Gene Summary

Gene:XRCC2; X-ray repair cross complementing 2
Aliases: FANCU
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the RecA/Rad51-related protein family that participates in homologous recombination to maintain chromosome stability and repair DNA damage. This gene is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and it functionally complements Chinese hamster irs1, a repair-deficient mutant that exhibits hypersensitivity to a number of different DNA-damaging agents. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein XRCC2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Logistic Models
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Alleles
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Genotype
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Women's Health
  • Staging
  • Breast Cancer
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Mutation
  • Cancer DNA
  • Double-Stranded DNA Breaks
  • Incidence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosome 7
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • DNA Damage
  • Odds Ratio
  • siRNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Haplotypes
  • Sequence Homology
  • Transfection
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cohort Studies
  • Genetic Variation
  • Poland
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Registries
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Sister Chromatid Exchange
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: XRCC2 (cancer-related)

Oliva D, Nilsson M, Strandéus M, et al.
Individual Genetic Variation Might Predict Acute Skin Reactions in Women Undergoing Adjuvant Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(12):6763-6770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adverse skin reactions during radiotherapy (RT) are common. The aim of this study was to explore whether genetic variation might be linked to acute radiation skin reactions (ARSR).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and nineteen women undergoing adjuvant RT for breast cancer were included. The symptoms of itching, burning and irritation were self-reported twice using the visual analogue scale. Assessments used the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system for acute RT skin reaction (RTOG scale). Blood-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed. Thirty SNPs of well-defined functional genes were investigated.
RESULTS: All women were assessed with ARSR. After RT, the women self-reported itching (n=97), burning (n=64) and irritation (n=96). Two SNPs in X-Ray Repair Cross Complementing 2 gene (XRCC2) rs2040639 and interferon gamma (IFNG) rs2069705 genes were found to be associated with ARSR.
CONCLUSION: An association between two SNPs and ARSR was found. The possibility of using these SNPs as prognostic biomarkers for ARSR as tools to improve the care of patients needs further investigation.

Bonache S, Esteban I, Moles-Fernández A, et al.
Multigene panel testing beyond BRCA1/2 in breast/ovarian cancer Spanish families and clinical actionability of findings.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(12):2495-2513 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Few and small studies have been reported about multigene testing usage by massively parallel sequencing in European cancer families. There is an open debate about what genes should be tested, and the actionability of some included genes is under research.
METHODS: We investigated a panel of 34 known high/moderate-risk cancer genes, including 16 related to breast or ovarian cancer (BC/OC) genes, and 63 candidate genes to BC/OC in 192 clinically suspicious of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) Spanish families without pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2).
RESULTS: We identified 16 patients who carried a high- or moderate-risk pathogenic variant in eight genes: 4 PALB2, 3 ATM, 2 RAD51D, 2 TP53, 2 APC, 1 BRIP1, 1 PTEN and 1 PMS2. These findings led to increased surveillance or prevention options in 12 patients and predictive testing in their family members. We detected 383 unique variants of uncertain significance in known cancer genes, of which 35 were prioritized in silico. Eighteen loss-of-function variants were detected in candidate BC/OC genes in 17 patients (1 BARD1, 1 ERCC3, 1 ERCC5, 2 FANCE, 1 FANCI, 2 FANCL, 1 FANCM, 1 MCPH1, 1 PPM1D, 2 RBBP8, 3 RECQL4 and 1 with SLX4 and XRCC2), three of which also carry pathogenic variants in known cancer genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Eight percent of the BRCA1/2 negative patients carry pathogenic variants in other actionable genes. The multigene panel usage improves the diagnostic yield in HBOC testing and it is an effective tool to identify potentially new candidate genes.

Smolarz B, Michalska MM, Samulak D, et al.
Studies of Correlations Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Endometrial Cancer in Polish Women.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5223-5229 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The goals of this study included an analysis of the incidence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotypes and alleles in DNA repair genes and evaluation of the effects by which this genetic variability may influence the risk for endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group included 610 women with endometrial cancer and was compared with a quantitatively matched control group of 610 women without any diagnosed malignancy. The following polymorphisms were analyzed: X-Ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1)-Arg399Gln (rs25487); XRCC2-Arg188His (rs3218536); XRCC3-Thr241Met (rs861539); ERCC excision repair 2, TFIIH core complex helicase subunit (ERCC2)-Lys751Gln (rs13181); and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)-Ser326Cys (rs13181).
RESULTS: Allele XRCC2-188His [odds ratio (OR)=5.24, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.36-6.29; p<0.0001], hOGG1-326Cys (OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.36-1.88; p<0.0001) and ERCC2-751Gln (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.42-1.96; p<0.0001) strongly correlated with neoplastic disease.
CONCLUSION: The evaluated SNPs may be approached as a group of new risk factors for the development of this cancer type.

Sirisena ND, Samaranayake N, Dissanayake VHW
Relative normalized luciferase activity for the recombinant vector constructs carrying the ancestral and variant alleles for XRCC2:rs3218550 and PHB:rs6917.
BMC Res Notes. 2018; 11(1):643 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The data presented herein represents the preliminary results of the functional assays of a recently conducted larger study in which two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [XRCC2:rs3218550 and PHB:rs6917] were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer among Sri Lankan postmenopausal women. The rs3218550 T allele and rs6917 A allele were found to increase breast cancer risk by 1.5-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. Both SNPs are located in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the respective genes. It was hypothesized that these non-coding SNPs may be exerting some transcriptional regulatory effects on gene expression. Their putative functional effects were further investigated by generating bioluminescent recombinant experimental reporter gene constructs carrying the ancestral and variant alleles of these 2 SNPs, transiently transfecting them in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and performing dual-luciferase reporter gene assays to measure the luminescent signals.
DATA DESCRIPTION: The normalized relative luciferase activity for the recombinant vector constructs carrying the ancestral and variant alleles for XRCC2:rs3218550 and PHB:rs6917 are presented herein. This data might be of relevance to other researchers involved in delineating the functional mechanisms of SNPs located in the 3'UTR of the XRCC2 and PHB breast cancer related genes.

Wang L, Ma J, Yang B, et al.
XRCC2 Polymorphisms and Environmental Factors Predict High Risk of Colorectal Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:2858-2863 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND This case-control study aimed to analyze the association of [i]XRCC2[/i] polymorphisms (rs3218408 and rs3218384) with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The interaction of [i]XRCC2[/i] polymorphisms with environmental factors was investigated as well. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 147 CRC patients and 114 healthy individuals into the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing method was performed to detect rs3218408 and rs3218384 polymorphisms. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was checked in the control group. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) represented the risk of CRC. Cross-table method was used in analyzing the interaction effects. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the frequency of smokers was much higher in the case group ([i]P[/i]<0.001). A similar result was observed in drinkers (55.8% [i]vs.[/i] 40.4%, [i]P[/i]=0.013). Dietary habits of all subjects were investigated as well, showing that CRC patients ate fewer vegetables than did healthy controls (P<0.001). In the analysis of polymorphisms, rs3218408 appeared to be an independent risk factor of CRC (GG: OR=2.048, 95%CI=1.032-4.061; G allele: OR=1.445, 95%CI=1.019-2.049). There were 68 (76.4%) C allele carriers (rs3218384) among smokers, which was higher than the number of G allele carriers ([i]P[/i]<0.001). A similar outcome was observed for alcohol drinkers ([i]P[/i]=0.048), which suggests a relationship of rs3218384 with smoking and drinking. Further analysis indicated that interaction of rs3218384 with smoking increased the risk of CRC (GG and smoking: OR=3.250, 95%CI=1.235-8.556; GC+CC and smoking: OR=2.167, 95%CI=1.175-3.996). CONCLUSIONS We found that rs3218408 was related with increased risk of CRC, and the interaction of rs3218384 with smoking increased the risk of CRC.

Xu D, Liang D, Guo Y, Sun Y
Endosulfan causes the alterations of DNA damage response through ATM-p53 signaling pathway in human leukemia cells.
Environ Pollut. 2018; 238:1048-1055 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exposure to pesticides results in DNA damage and genomic instability. We previously predicted that endosulfan might be associated with leukemia, but the role of endosulfan in leukemia cells has been unexplored. The aim of this study is to elucidate molecular mechanism of endosulfan-induced DNA damage response in human leukemia cells. We performed endosulfan exposure experiments in K562 cells with varying concentrations of endosulfan for 48 h and found that endosulfan lowered cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. We observed the dramatic DNA damage using comet assay and the increase of micronucleus in 75 μM endosulfan-exposed cells. Endosulfan at 75 μM caused the expression alterations of ATM and DNA repair genes such as FANCD2, and BRCA1/2 at different exposure time points (12, 24, 48 h), which was reversed by ATM inhibitor KU-55933. Endosulfan significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of p53 and GADD45A, and decreased PCNA and XRCC2 at 48 h after exposure. Flow cytometric analysis showed that endosulfan at 50 and 75 μM induced cell cycle G1 arrest, a response attributed to down-regulation of CDK6 and up-regulation of p21. We also observed that endosulfan at 50 and 75 μM induced a considerable percentage of cells to undergo apoptosis, as detected by Annexin-V binding assays. Endosulfan resulted in the activation of caspase-3, and elevated the expression levels of PUMA and the ratio of BAX/Bcl-2. These findings suggest that endosulfan caused DNA damage response throughATM-p53 signaling pathway, implicating the potential correlation between endosulfan and leukemia.

Fathi Z, Syn NL, Zhou JG, Roudi R
Molecular epidemiology of lung cancer in Iran: implications for drug development and cancer prevention.
J Hum Genet. 2018; 63(7):783-794 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological studies undertaken over the past decades reveal a gradual but progressive increase in the incidence and mortality attributable to lung cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a sovereign state geographically situated at the crossroads of Central Eurasia and Western Asia. We identified references published in English and Persian through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database (SID)-a specialized Iranian database, which indexes Iranian scientific journals-between inception and 15 September 2017. Of 1475 references identified through electronic searches, we reviewed the full text of 88 studies, and included 38 studies in the review. Potentially druggable NSCLC targets, which have been studied in Iran include EGFR, ALK, ERBB2, and KIT; but no studies were found, which examined the impact of MET, ROS1, BRAF, PIK3CA, and FGFR1 aberrations. We were able to identify some literature on DNA repair genes and xenobiotic metabolism, including TP53, TP63, ERCC2, XRCC2, SIRT1, PTEN, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTT1, and GSTM1. We also found an increasing amount of research performed in relation to the tumor microenvironment and immune contexture, including CTLA4, MAGE, FOXP3, IFN-γ, and various interleukins, chemokines, and transcription factors; but did not identify any publication concerning the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer. Our survey of research performed in Iran has revealed a dearth of studies in topics, which are otherwise highly pursued in developed countries, but nevertheless, has begun to hint at a distinct biology of lung cancer in this part of the world.

Sirisena ND, Adeyemo A, Kuruppu AI, et al.
Genetic determinants of sporadic breast cancer in Sri Lankan women.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While a range of common genetic variants have been identified to be associated with risk of sporadic breast cancer in several Western studies, little is known about their role in South Asian populations. Our objective was to examine the association between common genetic variants in breast cancer related genes and risk of breast cancer in a cohort of Sri Lankan women.
METHODS: A case-control study of 350 postmenopausal women with breast cancer and 350 healthy postmenopausal women was conducted. Genotyping using the iPLEX GOLD assay was done for 56 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 36 breast cancer related genes. Testing for association was done using an additive genetic model. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using adjusted logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Four SNPs [rs3218550 (XRCC2), rs6917 (PHB), rs1801516 (ATM), and rs13689 (CDH1)] were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. The rs3218550 T allele and rs6917 A allele increased breast cancer risk by 1.5-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. The CTC haplotype defined by the SNPs rs3218552|rs3218550|rs3218536 on chromosome 7 (P = 0.0088) and the CA haplotype defined by the SNPs rs1049620|rs6917 on chromosome 17 (P = 0.0067) were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. The rs1801516 A allele and the rs13689 C allele decreased breast cancer risk by 0.6-fold and 0.7-fold, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that common genetic polymorphisms in the XRCC2, PHB, CDH1 and ATM genes are associated with risk of breast cancer among Sri Lankan postmenopausal women. The exact biological mechanisms of how these variants regulate overall breast cancer risk need further evaluation using functional studies.

Golmard L, Castéra L, Krieger S, et al.
Contribution of germline deleterious variants in the RAD51 paralogs to breast and ovarian cancers.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2017; 25(12):1345-1353 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3) have recently been involved in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition: RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D in ovarian cancer, RAD51B and XRCC2 in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious variants in the five RAD51 paralogs to breast and ovarian cancers. The five RAD51 paralog genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing technologies in germline DNA from 2649 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Twenty-one different deleterious variants were identified in the RAD51 paralogs in 30 patients: RAD51B (n = 4), RAD51C (n = 12), RAD51D (n = 7), XRCC2 (n = 2), and XRCC3 (n = 5). The overall deleterious variant rate was 1.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.55%) (30/2649), including 15 variants in breast cancer only cases (15/2063; 0.73% (95% CI: 0.34-1.11%)) and 15 variants in cases with at least one ovarian cancer (15/570; 2.63% (95% CI: 1.24-4.02%)). This study is the first evaluation of the five RAD51 paralogs in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and it demonstrates that deleterious variants can be present in breast cancer only cases. Moreover, this is the first time that XRCC3 deleterious variants have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer cases.

Lutz BS, Leguisamo NM, Cabral NK, et al.
Imbalance in DNA repair machinery is associated with BRAF
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018; 472:140-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
The involvement of alterations in MLH1, an essential mismatch repair component, in BRAF

Saeed S, Mahjabeen I, Sarwar R, et al.
Haplotype analysis of XRCC2 gene polymorphisms and association with increased risk of head and neck cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We aimed to investigate the effect of hotspot variations of XRCC2 gene on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) in 400 patients and 400 controls. Five polymorphisms of XRCC2 gene G4234C (rs3218384), G4088T (rs3218373), G3063A (rs2040639), R188H (rs3218536) and rs7802034 were analyzed using Allele- specific polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) followed by sequence analysis. For rs3218373, the GG genotype indicated a statistically significant 3-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001) after multivariate adjustment. For rs7802034, the GG genotype suggested statistically significant 2-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001). For SNP of rs3218536, the AA genotype indicated a significant 3-fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001). Additionally, haplotype analysis revealed that TACAG, TGGAG, TACGG and TAGGA haplotypes of XRCC2 polymorphisms are associated with HNC risk. Two SNPs in XRCC2 (rs2040639 and rs3218384) were found increased in strong linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, joint effect model showed 20 fold (OR = 19.89; 95% CI = 2.65-149.36, P = 0.003) increased HNC risk in patients carrying four homozygous risk alleles of selected polymorphisms. These results show that allele distributions and genotypes of XRCC2 SNPs are significantly associated with increased HNC risk and could be a genetic adjuster for the said disease.

Patel DS, Misenko SM, Her J, Bunting SF
BLM helicase regulates DNA repair by counteracting RAD51 loading at DNA double-strand break sites.
J Cell Biol. 2017; 216(11):3521-3534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Decker B, Allen J, Luccarini C, et al.
Rare, protein-truncating variants in
J Med Genet. 2017; 54(11):732-741 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women and has a major heritable component. The risks associated with most rare susceptibility variants are not well estimated. To better characterise the contribution of variants in
METHODS: Gene coding regions were enriched via PCR, sequenced, variant called and filtered for quality. ORs for BC risk were estimated separately for carriers of truncating variants and of rare missense variants, which were further subdivided by functional domain and pathogenicity as predicted by four
RESULTS: Truncating variants in
CONCLUSIONS: Truncating variants in

Rivera B, Di Iorio M, Frankum J, et al.
Functionally Null
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(16):4517-4529 [PubMed] Related Publications
RAD51D is a key player in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR), and

Justiniano R, Perer J, Hua A, et al.
A Topical Zinc Ionophore Blocks Tumorigenic Progression in UV-exposed SKH-1 High-risk Mouse Skin.
Photochem Photobiol. 2017; 93(6):1472-1482 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy in the United States representing a considerable public health burden. Pharmacological suppression of skin photocarcinogenesis has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies, but more efficacious photochemopreventive agents are needed. Here, we tested feasibility of harnessing pharmacological disruption of intracellular zinc homeostasis for photochemoprevention in vitro and in vivo. Employing the zinc ionophore and FDA-approved microbicidal agent zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), used worldwide in over-the-counter (OTC) topical consumer products, we first demonstrated feasibility of achieving ZnPT-based intracellular Zn

Lolas Hamameh S, Renbaum P, Kamal L, et al.
Genomic analysis of inherited breast cancer among Palestinian women: Genetic heterogeneity and a founder mutation in TP53.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):750-756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer among Palestinian women has lower incidence than in Europe or North America, yet is very frequently familial. We studied genetic causes of this familial clustering in a consecutive hospital-based series of 875 Palestinian patients with invasive breast cancer, including 453 women with diagnosis by age 40, or with breast or ovarian cancer in a mother, sister, grandmother or aunt ("discovery series"); and 422 women diagnosed after age 40 and with negative family history ("older-onset sporadic patient series"). Genomic DNA from women in the discovery series was sequenced for all known breast cancer genes, revealing a pathogenic mutation in 13% (61/453) of patients. These mutations were screened in all patients and in 300 Palestinian female controls, revealing 1.0% (4/422) carriers among older, nonfamilial patients and two carriers among controls. The mutational spectrum was highly heterogeneous, including pathogenic mutations in 11 different genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, CHEK2, BARD1, BRIP1, PALB2, MRE11A, PTEN and XRCC2. BRCA1 carriers were significantly more likely than other patients to have triple negative tumors (p = 0.03). The single most frequent mutation was TP53 p.R181C, which was significantly enriched in the discovery series compared to controls (p = 0.01) and was responsible for 15% of breast cancers among young onset or familial patients. TP53 p.R181C predisposed specifically to breast cancer with incomplete penetrance, and not to other Li-Fraumeni cancers. Palestinian women with young onset or familial breast cancer and their families would benefit from genetic analysis and counseling.

Yong KJ, Milenic DE, Baidoo KE, Brechbiel MW
Cell Killing Mechanisms and Impact on Gene Expression by Gemcitabine and 212Pb-Trastuzumab Treatment in a Disseminated i.p. Tumor Model.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159904 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In pre-clinical studies, combination therapy with gemcitabine and targeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 212Pb-trastuzumab showed tremendous therapeutic potential in the LS-174T tumor xenograft model of disseminated intraperitoneal disease. To better understand the underlying molecular basis for the observed cell killing efficacy, gene expression profiling was performed after a 24 h exposure to 212Pb-trastuzumab upon gemcitabine (Gem) pre-treatment in this model. DNA damage response genes in tumors were quantified using a real time quantitative PCR array (qRT-PCR array) covering 84 genes. The combination of Gem with α-radiation resulted in the differential expression of apoptotic genes (BRCA1, CIDEA, GADD45α, GADD45γ, IP6K3, PCBP4, RAD21, and p73), cell cycle regulatory genes (BRCA1, CHK1, CHK2, FANCG, GADD45α, GTSE1, PCBP4, MAP2K6, NBN, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding and repair genes (BRCA1, BTG2, DMC1, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, FEN1, MSH2, MSH3, NBN, NTHL1, OGG1, PRKDC, RAD18, RAD21, RAD51B, SEMA4G, p73, UNG, XPC, and XRCC2). Of these genes, the expression of CHK1, GTSE1, EXO1, FANCG, RAD18, UNG and XRCC2 were specific to Gem/212Pb-trastuzumab administration. In addition, the present study demonstrates that increased stressful growth arrest conditions induced by Gem/212Pb-trastuzumab could suppress cell proliferation possibly by up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis such as p73, by down-regulating genes involved in cell cycle check point such as CHK1, and in damaged DNA repair such as RAD51 paralogs. These events may be mediated by genes such as BRCA1/MSH2, a member of BARC (BRCA-associated genome surveillance complex). The data suggest that up-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis, perturbation of checkpoint genes, and a failure to correctly perform HR-mediated DSB repair and mismatch-mediated SSB repair may correlate with the previously observed inability to maintain the G2/M arrest, leading to cell death.

Singh SA, Ghosh SK
Polymorphisms of XRCC1 and XRCC2 DNA Repair genes and Interaction with Environmental Factors Influence the Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Northeast India.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(6):2811-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been reported to play key role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we investigated interactions of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms and environmental factors in modulating susceptibility to NPC in Northeast India. One-hundred NPC patients, 90 first-degree relatives of patients and 120 controls were enrolled in the study. XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphisms were determined using PCR-RFLP, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approaches were applied for statistical analysis. The XRCC1 Gln/Gln genotype showed increased risk (OR=2.76; <0.024) of NPC. However, individuals with both XRCC1 and XRCC2 polymorphic variants had 3.2 fold elevated risk (<0.041). An enhanced risk of NPC was also observed in smoked meat (OR=4.07; P=0.004) and fermented fish consumers (OR=4.34, P=0.001), and tobacco-betel quid chewers (OR=7.00; P=0.0001) carrying XRCC1 polymorphic variants. However, smokers carrying defective XRCC1 gene showed the highest risk (OR = 7.47; <0.0001). On MDR analysis, the best model for NPC risk was the five-factor model combination of XRCC1 variant genotype, fermented fish, smoked meat, smoking and chewing (CVC=10/10; TBA=0.636; <0.0001); whereas in interaction entropy graphs, smoked meat and tobacco chewing showed synergistic interactions with XRCC1. These findings suggest that interaction of genetic and environmental factors might increase susceptibility to NPC in Northeast Indian populations.

Kleibl Z, Kristensen VN
Women at high risk of breast cancer: Molecular characteristics, clinical presentation and management.
Breast. 2016; 28:136-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of breast cancer in any first-degree female relative in general nearly doubles the risk for a proband and the risk gradually increases with the number of affected relatives. Current advances in molecular oncology and oncogenetics may enable the identification of high-risk individuals with breast-cancer predisposition. The best-known forms of hereditary breast cancer (HBC) are caused by mutations in the high-penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes, including PTEN, TP53, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, MRE11, RAD50, NBS1, BRIP1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCM, RAD51, RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2 have been described as high- or moderate-penetrance breast cancer-susceptibility genes. The majority of breast cancer-susceptibility genes code for tumor suppressor proteins that are involved in critical processes of DNA repair pathways. This is of particular importance for those women who, due to their increased risk of breast cancer, may be subjected to more frequent screening but due to their repair deficiency might be at the risk of developing radiation-induced malignancies. It has been proven that cancers arising from the most frequent BRCA1 gene mutation carriers differ significantly from the sporadic disease of age-matched controls in their histopathological appearances and molecular characteristics. The increased depth of mutation detection brought by next-generation sequencing and a better understanding of the mechanisms through which these mutations cause the disease will bring novel insights in terms of oncological prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutic options for HBC patients.

Hilbers FS, Luijsterburg MS, Wiegant WW, et al.
Functional Analysis of Missense Variants in the Putative Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene XRCC2.
Hum Mutat. 2016; 37(9):914-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
XRCC2 genetic variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility. However, association studies have been complicated because XRCC2 variants are extremely rare and consist mainly of amino acid substitutions whose grouping is sensitive to misclassification by the predictive algorithms. We therefore functionally characterized variants in XRCC2 by testing their ability to restore XRCC2-DNA repair deficient phenotypes using a cDNA-based complementation approach. While the protein-truncating variants p.Leu117fs, p.Arg215*, and p.Cys217* were unable to restore XRCC2 deficiency, 19 out of 23 missense variants showed no or just a minor (<25%) reduction in XRCC2 function. The remaining four (p.Cys120Tyr, p.Arg91Trp, p.Leu133Pro, and p.Ile95Leu) had a moderate effect. Overall, measured functional effects correlated poorly with those predicted by in silico analysis. After regrouping variants from published case-control studies based on the functional effect found in this study and reanalysis of the prevalence data, there was no longer evidence for an association with breast cancer. This suggests that if breast cancer susceptibility alleles of XRCC2 exist, they are likely restricted to protein-truncating variants and a minority of missense changes. Our study emphasizes the use of functional analyses of missense variants to support variant classification in association studies.

Zhu G, Su H, Lu L, et al.
Association of nineteen polymorphisms from seven DNA repair genes and the risk for bladder cancer in Gansu province of China.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(21):31372-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Balance of DNA damage and proper repair plays an important role in progression of bladder cancer. Here we aimed to assess the associations of nineteen polymorphisms from seven DNA repair-associated genes (PRAP1, OGG1, APEX1, MUTYH, XRCC1, XRCC2 and XRCC3) with bladder cancer and their interactions in the disease in a Han Chinese population.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A chip-based TaqMan genotyping for the candidate genes was performed on 227 bladder cancer patients and 260 healthy controls. APEX1 rs3136817, MUTYH rs3219493, three SNPs (rs3213356, rs25487 and rs1799782) in XRCC1, and three SNPs (rs1799794, rs861531 and rs861530) in XRCC3 showed significant associations with the risk of bladder cancer. In haplotype analysis, elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed in those with either haplotype GT (OR = 1.56, P = 0.003) of APEX1, or GGGTC (OR = 2.05, P = 0.002) of XRCC1, whereas decreased risks were in individuals with either GCGCC (OR = 0.40, P = 0.001), or GCGTT (OR = 0.60, = 0.005) of XRCC1, or CCC (OR = 0.65, P = 0.004) of MUTYH, or TTTAT (OR = 0.36, P = 0.009) of XRCC3. Interaction analysis showed that the two-loci model (rs1799794 and rs861530) was the best with the maximal testing accuracy of 0.701, and the maximal 100% cross-validation consistency (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms and haplotypes of DNA repair genes are associated with the risk of bladder cancer, and of which the SNPs (rs1799794 and rs861530) in XRCC3 gene might be two major loci in relation to the susceptibility to bladder cancer in a northwest Chinese population.

Yan L, Li Q, Li X, et al.
Association Studies Between XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3 Polymorphisms and Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(3):1075-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: DNA HRR pathway and BER pathway play vital roles in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) development, thus we supposed that polymorphisms of XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3 DNA repair genes are associated with thyroid cancer risk and progression.
METHODS: We searched the NCBI database for relevant literatures to determine eight SNPs to be included in our study (XRCC1: rs25487, rs25489, rs1799782; XRCC2: rs3218536; XRCC3: rs1799794, rs56377012, rs1799796, rs861539).
RESULTS: SNP of rs25487 was linked with a 53% decrease in DTC risk (OR: 0.47; 95%CI: 0.268-0.82; P = 0.01). For SNP of rs1799782, the homozygous TT genotype indicated a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk of DTC (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.27-3.43; P < 0.001) after multivariate adjustment. For SNP of rs861539, the homozygous TT genotype suggested statistically significant 3-fold increased risk of DTC (OR: 3.02; 95%CI: 1.68-5.42; P < 0.001). No significant association between the other five SNPs and DTC risk. Besides that, female was linked with 47% increase in DTC risk (OR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.062-2.04; P = 0.02) after multivariate adjustment. Similar results for most of the SNPs were obtained from subgroup analysis by different histological types of DTC. Haplotype analysis revealed that AGC and GGT haplotypes of XRCC1 polymorphisms were associated with DTC. Moreover, results from gene-gene interaction showed that XRCC1-rs25487, XRCC1- rs1799782 and XRCC3- rs861539 variants jointly contributed to a specifically increased risk of DTC, with the combination variant of rs1799782-CT heterozygote and rs861539-TT homozygote exhibiting a higher 3.66-fold risk of DTC (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.476-9.091, P = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of XRCC1 (rs25487, rs1799782) and XRCC3 (rs861539), may play a critical role in DTC development and progression. Furthermore, XRCC1 variant can interact with XRCC3 variant to significantly increase DTC susceptibility. Identifying these genetic risk markers could provide evidence for exploring the insight pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutic strategies for DTC.

Caminsky NG, Mucaki EJ, Perri AM, et al.
Prioritizing Variants in Complete Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Genes in Patients Lacking Known BRCA Mutations.
Hum Mutat. 2016; 37(7):640-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) does not identify all pathogenic variants. Sequencing of 20 complete genes in HBOC patients with uninformative test results (N = 287), including noncoding and flanking sequences of ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, EPCAM, MLH1, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD51B, STK11, TP53, and XRCC2, identified 38,372 unique variants. We apply information theory (IT) to predict and prioritize noncoding variants of uncertain significance in regulatory, coding, and intronic regions based on changes in binding sites in these genes. Besides mRNA splicing, IT provides a common framework to evaluate potential affinity changes in transcription factor (TFBSs), splicing regulatory (SRBSs), and RNA-binding protein (RBBSs) binding sites following mutation. We prioritized variants affecting the strengths of 10 splice sites (four natural, six cryptic), 148 SRBS, 36 TFBS, and 31 RBBS. Three variants were also prioritized based on their predicted effects on mRNA secondary (2°) structure and 17 for pseudoexon activation. Additionally, four frameshift, two in-frame deletions, and five stop-gain mutations were identified. When combined with pedigree information, complete gene sequence analysis can focus attention on a limited set of variants in a wide spectrum of functional mutation types for downstream functional and co-segregation analysis.

Michalska MM, Samulak D, Romanowicz H, et al.
Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC2 and XRCC3 homologous recombination repair genes and ovarian cancer in Polish women.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 100(2):243-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The variability, perceived in DNA repair genes, may be of clinical importance for evaluation of the risk of occurrence of a given type of cancer, its prophylactics and therapy. The aim of the present work was to evaluate associations between the risk of ovarian cancer and polymorphisms in the genes, encoding for two key proteins of homologous recombination: XRCC2 Arg188His (c. 563 G>A; rs3218536) and XRCC3 Thr241Met (c. 722 C>T; rs861539). The study consisted of 700 patients with ovarian cancer and 700 healthy subjects. Analysis of the gene polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP (restriction length fragment polymorphism). We found a statistically significant increase of the 188His allele frequency (OR=4.01; 95% CI=3.40-4.72; p<.0001) of XRCC2 in ovarian cancer compared to healthy controls. There were no differences in the genotype and allele distributions and odds ratios of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism between patient and control groups. Association of these genetic polymorphisms with histological grading showed increased XRCC2 188Arg/His (OR=33.0; 95% CI=14.51-75.05; p<.0001) and 188His/His genotypes (OR=9.37; 95% CI=4.79-18.32; p<.0001) and XRCC3 241Thr/Met (OR=24.28; 95% CI=12.38-47.61; p<.0001) and 241Met/Met genotype frequencies (OR=17.00; 95% CI=8.42-34.28; p<.0001) in grading 1 (G1) as well as 188His (OR=2.78; 95% CI=2.11-3.69; p<.0001) and 241Met allele overrepresentation (OR=2.59; 95% CI=2.08-3.22; p<.0001) in G1 ovarian patients. Finally, with clinical FIGO staging under evaluation, an increase in XRCC2 188His/His homozygote and 188Arg/His heterozygote frequencies in staging I (SI) and XRCC3 Thr/Met heterozygote frequencies in SI was observed. The obtained results indicate that XRCC2 Arg188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms may be positively associated with the incidence of ovarian carcinoma in the population of Polish women.

Young EL, Feng BJ, Stark AW, et al.
Multigene testing of moderate-risk genes: be mindful of the missense.
J Med Genet. 2016; 53(6):366-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Moderate-risk genes have not been extensively studied, and missense substitutions in them are generally returned to patients as variants of uncertain significance lacking clearly defined risk estimates. The fraction of early-onset breast cancer cases carrying moderate-risk genotypes and quantitative methods for flagging variants for further analysis have not been established.
METHODS: We evaluated rare missense substitutions identified from a mutation screen of ATM, CHEK2, MRE11A, RAD50, NBN, RAD51, RINT1, XRCC2 and BARD1 in 1297 cases of early-onset breast cancer and 1121 controls via scores from Align-Grantham Variation Grantham Deviation (GVGD), combined annotation dependent depletion (CADD), multivariate analysis of protein polymorphism (MAPP) and PolyPhen-2. We also evaluated subjects by polygenotype from 18 breast cancer risk SNPs. From these analyses, we estimated the fraction of cases and controls that reach a breast cancer OR≥2.5 threshold.
RESULTS: Analysis of mutation screening data from the nine genes revealed that 7.5% of cases and 2.4% of controls were carriers of at least one rare variant with an average OR≥2.5. 2.1% of cases and 1.2% of controls had a polygenotype with an average OR≥2.5.
CONCLUSIONS: Among early-onset breast cancer cases, 9.6% had a genotype associated with an increased risk sufficient to affect clinical management recommendations. Over two-thirds of variants conferring this level of risk were rare missense substitutions in moderate-risk genes. Placement in the estimated OR≥2.5 group by at least two of these missense analysis programs should be used to prioritise variants for further study. Panel testing often creates more heat than light; quantitative approaches to variant prioritisation and classification may facilitate more efficient clinical classification of variants.

Gong H, Li H, Zou J, et al.
The relationship between five non-synonymous polymorphisms within three XRCC genes and gastric cancer risk in a Han Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5905-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to assess the association of five non-synonymous polymorphisms within three X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCC) genes with gastric cancer risk in Han Chinese. Genotyping was determined in 693 gastric cancer patients and 681 healthy controls. Statistical analyses were completed with SPSS (version 20.0) and Haplo.stats (version 1.6.11). The genotypes of XRCC1 gene rs25487 polymorphism (P = 0.003) differed significantly between patients and controls, even after the Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05/5), and this polymorphism was significantly associated with gastric cancer after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, especially under a dominant model (odds ratio or OR; 95 % confidence interval or CI; P 1.59; 1.20-2.00; 0.001). In multiple-marker analysis, the most common allele combination was C-G-G-G-C (alleles in order of rs1799782, rs25489, rs25487, rs3218536, rs861539), which was overrepresented in controls relative to patients (adjusted simulated P = 0.0001). Contrastingly, the frequency of allele combination C-G-A-G-C was significantly higher in patients than in controls (adjusted simulated P = 0.0009), and this combination was associated with a strikingly increased risk of gastric cancer (OR; 95 % CI; P 2.39; 1.32-4.31; 0.0040) after the Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05/11) and adjusting for confounders. Our findings demonstrated that XRCC1 gene rs25487 polymorphism might play a leading role in pronounced susceptibility to gastric cancer in Han Chinese.

Zhai M, Wang Y, Jiang MF
Arg188His polymorphism in the XRCC2 gene and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(3):10808-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the Arg188His polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2) gene and ovarian cancer risk. However, the specific association is still controversial. This meta-analysis was therefore designed to clarify these controversies. Relevant case-control studies were enrolled in the meta-analysis. Quality evaluation of the included studies was conducted by two physicians. Statistical analyses were carried out using the Stata 12.0 software for meta-analysis. Analyses of sensitivity and publication bias were also conducted. Overall, a significant association was found between the Arg188His polymorphism and ovarian cancer risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (Arg/Arg vs His/His: OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.15-3.00; Arg/Arg vs Arg/His: OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.03-1.32; dominant model: OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74-0.95; recessive model: OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.05-2.70). This meta-analysis suggested that the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism was associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these conclusions.

Becker J, May A, Gerges C, et al.
Supportive evidence for FOXP1, BARX1, and FOXF1 as genetic risk loci for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(11):1700-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) recently performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and Barrett's esophagus. They identified genome-wide significant association for variants at three genes, namely CRTC1, FOXP1, and BARX1. Furthermore, they replicated an association at the FOXF1 gene that has been previously found in a GWAS on Barrett's esophagus. We aimed at further replicating the association at these and other loci that showed suggestive association with P < 10(-4) in the BEACON sample. In total, we tested 88 SNPs in an independent sample consisting of 1065 EAC cases and 1019 controls of German descent. We could replicate the association at FOXP1, BARX1, and FOXF1 with nominal significance and thereby confirm that genetic variants at these genes confer EAC risk. In addition, we found association of variants near the genes XRCC2 and GATA6 that were strongly (P < 10(-5) ) although not genome-wide significantly associated with the BEACON GWAS. Therefore, both variants and corresponding genes represent promising candidates for future EAC association studies on independent samples.

Salim H, Zong D, Hååg P, et al.
DKK1 is a potential novel mediator of cisplatin-refractoriness in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:628 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum compounds are the mainstay of chemotherapy for lung cancer. Unfortunately treatment failure remains a critical issue since about 60% of all non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients display intrinsic platinum resistance.
METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression profiles of NSCLC clones surviving a pulse treatment with cisplatin and mapped deregulated signaling networks in silico by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Further validation was done using siRNA.
RESULTS: The pooled cisplatin-surviving NSCLC clones from each of the biological replicates demonstrated heterogeneous gene expression patterns both in terms of the number and the identity of the altered genes. Genes involved in Wnt signaling pathway (Dickkopf-1, DKK1), DNA repair machinery (XRCC2) and cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction (FMN1, LGALS9) were among the top deregulated genes by microarray in these replicates and were validated by q-RT-PCR. We focused on DKK1 which previously was reported to be overexpressed in NSCLC patients. IPA network analysis revealed coordinate up-regulation of several DKK1 transcriptional regulators (TCF4, EZH2, DNAJB6 and HDAC2) in cisplatin-surviving clones from that biological replicate. Knockdown of DKK1 by siRNA sensitized for cisplatin in two different NSCLC cell lines and in ovarian A2780 cells, but not in the A2780 cis subline made resistant to cisplatin by chronic exposure, suggesting a role of DKK1 in intrinsic but not acquired platinum refractoriness.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified DKK1 as a possible marker of a cisplatin-refractory phenotype and as a potential novel therapeutic target to improve platinum response of NSCLC cells.

Pelttari LM, Kinnunen L, Kiiski JI, et al.
Screening of HELQ in breast and ovarian cancer families.
Fam Cancer. 2016; 15(1):19-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several high and moderate risk alleles have been identified for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and most of them encode proteins that function in DNA repair. A prospective candidate for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility is the HELQ helicase that has a role in the resolution of DNA interstrand cross-links. HELQ interacts with the RAD51 paralog complex BCDX2. Two components of the complex, RAD51C and RAD51D, increase the risk of ovarian cancer especially, and the other two, RAD51B and XRCC2 have been associated with breast cancer risk. To investigate the role of HELQ in cancer predisposition, we screened the gene for germline variation in 185 Finnish breast or ovarian cancer families and performed haplotype analyses for 1517 breast cancer cases, 308 ovarian cancer cases, and 1234 population controls using five common polymorphisms at the HELQ gene locus. No truncating mutations were identified among the families. One putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.1309A>G was identified but no additional carriers were observed in the subsequent genotyping of 332 familial breast or ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, the haplotype distribution did not differ between breast or ovarian cancer cases and population controls. Our results indicate that HELQ is not a major breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene in the Finnish population. However, we cannot rule out rare risk-variants in the Finnish or other populations and larger datasets are needed to further assess the role of HELQ especially in ovarian cancer predisposition.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. XRCC2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/XRCC2.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999