rs10831234, and ATM rs227062. These results suggested that these variants of the genes involved in the HR pathway may contribute to glioma susceptibility.
Vodicka P, Musak L, Frank C, et al.Interactions of DNA repair gene variants modulate chromosomal aberrations in healthy subjects.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(11):1299-306 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Human cancers are often associated with numerical and structural chromosomal instability. Structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) arise as consequences of direct DNA damage or due to replication on a damaged DNA template. In both cases, DNA repair is critical and inter-individual differences in its capacity are probably due to corresponding genetic variations. We investigated functional variants in DNA repair genes (base and nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair) in relation to CAs, chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) in healthy individuals. Chromosomal damage was determined by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The genotyping was performed by both restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for testing individual factors on CAs, CTAs and CSAs. Pair-wise genotype interactions of 11 genes were constructed for all possible pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysed individually, we observed significantly lower CTA frequencies in association with XPD Lys751Gln homozygous variant genotype [odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.85, P = 0.004; n = 1777]. A significant association of heterozygous variant genotype in RAD54L with increased CSA frequency (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01-4.02, P = 0.03) was determined in 282 subjects with available genotype. By addressing gene-gene interactions, we discovered 14 interactions significantly modulating CAs, 9 CTAs and 12 CSAs frequencies. Highly significant interactions included always pairs from two different pathways. Although individual variants in genes encoding DNA repair proteins modulate CAs only modestly, several gene-gene interactions in DNA repair genes evinced either enhanced or decreased CA frequencies suggesting that CAs accumulation requires complex interplay between different DNA repair pathways.
TAF12, NFYC, and RAD54L are oncogenes required to initiate and maintain choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC).
Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are poorly understood and frequently lethal brain tumors with few treatment options. Using a mouse model of the disease and a large cohort of human CPCs, we performed a cross-species, genome-wide search for oncogenes within syntenic regions of chromosome gain. TAF12, NFYC, and RAD54L co-located on human chromosome 1p32-35.3 and mouse chromosome 4qD1-D3 were identified as oncogenes that are gained in tumors in both species and required for disease initiation and progression. TAF12 and NFYC are transcription factors that regulate the epigenome, whereas RAD54L plays a central role in DNA repair. Our data identify a group of concurrently gained oncogenes that cooperate in the formation of CPC and reveal potential avenues for therapy.
BACKGROUND: Different sensitivity of advanced cervical cancer to irradiation can decrease effectiveness of radiotherapy in some cases. We attempted to identify the differentially expressed genes in residual cervical cancer after radiotherapy that might be associated with poor prognosis and radioresistance.
MATERIAL/METHODS: Differential genes expression was identified by an oligonucleotide microarray in cervical cancer tissues before radiation and after a 50-Gy dose of radiation. The microarray results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. CXCL12 was validated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues before radiotherapy. The relationship between the differentiated gene and prognosis was validated by survival analysis.
RESULTS: Hierarchic cluster analysis identified 238 differentiated genes that exhibited ≥3.0-fold change and p<0.05. We found 111 genes that were in persistent up-regulation and 127 in persistent down-regulation after a 50-Gy dose of radiation when compared with the control group. These genes were involved in processes such as cell growth and death, cell-apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, cell signaling, DNA synthesis and repair, and cell adhesion. High differential expression of CXCL12, CD74, FGF7, COL14A1, PRC1, and RAD54L genes was validated by quantitative PCR before and after radiotherapy. Survival analysis results showed that the high expression of CXCL12 was closely related to poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The higher expression of CXCL12 might be informative regarding poor prognosis in patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. The differentially expressed genes identified in our study might provide a new method for diagnosis and treatment of radioresistance in cervical cancer.
Joerger M, Huitema AD, Boot H, et al.Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(4):763-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This work was initiated to extend data on the effect of pharmacogenetics and chemotherapy pharmacokinetics (PK) on clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.
METHODS: We assessed 44 gene polymorphisms in 16 genes (TYMS, MTHFR, GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1, DPYD, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, ERCC1, RECQ1, RAD54L, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 and UGT2B7) in 64 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving capecitabine/oxaliplatin and 76 patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) receiving epirubicin/cisplatin/capecitabine, respectively. Plasma concentrations of anticancer drugs were measured for up to 24 h, and results were submitted to population PK analysis. We calculated the association between gene polymorphisms, chemotherapy exposure, tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity using appropriate statistical tests.
RESULTS: Patients with a low clearance of 5FU were at increased risk of neutropenia (P < 0.05) and hand-foot syndrome (P = 0.002). DPYD T85C, T1896C and A2846T mutant variants were associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and HFS (P < 0.02), and IVS14+1G>A additionally with diarrhea (P < 0.001). The TYMS 2R/3G, 3C/3G or 3G/3G promoter variants were associated with worse PFS in the CRC (HR = 2.0, P < 0.01) and GEC group (HR = 5.4, P < 0.001) and worse OS in the GEC group (HR = 4.7, P < 0.001). The GSTP1 A313G mutant variant was associated with a higher PFS (HR = 0.55, P = 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.60, P = 0.002) in the CRC group.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline polymorphisms of DPYD, TYMS and GSTP1 have a significant effect on toxicity and clinical outcome in patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced colorectal or gastroesophageal cancer. These data should further be validated in prospective clinical studies.
Oji Y, Tatsumi N, Kobayashi J, et al.Wilms' tumor gene WT1 promotes homologous recombination-mediated DNA damage repair.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(12):1758-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is overexpressed in leukemia and various types of solid tumors and plays an oncogenic role in these malignancies. Alternative splicing at two sites yields four major isoforms, 17AA(+)KTS(+), 17AA(+)KTS(-), 17AA(-)KTS(+), and 17AA(-)KTS(-), and all the isoforms are expressed in the malignancies. However, among the four isoforms, function of WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform still remains undetermined. In the present study, we showed that forced expression of WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform significantly inhibited apoptosis by DNA-damaging agents such as Doxorubicin, Mitomycin, Camptothesisn, and Bleomycin in immortalized fibroblast MRC5SV and cervical cancer HeLa cells. Knockdown of Rad51, an essential factor for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair canceled the resistance to Doxorubicin induced by WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform. GFP recombination assay showed that WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform alone promoted HR, but that three other WT1 isoforms did not. WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform significantly upregulated the expression of HR genes, XRCC2, Rad51D, and Rad54. Knockdown of XRCC2, Rad51D, and Rad54 inhibited the HR activity and canceled resistance to Doxorubicin in MRC5SV cells with forced expression of WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed the binding of WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform protein to promoters of XRCC2 and Rad51D. Immunohistochemical study showed that Rad54 and XRCC2 proteins were highly expressed in the majority of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and gastric cancer, and that expression of these two proteins was significantly correlated with that of WT1 protein in NSCLCs. Our results presented here showed that WT1[17AA(-)KTS(+)] isoform had a function to promote HR-mediated DNA repair.
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify DNA methylation biomarkers of progression-free survival (PFS) to platinum-based chemotherapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) within biologically relevant ovarian cancer-associated pathways.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Association with PFS of CpG island (CGI) promoter DNA methylation at genes in the pathways Akt/mTOR, p53, redox, and homologous recombination DNA repair was sought with PFS as the primary objective in a prospectively collected ovarian cancer cohort (n = 150). Significant loci were validated for associations between PFS, methylation, and gene expression in an independent The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set of HGSOC (n = 311).
RESULTS: DNA methylation at 29 CGI loci linked to 28 genes was significantly associated with PFS, independent from conventional clinical prognostic factors (adjusted P < 0.05). Of 17 out of the 28 genes represented in the TCGA data set, methylation of VEGFB, VEGFA, HDAC11, FANCA, E2F1, GPX4, PRDX2, RAD54L, and RECQL4 was prognostic in this independent patient cohort (one-sided P < 0.05, false discovery rate < 10%). A multivariate Cox model was constructed, with clinical parameters (age, stage, grade, and histologic type) and significant loci. The final model included NKD1, VEGFB, and PRDX2 as the three best predictors of PFS (P = 6.62 × 10(-6), permutation test P < 0.05). Focussing only on known VEGFs in the TCGA cohort showed that methylation at promoters of VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGFC was significantly associated with PFS.
CONCLUSIONS: A three loci model of DNA methylation could identify two distinct prognostic groups of patients with ovarian cancer (PFS: HR = 2.29, P = 3.34 × 10(-5); overall survival: HR = 1.87, P = 0.007) and patients more likely to have poor response to chemotherapy (OR = 3.45, P = 0.012).
Li WQ, Hu N, Hyland PL, et al.Genetic variants in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(7):1536-42 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The DNA repair pathways help to maintain genomic integrity and therefore genetic variation in the pathways could affect the propensity to develop cancer. Selected germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pathways have been associated with esophageal cancer and gastric cancer (GC) but few studies have comprehensively examined the pathway genes. We aimed to investigate associations between DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and GC, using data from a genome-wide association study in a Han Chinese population where ESCC and GC are the predominant cancers. In sum, 1942 ESCC cases, 1758 GC cases and 2111 controls from the Shanxi Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Genetics Project (discovery set) and the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials (replication set) were genotyped for 1675 SNPs in 170 DNA repair-related genes. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-level associations were determined using the resampling-based adaptive rank-truncated product approach. The DNA repair pathways overall were significantly associated with risk of ESCC (P = 6.37 × 10(-4)), but not with GC (P = 0.20). The most significant gene in ESCC was CHEK2 (P = 2.00 × 10(-6)) and in GC was CLK2 (P = 3.02 × 10(-4)). We observed several other genes significantly associated with either ESCC (SMUG1, TDG, TP53, GTF2H3, FEN1, POLQ, HEL308, RAD54B, MPG, FANCE and BRCA1) or GC risk (MRE11A, RAD54L and POLE) (P < 0.05). We provide evidence for an association between specific genes in the DNA repair pathways and the risk of ESCC and GC. Further studies are warranted to validate these associations and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
BACKGROUND: RAD51D and RAD54L are involved in homologous recombination, and rare mutations in RAD51D were recently found in breast-ovarian cancer families. This study investigated RAD51D and RAD54L for mutations in breast and ovarian cancer patients in the Finnish population.
METHODS: The study sequenced the RAD51D and RAD54L genes in 95 breast and/or ovarian cancer families and genotyped the identified mutation in an additional 2200 breast and 553 ovarian cancer patients and 2102 population controls. To investigate the role of the mutation in other common cancers, 1094 prostate and 980 colorectal cancer patients were genotyped.
RESULTS: In the screening of RAD51D, one deleterious founder mutation c.576+1G>A was identified in two breast-ovarian cancer families. No mutations were found in RAD54L. Altogether, the c.576+1G>A mutation was detected in 5/707 patients with a personal or family history of ovarian cancer (OR 9.16, 95% CI 1.07 to 78.56; p=0.024), with the highest frequency among breast-ovarian cancer families (3/105 vs 1/1287 controls, OR 37.82, 95% CI 3.90 to 366.91; p=0.0016), but no elevated frequency among breast cancer patients/families (2/2105, p=1). The mutation was not found among prostate or colorectal cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study on familial and unselected breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate cancer patients suggest that RAD51D is primarily a moderate penetrance susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer, with clinical significance for the carriers.
Yu S, Song Z, Luo J, et al.Over-expression of RAD51 or RAD54 but not RAD51/4 enhances extra-chromosomal homologous recombination in the human sarcoma (HT-1080) cell line.
J Biotechnol. 2011; 154(1):21-4 [PubMed
] Related Publications
RAD51 and RAD54, members of the RAD52 epistasis group, play key roles in homologous recombination (HR). The efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) can be increased by over-expression of either of them. A vector that allows co-expression of RAD51 and RAD54 was constructed to investigate interactions between the two proteins during extra-chromosomal HR. The efficiency of extra-chromosomal HR evaluated by GFP extra-chromosomal HR was enhanced (110-245%) in different transfected Human sarcoma (HT-1080) cell colonies. We observed that RAD51 clearly promotes extra-chromosomal HR; however, the actions of RAD54 in extra-chromosomal HR were weak. Our data suggest that RAD51 may function as a universal factor during HR, whereas RAD54 mainly functions in other types of HR (gene targeting or intra-chromosomal HR), which involves interaction with chromosomal DNA.
Välk K, Vooder T, Kolde R, et al.Gene expression profiles of non-small cell lung cancer: survival prediction and new biomarkers.
Oncology. 2010; 79(3-4):283-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Despite the well-defined histological types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a given stage is often associated with wide-ranging survival rates and treatment outcomes. This disparity has led to an increased demand for the discovery and identification of new informative biomarkers.
METHODS: In the current study, we screened 81 NSCLC samples using Illumina whole-genome gene expression microarrays in an effort to identify differentially expressed genes and new NSCLC biomarkers.
RESULTS: We identified novel genes whose expression was upregulated in NSCLC, including SPAG5, POLH, KIF23, and RAD54L, which are associated with mitotic spindle formation, DNA repair, chromosome segregation, and dsDNA break repair, respectively. We also identified several novel genes whose expression was downregulated in NSCLC, including SGCG, NLRC4, MMRN1, and SFTPD, which are involved in extracellular matrix formation, apoptosis, blood vessel leakage, and inflammation, respectively. We found a significant correlation between RNA degradation and survival in adenocarcinoma cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Even though the follow-up time was too limited to draw final conclusions, we were able to show better prediction p values in a group selection based on molecular profiles compared to histology. The current study also uncovered new candidate biomarker genes that are likely to be involved in diverse processes associated with NSCLC development.
Nimustine (ACNU) is a chloroethylating agent which was the most active chemotherapy agent used for patients with high-grade gliomas until the introduction of temozolomide, which became the standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas in Japan. Since temozolomide was established as the standard first-line therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), ACNU has been employed as a salvage chemotherapy agent for recurrent GBM in combination with other drugs. The acting molecular mechanism in ACNU has yet to be elucidated. ACNU is a cross-linking agent which induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The work described here was intended to clarify details in repair pathways which are active in the repair of DNA DSBs induced by ACNU. DSBs are repaired through the homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. Cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used which have deficiencies in DNA DSB repair genes which are involved in HR repair (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 2 [XRCC2] and radiation sensitive mutant 54 [Rad54]), and in NHEJ repair (DNA ligase IV [Lig4]). Cellular sensitivity to ACNU treatment was evaluated with colony forming assays. The most effective molecular target which correlated with ACNU cell sensitivity was Lig4. In addition, it was found that Lig4 small-interference RNA (siRNA) efficiently enhanced cell lethality which was induced by ACNU in human glioblastoma A172 cells. These findings suggest that the down-regulation of Lig4 might provide a useful tool which can be used to increase cell sensitivity in response to ACNU chemotherapy.
PURPOSE: The current research was undertaken to examine the association between genetic variations in DNA repair and pancreatic cancer risk.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 7 DNA repair genes (LIG3, LIG4, OGG1, ATM, POLB, RAD54L, and RECQL) in 734 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 780 healthy controls using the Taqman method. Information on cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, medical history, and other risk factors was collected by personal interview.
RESULTS: The homozygous mutant genotype of LIG3 G-39A [odds ratio (OR), 0.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-0.82; P = 0.027] and ATM D1853N (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.08-6.00; P = 0.032) was significantly associated with altered risk for pancreatic cancer. A statistically significant interaction of ATM D1853N and LIG4 C54T genotype with diabetes on the risk of pancreatic cancer was also detected. Compared with nondiabetics with the ATM D1853N GG genotype, nondiabetics with the GA/AA, diabetics with the GG, and diabetics with the GA/AA genotypes, respectively, had ORs (95% CI) of 0.96 (0.74-1.24), 1.32 (0.89-1.95), and 3.23 (1.47-7.12; P(interaction) = 0.032, likelihood ratio test). The OR (95% CI) was 0.91 (0.71-1.17), 1.11 (0.73-1.69), and 2.44 (1.34-4.46) for nondiabetics carrying the LIG4 CT/TT genotype, diabetics with the CC genotype, and diabetics carrying the CT/TT genotype, respectively, compared with nondiabetics carrying the CC genotype (P(interaction) = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that genetic variations in DNA repair may act alone or in concert with other risk factors on modifying a patient's risk for pancreatic cancer.
Sellick G, Fielding S, Qureshi M, et al.Germline mutations in RAD51, RAD51AP1, RAD51B, RAD51C,RAD51D, RAD52 and RAD54L do not contribute to familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2008; 49(1):130-3 [PubMed
] Related Publications
While familial predisposition to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is well recognized no gene which when mutated in the germline has been unambiguously shown to confer susceptibility to the disease. An approach based on mutation screening methods targeted to coding regions of candidate genes offers an attractive strategy for the identification of rare disease-causing alleles. The RAD genes participate in the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks, detecting DNA damage, activating cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. Defects in members of these genes are linked to increased chromosomal instability and in lymphoma predisposition, thereby representing strong candidate susceptibility genes a priori. To examine this proposition we screened 75 familial CLL probands for germline mutations in this set of genes. No overt pathogenic mutations were identified. These findings indicate that germline mutations in RAD51, RAD51AP1, RAD51L1, RAD51L3, RAD52 and RAD54L are unlikely to be causal of an inherited predisposition to CLL.
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling has revolutionized our ability to molecularly classify primary human tumors and significantly enhanced the development of novel tumor markers and therapies; however, progress in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma over the past 3 decades has been limited, and there is currently no approved therapy that significantly extends lifespan in patients with advanced disease. Profiling studies of melanoma to date have been inconsistent due to the heterogeneous nature of this malignancy and the limited availability of informative tissue specimens from early stages of disease.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In order to gain an improved understanding of the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we have compared gene expression profiles from a series of melanoma cell lines representing discrete stages of malignant progression that recapitulate critical characteristics of the primary lesions from which they were derived. Here we describe the unsupervised hierarchical clustering of profiling data from melanoma cell lines and melanocytes. This clustering identifies two distinctive molecular subclasses of melanoma segregating aggressive metastatic tumor cell lines from less-aggressive primary tumor cell lines. Further analysis of expression signatures associated with melanoma progression using functional annotations categorized these transcripts into three classes of genes: 1) Upregulation of activators of cell cycle progression, DNA replication and repair (CDCA2, NCAPH, NCAPG, NCAPG2, PBK, NUSAP1, BIRC5, ESCO2, HELLS, MELK, GINS1, GINS4, RAD54L, TYMS, and DHFR), 2) Loss of genes associated with cellular adhesion and melanocyte differentiation (CDH3, CDH1, c-KIT, PAX3, CITED1/MSG-1, TYR, MELANA, MC1R, and OCA2), 3) Upregulation of genes associated with resistance to apoptosis (BIRC5/survivin). While these broad classes of transcripts have previously been implicated in the progression of melanoma and other malignancies, the specific genes identified within each class of transcripts are novel. In addition, the transcription factor NF-KB was specifically identified as being a potential "master regulator" of melanoma invasion since NF-KB binding sites were identified as consistent consensus sequences within promoters of progression-associated genes.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that tumor cell lines are a valuable resource for the early identification of gene signatures associated with malignant progression in tumors with significant heterogeneity like melanoma. We further conclude that the development of novel data reduction algorithms for analysis of microarray studies is critical to allow for optimized mining of important, clinically-relevant datasets. It is expected that subsequent validation studies in primary human tissues using such an approach will lead to more rapid translation of such studies to the identification of novel tumor biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Nowacka-Zawisza M, Bryś M, Hanna RM, et al.Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability at RAD52 and RAD54 loci in breast cancer.
Pol J Pathol. 2006; 57(2):83-9 [PubMed
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This study was carried out to evaluate the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in breast cancer, in the 12p13.3 and 1p32 chromosomal regions where RAD52 and RAD54 genes are localized. Polymorphic markers D12S98, D12S1698 for RAD52 and D1S209, D1S411 for RAD54 were used. Relationships between LOH and clinicopathological parameters, i.e. tumor type and grade, patient's age, steroid receptors status and lymph node and distal metastases were assessed. For alleles frequency estimation 100 primary breast cancers were tested. DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded tissues and their matched blood samples were analyzed for PCR-based LOH and MSI by fluorescence-based DNA sequencing technology. In analyzed cases LOH was found in 14% and 11% of informative cases for D12S98 and D12S1698 markers, respectively and in 18% and 17% of informative cases for D1S209 and D1S411 markers, respectively. The highest frequency of MSI was identified at loci D12S98 (10%) and D1S209 (11%). Significant correlations between RAD52 and RAD54 regions with concomitant LOH and histological type and progesterone receptor status were observed. In the case of RAD54 further correlations with respect to tumor grade and the presence of distal metastases were noticed.
Genetic variation in DNA repair may affect the clinical response to cytotoxic therapies. We investigated the effect of six single nucleotide polymorphisms of the RecQ1, RAD54L, XRCC2, and XRCC3 genes on overall survival of 378 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who were treated at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center during February 1999 to October 2004 and were followed up to October 2005. Genotypes were determined using the MassCode method. Survival was determined from pathologic diagnosis to death. Patients who were alive at the last follow-up evaluation were censored at that time. Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, and Cox regression were used to compare overall survival by genotypes. A significant effect on survival of all patients was observed for RecQ1 and RAD54L genes. The median survival time was 19.2, 14.7, and 13.2 months for the RecQ1 159 AA, AC, and CC genotypes, and 16.4, 13.3, and 10.3 months for RAD54L 157 CC, CT, and TT genotypes, respectively. A significantly reduced survival was associated with the variant alleles of XRCC2 R188H and XRCC3 A17893G in subgroup analysis. When the four genes were analyzed in combination, an increasing number of adverse alleles were associated with a significantly decreased survival. Subgroup analyses have shown that the genotype effect on survival was present among patients without metastatic disease or among patients who receive radiotherapy. These observations suggest that polymorphisms of genes involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks significantly affect the clinical outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer.
PURPOSE: Our goal was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes influence the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 13 SNPs of eight DNA damage response and repair genes in 92 patients with potentially resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All patients were treated with neoadjuvant concurrent gemcitabine and radiotherapy with or without a component of induction gemcitabine/cisplatin at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) from February 1999 to August 2004 and observed through August 2005. Response to the pretreatment was assessed by evaluating time to tumor progression and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, and Cox regression were used to compare survival of patients according to genotype.
RESULTS: The RecQ1 A159C, RAD54L C157T, XRCC1 R194W, and ATM T77C genotypes had a significant effect on the overall survival with log-rank P values of .001, .004, .001, and .02, respectively. A strong combined effect of the four genotypes was observed. Patients with none of the adverse genotypes had a mean survival time of 62.1 months, and those with one, two, or three or more at-risk alleles had median survival times of 27.5, 14.4, and 9.9 months, respectively (log-rank P < .001). There is a significant interaction between the RecQ1 gene and other genotypes. All four genes except XRCC1 remained as independent predictors of survival in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for other clinical predictors.
CONCLUSION: These observations support the hypothesis that polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes affect clinical prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer.
Smirnova M, Van Komen S, Sung P, Klein HLEffects of tumor-associated mutations on Rad54 functions.
J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(23):24081-8 [PubMed
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Yeast RAD54 gene, a member of the RAD52 epistasis group, plays an important role in homologous recombination and DNA double strand break repair. Rad54 belongs to the Snf2/Swi2 protein family, and it possesses a robust DNA-dependent ATPase activity, uses free energy from ATP hydrolysis to supercoil DNA, and cooperates with the Rad51 recombinase in DNA joint formation. There are two RAD54-homologous genes in human cells, hRAD54 and RAD54B. Mutations in these human genes have been found in tumors. These tumor-associated mutations map to conserved regions of the hRad54 and hRad54B proteins. Here we introduced the equivalent mutations into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD54 gene in an effort to examine the functional consequences of these gene changes. One mutant, rad54 G484R, showed sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and reduced homologous recombination rates, indicating a loss of function. Even though the purified rad54 G484R mutant protein retained the ability to bind DNA and interact with Rad51, it was nearly devoid of ATPase activity and was similarly defective in DNA supercoiling and D-loop formation. Two other mutants, rad54 N616S and rad54 D442Y, were not sensitive to genotoxic agents and behaved like the wild type allele in homologous recombination assays. Consistent with the mild phenotype associated with the rad54 N616S allele, its encoded protein was similar to wild type Rad54 protein in biochemical attributes. Because dysfunctional homologous recombination gives rise to genome instability, our results are consistent with the premise that tumor-associated mutations in hRad54 and Rad54B could contribute to the tumor phenotype or enhance the genome instability seen in tumor cells.
Sulman EP, White PS, Brodeur GMGenomic annotation of the meningioma tumor suppressor locus on chromosome 1p34.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(4):1014-20 [PubMed
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Meningioma is a frequently occurring tumor of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system. Loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p) is the second most frequent chromosomal abnormality observed in these tumors. Previously, we identified a 3.7 megabase (Mb) region of consistent deletion on 1p33-p34 in a panel of 157 tumors. Loss of this region was associated with advanced disease and predictive for tumor relapse. In this report, a high-resolution integrated map of the region was constructed (CompView) to identify all markers in the smallest region of overlapping deletion (SRO). A regional somatic cell hybrid panel was used to more precisely localize those markers identified in CompView as within or overlapping the region. Additional deletion mapping using microsatellites localized to the region narrowed the SRO to approximately 2.8 Mb. The 88 markers remaining in the SRO were used to screen genomic databases to identify large-insert clones. Clones were assembled into a physical map of the region by PCR-based, sequence-tagged site (STS) content mapping. A sequence from clones was used to validate STS content by electronic PCR and to identify transcripts. A minimal tiling path of 43 clones was constructed across the SRO. Sequence data from the most current sequence assembly were used for further validation. A total of 59 genes were ordered within the SRO. In all, 17 of these were selected as likely candidates based on annotation using Gene Ontology Consortium terms, including the MUTYH, PRDX1, FOXD2, FOXE3, PTCH2, and RAD54L genes. This annotation of a putative tumor suppressor locus provides a resource for further analysis of meningioma candidate genes.
BACKGROUND: RAD54L (OMIM 603615, Locus Link 8438) has been proposed as a candidate oncosupressor in tumours bearing a non-random deletion of 1p32, such as breast or colon carcinomas, lymphomas and meningiomas. In a search for RAD54L mutations in 29 menigiomas with allelic deletions in 1p, the only genetic change observed was a silent C/T transition at nucleotide 2290 in exon 18. In this communication the possible association of the 2290C/T polymorphism with the risk of meningiomas was examined. In addition, the usefulness of this polymorphism as a genetic marker within the meningioma consensus deletion region in 1p32 was also verified. The present study comprises 287 blood control samples and 70 meningiomas from Spain and Ecuador. Matched blood samples were only available from Spanish patients.
RESULTS: The frequency of the rare allele-T and heterozygotes for the 2290C/T polymorphism in the blood of Spanish meningioma patients and in the Ecuadorian meningioma tumours was higher than in the control population (P < 0.05). Four other rare variants (2290C/G, 2299C/G, 2313G/A, 2344A/G) were found within 50 bp at the 3' end of RAD54L. Frequent loss of heterozygosity for the 2290C/T SNP in meningiomas allowed to further narrow the 1p32 consensus region of deletion in meningiomas to either 2.08 Mbp - within D1S2713 (44.35 Mbp) and RAD54L (46.43 Mbp) - or to 1.47 Mbp - within RAD54L and D1S2134 (47.90 Mbp) - according to recent gene mapping results.
CONCLUSION: The statistical analysis of genotypes at the 2290C/T polymorphism suggest an association between the rare T allele and the development of meningeal tumours. This polymorphism can be used as a genetic marker inside the consensus deletion region at 1p32 in meningiomas.
Bello MJ, de Campos JM, Vaquero J, et al.hRAD54 gene and 1p high-resolution deletion-mapping analyses in oligodendrogliomas.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2000; 116(2):142-7 [PubMed
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The hRAD54 protein belongs to a superfamily of DNA helicases, and mutations in genes with DNA helicase function have been found to be responsible for cancer-prone syndromes (xeroderma pigmentosum, Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome). hRAD54 thus could be a candidate modifier gene in tumors characterized by allelic imbalance at 1p32, the chromosome region in which this gene is located. Using a panel of 38 1p and five 1q markers, we therefore performed deletion-mapping analysis on a series of 35 oligodendrogliomas, which were also studied for mutations in the hRAD54 gene. Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1 were evidenced in 26 tumors, mostly involving 1p36-1p13; all thus displayed loss of the 1p32 region. We used PCR/SSCP to examine all 18 exons of the hRAD54 gene for mutations in 25 tumors, but the mobility shifts detected corresponded to previously identified polymorphic changes: T-to-C transition at nucleotide 2865 (with no amino acid change) and at nucleotide 3008, at the 3' untranslated region. We conclude that hRAD54 gene alterations are not required for malignant transformation of oligodendrogliomas.