TOP2A

Gene Summary

Gene:TOP2A; topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha
Aliases: TOP2, TP2A
Location:17q21.2
Summary:This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, alpha, is localized to chromosome 17 and the beta gene is localized to chromosome 3. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TOP2A (cancer-related)

Chen JR, Chien HP, Chen KS, et al.
Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A and deletion of TOP2A genes in a series of Taiwanese breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) copy number change remains not well established. This study is aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of TOP2A aberrations; to correlate TOP2A alterations with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and clinicopathological parameters, and further to explore prognostic value of TOP2A and HER2 status in breast cancer in Taiwan.
METHODS: We analyzed tissue samples from 311 invasive carcinomas in tissue microarrays for TOP2A and HER2 status by fluorescent in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: TOP2A copy number change is an infrequent genetic event (9.8% amplification and 2.7% deletion) and is present in both HER2-amplified and nonamplified tumors. TOP2A amplification is statistically associated with age >50 at diagnosis (P = 0.016) and HER2 amplification (P < 0.001). HER2 amplification, but not TOP2A amplification, is a predictor of unfavorable prognosis (P = 0.002). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher histologic grading, positive nodal involvement, and HER2 positivity were associated with poorer overall survival. Cytogenetically, double minutes-type amplification is the predominant pattern for both genes (HER2: 64% and TOP2A: 93.1%). Homogeneous staining region-type signals of both genes are resistant to RNase digestion, supporting that these were not nuclear accumulation of mRNA transcripts.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of tumor grading, nodal involvement, and HER2 status in Taiwanese breast cancer. TOP2A aberrations are an infrequent event independent of HER2 status, and TOP2A amplification carries no prognostic value. The predictive value of TOP2A aberrations in patients of breast cancer taking athracycline-containing treatment in Taiwan remains to be determined in prospectively well-designed clinical trials.

Gao XH, Li J, Liu Y, et al.
ZNF148 modulates TOP2A expression and cell proliferation via ceRNA regulatory mechanism in colorectal cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(1):e5845 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulation is a novel hypothesized mechanism that states RNA molecules share common target microRNAs (miRNAs) and may competitively combine into the same miRNA pool.
METHODS: Zinc finger protein 148 (ZNF148) and TOP2A expression were analyzed in 742 colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). ZNF148 mRNA, TOP2A mRNA, miR101, miR144, miR335, and miR365 expression were estimated in 53 fresh frozen CRC tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mechanisms underpinning ceRNA were examined using bioinformatics, correlation analysis, RNA interference, gene over-expression, and luciferase assays.
RESULTS: Protein levels of ZNF148 and TOP2A detected by IHC positively correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.431, P < 0.001); mRNA levels of ZNF148 and TOP2A also positively correlated (r = 0.591, P < 0.001). Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that ZNF148 and TOP2A mRNA had 13 common target miRNAs, including miR101, miR144, miR335, and miR365. Correlation analysis demonstrated that levels of ZNF148 mRNA were negatively associated with levels of miR144, miR335, and miR365. Knockdown and overexpression tests showed that ZNF148 mRNA and TOP2A mRNA regulated each other in HCT116 cells, respectively, but not in Dicer-deficient HCT116 cells. Luciferase assays demonstrated that ZNF148 and TOP2A regulated each other through 3'UTR. Overexpression of ZNF148 mRNA and TOP2A mRNA caused significant downregulation of miR101, miR144, miR335, and miR365 in the HCT116 cells. We also found that knockdown of ZNF148 and TOP2A significantly promoted cell growth, and overexpression of ZNF148 and TOP2A inhibited cell proliferation, which was abrogated in Dicer-deficient HCT116 cells.
CONCLUSION: ZNF148 and TOP2A regulate each other through ceRNA regulatory mechanism in CRC, which has biological effects on cell proliferation.

Cao Y, Zhang G, Wang P, et al.
Clinical significance of UGT1A1 polymorphism and expression of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A in gastric cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Individualized therapeutic regimen is a recently intensively pursued approach for targeting diseases, in which the search for biomarkers was considered the first and most important. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate whether the UGT1A1, ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A genes are underlying biomarkers for gastric cancer, which, to our knowledge, has not been performed.
METHODS: Ninety-eight tissue specimens were collected from gastric cancer patients between May 2012 and March 2015. A multiplex branched DNA liquidchip technology was used for measuring the mRNA expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A. Direct sequencing was performed for determination of UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, correlations between gene expressions, polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated.
RESULTS: The expressions of TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 were significantly associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of age, gender and family history of gastric cancer, but not with differentiation, growth patterns, metastasis and TNM staging in patients with gastric cancer. No clinical characteristics were correlated with the expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1 and TOP2A. Additionally, patients carrying G allele at -211 of UGT1A1 were predisposed to developing tubular adenocarcinoma, while individuals carrying 6TAA or G allele respectively at *28 or -3156 of UGT1A1 tended to have a local invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: The UGT1A1 polymorphism may be useful to screen the risk population of gastric cancer, while TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 may be potential biomarkers for prognosis and chemotherapy guidance.

Bai Y, Li LD, Li J, Lu X
Targeting of topoisomerases for prognosis and drug resistance in ovarian cancer.
J Ovarian Res. 2016; 9(1):35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUD: As magicians of the DNA world, topoisomerases resolve all of the topological problems in relation to DNA during a variety of genetic processes. While the prognostic value of topoisomerase isoenzymes in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is still elusive. In current study, we investigated the prognostic value of topoisomerase isoenzymes in the EOC patients. Kaplan Meier plotter (KM plotter) database were used to assess the relevance of individual topoisomerase isoenzyme mRNA expression to EOC patients overall survival (OS), in which updated survival information and gene expression data were from a total of 1,648 EOC patients.
RESULTS: High expression of TOP1 and TOP2A were found to be correlated to worse OS in all patients and serous patients, but not in endometrioid patients. Contrary to TOP1 and TOP2A, TOP3A and TOP3B expression were associated with better OS in all patients and serous patients, but not in endometrioid patients. While TOP2B were not found any significant prognostic value for EOC patients. From the Oncomine database, we also found widespread upregulation in the expression of TOP1 and TOP2A genes in primary tumor tissues. Albeit limited in number, all datasets exhibiting differential expression showed TOP3A and TOP3B under-regulated.
CONCLUSION: These results strongly supported that TOP1 and TOP2A were potential biomarkers for predicting poor survival of EOC patients, while TOP3A and TOP3B were expected to be further exploited as tumor suppressors. Comprehensive understanding of the topoisomerase isoforms may have guiding significance for the diagnosis treatment and prognosis in EOC patients.

Wang TL, Song YQ, Ren YW, et al.
Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) Polymorphism Predicts Prognosis of Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer after Chemoradiotherapy.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(3):301-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) inactivates different target kinases to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Altered DUSP6 expressions or gene polymorphisms are associated with human cancer development including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) regulates chromosome condensation and chromatid separation, and altered TOP2A expressions are associated with drug resistance development. This study assessed DUSP6 and TOP2A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with NSCLC patient survival.
METHODS: This study included 152 surgically resected NSCLC patients and 277 chemoradiotherapy treated inoperable cases. DNA samples from each patient were genotyped for DUSP6 and TOP2A SNPs. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate the association between these variants and NSCLC overall survival.
RESULTS: DUSP6 rs2279574 A/A genotype was associated with significantly poor inoperable NSCLC patient overall survival (A/A vs. C/C, adjusted HR = 1.549, 95% CI = 1.019-2.355). Stratification analysis against clinical stage, histology, weight loss, and ECOG performance status revealed that the DUSP6 rs2279574 A/A variant homozygous genotype is associated with a decrease in survival of stage IV NSCLC patients compared to those with the C/C genotype (log-rank, p = 0.003). No association was found among histology, weight loss, and ECOG performance status. Moreover, there was no association of TOP2A SNPs between clinicopathological and survival data.
CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from the current study demonstrated that functional DUSP6 rs2279574 polymorphism was able to predict inoperable NSCLC patient survival after chemoradiotherapy.

Jensen NF, Agama K, Roy A, et al.
Characterization of DNA topoisomerase I in three SN-38 resistant human colon cancer cell lines reveals a new pair of resistance-associated mutations.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is a DNA unwinding protein and the specific target of the camptothecin class of chemotherapeutic drugs. One of these, irinotecan, acting through its active metabolite SN-38, is used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, resistance to irinotecan represents a major clinical problem. Since molecular alterations in Top1 may result in resistance to irinotecan, we characterized Top1 in three human colon cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to SN-38.
METHODS: Three SN-38 resistant (20-67 fold increased resistance) cell lines were generated and compared to wild-type parental cells with regards to: TOP1 gene copy number and gene sequence, Top1 expression (mRNA and protein), Top1 enzymatic activity in the absence and presence of drug, and Top1-DNA cleavage complexes in drug treated cells. TOP1 mutations were validated by PCR using mutant specific primers. Furthermore, cross-resistance to two indenoisoquinoline Top1-targeting drugs (NSC 725776 and NSC 743400) and two Top2-targeting drugs (epirubicin and etoposide) was investigated.
RESULTS: Two of three SN-38 resistant cell lines carried TOP1 gene copy number aberrations: A TOP1 gene copy gain and a loss of chromosome 20, respectively. One resistant cell line harbored a pair of yet unreported TOP1 mutations (R364K and G717R) in close proximity to the drug binding site. Mutant TOP1 was expressed at a markedly higher level than wild-type TOP1. None or very small reductions were observed in Top1 expression or Top1 activity in the absence of drug. In all three SN-38 resistant cell lines Top1 activity was maintained in the presence of high concentrations of SN-38. None or only partial cross-resistance were observed for etoposide and epirubicin, respectively. SN-38 resistant cells with wild-type TOP1 remained sensitive to NSC 743400, while cells with mutant TOP1 was fully cross-resistant to both indenoisoquinolines. Top1-DNA cleavage complex formation following drug treatment supported the other findings.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the growing knowledge about resistance mechanisms for Top1-targeting chemotherapeutic drugs. Importantly, two yet unreported TOP1 mutations were identified, and it was underlined that cross-resistance to the new indenoisoquinoline drugs depends on the specific underlying molecular mechanism of resistance to SN-38.

Nichol JN, Galbraith MD, Kleinman CL, et al.
NPM and BRG1 Mediate Transcriptional Resistance to Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(12):2938-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Perturbation in the transcriptional control of genes driving differentiation is an established paradigm whereby oncogenic fusion proteins promote leukemia. From a retinoic acid (RA)-sensitive acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line, we derived an RA-resistant clone characterized by a block in transcription initiation, despite maintaining wild-type PML/RARA expression. We uncovered an aberrant interaction among PML/RARA, nucleophosmin (NPM), and topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B). Surprisingly, RA stimulation in these cells results in enhanced chromatin association of the nucleosome remodeler BRG1. Inhibition of NPM or TOP2B abrogated BRG1 recruitment. Furthermore, NPM inhibition and targeting BRG1 restored differentiation when combined with RA. Here, we demonstrate a role for NPM and BRG1 in obstructing RA differentiation and implicate chromatin remodeling in mediating therapeutic resistance in malignancies. NPM mutations are the most common genetic change in patients with acute leukemia (AML); therefore, our model may be applicable to other more common leukemias driven by NPM.

Kim YH, Yan C, Lee IS, et al.
Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Investig Clin Urol. 2016; 57(2):106-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples.
RESULTS: The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (p<0.001). The expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA in BC patients was also significantly higher than that in noncancer patient controls and hematuria patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). High expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA was also detected in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC.

Tarpgaard LS, Qvortrup C, Nygård SB, et al.
A phase II study of Epirubicin in oxaliplatin-resistant patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and TOP2A gene amplification.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The overall purpose of this study is to provide proof of concept for introducing the anthracycline epirubicin as an effective, biomarker-guided treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who are refractory to treatment with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and have TOP2A gene amplification in their tumor cells.
BACKGROUND: Epirubicin is an anthracycline that targets DNA topoisomerase 2-α enzyme encoded by the TOP2A gene. It is used for treatment of several malignancies, but currently not in CRC. TOP2A gene amplifications predict improved efficacy of epirubicin in patients with breast cancer and thus could be an alternative option for patients with CRC and amplified TOP2A gene. We have previously analysed the frequency of TOP2A gene aberrations in CRC and found that 46.6% of these tumors had TOP2A copy gain and 2.0% had loss of TOP2A when compared to adjacent normal tissue. The TOP2A gene is located on chromosome 17 and when the TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio was applied to identify tumors with gene loss or amplifications, 10.5% had a ratio ≥ 1.5 consistent with gene amplification and 2.6% had a ratio ≤ 0.8 suggesting gene deletions. Based on these observations and the knowledge gained from treatment of breast cancer patients, we have initiated a prospective clinical, phase II protocol using epirubicin (90 mg/m2 iv q 3 weeks) in mCRC patients, who are refractory to treatment with oxaliplatin.
METHODS/DESIGN: The study is an open label, single arm, phase II study, investigating the efficacy of epirubicin in patients with oxaliplatin refractory mCRC and with a cancer cell TOP2A/CEN-17 ratio ≥ 1.5. TOP2A gene amplification measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A total of 25 evaluable patients (15 + 10 in two steps) will be included (Simon's two-stage minimax design). Every nine weeks, response is measured by computed tomography imaging and evaluated according to RECIST 1.1. The primary end-point of the study is progression-free survival.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudract no. 2013-001648-79.

Jandu H, Aluzaite K, Fogh L, et al.
Molecular characterization of irinotecan (SN-38) resistant human breast cancer cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:34 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studies in taxane and/or anthracycline refractory metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients have shown approximately 30% response rates to irinotecan. Hence, a significant number of patients will experience irinotecan-induced side effects without obtaining any benefit. The aim of this study was to lay the groundwork for development of predictive biomarkers for irinotecan treatment in BC.
METHODS: We established BC cell lines with acquired or de novo resistance to SN-38, by exposing the human BC cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 to either stepwise increasing concentrations over 6 months or an initial high dose of SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan), respectively. The resistant cell lines were analyzed for cross-resistance to other anti-cancer drugs, global gene expression, growth rates, TOP1 and TOP2A gene copy numbers and protein expression, and inhibition of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP) drug efflux pump.
RESULTS: We found that the resistant cell lines showed 7-100 fold increased resistance to SN-38 but remained sensitive to docetaxel and the non-camptothecin Top1 inhibitor LMP400. The resistant cell lines were characterized by Top1 down-regulation, changed isoelectric points of Top1 and reduced growth rates. The gene and protein expression of ABCG2/BCRP was up-regulated in the resistant sub-lines and functional assays revealed BCRP as a key mediator of SN-38 resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our preclinical results, we suggest analyzing the predictive value of the BCRP in breast cancer patients scheduled for irinotecan treatment. Moreover, LMP400 should be tested in a clinical setting in breast cancer patients with resistance to irinotecan.

Kaur G, Reinhart RA, Monks A, et al.
Bromodomain and hedgehog pathway targets in small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 371(2):225-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an extremely aggressive cancer that frequently recurs. Twenty-three human SCLC lines were selected representing varied Myc status. Gene expression of lung cancer, stem-like, hedgehog pathway, and notch pathway genes were determined by RT(2)-PCR array and Exon 1.0 ST array. Etoposide and topotecan concentration response was examined. The IC50's for etoposide and topotecan ranged over nearly 3 logs upon 96 hrs exposure to the drugs. Myc status, TOP2A, TOP2B and TOP1 mRNA expression or topoisomerase 1 and topoisomerase 2 protein did not account for the range in the sensitivity to the drugs. γ-secretase inhibitors, RO429097 and PF-03084014, had little activity in the SCLC lines over ranges covering the clinical Cmax concentrations. MYC amplified lines tended to be more sensitive to the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. The Smo antagonists, erismodegib and vismodegib and the Gli antagonists, HPI1 and SEN-450 had a trend toward greater sensitivity of the MYC amplified line. Recurrent SCLC is among the most recalcitrant cancers and drug development efforts in this cancer are a high priority.

Wong HY, Tsai KD, Liu YH, et al.
Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.
Phytother Res. 2016; 30(2):331-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

Ang C, Miura JT, Gamblin TC, et al.
Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 350 hepatocellular carcinomas identifies potential novel therapeutic options.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 113(1):55-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effective therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are limited. Molecular profiling of HCC was performed to identify novel therapeutic targets.
METHODS: 350 HCC samples were evaluated using a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ), including gene sequencing, amplification, and protein expression.
RESULTS: EGFR, TOPO1, PD-1, TOP2A, SPARC, and c-Met were overexpressed in 25-83% of samples. Decreased expression of RRM1,TS, PTEN, and MGMT occurred in 31-82% of samples. TP53 was mutated in 30%, CTNNB1 in 20%, and BRCA2 in 18%; other gene mutation rates were <5%. TP53-mutated tumors showed significantly higher TOPO2A (90% vs. 38%, P < 0.0001) and TS (56% vs. 29%, P = 0.0139) expression. CTNNB1-mutated tumors had significantly higher AR (56% vs. 21%, P = 0.0017), SPARC (61% vs. 29%, P = 0.0135), PDL1 (29% vs. 0%, P = 0.0256) expression, and BRCA2 mutations (50% vs. 6%, P = 0.0458). Metastases exhibited significantly higher infiltration by PD-1+ lymphocytes (79% vs. 50%, P = 0.047) and TS (31% vs. 14%, P < 0.0003) than primary HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplatform profiling reveals molecular heterogeneity in HCC and identifies potential therapies including tyrosine kinase, PI3 kinase, or PARP inhibitors for molecular subtypes. Chemotherapy may benefit some tumors. CTNNB1-mutated tumors may respond to multi-target inhibition. These limited and preliminary data require clinical validation.

Weijer R, Broekgaarden M, Krekorian M, et al.
Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(3):3341-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of HIF-1-associated proteins in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, (2) investigate the role of HIF-1 in PDT-treated human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma cells, and (3) determine whether HIF-1 inhibition reduces survival signaling and enhances PDT efficacy.
RESULTS: Increased expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was confirmed in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine caused HIF-1α stabilization in SK-ChA-1 cells and increased transcription of HIF-1α downstream genes. Acriflavine was taken up by SK-ChA-1 cells and translocated to the nucleus under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, pretreatment of SK-ChA-1 cells with acriflavine enhanced PDT efficacy via inhibition of HIF-1 and topoisomerases I and II.
METHODS: The expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. In addition, the response of human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells to PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine was investigated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Acriflavine, a HIF-1α/HIF-1β dimerization inhibitor and a potential dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor, was evaluated for its adjuvant effect on PDT efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1, which is activated in human hilar cholangiocarcinomas, contributes to tumor cell survival following PDT in vitro. Combining PDT with acriflavine pretreatment improves PDT efficacy in cultured cells and therefore warrants further preclinical validation for therapy-recalcitrant perihilar cholangiocarcinomas.

Goswami S, Sharma-Walia N
Osteoprotegerin secreted by inflammatory and invasive breast cancer cells induces aneuploidy, cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:935 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that has multifaceted role and is associated with several cancer malignancies like that of bladder carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. Also OPG has been associated with several organ pathologies. The widespread expression of OPG suggests that OPG may have multiple biological activities that are yet to be explored.
METHODS: The anchorage-independent sphere cultures of the adherent cells were instrumental in our study as it provided a deeper insight into the complexity of a 3D tumor. Cytokine profiling was performed for OPG's detection in the microenvironment. ELISA and western blotting were performed to quantify the OPG secretion and measure the protein levels respectively. OPG expression was detected in human breast cancer tissue samples by IHC. To decipher OPG's role in tumor aggressiveness both recombinant human OPG as well as OPG rich and depleted breast cancer cell conditioned media were tested. Western blotting and MTT assay were performed to detect changes in signaling pathways and proliferation that were induced in presence of OPG. Onset of aneuploidy, in presence of OPG, was measured by cell cycle analysis and western blotting. Finally, human Breast Cancer qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array was used to detect how OPG remarkably induced gene copy numbers for oncogenic pathway regulators.
RESULTS: SUM149PT and SUM1315M02 cells secrete high levels of the cytokine OPG compared to primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). High expression of OPG was also detected in human breast cancer tissue samples compared to the uninvolved tissue from the same patient. OPG induced proliferation of control HMEC spheres and triggered the onset of aneuploidy in HMEC sphere cultures. OPG induced the expression of aneuploidy related kinases Aurora-A Kinase (IAK-1), Bub1 and BubR1 probably through the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and syndecan-1 receptors via the Erk, AKT and GSK3(3 signaling pathway. Gene copy numbers for oncogenic pathway regulators such AKT1, Aurora-A Kinase (AURKA or IAK-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MYC with a reduction in the copy numbers of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), PTEN and DNA topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A) were induced in presence of OPG.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the role of OPG in reprogramming normal mammary epithelial cells to a tumorigenic state and suggest promising avenues for treating inflammatory breast cancer as well as highly invasive breast cancer with new therapeutic targets.

Arora A, Abdel-Fatah TM, Agarwal D, et al.
Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of RECQL5 helicase expression in breast cancers.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(1):63-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RECQL5 is a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases and has key roles in homologous recombination, base excision repair, replication and transcription. The clinicopathological significance of RECQL5 expression in breast cancer is unknown. In this study, we have evaluated RECQL5 mRNA expression in 1977 breast cancers, and RECQL5 protein level in 1902 breast cancers [Nottingham Tenovus series (n = 1650) and ER- cohort (n = 252)]. Expression levels were correlated to aggressive phenotypes and survival outcomes. High RECQL5 mRNA expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.007), HER2 overexpression (P = 0.032), ER+/HER2-/high proliferation genefu subtype (P < 0.0001), integrative molecular clusters (intClust 1and 9) (P < 0.0001) and poor survival (P < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, high RECQL5 mRNA level remains significantly associated with poor BCSS in ER+ cohort (P < 0.0001) but not in ER- cohort (P = 0.116). At the protein level, in tumours with low RAD51, high RECQL5 level was significantly associated with high histological grade (P < 0.0001), higher mitotic index (P = 0.008), dedifferentiation (P = 0.025), pleomorphism (P = 0.027) and poor survival (P = 0.003). In subgroup analysis, high RECQL5/low RAD51 remains significantly associated with poor BCSS in ER+ cohort (P = 0.010), but not in ER- cohort (P = 0.628). In multivariate analysis, high RECQL5 mRNA and high RECQL5/low RAD51 nuclear protein coexpression independently influenced survival (P = 0.022) in whole cohort and in the ER+ subgroup. Preclinically, we show that exogenous expression of RECQL5 in MCF10A cells can drive proliferation supporting an oncogenic function for RECQL5 in breast cancer. We conclude that RECQL5 is a promising biomarker in breast cancer.

Gee HE, Buffa FM, Harris AL, et al.
MicroRNA-Related DNA Repair/Cell-Cycle Genes Independently Associated With Relapse After Radiation Therapy for Early Breast Cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015; 93(5):1104-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Local recurrence and distant failure after adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer remain significant clinical problems, incompletely predicted by conventional clinicopathologic markers. We had previously identified microRNA-139-5p and microRNA-1274a as key regulators of breast cancer radiation response in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate standard clinicopathologic markers of local recurrence in a contemporary series and to establish whether putative target genes of microRNAs involved in DNA repair and cell cycle control could better predict radiation therapy response in vivo.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: With institutional ethics board approval, local recurrence was measured in a contemporary, prospectively collected series of 458 patients treated with radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Additionally, independent publicly available mRNA/microRNA microarray expression datasets totaling >1000 early-stage breast cancer patients, treated with adjuvant radiation therapy, with >10 years of follow-up, were analyzed. The expression of putative microRNA target biomarkers--TOP2A, POLQ, RAD54L, SKP2, PLK2, and RAG1--were correlated with standard clinicopathologic variables using 2-sided nonparametric tests, and to local/distant relapse and survival using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: We found a low rate of isolated local recurrence (1.95%) in our modern series, and that few clinicopathologic variables (such as lymphovascular invasion) were significantly predictive. In multiple independent datasets (n>1000), however, high expression of RAD54L, TOP2A, POLQ, and SKP2 significantly correlated with local recurrence, survival, or both in univariate and multivariate analyses (P<.001). Low RAG1 expression significantly correlated with local recurrence (multivariate, P=.008). Additionally, RAD54L, SKP2, and PLK2 may be predictive, being prognostic in radiation therapy-treated patients but not in untreated matched control individuals (n=107; P<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of DNA repair and cell cycle control can identify patients at high risk of treatment failure in those receiving radiation therapy for early breast cancer in independent cohorts. These should be further investigated prospectively, especially TOP2A and SKP2, for which targeted therapies are available.

Schaefer-Klein JL, Murphy SJ, Johnson SH, et al.
Topoisomerase 2 Alpha Cooperates with Androgen Receptor to Contribute to Prostate Cancer Progression.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142327 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of TOP2A is associated with risk of systemic progression in prostate cancer patients, and higher levels of TOP2A were found in hormone-resistant cases. To elucidate the mechanism by which high levels of TOP2A contribute to tumor progression we generated TOP2A overexpressing prostate cancer cell lines. We show that TOP2A promotes tumor aggressiveness by inducing chromosomal rearrangements of genes that contribute to a more invasive phenotype. Anti-androgen treatment alone was ineffective in killing TOP2A overexpressing cells due to activation of an androgen receptor network. TOP2A poisons killed tumor cells more efficiently early in the progression course, while at later stages they provided greater benefit when combined with anti-androgen therapy. Mechanistically, we find that TOP2A enhances androgen signaling by facilitating transcription of androgen responsive genes, thereby promoting tumor cell growth. These studies revealed a relationship between TOP2A and androgen receptor signaling pathway that contributes to prostate cancer progression and confers sensitivity to treatments.

El-Deiry WS, Vijayvergia N, Xiu J, et al.
Molecular profiling of 6,892 colorectal cancer samples suggests different possible treatment options specific to metastatic sites.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(12):1726-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) carries a poor prognosis with an overall 5-year survival of 13.1%. Therapies guided by tumor profiling have suggested benefit in advanced cancer. We used a multiplatform molecular profiling (MP) approach to identify key molecular changes that may provide therapeutic options not typically considered in mCRC. We evaluated 6892 mCRC referred to Caris Life Sciences by MP including sequencing (Sanger/NGS), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in-situ hybridization (ISH). mCRC metastases to liver, brain, ovary or lung (n = 1507) showed differential expression of markers including high protein expression of TOPO1 (52%) and/or low RRM1 (57%), TS (71%) and MGMT (39%), suggesting possible benefit from irinotecan, gemcitabine, 5FU/capecitabine and temozolomide, respectively. Lung metastases harbored a higher Her2 protein expression than the primary colon tumors (4% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.028). Brain and lung metastases had higher KRAS mutations than other sites (65% vs 59% vs 47%, respectively, p = 0.07, <0.01), suggesting poor response to anti-EGFR therapies. BRAF-mutated CRC (n = 455) showed coincident high protein expression of RRM1 (56%), TS (53%) and low PDGFR (22%) as compared with BRAF wild-type tumors. KRAS-mutated mCRC had higher protein expression of c-MET (47% vs. 36%) and lower MGMT (56% vs. 63%), suggesting consideration of c-MET inhibitors and temozolomide. KRAS-mutated CRC had high TUBB3 (42% vs. 33%) and low Her2 by IHC (0.5%) and HER2 by FISH (3%, p <0.05). CRC primaries had a lower incidence of PIK3CA and BRAF mutations in rectal cancer versus colon cancer (10% and 3.3%, respectively). MP of 6892 CRCs identified significant differences between primary and metastatic sites and among BRAF/KRAS sub-types. Our findings are hypothesis generating and need to be examined in prospective studies. Specific therapies may be considered for different actionable targets in mCRC as revealed by MP.

Nygård SB, Vainer B, Nielsen SL, et al.
DNA Topoisomerase I Gene Copy Number and mRNA Expression Assessed as Predictive Biomarkers for Adjuvant Irinotecan in Stage II/III Colon Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(7):1621-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prospective-retrospective assessment of the TOP1 gene copy number and TOP1 mRNA expression as predictive biomarkers for adjuvant irinotecan in stage II/III colon cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays were obtained from an adjuvant colon cancer trial (PETACC3) where patients were randomized to 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid with or without additional irinotecan. TOP1 copy number status was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a TOP1/CEN20 dual-probe combination. TOP1 mRNA data were available from previous analyses.
RESULTS: TOP1 FISH and follow-up data were obtained from 534 patients. TOP1 gain was identified in 27% using a single-probe enumeration strategy (≥4 TOP1 signals per cell) and in 31% when defined by a TOP1/CEN20 ratio ≥ 1.5. The effect of additional irinotecan was not dependent on TOP1 FISH status.TOP1 mRNA data were available from 580 patients with stage III disease. Benefit of irinotecan was restricted to patients characterized by TOP1 mRNA expression ≥ third quartile (RFS: HRadjusted, 0.59;P= 0.09; OS: HRadjusted, 0.44;P= 0.03). The treatment by TOP1 mRNA interaction was not statistically significant, but in exploratory multivariable fractional polynomial interaction analysis, increasing TOP1 mRNA values appeared to be associated with increasing benefit of irinotecan.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the TOP1 copy number, a trend was demonstrated for a predictive property of TOP1 mRNA expression. On the basis of TOP1 mRNA, it might be possible to identify a subgroup of patients where an irinotecan doublet is a clinically relevant option in the adjuvant setting of colon cancer.

Ali Y, Abd Hamid S
Human topoisomerase II alpha as a prognostic biomarker in cancer chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):47-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that regulate topology of DNA by facilitating the temporary cleavage and ligation cycle of DNA. Among all forms of topoisomerases, TOP-IIA is extensively associated with cell proliferation and therefore is an important therapeutic target in diseases that involved cellular proliferation such as cancers. Nearly half of present-day antitumor regimens contain at least one prescription that act as a topoisomerase inhibitor. Generally, tumor cells show divergent expression of TOP-IIA compared to normal cells. The remarkable expression of TOP-IIA in various carcinomas provides a significant biomarker toward understanding the nature of malignancy. TOP-IIA expression and amplification studies help in diagnosing cancer and to observe the disease progression, overall survival (OS) of patients, and response to therapy. This review highlights the research output and analysis in exploring the standing of TOP-IIA in various carcinomas. As some reports show contradiction within the same field of interest, the outline of that may help to induce researchers for further investigation and clarification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first overview briefly summarizing the prognostic feature of TOP-IIA in various types of cancer.

Tolkach Y, Merseburger A, Herrmann T, et al.
Signatures of Adverse Pathological Features, Androgen Insensitivity and Metastatic Potential in Prostate Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(10):5443-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The genetic characterization of prostate tumors is important for personalized therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of previously described prostate cancer-related genes in the genetic characterization of prostate tumors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two genes were selected for expression analysis (real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction). One normal prostatic epithelial cell line and three standardized prostate cancer cell lines were used. Twenty-eight patients treated with radical prostatectomy were included in the study.
RESULTS: The following genes appeared to be possibly related to the metastatic potential of the tumor: ELOVL fatty acid elongase 7 (ELOVL7), enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2), gastrulation brain homeobox 2 (GBX2), golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1), homeobox C6 (HOXC6), minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6), marker of proliferation Ki-67 (MKI67), mucin 1, cell surface associated (MUC1), MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MYCBP2), somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1), topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha 170 kDa (TOP2A) and exportin 6 (XPO6). Six genes were differentially expressed in patients with localized and locally advanced cancer (GOLM1, GBX2, XPO6, SSTR1, TOP2A and cell division cycle associated 5, CDCA5) and three genes (HOXC6, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, MYCBP2) in patients with a low vs. high Gleason grade/sum.
CONCLUSION: Some of the investigated genes show promising prognostic and classification features, which might be useful in a clinical setting, warranting for further validation.

Lovvorn HN, Pierce J, Libes J, et al.
Genetic and chromosomal alterations in Kenyan Wilms Tumor.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(11):702-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide and poses a cancer health disparity to black children of sub-Saharan African ancestry. Although overall survival from WT at 5 years exceeds 90% in developed countries, this pediatric cancer is alarmingly lethal in sub-Saharan Africa and specifically in Kenya (36% survival at 2 years). Although multiple barriers to adequate WT therapy contribute to this dismal outcome, we hypothesized that a uniquely aggressive and treatment-resistant biology compromises survival further. To explore the biologic composition of Kenyan WT (KWT), we completed a next generation sequencing analysis targeting 10 WT-associated genes and evaluated whole-genome copy number variation. The study cohort was comprised of 44 KWT patients and their specimens. Fourteen children are confirmed dead at 2 years and 11 remain lost to follow-up despite multiple tracing attempts. TP53 was mutated most commonly in 11 KWT specimens (25%), CTNNB1 in 10 (23%), MYCN in 8 (18%), AMER1 in 5 (11%), WT1 and TOP2A in 4 (9%), and IGF2 in 3 (7%). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 17p, which covers TP53, was detected in 18% of specimens examined. Copy number gain at 1q, a poor prognostic indicator of WT biology in developed countries, was detected in 32% of KWT analyzed, and 89% of these children are deceased. Similarly, LOH at 11q was detected in 32% of KWT, and 80% of these patients are deceased. From this genomic analysis, KWT biology appears uniquely aggressive and treatment-resistant.

Schovanek J, Bullova P, Tayem Y, et al.
Inhibitory Effect of the Noncamptothecin Topoisomerase I Inhibitor LMP-400 on Female Mice Models and Human Pheochromocytoma Cells.
Endocrinology. 2015; 156(11):4094-104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic pheochromocytoma continues to be an incurable disease, and treatment with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy offers limited efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, LMP-400, as a potential treatment for this devastating disease. We found a high expression of topoisomerase I in human metastatic pheochromocytoma, providing a basis for the evaluation of a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor as a therapeutic strategy. LMP-400 inhibited the cell growth of established mouse pheochromocytoma cell lines and primary human tumor tissue cultures. In a study performed in athymic female mice, LMP-400 demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth with two drug administration regimens. Furthermore, low doses of LMP-400 decreased the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), one of a family of factors studied as potential metastatic drivers in these tumors. The HIF-1α decrease resulted in changes in the mRNA levels of HIF-1 transcriptional targets. In vitro, LMP-400 showed an increase in the growth-inhibitory effects in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs that are currently used for the treatment of pheochromocytoma. We conclude that LMP-400 has promising antitumor activity in preclinical models of metastatic pheochromocytoma and its use should be considered in future clinical trials.

Xu YC, Zhang FC, Li JJ, et al.
RRM1, TUBB3, TOP2A, CYP19A1, CYP2D6: Difference between mRNA and protein expression in predicting prognosis of breast cancer patients.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(4):1883-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study investigated the clinical significance of RRM1 (ribonucleoside reductase subunit M1), TUBB3 (tubulin-β-III), TOP2A (DNA topoisomerase II), CYP19A1 (cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1) and CYP2D6 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6) for the diagnosis and possible predictive roles in breast cancer. Tissue microarray detected the expression of RRM1, tubulin-β-III, Topo IIα, CYP19A1 and CYP2D6 protein in breast cancer tissue and tissue adjacent to tumors (TATs). In addition, a publically available tool, was used to assess the prognostic value of their gene expression in breast cancer (http://kmplot.com). Analysis for relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was performed. Cytoplasmic RRM1, tubulin-β-III, CYP19A1 and Topo IIα staining were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues compared with TATs (P<0.050). Significant correlation occurred between RRM1 expression with pathological classification (P=0.018), lymph node involvement (P=0.035) and ER status (P=0.003). Tubulin-β-III and CYP2D6 expression correlated significantly with tumor grade (P=0.021 for tubulin-β-III and P=0.029 for CYP2D6, respectively). Cox analysis showed that the protein expression of CYP2D6, CYP19A1, RRM1, Topo IIα or tubulin-β-III was not an independent prognostic factor. A significant association occurred between RFS and TUBB3, TOP2A, CYP19A1, and CYP2D6 mRNA expression. With CYP19A1 (P<0.001) and CYP2D6 (P<0.001), a high expression was associated with good clinical outcome. Conversely, a low expression of TUBB3 (P<0.001) and TOP2A (P<0.001) was associated with good clinical outcome. TUBB3 (P=0.0004) and TOP2A (P<0.001) were significant prognostic factors in predicting the patient OS. The expression of RRM1, tubulin-β-III, Topo IIα and CYP19A1 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in TATs. TUBB3, TOP2A, CYP19A1 and CYP2D6 gene expression, but not protein expression, was associated with patient survival.

Gong M, Liu Y, Zhang J, et al.
β-Elemene Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression and Activity of Topoisomerases I and IIα in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:153987 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of β-Elemene (β-ELE) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and topoisomerase I (TOPO I) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα) expression and activity of human hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 cells.
METHODS: After treatment with β-ELE, morphological alterations of HepG-2 cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay, cell cycles were analyzed using flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα was analyzed by Western blot techniques, and their activity was measured using the TOPO I-mediated, supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and TOPO IIα-mediated Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) decatenation assays, respectively. Supercoiled pBR322 and kDNA were also used to determine the direct effect of β-ELE on DNA breaks.
RESULTS: β-ELE significantly inhibited HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. β-ELE also induced tumor cell arrest at S phase, induced cell apoptosis, and downregulated the protein expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα in a dose-dependent manner. β-ELE also inhibited TOPO I- and TOPO IIα-mediated DNA relaxation but did not directly induce DNA breakage at any concentration.
CONCLUSION: β-ELE could inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells and interfere with the expression and activity of TOPO I and TOPO IIα.

Vranic S, Marchiò C, Castellano I, et al.
Immunohistochemical and molecular profiling of histologically defined apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(9):1350-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the marked improvement in the understanding of molecular mechanisms and classification of apocrine carcinoma, little is known about its specific molecular genetic alterations and potentially targetable biomarkers. In this study, we explored immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characteristics of 37 invasive apocrine carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays. IHC revealed frequent E-cadherin expression (89%), moderate (16%) proliferation activity [Ki-67, phosphohistone H3], infrequent (~10%) expression of basal cell markers [CK5/6, CK14, p63, caveolin-1], loss of PTEN (83%), and overexpression of HER2 (32%), EGFR (41%), cyclin D1 (50%), and MUC-1 (88%). MLPA assay revealed gene copy gains of MYC, CCND1, ZNF703, CDH1, and TRAF4 in 50% or greater of the apocrine carcinomas, whereas gene copy losses frequently affected BRCA2 (75%), ADAM9 (54%), and BRCA1 (46%). HER2 gain, detected by MLPA in 38% of the cases, was in excellent concordance with HER2 results obtained by IHC/FISH (κ = 0.915, P < .001). TOP2A gain was observed in one case, while five cases (21%) exhibited TOP2A loss. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: HER2-positive and HER2-negative (P = .03 and .04, respectively). NGS assay revealed mutations of the TP53 (2 of 7, 29%), BRAF/KRAS (2 of 7, 29%), and PI3KCA/PTEN genes (7 of 7, 100%). We conclude that morphologically defined apocrine carcinomas exhibit complex molecular genetic alterations that are consistent with the "luminal-complex" phenotype. Some of the identified molecular targets are promising biomarkers; however, functional studies are needed to prove these observations.

Thys RG, Lehman CE, Pierce LC, Wang YH
Environmental and chemotherapeutic agents induce breakage at genes involved in leukemia-causing gene rearrangements in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.
Mutat Res. 2015; 779:86-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all of the cells that make up the hematopoietic system in the human body, making their stability and resilience especially important. Damage to these cells can severely impact cell development and has the potential to cause diseases, such as leukemia. Leukemia-causing chromosomal rearrangements have largely been studied in the context of radiation exposure and are formed by a multi-step process, including an initial DNA breakage and fusion of the free DNA ends. However, the mechanism for DNA breakage in patients without previous radiation exposure is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of non-cytotoxic levels of environmental factors, benzene, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and chemotherapeutic agents, etoposide, and doxorubicin, in generating DNA breakage at the patient breakpoint hotspots of the MLL and CBFB genes in human HSPCs. These conditions represent exposure to chemicals encountered daily or residual doses from chemotherapeutic drugs. Exposure of HSPCs to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals or chemotherapeutic agents causes DNA breakage at preferential sites in the human genome, including the leukemia-related genes MLL and CBFB. Though benzene, etoposide, and doxorubicin have previously been linked to leukemia formation, this is the first study to demonstrate a role for DEN in the generation of DNA breakage at leukemia-specific sites. These chemical-induced DNA breakpoints coincide with sites of predicted topoisomerase II cleavage. The distribution of breakpoints by exposure to non-cytotoxic levels of chemicals showed a similar pattern to fusion breakpoints in leukemia patients. Our findings demonstrate that HSPCs exposed to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals and chemotherapeutic agents are prone to topoisomerase II-mediated DNA damage at the leukemia-associated genes MLL and CBFB. These data suggest a role for long-term environmental chemical or residual chemotherapeutic drug exposure in generation of DNA breakage at sites with a propensity to form leukemia-causing gene rearrangements.

Erriquez J, Becco P, Olivero M, et al.
TOP2A gene copy gain predicts response of epithelial ovarian cancers to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: TOP2A as marker of response to PLD in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 138(3):627-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The treatment of platinum resistant/refractory epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a challenge for oncologists. One of the most utilized drugs in these patients is pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). As PLD is active only in a small subset of patients and causes side effects, selection of responsive patients is an unmet need and might be guided by the status of the DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) that is poisoned by the drug.
METHODS: From 176 ovarian cancers treated in three institutions, we selected 38 patients treated with PLD monotherapy as second/third line of treatment. TOP2A gene copies were measured using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Patients' derived xenografts (PDXs) of ovarian cancers were used to assess the correlation between TOP2A protein expression and response to PLD.
RESULTS: Clinical data showed that TOP2A gene gain that is paralleled by increased expression of the protein, was associated with a higher probability of clinical benefit from PLD. Treatment of PDXs demonstrated that only xenografts showing a high percentage of TOP2A expressing cells underwent tumor shrinkage when treated with PLD.
CONCLUSIONS: These data show that TOP2A gene gain and protein over-expression might predict activity of PLD in platinum resistant/refractory EOC.

Hua W, Sa KD, Zhang X, et al.
MicroRNA-139 suppresses proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells by targeting Topoisomerase II alpha.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 463(4):1077-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The classification of molecular subtypes of breast cancer improves the prognostic accuracy and therapeutic benefits in clinic. However, because of the complexity of breast cancer, more biomarkers and functional molecules need to be explored. Here, analyzing the data in a huge cohort of breast cancer patients, we found that Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2a), an important target of chemotherapy is a biomarker for prognosis in luminal type breast cancer patients, but not in basal like or HER2 positive breast cancer patients. We identified that miR-139, a previous reported anti-metastatic microRNA targets 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of TOP2a mRNA. Further more, we revealed that the forced expression of miR-139 reduces the TOP2a expression at both mRNA and protein levels. And our functional experiments showed that the ectopic expression of miR-139 remarkably inhibits proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells, while exogenous TOP2a expression could rescue inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-139. Collectively, our present study demonstrates the miR-139-TOP2a regulatory axis is important for proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells. This functional link may help us to further understand the specificity of subtypes of breast cancer and optimize the strategy of cancer treatment.

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