Gene Summary

Gene:ST14; suppression of tumorigenicity 14
Aliases: HAI, MTSP1, SNC19, ARCI11, MT-SP1, PRSS14, TADG15, TMPRSS14
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an epithelial-derived, integral membrane serine protease. This protease forms a complex with the Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, HAI-1, and is found to be activated by sphingosine 1-phosphate. This protease has been shown to cleave and activate hepatocyte growth factor/scattering factor, and urokinase plasminogen activator, which suggest the function of this protease as an epithelial membrane activator for other proteases and latent growth factors. The expression of this protease has been associated with breast, colon, prostate, and ovarian tumors, which implicates its role in cancer invasion, and metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:suppressor of tumorigenicity 14 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (8)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Trypsin
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Membrane Proteins
  • FISH
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Western Blotting
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Mutation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Carcinoma
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • MicroRNAs
  • ras Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Animal
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Xenopus
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Transfection
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory
  • Chromosome 11
  • Survival Rate
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Movement
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ST14 (cancer-related)

Zhang J, Wang J, Luan T, et al.
Deubiquitinase USP9X regulates the invasion of prostate cancer cells by regulating the ERK pathway and mitochondrial dynamics.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3292-3304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ubiquitin‑specific protease 9X (USP9X) is a conserved deubiquitinase that has been investigated in several types of human cancer. However, the clinical significance and the biological roles of USP9X in prostate cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, an investigation into the expression and clinical significance of USP9X in prostate cancer revealed that USP9X expression was downregulated in prostate cancer tissues compared with that in healthy tissues. In addition, decreased USP9X expression was associated with a higher Gleason score and local invasion. Depletion of USP9X in prostate cancer LNCaP and PC‑3 cells by small interfering RNA promoted cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, USP9X depletion upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and the phosphorylation of dynamin‑related protein 1 (DRP1). Notably, a significant increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), an upstream activator of MMP9 and DRP1, was observed. To investigate whether ERK activation was able to increase MMP9 protein levels and induce DRP1 phosphorylation, an ERK inhibitor was used, demonstrating that ERK‑mediated MMP9 production and change in mitochondrial function was critical for the biological function of USP9X in prostate cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that USP9X is downregulated in prostate cancer and functions as an inhibitor of tumor cell invasion, possibly through the regulation of the ERK signaling pathway.

Huang WC, Jang TH, Tung SL, et al.
A novel miR-365-3p/EHF/keratin 16 axis promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis, cancer stemness and drug resistance via enhancing β5-integrin/c-met signaling pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting the c-Met signaling pathway has become a therapeutic strategy in multiple types of cancer. We unveiled a novel c-Met regulating mechanism that could be applied as a modality for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) therapy.
METHODS: Upregulation of keratin 16 (KRT16) was found by comparing isogenic pairs of low and high invasive human OSCC lines via microarray analysis. OSCC cells with ectopic expression or silencing of KRT16 were used to scrutinize functional roles and associated molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: We observed that high KRT16 expression significantly correlated with poorer pathological differentiation, advanced stages, increased lymph nodes metastasis, and decreased survival rate from several Taiwanese OSCC patient cohorts. We further revealed that miR-365-3p could target ETS homologous factor (EHF), a KRT16 transcription factor, to decrease migration, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance in OSCC cells via inhibition of KRT16. Under confocal microscopic examination, c-Met was found possibly partially associates with KRT16 through β5-integrin. Colocalization of these three proteins may facilitate c-Met and β5-integrin-mediated signaling in OSCC cells. Depletion of KRT16 led to increased protein degradation of β5-integrin and c-Met through a lysosomal pathway leading to inhibition of their downstream Src/STAT3/FAK/ERK signaling in OSCC cells. Knockdown of KRT16 enhanced chemosensitivity of OSCC towards 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Various combination of c-Met inhibitor (foretinib), protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein), β5-integrin antibody, and 5-FU markedly augmented cytotoxic effects in OSCC cells as well as tumor killing effects in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that targeting a novel miR-365-3p/EHF/KRT16/β5-integrin/c-Met signaling pathway could improve treatment efficacy in OSCC.

Meerson A, Eliraz Y, Yehuda H, et al.
Obesity impacts the regulation of miR-10b and its targets in primary breast tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases breast cancer (BC) risk in post-menopausal women by mostly unknown molecular mechanisms which may partly be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs).
METHODS: We isolated RNA from paired benign and malignant biopsies from 83 BC patients and determined miRNA profiles in samples from 12 women at the extremes of the BMI distribution by RNA-seq. Candidates were validated in all samples. Associations between miR-10b expression and validated target transcript levels, and effects of targeted manipulation of miR-10b levels in a primary BC cell line on proliferation and invasion potential, were explored.
RESULTS: Of the 148 miRNAs robustly expressed in breast tissues, the levels of miR-21, miR-10b, miR-451a, miR-30c, and miR-378d were significantly associated with presence of cancer. Of these, miR-10b showed a stronger down-regulation in the tumors of the obese subjects, as opposed to the lean. In ductal but not lobular tumors, significant inverse correlations were observed between the tumor levels of miR-10b and miR-30c and the mRNA levels of cancer-relevant target genes SRSF1, PIEZO1, MAPRE1, CDKN2A, TP-53 and TRA2B, as well as tumor grade. Suppression of miR-10b levels in BT-549 primary BC-derived cells increased cell proliferation and invasive capacity, while exogenous miR-10b mimic decreased invasion. Manipulation of miR-10b levels also inversely affected the mRNA levels of miR-10b targets BCL2L11, PIEZO1 and NCOR2.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that miR-10b may be a mediator between obesity and cancer in post-menopausal women, regulating several known cancer-relevant genes. MiR-10b expression may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for the incidence and prognosis of BC in obese women.

Hai L, Liu P, Yu S, et al.
Jagged1 is Clinically Prognostic and Promotes Invasion of Glioma-Initiating Cells by Activating NF-κB(p65) Signaling.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(6):2925-2937 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Jagged1 is the ligands of the Notch signaling and has been shown to promote glioma-initiating cells (GICs) in glioblastoma. The role of Jagged1 in GICs invasion and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear.
METHODS: Survival data from R2 genomics analysis, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and visualization platform database were used to evaluate the effects of Jagged1 on overall patient survival. we investigated Jagged1 induced the GICs cells' invasion by matrix degradation assays and Transwell cell invasion assays in vitro, then we further explored the underlying molecular mechanisms using Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis.
RESULTS: High expression of Jagged1 in human glioma was associated with poor survival. Clinical data analysis showed that the Jagged1 was positively correlated with NF-κB(p65). Jagged1-induced invasion of GICs cells through activation of NF-κB(p65) pathway. In vivo, knockdown of Jagged1 could suppress the tumorigenicity of GICs cells through NF-κB(p65) signaling.
CONCLUSION: Insights gained from these findings suggest that Jagged1 plays an important oncogenic role in GICs malignancy by activation of NF-κB(p65) signaling, and Jagged1 could be employed as an effective therapeutic target for GICs.

Xu DH, Li Q, Hu H, et al.
Transmembrane protein GRINA modulates aerobic glycolysis and promotes tumor progression in gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):308 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent observations indicate a decreased cancer risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline. The 8q24 region has been shown to be involved in AD aetiology. We aimed to identify and explore the potential oncogenes or antioncogenes on chromosome 8q24.
METHODS: We compared expression of genes on Chromosome 8q24 in 32 pairs of samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We conducted bioinformatics analysis of the commonly used gastric cancer databases and performed clinical verification of gastric cancer samples, combined with assessment of biological function both in vitro and in vivo to determine the relationship between upregulated expression of GRINA and gastric cancer progression. We also explored the molecular mechanism of GRINA upregulation and its function in gastric cancer development and progression.
RESULTS: The expression of GRINA in cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues. GRINA indicated poor prognosis in gastric cancer. GRINA promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion capacity of gastric cancer cells. GRINA was transcriptionally mediated by c-Myc and promotes cell cycle transition. GRINA knockdown decreased PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and glycolytic metabolism in gastric cancer cells. The apoptosis rate was significantly increased in gastric cancer cell lines after knockdown of GRINA. The expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax was significantly upregulated, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly downregulated in GRINA silenced cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Human gastric cancers have increased levels of GRINA, which promotes growth of gastric cancer and inhibits tumor cells apoptosis.

Baig SM, Fatima A, Tariq M, et al.
Hereditary brain tumor with a homozygous germline mutation in PMS2: pedigree analysis and prenatal screening in a family with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome.
Fam Cancer. 2019; 18(2):261-265 [PubMed] Related Publications
Precise genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis are often hindered by incomplete penetrance of risk variance and complex patterns of inheritance. Here, we performed a clinical and genetic study of a five-generation Pakistani family with a history of multiple cases of childhood brain tumors. Six affected individuals died of brain tumors at very early ages and three were confirmed as having a homozygous mutation in exon 6 of the PMS2 gene (c.543delT). Fifteen members of the family were identified as heterozygous carriers of this mutation with a lack of cancer incidence. Both clinical manifestations and genetic test results of brain tumor patients in the family support the diagnosis of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, a condition in which individuals carry homozygous germline mutations in mismatch repair machinery genes with an early onset of malignancies such as glioma. This information was used to guide prenatal diagnosis with genetic testing on chorionic villus samples for the family. This is the first report of prenatal genetic diagnosis of hereditary brain tumor.

Zhang J, Zhang C, Sang L, et al.
FOXF2 inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of Hela cells by regulating Wnt signaling pathway.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This article was aimed to study the FOXF2 effects on cervical cancer. Tumor tissues and adjacent tissues of 41 cervical cancer patients were collected. Human endometrial epithelial cells (hEEC) and Hela cells were cultured. FOXF2 expression vector and its empty vector were transfected into Hela cells, and named as pcDNA 3.1-FOXF2 group and Vector group, respectively. Hela cells without any treatment were set as Blank group. qRT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression. Nude mouse xenograft assay was performed to test Hela cells proliferation ability

Duan S, Dong X, Hai J, et al.
MicroRNA-135a-3p is downregulated and serves as a tumour suppressor in ovarian cancer by targeting CCR2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:712-720 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the development of ovarian cancer. Many studies prove that forms of miR-135a, including miR-135a-5p and miR-135a-3p, serve as tumour suppressors in multiple cancers. Nevertheless, the precise function of miR-135a-3p and the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of miR-135a-3p in ovarian carcinoma cell growth and metastasis remain largely unknown. Herein, we report that miR-135a-3p expression was significantly downregulated in ovarian carcinoma tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-tumour tissues. Ectopic miR-135a-3p expression inhibited ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Additionally, the overexpression of miR-135a-3p inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer cells. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) gene was the target of miR-135a-3p. In addition, CCR2 depletion mimicked the inhibitory effects of miR-135a-3p on ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Rescue experiments using CCR2 overexpression further verified that CCR2 was a functional target of miR-135a-3p. Xenograft model assays demonstrated that miR-135a-3p functions as an anti-oncogene by targeting CCR2 in vivo. Taken together, these data prove that miR-135a-3p serves as a tumour suppressor gene in ovarian cancer by regulating CCR2.

Yuan Z, Zhao L, Zhang Y, et al.
Inhibition of glioma growth by a GOLPH3 siRNA-loaded cationic liposomes.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 140(2):249-260 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: GOLPH3 has been shown to be involved in glioma proliferation. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that GOLPH3 can serve as a target for glioma gene therapy.
METHODS: During the experiment, cationic liposomes with angiopep-2 (A2-CL) were used to deliver siGOLPH3 crossing the blood-brain barrier and reaching the glioma.
RESULTS: At the cellular level, the A2-CL/siGOLPH3 could silence GOLPH3 and then effectively inhibited the proliferation of cells. In vivo experiments, using U87-GFP-Luci-bearing BALB/c mouse models, we demonstrated that A2-CL could deliver GOLPH3-siRNA specifically to glioma and effectively inhibit glioma growth.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that GOLPH3 has great potential as a target for the gene therapy of glioma and is of great value in precise medical applications.

Rosner G, Gluck N, Carmi S, et al.
POLD1 and POLE Gene Mutations in Jewish Cohorts of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer and of Multiple Colorectal Adenomas.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2018; 61(9):1073-1079 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the DNA polymerase genes POLD1 and POLE confer high risk for multiple colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer. However, prevalence and the clinical phenotype of mutation carriers are still not fully characterized.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of germline mutations and to describe the genotype-phenotype correlation in POLD1 and POLE genes in Jewish subjects with multiple colorectal adenomas and/or early-onset mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancers.
DESIGN: This study is a comparison of genetic and clinical data from affected and control groups.
SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a high-volume tertiary referral center.
PATIENTS: The study cohort included 132 subjects: 68 with multiple colorectal adenomas and 64 with early-onset mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancers. The control group included 5685 individuals having no colorectal cancer or colorectal adenomas.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Study and control subjects were tested for POLD1 and POLE mutations and a clinical correlation was assessed.
RESULTS: Eleven of the 132 study subjects (8.3%) carried either a POLD1 or a POLE mutation: 7 of 68 (10.3%) subjects with multiple colorectal adenomas and 4 of 64 (6.2%) subjects with early-onset mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancer. Three mutations were detected, showing statistical significance in frequency between study and control groups (p < 0.001). Eight of the 11 mutation carriers were Ashkenazi Jews carrying the same POLD1 mutation (V759I), implicating it as a possible low-to-moderate risk founder mutation. Phenotype of mutation carriers was notable for age under 50 at diagnosis, a propensity toward left-sided colorectal cancer, and extracolonic tumors (64%, 100%, and 27% of cases).
LIMITATIONS: The study cohort was limited by its relatively small size.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline mutations in POLD1 and POLE were found to be relatively frequent in our Jewish cohorts. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of POLD1 and POLE mutations and to define the most suitable surveillance program for Jewish and other POLD1 and POLE mutation carriers. See Video Abstract at

Zhao J, Li JB, Wang JY, et al.
Quantitative analysis of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in grading gliomas and detecting
Neuroimage Clin. 2018; 19:174-181 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background and purpose: Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a new diffusion MRI technique that has rarely been applied for glioma grading. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of NODDI in tumour parenchyma (TP) and peritumoural area (PT) for grading gliomas and detecting isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (
Methods: Forty-two patients (male: 23, female: 19, mean age: 44.5 y) were recruited and underwent whole brain NODDI examination. Intracellular volume fraction (icvf) and orientation dispersion index (ODI) maps were derived. Three ROIs were manually placed on TP and PT regions for each case. The corresponding average values of icvf and ODI were calculated, and their diagnostic efficiency was assessed.
Results: Tumours with high icvf
Conclusions: The quantitative NODDI metrics in the TP and PT regions are highly valuable for glioma grading. A multivariate logistic regression model using the patient age and the icvf values in TP and PT regions showed very high predictive power. However, the utility of NODDI metrics for detecting

Li X, Zhang Y, Zheng L, et al.
UTX is an escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor in B cell lymphoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explain the excess cancer rate in males, several candidates for "escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor" (EXITS) were recently identified. In this report we provide direct experimental evidence supporting UTX's role as an EXITS gene. Using a mouse lymphoma model, we show clear dosage effect of UTX copy number during tumorigenesis, which strongly supports the EXITS theory. Importantly, UTX deletion not only accelerates lymphomagenesis, it also strongly promotes tumor progression. UTX-knockout tumors are more aggressive, showing enhanced brain dissemination and formation of blood vessels. Efnb1 is overexpressed in UTX KO tumors and can lead to such phenotypes. In human patients, lymphomas with low UTX expression also express high levels of Efnb1, and cause significantly poor survival. Lastly, we show that UTX deficiency renders lymphoma sensitive to cytarabine treatment. Taken together, these data highlight UTX loss's profound impacts on tumor initiation and drug response.

Fukushima T, Kawaguchi M, Yamamoto K, et al.
Aberrant methylation and silencing of the SPINT2 gene in high-grade gliomas.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(9):2970-2979 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2), encoded by the SPINT2 gene, is a membrane-anchored protein that inhibits proteases involved in the activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand of MET receptor. Epigenetic silencing of the SPINT2 gene has been reported in a human glioblastoma cell line (U87) and glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells. However, the incidence of SPINT2 methylation in tumor tissues obtained from glioma patients is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the methylation status of the SPINT2 gene of eight human glioblastoma cell lines and surgically resected glioma tissues of different grades (II, III, and IV) by bisulfite sequence analysis and methylation-specific PCR. Most glioblastoma lines (7/8) showed methylation of the SPINT2 gene with a significantly reduced level of SPINT2mRNA compared to cultured astrocytes and normal brain tissues. However, all glioblastoma lines expressed mRNA for HGF activator (HGFAC), a target protease of HAI-2/SPINT2. Forced expression of SPINT2 reduced MET phosphorylation of U87 glioblastoma cells both in vitro and in intracranial xenografts in nude mice. Methylation-specific PCR analysis of the resected glioma tissues indicated notable methylation of the SPINT2 gene in 33.3% (2/6), 71.4% (10/14), and 74.3% (26/35) of grade II, III, and IV gliomas, respectively. Analysis of RNA sequencing data in a public database indicated an increased HGFAC/SPINT2 expression ratio in high-grade compared to low-grade gliomas (P = .01). In summary, aberrant methylation of the SPINT2 gene is frequently observed in high-grade gliomas and might confer MET signaling in the glioma cells.

Shi X, Li H, Shi A, et al.
Discovery of rafoxanide as a dual CDK4/6 inhibitor for the treatment of skin cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1592-1600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since cyclin‑dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) play pivotal roles in cell cycle regulation and are overexpressed in human skin cancers, CDK4/6 inhibitors are potentially effective drugs for skin cancer. In the present study, we present a mixed computational and experimental study attempting to repurpose approved small‑molecule drugs as dual CDK4/6 inhibitors for skin cancer treatment. We performed structure‑based virtual screening using the docking software idock, targeting an ensemble of CDK4/6 structures. We identified and selected nine compounds with significant predicted scores, and evaluated their cytotoxic effects in vitro in A375 and A431 human skin cancer cell lines. Rafoxanide was found to exhibit the highest cytotoxic effects (IC50: 1.09 µM for A375 and 1.31 µM for A431 cells). Consistent with the expected properties of CDK4/6 inhibitors, rafoxanide significantly increased the G1 phase population. Notably, we revealed that rafoxanide specifically decreased the expression of CDK4/6, cyclin D, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the phosphorylation of CDK4/6 and Rb. Furthermore, the anticancer effect of rafoxanide was demonstrated in vivo in BALB/C nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with human skin cancer A375 cells. Rafoxanide (40 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited significant antitumor activity, comparable to that of oxaliplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.). The combined administration of rafoxanide and oxaliplatin produced a synergistic therapeutic effect. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to indicate that rafoxanide inhibits CDK4/6 activity and is a potential candidate drug for the treatment of human skin cancer.

Zaman S, Chobrutskiy BI, Patel JS, et al.
Mutant cytoskeletal and ECM peptides sensitive to the ST14 protease are associated with a worse outcome for glioblastoma multiforme.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2218-2225 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously identified a set of the most frequently mutated cytoskeleton- and extracellular matrix-related proteins (CECMPs) in numerous cancer datasets. In this report, we used a bioinformatics approach to assess the impact of amino acid (AA) substitutions on the sensitivity of CECMPs to the ST14 protease (matriptase I), a transmembrane serine protease previously implicated in cancer development. Results indicated that AA substitutions in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) CECMPs are skewed toward increased resistance to the ST14 protease, in comparison to the wild-type peptide sequence. Furthermore, the protease resistant AA substitutions represent relatively high binding affinities to HLA class I proteins, when assessing the binding specificities using HLA class I alleles matched to the source of the mutant AA. Moreover, samples representing AA substitutions that increased protease sensitivity also represented reduced overall and disease-free survival periods for patients with glioblastoma. To assess tumor specimen immunogenicity, we identified T-cell receptor (TCR) V(D)J recombinations in GBM exome files. The overlap between ST14 protease sensitive mutant barcodes and the TCR V(D)J recombination read positive barcodes represented significantly reduced survival.

Liu B, Yang H, Pilarsky C, Weber GF
The Effect of GPRC5a on the Proliferation, Migration Ability, Chemotherapy Resistance, and Phosphorylation of GSK-3β in Pancreatic Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death, and personalized targeted cancer therapy is becoming a promising treatment strategy for PaCa. The central approach of targeted therapy is to find a targetable key and an effective targeting method. In this study, the importance of

Huang C, Li Y, Guo Y, et al.
MMP1/PAR1/SP/NK1R paracrine loop modulates early perineural invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(11):3074-3086 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular mechanism of perineural invasion (PNI) is unclear, and insufficient detection during early-stage PNI

Li H, Zhang Y, Hai J, et al.
Knockdown of TRIM31 suppresses proliferation and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells by down-regulating MMP2/9 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 103:1272-1278 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tripartite motif (TRIM) 31, a member of the TRIM protein family, contributes to a wide range of biological processes and its altered expression exerts a non-negligible effect on multiple pathological conditions such as immunological disorders and retroviral protective activity. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated an important role of TRIM31 in the development of various cancers. However, the role of TRIM31 in gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains unclear. In this study, we showed that TRIM31 was elevated in GBC tissues and cell lines and associated with the clinicopathological features of GBC patients. Down-regulation of TRIM31 suppressed GBC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro as well as inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In addition, knockdown of TRIM31 reduced the expression of MMP2, MMP9 and p-Akt. Taken together, these findings indicated that knockdown of TRIM31 suppressed proliferation and invasion of GBC cells and was associated with PI3K/Akt signaling inactivation. Thus, TRIM31 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBC.

Song R, Zhang J, Huang J, Hai T
Long non-coding RNA GHET1 promotes human breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration via affecting epithelial mesenchymal transition.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(3):565-573 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is a common malignancy in women and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play key roles in the development and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we examined the biological role of lncRNA gastric carcinoma highly expressed transcript 1 (GHET1) in breast cancer.
METHODS: The expression of GHET1 was determined by qRT-PCR assay; CCK-8, colony formation, Transwell invasion and migration assays detected breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration; cell apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry; protein levels were determined by western blot assay.
RESULTS: GHET1 was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and the up-regulation of GHET1 was positively correlated with larger tumor size, advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and shorter overall survival. Knockdown of GHET1 suppressed cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF-cells. Knockdown of GHET1 also suppressed the protein levels of N-cadherin, vimentin, and decreased the protein level of E-cadherin in MCF-7 cells. On the other hand, overexpression of GHET1 promoted cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and inhibited cell apoptosis and increased cell population at S phase in BT-20 cells. Overexpression of GHET1 also promoted epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BT-20 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of GHET1 also suppressed in vivo tumor growth of MCF-7 cells, and also decreased the protein levels of N-cadherin and vimentin, and increased the protein levels of E-cadherin in the tumor tissues from the nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that GHET1 was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration by affecting EMT. Our study for the first time revealed the biological functions of GHET1 in breast cancer.

Diplas BH, He X, Brosnan-Cashman JA, et al.
The genomic landscape of TERT promoter wildtype-IDH wildtype glioblastoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2087 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of glioblastomas can be classified into molecular subgroups based on mutations in the TERT promoter (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH). These molecular subgroups utilize distinct genetic mechanisms of telomere maintenance, either TERTp mutation leading to telomerase activation or ATRX-mutation leading to an alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype (ALT). However, about 20% of glioblastomas lack alterations in TERTp and IDH. These tumors, designated TERTp

Yi L, Tong L, Li T, et al.
Bioinformatic analyses reveal the key pathways and genes in the CXCR4 mediated mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(1):741-748 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal types of tumour, despite severe treatment methods. The Cancer Genome Atlas has categorised GBMs into proneural, neural, classical and mesenchymal subtypes; the mesenchymal subgroup has the worst prognosis. CXCR4 has been reported as selectively overexpressed in the mesenchymal subtype and positively associated with MES markers. However, to the best of our knowledge the underlying mechanisms regarding how CXCR4 may regulate mesenchymal GBM are still unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the critical pathways mediated by CXCR4 in mesenchymal GBM using bioinformatic analyses. The results suggested that CXCR4 is a predictor of poor prognosis and may serve as a biomarker of the mesenchymal subtype in patients with GBM. In addition, CXCR4 mediated the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathway, which was identified specifically in patients with mesenchymal GBM. CXCR4 associated genes or pathways may be a 'basket trial' option for the management of melanoma, prostate cancer and mesenchymal GBM.

Le DH, Dao LTM
Annotating Diseases Using Human Phenotype Ontology Improves Prediction of Disease-Associated Long Non-coding RNAs.
J Mol Biol. 2018; 430(15):2219-2230 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified and their biological function has been characterized; however, our understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms related to disease is still limited. To overcome the limitation in experimentally identifying disease-lncRNA associations, computational methods have been proposed as a powerful tool to predict such associations. These methods are usually based on the similarities between diseases or lncRNAs since it was reported that similar diseases are associated with functionally similar lncRNAs. Therefore, prediction performance is highly dependent on how well the similarities can be captured. Previous studies have calculated the similarity between two diseases by mapping exactly each disease to a single Disease Ontology (DO) term, and then use a semantic similarity measure to calculate the similarity between them. However, the problem of this approach is that a disease can be described by more than one DO terms. Until now, there is no annotation database of DO terms for diseases except for genes. In contrast, Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is designed to fully annotate human disease phenotypes. Therefore, in this study, we constructed disease similarity networks/matrices using HPO instead of DO. Then, we used these networks/matrices as inputs of two representative machine learning-based and network-based ranking algorithms, that is, regularized least square and heterogeneous graph-based inference, respectively. The results showed that the prediction performance of the two algorithms on HPO-based is better than that on DO-based networks/matrices. In addition, our method can predict 11 novel cancer-associated lncRNAs, which are supported by literature evidence.

Tong L, Yi L, Liu P, et al.
Tumour cell dormancy as a contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients who received standard therapy.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):463-471 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal cancer with varying life expectancy, even for patients undergoing the same standard therapy. Identification of differentially expressed genes in GBM patients with different survival rates may benefit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, key pathways and genes correlated with survival in GBM patients were screened with bioinformatic analysis. Included in the study were 136 eligible patients who had undertaken surgical resection of GBM followed by temozolomide (TMZ) chemoradiation and long-term therapy with TMZ. A total of 383 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to GBM survival were identified. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis as well as hub gene screening and module analysis were performed. As expected, angiogenesis and migration of GBM cells were closely correlated with a poor prognosis. Importantly, the results also indicated that cell dormancy was an essential contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients. Given the lack of specific targeted genes and pathways known to be involved in tumour cell dormancy, we proposed enriched candidate genes related to the negative regulation of cell proliferation, signalling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and 3 hub genes (FTH1, GRM1 and DDIT3). Maintaining persistent cell dormancy or preventing tumour cells from entering dormancy during chemoradiation should be a promising therapeutic strategy.

Wu S, Fu J, Dong Y, et al.
GOLPH3 promotes glioma progression via facilitating JAK2-STAT3 pathway activation.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(2):269-279 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Our recent work reported that GOLPH3 promotes glioma progression via inhibiting endocytosis and degradation of EGFR. The current study aimed to explore the potential regulating mechanism of GOLPH3 on JAK2-STAT3 signaling, a downstream effector of EGFR, in glioma progression.
METHODS: The expression of JAK2, STAT3 and GOLPH3 in glioma tissues was detected by western blotting, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. The U251 and U87 cells with GOLPH3 down-regulation or over-expression were generated by lentivirus system. The effects of GOLPH3 on the activity of JAK2 and STAT3 were detected by western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to detect the association of GOLPH3 with JAK2 and STAT3. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 and EdU assay.
RESULTS: The level of JAK2, STAT3 and GOLPH3 were significantly up-regulated and exhibited pairwise correlation in human glioma tissues. The level of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, as well as the mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1 and c-myc, two target genes of STAT3, decreased after GOLPH3 down-regulation, while they increased after GOLPH3 over-expression both in U251 and U87 cells. Interestingly, GOLPH3, JAK2 and STAT3 existed in the same protein complex and GOLPH3 affected the interaction of JAK2 and STAT3. Importantly, down-regulation of STAT3 partially abolished cell proliferation induced by GOLPH3 over-expression.
CONCLUSIONS: GOLPH3 may act as a scaffold protein to regulate JAK2-STAT3 interaction and then its activation, which therefore mediates the effect of GOLPH3 on cell proliferation.

Tat Trung N, Duong DC, Tong HV, et al.
Optimisation of quantitative miRNA panels to consolidate the diagnostic surveillance of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196081 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are biomarkers for several neoplastic diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a literature search, followed by experimental screening and validation in order to establish a miRNA panel in combination with the assessment of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and to evaluate its performance in HCC diagnostics.
METHODS: Expression of miRNAs was quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 406 serum samples from 118 Vietnamese patients with hepatitis B (HBV)-related HCC, 69 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), 100 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 119 healthy controls (HC).
RESULTS: Three miRNAs (mir-21, mir-122, mir-192) were expressed differentially among the studied subgroups and positively correlated with AFP levels. The individual miRNAs mir-21, mir-122, mir192 or the triplex miRNA panel showed high diagnostic accuracy for HCC (HCC vs. CHB, AUC = 0.906; HCC vs. CHB+LC, AUC = 0.81; HCC vs. CHB+LC+HC, AUC = 0.854). When AFP levels were ≤20ng/ml, the triplex miRNA panel still was accurate in distinguishing HCC from the other conditions (CHB, AUC = 0.922; CHB+LC, AUC = 0.836; CHB+LC+HC, AUC = 0.862). When AFP levels were used in combination with the triplex miRNA panel, the diagnostic performance was significantly improved in discriminating HCC from the other groups (LC, AUC = 0.887; CHB, AUC = 0.948; CHB+LC, AUC = 0.887).
CONCLUSIONS: The three miRNAs mir-21, mir-122, mir-192, together with AFP, are biomarkers that may be applied to improve diagnostics of HCC in HBV patients, especially in HBV-related LC patients with normal AFP levels or HCC patients with small tumor sizes.

Zhao Y, Liu A, Du Y, et al.
Effects of sucrose ester structures on liposome-mediated gene delivery.
Acta Biomater. 2018; 72:278-286 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sucrose esters (SEs) have great potential applications in gene delivery because of their low toxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and biodegradability. By using tripeptide-based lipid (CDO) as a model lipid and SEs as helper lipids, a series of liposomes were prepared. The SEs with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of 1, 6, 11, or 16 and the fatty acids of laurate, stearate, or oleate were used in the liposomes. We investigated the effect of HLB values of SEs and fatty acid types on gene transfection efficiency and toxicity of liposomes. The results showed that transfection efficiencies of the liposomes containing SEs with HLB value of 6 were superior to other liposomes in HeLa, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and A549 tumor cells. For the same HLB value, liposomes of laurate SEs were preferable to transfect cells compared to SEs of stearate and oleate. The liposomes with SEs showed higher cellular uptake than liposome without SEs (LipoCDO). LipoL12-6/Luc-siRNA treatment on tumor-bearing mice exhibited about 60% in vivo gene silencing of luciferase, and LipoL12-6 could mediate IGF-1R siRNA to greatly inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, liposomes with SEs revealed remarkably low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. The illustration of SE structures on gene delivery will promote the use of SEs for clinical trials of liposomes.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This article is the first to study the effects of various chain lengths and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of sucrose esters (SEs) on gene transfection efficiency and safety of liposomes for gene delivery. The in vitro delivery of pDNA and siRNA by lipoplexes against HeLa, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and A549 tumor cells showed that the lipoplexes could lead to better transfection and lower cytotoxicity after the addition of SEs. SEs with shorter chain and a median HLB value could provide the liposomes with much higher gene transfection efficiency than others. The in vivo delivery of siRNA to tumor-bearing mice further confirmed that liposome containing laurate SE (LipoL12-6) could be a potential therapeutic vector, as it delivered siRNA to silence nearly 60% of the luciferase in tumors and also greatly inhibited the tumor growth. Therefore, the addition of SEs to liposomes proved to be relatively safe in vitro and in vivo. These preliminary results demonstrated that SEs show great potential for constructing controlled-release systems for gene delivery. The readers will get insights into a series of gene vectors and deepen their understanding about gene delivery.

Roversi FM, Olalla Saad ST, Machado-Neto JA
Serine peptidase inhibitor Kunitz type 2 (SPINT2) in cancer development and progression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 101:278-286 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the molecular basis and mechanisms involved in neoplastic transformation and progression is important for the development of novel selective target therapeutic strategies. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET signaling plays an important role in cell proliferation, survival, migration and motility of cancer cells. Serine peptidase inhibitor Kunitz type 2 (SPINT2) binds to and inactivates the HGF activator (HGFA), behaving as an HGFA inhibitor (HAI) and impairing the conversion of pro-HGF into bioactive HGF. The scope of the present review is to recapitulate and review the evidence of SPINT2 participation in cancer development and progression, exploring the clinical, biological and functional descriptions of the involvement of this protein in diverse neoplasias. Most studies are in agreement as to the belief that, in a large range of human cancers, the SPINT2 gene promoter is frequently methylated, resulting in the epigenetic silence of this gene. Functional assays indicate that SPINT2 reactivation ameliorates the malignant phenotype, specifically reducing cell viability, migration and invasion in diverse cancer cell lines. In sum, the SPINT2 gene is epigenetically silenced or downregulated in human cancers, altering the balance of HGF activation/inhibition ratio, which contributes to cancer development and progression.

Jiang H, Ching WK, Cheung WS, et al.
Hadamard Kernel SVM with applications for breast cancer outcome predictions.
BMC Syst Biol. 2017; 11(Suppl 7):138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths for women. It is of great necessity to develop effective methods for breast cancer detection and diagnosis. Recent studies have focused on gene-based signatures for outcome predictions. Kernel SVM for its discriminative power in dealing with small sample pattern recognition problems has attracted a lot attention. But how to select or construct an appropriate kernel for a specified problem still needs further investigation.
RESULTS: Here we propose a novel kernel (Hadamard Kernel) in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to address the problem of breast cancer outcome prediction using gene expression data. Hadamard Kernel outperform the classical kernels and correlation kernel in terms of Area under the ROC Curve (AUC) values where a number of real-world data sets are adopted to test the performance of different methods.
CONCLUSIONS: Hadamard Kernel SVM is effective for breast cancer predictions, either in terms of prognosis or diagnosis. It may benefit patients by guiding therapeutic options. Apart from that, it would be a valuable addition to the current SVM kernel families. We hope it will contribute to the wider biology and related communities.

Xiu Y, Dong Q, Li Q, et al.
Stabilization of NF-κB-Inducing Kinase Suppresses MLL-AF9-Induced Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cell Rep. 2018; 22(2):350-358 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Canonical NF-κB signaling is constitutively activated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells and is required for maintenance of the self-renewal of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). However, any potential role for NF-κB non-canonical signaling in AML has been largely overlooked. Here, we report that stabilization of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) suppresses AML. Mechanistically, stabilization of NIK activates NF-κB non-canonical signaling and represses NF-κB canonical signaling. In addition, stabilization of NIK-induced activation of NF-κB non-canonical signaling upregulates Dnmt3a and downregulates Mef2c, which suppresses and promotes AML development, respectively. Importantly, by querying the connectivity MAP using up- and downregulated genes that are present exclusively in NIK-stabilized LSCs, we discovered that verteporfin has anti-AML effects, suggesting that repurposing verteporfin to target myeloid leukemia is worth testing clinically. Our data provide a scientific rationale for developing small molecules to stabilize NIK specifically in myeloid leukemias as an attractive therapeutic option.

Zhang T, Ji D, Wang P, et al.
The atypical protein kinase RIOK3 contributes to glioma cell proliferation/survival, migration/invasion and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 415:151-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RIO (right open reading frame) protein kinases include RIOK1, RIOK2 and RIOK3. Emerging evidence has suggested an important role of RIO kinases in cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. However, the expression profile and specific roles of RIOK3 are largely unknown during glioma progression. In the current study, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that RIOK3 was upregulated in glioma tissues. Available database analysis revealed that higher levels of RIOK3 were associated with poorer survival outcome in glioma patients. Flow cytometry, CCK8 and EdU assays showed that downregulation of RIOK3 arrested cell cycle progression and inhibited glioma cell proliferation. Wound healing, transwell and gelatin zymography assays revealed that silencing RIOK3 decreased glioma cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the downregulation of RIOK3 significantly decreased the activity of AKT/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Overexpression of RIOK3 showed the opposite effects on glioma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and the AKT/mTOR pathway. These results indicate that high RIOK3 levels in gliomas appear to contribute to the growth and expansion of this cancer, and may thus serve as a novel therapeutic target.

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