CD1D; CD1d molecule (1q23.1)

Gene Summary

Gene:CD1D; CD1d molecule
Aliases: R3, CD1A
Summary:This gene encodes a divergent member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to differ in their cellular localization and specificity for particular lipid ligands. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes via a tyrosine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:antigen-presenting glycoprotein CD1d
Updated:12 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)


What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
- Hematopoietic cell lineage KEGG
Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA terms] via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 12 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Protein Transport
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • myc Genes
  • Staging
  • Antigens, CD1
  • Cancer RNA
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Base Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Flow Cytometry
  • CD1a antigen
  • Brain Tumours
  • Polymorphism
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Up-Regulation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Mutation
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Sezary Syndrome
  • Time-to-Treatment
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Exons
  • Natural Killer T-Cells
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair None
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Antigens, CD1d
  • Receptors, Interleukin-4
  • Homologous Transplantat
  • Immunoglobulin Variable Region
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 12 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (4)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaCD1D and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia View Publications5
Uterine SarcomaCD1D and Uterine Cancer View Publications1
Multiple MyelomaCD1D and Multiple Myeloma View Publications1
Brain Tumours, ChildhoodCD1D and Brain Tumours View Publications1

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: CD1D (cancer-related)

Chan JK, Kiet TK, Blansit K, et al.
MiR-378 as a biomarker for response to anti-angiogenic treatment in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 133(3):568-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of miR-378 as a biomarker for anti-angiogenic therapy response in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Expression of miR-378 was analyzed in ovarian cancer cell lines and human tumors vs. normal ovarian epithelial cells by qRT-PCR. After miR-378 transfection in SKOV3 cells, dysregulated genes were identified using microarray. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was utilized to correlate miR-378 expression with progression-free survival (PFS) among patients treated with anti-angiogenic therapy by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards.
RESULTS: MiR-378 was overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells and tumors vs. normal ovarian epithelial cells. Overexpressing miR-378 in ovarian cancer cells altered expression of genes associated with angiogenesis (ALCAM, EHD1, ELK3, TLN1), apoptosis (RPN2, HIPK3), and cell cycle regulation (SWAP-70, LSM14A, RDX). In the TCGA dataset, low vs. high miR-378 expression was associated with longer PFS in a subset of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer treated with bevacizumab (9.2 vs. 4.2months; p=0.04). On multivariate analysis, miR-378 expression was an independent predictor for PFS after anti-angiogenic treatment (HR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.12-3.72; p=0.02). Furthermore, expression levels of two miR-378 targets (ALCAM and EHD1) were associated with PFS in this subgroup of patients who received anti-angiogenic therapy (9.4 vs. 4.2months, p=0.04 for high vs. low ALCAM; 7.9 vs. 2.3months, p<0.01 for low vs. high EHD1).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that miR-378 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells and tumors vs. normal ovarian epithelial cells. MiR-378 and its downstream targets may serve as markers for response to anti-angiogenic therapy.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Ovarian Cancer Bevacizumab (Avastin)

Gupta RK, Qureshi A, Choi JK
Histologic findings in skin biopsy in a JMML rash: a case report and review of literature.
Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 17(2):130-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), belonging to the category of myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndromes, is a rare pediatric hematologic malignancy with frequent skin manifestations commonly in the form of rashes. However, these rashes are not always biopsied and their immunophenotype studied in details. We report one such case in a 2-year-old boy who presented with a 1-month history of nonresolving fever, fatigue, and pallor along with a generalized maculopapular skin rash. The child also had mild hepatomegaly. A complete blood count with differential revealed a hemoglobin value of 8.6 g/L, leukocytosis (white blood cell count of 55.3 × 109/L), absolute monocytosis (27 × 109/L), immature granulocytes, and a platelet count of 126 × 109/L. The bone marrow aspirate showed a hypercellular marrow with trilineage hematopoiesis, 10% blasts (including promonocytes), increased monocytes (46%), and dysplastic changes in the erythroid and myeloid cell lines. These findings along with absence of a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and a hemoglobin F level of 3.4% were consistent with the diagnosis of JMML, which was confirmed by subsequent positive granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor hypersensitivity and NRAS mutation studies. A skin biopsy of the rash revealed a dermal infiltrate composed predominantly of atypical monocytic cells that were positive for CD68, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme and negative for CD117, CD1a, and S100, consistent with JMML.

Tanaka T, Torigoe T, Hirohashi Y, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-independent expression mechanism and novel function of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-3 in renal cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(3):503-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We previously found that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase-3 (PHD3) was frequently overexpressed in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), unlike in normal tissues, and therefore, we studied the mechanism and role of PHD3 expression in RCC.
METHODS: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene-mutant RCC cell lines SMKT-R2 and SMKT-R3 and wild-type VHL cell lines Caki-1 and ACHN were used. Associations of the expression of PHD3 with HIF-α proteins and signal transduction pathways were evaluated under normoxic conditions. The effect of PHD3 on cell proliferation was also examined by small interference RNA and cDNA transfection. Moreover, the prognostic impact of PHD3 expression in clear cell RCC (CCRCC) was evaluated using primary cancer tissues.
RESULTS: In SMKT-R2 and SMKT-R3, HIF-α proteins were expressed and PHD3 was highly expressed. On the other hand, ACHN had low expression of HIF-α proteins and PHD3. However, Caki-1 had high expression of PHD3 even though there was no distinct expression of HIF-α proteins. PHD3 expression was inhibited by blockade of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but not by HIF-1α and HIF-2α double knockdown. In addition, PHD3 knockdown resulted in the promotion of cell proliferation in SMKT-R2, SMKT-R3 and Caki-1. On the other hand, forced expression of PHD3 reduced cell proliferation in ACHN. In immunohistochemistry, PHD3 expression was a significant factor for better recurrence-free survival in patients with CCRCC.
CONCLUSIONS: PHD3 expression can be induced by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway in RCC independently of HIF proteins. Furthermore, PHD3 has an antiproliferative function independent of HIF protein status in RCC, indicating a novel expression mechanism and function of PHD3.

Related: Kidney Cancer AKT1 Signal Transduction

Dahia PL
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma pathogenesis: learning from genetic heterogeneity.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2014; 14(2):108-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The neuroendocrine tumours pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas carry the highest degree of heritability in human neoplasms, enabling genetic alterations to be traced to clinical phenotypes through their transmission in families. Mutations in more than a dozen distinct susceptibility genes have implicated multiple pathways in these tumours, offering insights into kinase downstream signalling interactions and hypoxia regulation, and uncovering links between metabolism, epigenetic remodelling and cell growth. These advances extend to co-occurring tumours, including renal, thyroid and gastrointestinal malignancies. Hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are powerful models for recognizing cancer driver events, which can be harnessed for diagnostic purposes and for guiding the future development of targeted therapies.

Related: Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

Bojarska-Junak A, Hus I, Chocholska S, et al.
CD1d expression is higher in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unfavorable prognosis.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(4):435-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Through the analysis of CD1d expression by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR we showed lower CD1d molecule and CD1d mRNA expression in B cells of CLL patients than of healthy controls. The frequency of CD1d(+)/CD19(+) cells, CD1d staining intensity and CD1d transcript levels increased with the disease stage. CD1d expression was positively associated with ZAP-70 and CD38 expressions as well as with unfavourable cytogenetic changes. We established the relationship between high CD1d expression and shorter time to treatment and overall survival. We observed that CD1d expression in individual patients significantly changed over time. The percentage of CD1d(+)/CD19(+) cells inversely correlated with the percentage of iNKT cells.

Related: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology

Zhu H, Huang M, Ren D, et al.
The synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:293874 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member which has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. However, many cancer cells remain resistant to TRAIL. In this study, we had investigated the synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil (5-Fu) and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells and explored the potential mechanisms. Cell viability was analyzed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the synergistic effects were evaluated by Jin's formula and confirmed by both morphological changes under inverted microscope and flow cytometry. The expression of TRAIL-R1 (death receptor 4, DR4), TRAIL-R2 (DR5), TRAIL-R3 (decoy receptor, DcR1), TRAIL-R4 (DcR2), procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 was detected by western blotting. Our results showed that there were significant synergistic effects of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant AGS cells, and this effect was supposed to be mediated by decreasing DcR2 expression and increasing DR5 expression. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were both activated. The data suggest that combined treatment of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL can be an effective therapeutic approach for gastric adenocarcinoma.

Related: Apoptosis Fluorouracil Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer TNFRSF10B TNFSF10

Zeng J, Wang S
Human dendritic cells derived from embryonic stem cells stably modified with CD1d efficiently stimulate antitumor invariant natural killer T cell response.
Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014; 3(1):69-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique lymphocyte subpopulation that mediates antitumor activities upon activation. A current strategy to harness iNKT cells for cancer treatment is endogenous iNKT cell activation using patient-derived dendritic cells (DCs). However, the limited number and functional defects of patient DCs are still the major challenges for this therapeutic approach. In this study, we investigated whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with an ectopically expressed CD1d gene could be exploited to address this issue. Using a lentivector carrying an optimized expression cassette, we generated stably modified hESC lines that consistently overexpressed CD1d. These modified hESC lines were able to differentiate into DCs as efficiently as the parental line. Most importantly, more than 50% of such derived DCs were CD1d+. These CD1d-overexpressing DCs were more efficient in inducing iNKT cell response than those without modification, and their ability was comparable to that of DCs generated from monocytes of healthy donors. The iNKT cells expanded by the CD1d-overexpressing DCs were functional, as demonstrated by their ability to lyse iNKT cell-sensitive glioma cells. Therefore, hESCs stably modified with the CD1d gene may serve as a convenient, unlimited, and competent DC source for iNKT cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

Pastorczak A, Fendler W, Zalewska-Szewczyk B, et al.
Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene polymorphism is associated with the outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by affecting early response to treatment.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(2):180-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The polymorphism of 14-bp tandem repeat sequence located in the ASNS gene probably acts as a transcriptional enhancer element and leads to higher expression of the gene in carriers of more than 2 repeats (>R2). We searched for an association with disease outcome in 264 children with ALL. A multivariate proportional hazard regression model adjusted for age at diagnosis (HR (95%CI)=1.05 (1.04-1.09)) and high-risk group (HR(95%CI)=3.47 (1.74-6.88)) revealed that R3 carriers with a poor response at day 15 had an increased risk of events, HR (95%CI)=2.72 (1.06-6.96). These results suggest a conditional interaction between the ASNS polymorphism and an early response to chemotherapy among pediatric patients with ALL.

Related: Polymorphisms Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Childhood Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) ALL - Molecular Biology

Braga Lda C, Silva LM, Piedade JB, et al.
Epigenetic and expression analysis of TRAIL-R2 and BCL2: on the TRAIL to knowledge of apoptosis in ovarian tumors.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014; 289(5):1061-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses TRAIL-R2 (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2) and BCL2 (B cell CLL/lymphoma 2) expression as well as CpG island methylation within the TRAIL-R2 promoter in ovarian serous tumors and primary and metastatic serous EOC (epithelial ovarian cancer).
METHODS: RNA and DNA were obtained from women with normal ovarian tissues (n = 18), ovarian serous cystadenoma tumors (n = 11) and serous EOC (n = 16) using Trizol®. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify the relative levels of TRAIL-R2 and BCL2. The methylation frequency of the TRAIL-R3 promoter was assessed using a methylation-specific PCR assay after DNA bisulfite conversion. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the χ (2), Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests, as indicated.
RESULTS: We identified TRAIL-R2 and BCL2 mRNA expressed in all ovarian tumor groups, and there were significant differences between the groups. Both genes had low expression levels in ovarian serous cystadenoma and primary EOC tumors when compared with metastatic EOC. Methylation of the TRAIL-R2 promoter was frequently observed in all groups; however, there were no statistically significant associations.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary EOC is associated with lower TRAIL-R2 and BCL2 expression levels, while metastatic EOC is associated with higher expression of these genes. Promoter DNA methylation was not related to this finding, suggesting there are other mechanisms involved in transcriptional control.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Zhou J, Huang Y, Li L, et al.
Identification of two novel, alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.
Mol Reprod Dev. 2013; 80(11):916-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glycoprotein hormone receptors contain large extracellular domains encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Using human ovarian surface epithelium, we cloned two new splice variants of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) gene, hFSH-R2 and hFSH-R3. The hFSH-R2 splice variant differed from the full-length FSH-R mRNA by the deletion of exon 10 and inclusion of two small exons after exon 9 whereas the hFSH-R3 splice variant retained only exons 1-6 of the full-length transcript. Both variants were expressed at low levels, but were detected in cells from follicular fluid derived from 30 different subjects. Transfection of these two variants individually into KGN cells, an ovarian cancer cell line that expresses wild-type FSH-R, reduced FSH-mediated phosphorylation of ERK(1/2), Akt, and p38/MAPK. Furthermore, in vitro co-expression of either hFSH-R2 or hFSH-R3 and full-length FSH-R in HEK293T cells reduced signal transduction through full-length FSH-R. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the functions of these receptor isoforms.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Gulubova M, Manolova I, Ananiev J, et al.
Relationship of TGF-β1 and Smad7 expression with decreased dendritic cell infiltration in liver gastrointestinal cancer metastasis.
APMIS. 2013; 121(10):967-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immune responses and their modulation within the liver are critical to the outcome of liver malignancies. In late-stage tumors, secreted TGF-β promotes oncogenic functions and can confer tolerogenicity to some immune cells like DCs. The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the control of several biological processes, including immunosurveillance. The aim of the present study was to assess CD1a(+) and CD83(+) DCs and to evaluate the impact of TGF-β pathway on DCs maturation and distribution in the liver metastases from gastric and colorectal tumors. The percentage of CD83(+) DCs in the liver tissue, surrounding metastasis and in the metastasis-free liver was measured by flow cytometry, and TGF-β levels were assessed in the tissue supernatant from the peritumoral liver after mononuclear cell isolation and in the sera of the same patients. CD1a(+) and CD83(+) DCs were observed in the tumor stroma and border. Out of 73 patients, there was cytoplasmic reactivity: of TGF-β1 in 37 (50.7%); of Smad4 in 62 (84.9%); of Smad7 in 46 (63%), and of TGFβRII in 39 (53.4%) of the metastases. The TGF-β1 expression in tumor cell cytoplasm correlated with low CD1a(+) and low CD83(+) DCs infiltration. The tissue levels of TGF-β1, measured by ELISA in the supernatant were significantly increased in metastases than in normal liver. Using a two-color FACS analysis, we found that the percentage of HLA-DR(+) CD83(+) DCs in metastases was significantly decreased as compared with metastasis-free liver tissue. In conclusion, the positive and negative correlations between the mediators from the TGF-β pathway implied the existence of imbalance and suppression of this cytokine activity. The presence of increased TGF-β expression by immunohistochemistry in tumor cells was confirmed by detection of increased TGF-β tissue level in the supernatant from the tissue homogenate. The observation of low numbers of CD1a(+) and CD83(+) DCs in tumor stroma correlated with TGF-β overexpression in tumor cells, a fact that well documents the immunosuppressive role of TGF-β in metastasis development. The increased percentage of CD83(+) DCs in the peritumoral tissue supposes that there could be active recruitment or local differentiation of DCs in the metastasis border, but inside the tumor the immune cells recruitment and activity are suppressed by TGF-β and by other cytokines.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Signal Transduction SMAD7 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer TGFB1

Liu D, Song L, Brawley VS, et al.
Medulloblastoma expresses CD1d and can be targeted for immunotherapy with NKT cells.
Clin Immunol. 2013; 149(1):55-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Current therapies are toxic and not always curative that necessitates development of targeted immunotherapy. However, little is known about immunobiology of this tumor. In this study, we show that MB cells in 9 of 20 primary tumors express CD1d, an antigen-presenting molecule for Natural Killer T cells (NKTs). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 61 primary tumors revealed an elevated level of CD1d mRNA expression in a molecular subgroup characterized by an overactivation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) oncogene compared with Group 4. CD1d-positive MB cells cross-presented glycolipid antigens to activate NKT-cell cytotoxicity. Intracranial injection of NKTs resulted in regression of orthotopic MB xenografts in NOD/SCID mice. Importantly, the numbers and function of peripheral blood type-I NKTs were preserved in MB patients. Therefore, CD1d is expressed on tumor cells in a subset of MB patients and represents a novel target for immunotherapy.

Related: Childhood Medulloblastoma / PNET

Gilbert ER, Eby JM, Hammer AM, et al.
Positioning ganglioside D3 as an immunotherapeutic target in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 183(1):226-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors that develop in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) as a consequence of biallelic loss of TSC1 or TSC2 gene function express melanoma differentiation antigens. However, the percentage of LAM cells expressing these melanosomal antigens is limited. Here, we report the overexpression of ganglioside D3 (GD3) in LAM. GD3 is a tumor-associated antigen otherwise found in melanoma and neuroendocrine tumors; normal expression is largely restricted to neuronal cells in the brain. We also observed markedly reduced serum antibody titers to GD3, which may allow for a population of GD3-expressing LAM cells to expand within patients. This is supported by the demonstrated sensitivity of cultured LAM cells to complement mediated cytotoxicity via GD3 antibodies. GD3 can serve as a natural killer T (NKT) cell antigen when presented on CD1d molecules expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells. Although CD1d-expressing monocyte derivatives were present in situ, enhanced NKT-cell recruitment to LAM lung was not observed. Cultured LAM cells retained surface expression of GD3 over several passages and also expressed CD1d, implying that infiltrating NKT cells can be directly cytotoxic toward LAM lung lesions. Immunization with antibodies to GD3 may thus be therapeutic in LAM, and enhancement of existing NKT-cell infiltration may be effective to further improve antitumor responses. Overall, we hereby establish GD3 as a suitable target for immunotherapy of LAM.

Related: Lung Cancer

Shon W, Peters MS, Reed KB, et al.
Atypical generalized eruptive histiocytosis clonally related to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with loss of Y chromosome.
J Cutan Pathol. 2013; 40(8):725-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Generalized eruptive histiocytosis, described in 1963 by Winklemann and Muller, is a reactive, self-healing form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. Rare cases of atypical generalized eruptive histiocytosis have been reported in patients with hematopoietic malignancy, but the biological relationship between the two disorders is not known. We report an 84-year-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia who presented with coalescing erythematous papules and plaques on the posterior neck, ear and lower lip, followed by development of blast crisis. Skin biopsy revealed a thick band-like dermal infiltrate of cells that exhibited morphologic features of macrophages or histiocytes and prominent elastolytic phagocytosis. These cells demonstrated a mature immunophenotype, expressing CD14 and CD68, with partial expression of CD13 but not CD1a, CD43, CD56, CD123, Langerin, or S-100 protein. Karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed loss of the Y chromosome in bone marrow and skin specimens, providing evidence of a clonal relationship between the cutaneous eruption and the underlying chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The presence of the same clone in skin and bone marrow specimens from our patient supports the possibility that atypical generalized eruptive histiocytosis is a marker for underlying hematopoietic malignancy. Discovery of additional cases may shed further light on the pathogenesis of this rare entity.

Related: Chromosome Y Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology Langerhan's Cell Histiocytosis Skin Cancer

Hald SM, Bremnes RM, Al-Shibli K, et al.
CD4/CD8 co-expression shows independent prognostic impact in resected non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy.
Lung Cancer. 2013; 80(2):209-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Though traditionally regarded as immunosuppressive, radiotherapy may also stimulate immune cells and facilitate an anti-tumor immune response. We therefore aimed to explore the prognostic significance of immune cell markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy (PORT).
METHODS: In addition to demographic and clinicopathological information, tumor tissue samples were collected and tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from 55 patients with stage I-IIIA NSCLC who received PORT. Tumor and stromal expression of CD1a+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, CD56+, CD68+, CD117+ and CD138+ cells, as well as M-CSF and CSF-1R, was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: In univariate analysis, high co-expression of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes as well as high expression of CD1a+ dendritic cells in the tumor stroma correlated with improved disease-specific survival (DSS). In multivariate analysis patients with stromal ↓CD4/↓CD8 expression had a hazard ratio of 21.1 (CI95% 3.9-115.6, P<0.001) when compared to those with ↑CD4/↑CD8 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Stromal ↓CD4/↓CD8 expression was an independent negative prognostic factor for survival in NSCLC patients receiving PORT, indicating a highly detrimental prognosis.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Kumar MM, Adurthi S, Ramachandran S, et al.
Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9 expression and function in primary human cervical cancer Langerhans cells: evidence of anergy.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013; 23(1):184-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus oncoproteins E6 and E7 down modulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 expression in infected keratinocytes. We explored the status of expression and function of TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 in primary human Langerhans cells (LCs) isolated from cervical tumors.
METHODOLOGY: Single-cell suspensions were made from fresh tissues of squamous cell carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB2); myeloid dendritic cells were purified using CD1c magnetic activated cell separation kits. Langerhans cells were further flow sorted into CD1a*CD207* cells. Acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1-derived LCs (moLCs) formed the controls. mRNA from flow-sorted LCs was reverse transcribed to cDNA and TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 amplified. Monocyte-derived Langerhans cells and cervical tumor LCs were stimulated with TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 ligands. Culture supernatants were assayed for interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, interferon (IFN) α, interferon γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α by Luminex multiplex bead array. Human papillomavirus was genotyped.
RESULTS: We have for the first time demonstrated that the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 can be differentiated into LCs in vitro. Although these moLCs expressed all the 3 TLRs, tumor LCs expressed TLR7 and TLR8, but uniformly lacked TLR9. Also, moLCs secreted IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α to TLR8 ligand and interferon α in response to TLR9 ligand; in contrast, tumor LCs did not express any cytokine to any of the 3 TLR ligands. Human papillomavirus type 16 was one of the common human papillomavirus types in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Cervical tumor LCs lacked TLR9 expression and were functionally anergic to all the 3: TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 ligands, which may play a crucial role in immune tolerance. The exact location of block(s) in TLR7 and TLR8 signaling needs to be investigated, which would have important immunotherapeutic implications.

Related: Cervical Cancer

Harman AN, Bye CR, Nasr N, et al.
Identification of lineage relationships and novel markers of blood and skin human dendritic cells.
J Immunol. 2013; 190(1):66-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
The lineage relationships and fate of human dendritic cells (DCs) have significance for a number of diseases including HIV where both blood and tissue DCs may be infected. We used gene expression profiling of human monocyte and DC subpopulations sorted directly from blood and skin to define the lineage relationships. We also compared these with monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and MUTZ3 Langerhans cells (LCs) to investigate their relevance as model skin DCs. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that myeloid DCs clustered according to anatomical origin rather than putative lineage. Plasmacytoid DCs formed the most discrete cluster, but ex vivo myeloid cells formed separate clusters of cells both in blood and in skin. Separate and specific DC populations could be determined within skin, and the proportion of CD14(+) dermal DCs (DDCs) was reduced and CD1a(+) DDCs increased during culture, suggesting conversion to CD1a(+)-expressing cells in situ. This is consistent with origin of the CD1a(+) DDCs from a local precursor rather than directly from circulating blood DCs or monocyte precursors. Consistent with their use as model skin DCs, the in vitro-derived MDDC and MUTZ3 LC populations grouped within the skin DC cluster. MDDCs clustered most closely to CD14(+) DDCs; furthermore, common unique patterns of C-type lectin receptor expression were identified between these two cell types. MUTZ3 LCs, however, did not cluster closely with ex vivo-derived LCs. We identified differential expression of novel genes in monocyte and DC subsets including genes related to DC surface receptors (including C-type lectin receptors, TLRs, and galectins).

Related: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Simone R, Tenca C, Fais F, et al.
A soluble form of CTLA-4 is present in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and correlates with CD1d+ expression.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44654 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
CTLA-4 is a key factor in regulating and maintaining self tolerance, providing a negative signal to the T cell and thus limiting immune responses. Several polymorphisms within the CTLA-4 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases and, very recently, with susceptibility to human cancer. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a clonal disorder of lymphoid progenitors representing the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Here, we show the presence at significantly elevated levels of a circulating soluble form of CTLA-4 in 70% of B-ALL pediatric patients with active disease, the positive correlation between the percentage of leukemic B lymphocytes and the amount of serum sCTLA-4, and the expression of sCTLA-4 transcript by B cells in patients. Finally, a correlation between CD1d expression (a negative prognostic marker) and the sCTLA-4 in B-ALL patients was observed. This suggests a possible role of this soluble molecule as a marker of progression or severity of the neoplastic disease.

Related: Polymorphisms

Minnicelli C, Barros MH, Klumb CE, et al.
Relationship of Epstein-Barr virus and interleukin 10 promoter polymorphisms with the risk and clinical outcome of childhood Burkitt lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e46005 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important environmental factor associated to the development of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in endemic and intermediate risk regions. However, little is known about the contribution of genetic constitution to the development and clinical response of the disease. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of EBV and Interleukin 10 (IL10) single nucleotide polymorphisms (-1082A/G, -819C/T, -592C/A) and microsatellites (IL10.R and IL10.G) in susceptibility and clinical outcome in pediatric BL patients, in a region with intermediate EBV association frequency. The frequencies of IL10 promoter Single nucleotide polymorphisms -1082A/G, -819C/T, -592C/A, and IL10.R and IL10.G microsatellites were compared in 62 pediatric patients and 216 healthy donors. IL10 -1082GG and GCC/GCC genotypes were more frequent in patients than in controls, and associated to a higher risk of BL development (GG genotype OR 2.62, 95% CI, 1.25-5.51; P = 0.008; Pc = 0.024). EBV was detected in tumor samples by EBER-ISH in 54.1% of cases. EBV+ patients exhibited a better event free survival (EFS) (P = 0.019) than EBV- patients. Carriers of IL10 R3-GCC had worse EFS (P = 0.028). Our results suggest a risk effect and an independent prognostic value of IL10 polymorphisms and EBV in childhood BL patients.

Related: IL10

Xu Z, Padmore R, Faught C, et al.
Langerhans cell sarcoma with an aberrant cytoplasmic CD3 expression.
Diagn Pathol. 2012; 7:128 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Langerhans cell sarcoma is a rare and aggressive high grade hematopoietic neoplasm with a dismal prognosis. It has a unique morphological and immunotypic profile with a CD1a/ langerin/S100 + phenotype. T cell lineage markers except for CD4 in Langerhans cell sarcoma have not been documented previously. We report a case of 86 year-old male of Caucasian descent who presented with an enlarging right neck mass over 2 months with an underlying unknown cause of anemia. Computed tomography scan of the neck, chest and abdomen revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and mild splenomegaly suspicious for lymphoma. Diagnostic core biopsy performed on right neck mass revealed a possible T cell lymphoma with expression of T cell lineage specific marker CD3 but conclusive diagnosis could not be made due to insufficient core biopsy sample. Further excisional biopsy performed on a left inguinal node showed a hematopoietic neoplasm with features of Langerhans cell sarcoma with a focal cytoplasmic CD3 expression in 30-40% of the tumor cells. PCR for T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement failed to demonstrate a clonal gene rearrangement in the tumor cells arguing against a T cell lineage transdifferentiation, suggesting an aberrant CD3 expression. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Langerhans cell sarcoma with an aberrant cytoplasmic CD3 expression.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2065486371761991.

Related: Haematological Malignancies & Realted Disorders

Fallarini S, Paoletti T, Orsi Battaglini N, Lombardi G
Invariant NKT cells increase drug-induced osteosarcoma cell death.
Br J Pharmacol. 2012; 167(7):1533-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In osteosarcoma (OS) patients, only a limited number of drugs are active and the regimens currently in use include a combination of at least two of these drugs: doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate and ifosfamide. Today, 30-40% of patients still die of OS highlighting the urgent need for new treatments. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a lymphocyte lineage with features of both T and NK cells, playing important roles in tumour suppression. Our aim was to test whether the cytoxicity induced by cisplatin, doxorubicin and methotrexate against OS cells can be enhanced by iNKT cell treatment.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: iNKT cells were purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by cell sorting (Vα24Vβ11(+) cells) and used as effector cells against OS cells (U2-OS, HOS, MG-63). Cell death (calcein-AM method), perforin/granzyme B and Fas/FasL expressions were determined by flow cytometry. CD1d expression was analysed at both the gene and protein level.
KEY RESULTS: iNKT cells were cytotoxic against OS cells through a CD1d-dependent mechanism. This activity was specific for tumour cells, because human CD1d(+) mesenchymal stem cells and CD1d(-) osteoblasts were not affected. iNKT cell treatment enhanced drug-induced OS cell death in a concentration-dependent manner and this effect was reduced in CD1d-silenced OS cells.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: iNKT cells kill malignant, but not non-malignant, cells. iNKT cell treatment enhances the cytotoxicity of anti-neoplastic drugs against OS cells in a CD1d-dependent manner. The present data encourage further studies on the use of iNKT cells in OS therapy.

Related: Cisplatin Doxorubicin Methotrexate Osteosarcoma

Szabo A, Osman RM, Bacskai I, et al.
Temporally designed treatment of melanoma cells by ATRA and polyI: C results in enhanced chemokine and IFNβ secretion controlled differently by TLR3 and MDA5.
Melanoma Res. 2012; 22(5):351-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the last three decades, the incidence of melanoma has increased worldwide and no effective treatment modalities have been developed yet. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) are strong inducers of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and MDA5 expression, and polyI:C-induced TLR3 and MDA5 signaling specifically causes cell death in melanoma cells in vitro. We addressed the question of whether ATRA pretreatment could enhance the efficacy of polyI:C and, if so, would ATRA have any additional effects on this process. We found that the combined treatment of human melanoma cells with ATRA and polyI:C strongly increased the expression of TLR3 and MDA5 in both WM35 and WM983A cells associated with significantly higher mRNA and secreted levels of interferon β (IFNβ), CXCL1, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 than cells treated with either ATRA or polyI:C. Silencing of MDA5 by siRNA moderately affected IFNβ secretion, whereas TLR3 knockdown interfered with both CXCL chemokine and IFNβ production. Furthermore, the supernatants of ATRA+polyI:C-activated cultures increased the migration of both human monocyte-derived macrophages and CD1a dendritic cells significantly as compared with the supernatants of cells treated with either ATRA or polyI:C, and this effect occurred in a TLR3-dependent manner. In conclusion, consecutive treatment with ATRA and polyI:C results in strong, TLR3/MDA5-mediated chemokine and IFN responses in cultured human melanoma cells, which triggers a functional migratory response in professional antigen-presenting cells. This novel mode of concomitant activation may represent a more efficient treatment option for future melanoma therapy.

Related: Melanoma Signal Transduction Skin Cancer

Jadidi-Niaragh F, Jeddi-Tehrani M, Ansaripour B, et al.
Reduced frequency of NKT-like cells in patients with progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Med Oncol. 2012; 29(5):3561-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of innate immune cells displaying a limited repertoire of antigen specificities and CD1d restriction. Little is known about contribution of NKT cells in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, the frequencies of NKT-like cells, B cells expressing CD1d molecule and CD4(+) regulatory (Treg) cells were analyzed in 40 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 15 healthy subjects by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the frequency of CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like cells is significantly decreased in progressive (4.9 ± 0.8 % of total CD3(+) T cells) compared with indolent (8.1 ± 1.2 %, p = 0.036) patients and healthy subjects (10.6 ± 1.7 %, p = 0.003). However, no association was found between NKT-like cell frequency and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutation or CD38 and ZAP70 expression. On the other hand, expression of CD1d molecule was significantly higher in leukemic B cells of patients with CLL (75 ± 1.5 % of total CD19(+) B cells) compared to B cells from healthy subjects (59.6 ± 2.2 %, p < 0.001), with no significant difference between progressive and indolent patients. Interestingly, the frequency of Treg cells was inversely correlated with that of NKT-like cells in patients with CLL (r = -0.4, p = 0.002). Our results suggest a protective role for NKT-like cells in patients with CLL, which seems to be downregulated presumably by Treg cells.

Related: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology

Furmanczyk PS, Lisle AE, Caldwell RB, et al.
Langerhans cell sarcoma in a patient with hairy cell leukemia: common clonal origin indicated by identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements.
J Cutan Pathol. 2012; 39(6):644-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas are rare tumors, a few of which have been reported in association with B-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Isolated reports have documented identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements suggesting a common clonal origin for both the sarcoma and the B-cell neoplasm from individual patients. We report a case of a 75-year-old male with hairy cell leukemia who subsequently developed Langerhans cell sarcoma 1 year after his primary diagnosis of leukemia. The bone marrow biopsy containing hairy cell leukemia and skin biopsies of Langerhans cell sarcoma were evaluated by routine histology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometric immunophenotyping and PCR-based gene rearrangement studies of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa genes. The hairy cell leukemia showed characteristic morphologic, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric features. The Langerhans cell sarcoma showed pleomorphic cytology, a high mitotic rate and characteristic immunohistochemical staining for Langerin, S100 and CD1a. There was no evidence of B-cell differentiation or a background B-cell infiltrate based on the absence of immunoreactivity with antibodies to multiple B-cell markers. Identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were identified in both the hairy cell leukemia and Langerhans cell sarcoma specimens. Despite the phenotypic dissimilarity of the two neoplasms, identical immunoglobulin gene rearrangements indicate a common origin.

Related: Hairy Cell Leukemia HCL - Molecular Biology Skin Cancer

Braga Lda C, Alvares da Silva Ramos AP, Traiman P, et al.
TRAIL-R3-related apoptosis: epigenetic and expression analyses in women with ovarian neoplasia.
Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 126(2):268-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression of TRAIL-R3 and the methylation of a CpG island within the TRAIL-R3 promoter both in cystadenoma tumors and primary and metastatic epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).
METHODS: RNA was obtained from women with normal ovarian (NO) tissues (n=18), ovarian serous cystadenoma tumors (n=11) and EOC (n=16) using Trizol. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to quantify the relative levels of TRAIL-R3. The methylation frequency of the CpG island in the TRAIL-R3 promoter was assessed using the methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay after DNA bisulfite conversion. The differences between the groups were evaluated using the chi-square, Student's t, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon or Kruskal-Wallis tests as indicated. The survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Cystadenoma and metastatic EOC tumors expressed significantly more TRAIL-R3 mRNA than primary EOC tumors. Methylation of the TRAIL-R3 promoter was absent in NO tissues, while hemimethylation of the TRAIL-R3 promoter was frequently found in the neoplasia samples with 45.4% of the cystadenoma tumors, 8.3% of the primary EOC samples and 11.1% of the metastatic EOC samples showing at least partial methylation (p=0.018). Neither the expression of TRAIL-R3 nor alterations in the methylation profile were associated to cumulative progression-free survival or the overall survival in EOC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary EOC is associated to a lower TRAIL-R3 expression, which leads to a better understanding of the complex disease and highlighting potential therapeutic targets. Promoter DNA methylation was not related to this finding, suggesting the presence of other mechanisms to transcriptional control.

Related: Apoptosis Ovarian Cancer

Quentmeier H, Eberth S, Romani J, et al.
DNA methylation regulates expression of VEGF-R2 (KDR) and VEGF-R3 (FLT4).
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGF-Rs) are important regulators for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. VEGFs and VEGF-Rs are not only expressed on endothelial cells but also on various subtypes of solid tumors and leukemias contributing to the growth of the malignant cells. This study was performed to examine whether VEGF-R2 (KDR) and VEGF-R3 (FLT4) are regulated by DNA methylation.
METHODS: Real-time (RT) PCR analysis was performed to quantify KDR and FLT4 expression in some ninety leukemia/lymphoma cell lines, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Western blot analyses and flow cytometric analyses confirmed results at the protein level. After bisulfite conversion of DNA we determined the methylation status of KDR and FLT4 by DNA sequencing and by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Western blot analyses were performed to examine the effect of VEGF-C on p42/44 MAPK activation.
RESULTS: Expression of KDR and FLT4 was observed in cell lines from various leukemic entities, but not in lymphoma cell lines: 16% (10/62) of the leukemia cell lines expressed KDR, 42% (27/65) were FLT4 positive. None of thirty cell lines representing six lymphoma subtypes showed more than marginal expression of KDR or FLT4. Western blot analyses confirmed KDR and FLT4 protein expression in HDMECs, HUVECs and in cell lines with high VEGF-R mRNA levels. Mature VEGF-C induced p42/44 MAPK activation in the KDR- /FLT4(+) cell line OCI-AML1 verifying the model character of this cell line for VEGF-C signal transduction studies. Bisulfite sequencing and MSP revealed that GpG islands in the promoter regions of KDR and FLT4 were unmethylated in HUVECs, HDMECs and KDR(+) and FLT4(+) cell lines, whereas methylated cell lines did not express these genes. In hypermethylated cell lines, KDR and FLT4 were re-inducible by treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine, confirming epigenetic regulation of both genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that VEGF-Rs KDR and FLT4 are silenced by DNA methylation. However, if the promoters are unmethylated, other factors (e.g. transactivation factors) determine the extent of KDR and FLT4 expression.

Related: Leukemia

Aleskandarany MA, Green AR, Benhasouna AA, et al.
Prognostic value of proliferation assay in the luminal, HER2-positive, and triple-negative biologic classes of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(1):R3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Although the prognostic significance of proliferation in early invasive breast cancer has been recognized for a long time, recent gene-expression profiling studies have reemphasized its biologic and prognostic value and the potential application of its assessment in routine practice, particularly to define prognostic subgroups of luminal/hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumors. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of a proliferation assay by using Ki-67 immunohistochemistry as compared with mitotic count scores.
METHOD: Proliferation was assessed by using Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67LI) and mitotic scores in a large (n = 1,550) and well-characterized series of clinically annotated primary operable invasive breast cancer with long-term follow-up. Tumors were phenotyped based on their IHC profiles into luminal/HR+, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) classes. We used a split-sample development and validation approach to determine the optimal Ki-67LI cut-offs.
RESULTS: The optimal cut-points of Ki-67LI were 10% and 50% for the luminal class. Both Ki7LI and MS were able to split luminal tumors into subgroups with significantly variable outcomes, independent of other variables. Neither mitotic count scores nor Ki-67LI was associated with outcome in the HER2+ or the TN classes.
CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of proliferation by using Ki-67LI and MS can distinguish subgroups of patients within luminal/hormone receptor-positive breast cancer significantly different in clinical outcomes. Overall, both Ki-67 LI and mitotic-count scores showed comparable results. The method described could provide a cost-effective method for prognostic subclassification of luminal/hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in routine clinical practice.

Related: Breast Cancer MKI67

Matthews Q, Jirasek A, Lum JJ, Brolo AG
Biochemical signatures of in vitro radiation response in human lung, breast and prostate tumour cells observed with Raman spectroscopy.
Phys Med Biol. 2011; 56(21):6839-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
This work applies noninvasive single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze and correlate radiation-induced biochemical changes in a panel of human tumour cell lines that vary by tissue of origin, p53 status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. Six human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3 and LNCaP), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), were irradiated in vitro with single fractions (15, 30 or 50 Gy) of 6 MV photons. Remaining live cells were harvested for RS analysis at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-irradiation, along with unirradiated controls. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 cells per sample utilizing a 785 nm excitation laser. All spectra (200 per cell line) were individually post-processed using established methods and the total data set for each cell line was analyzed with PCA using standard algorithms. One radiation-induced PCA component was detected for each cell line by identification of statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24-72 h post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation-induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation-induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three distinct RS response categories: R1 (H460 and MCF7), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3) and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity, as the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant (SF(2) > 0.6) and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (SF(2) < 0.5). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Potential radiation-induced biochemical response mechanisms underlying our RS observations are proposed, such as (1) the regulated synthesis and degradation of structured proteins and (2) the expression of anti-apoptosis factors or other survival signals. This study demonstrates the utility of RS for noninvasive radiobiological analysis of tumour cell radiation response, and indicates the potential for future RS studies designed to investigate, monitor or predict radiation response.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer

Vera DR, Eigner S, Beran M, et al.
Preclinical evaluation of (177)lu-nimotuzumab: a potential tool for radioimmunotherapy of epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing tumors.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2011; 26(3):287-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The humanized monoclonal antibody Nimotuzumab (h-R3) has demonstrated an exceptional and better clinical profile than other monoclonal antibodies for immunotherapy of epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing tumors. This work deals with the preparation and radiolabeling optimization of (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab and their preclinical evaluation.
METHODS: Nimotuzumab was conjugated with S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA), testing different molar ratios. The immunoconjugates were characterized. The radiolabeling with (177)Lu was optimized. Radioimmunoconjugates stability was tested in 2-[bis[2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]acetic acid (DTPA) excess and human serum. In vitro studies were performed in tumor model cell lines. Receptor-specific binding was tested by competitive inhibition. (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab in vivo studies were conducted in healthy and xenograft animals.
RESULTS: Nimotuzumab conjugates were obtained with high purity. Radiolabeling yield and specific activities ranged from 63.6% to 94.5% and from 748 to 1142 MBq/mg, respectively. The stability in DTPA excess and human serum was 95.9% and 93.2% after 10 days, respectively. The radioimmunoconjugate showed specific receptor binding in tumor cell lines. Biodistribution in healthy animals showed the typical behavior of the immunoconjugates based on monoclonal antibodies. The study in xenografts mice demonstrated uptake of (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab in the tumor and reticuloendothelial organs.
CONCLUSIONS: (177)Lu-Nimotuzumab was obtained with high purity and specific activities under optimal conditions without significant loss in immunoreactivity and might be a potential radioimmunoconjugate for radioimmunotherapy of tumors with epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Hix LM, Shi YH, Brutkiewicz RR, et al.
CD1d-expressing breast cancer cells modulate NKT cell-mediated antitumor immunity in a murine model of breast cancer metastasis.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e20702 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor tolerance and immune suppression remain formidable obstacles to the efficacy of immunotherapies that harness the immune system to eradicate breast cancer. A novel syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer metastasis was developed in our lab to investigate mechanisms of immune regulation of breast cancer. Comparative analysis of low-metastatic vs. highly metastatic tumor cells isolated from these mice revealed several important genetic alterations related to immune control of cancer, including a significant downregulation of cd1d1 in the highly metastatic tumor cells. The cd1d1 gene in mice encodes the MHC class I-like molecule CD1d, which presents glycolipid antigens to a specialized subset of T cells known as natural killer T (NKT) cells. We hypothesize that breast cancer cells, through downregulation of CD1d and subsequent evasion of NKT-mediated antitumor immunity, gain increased potential for metastatic tumor progression.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrate in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis that tumor downregulation of CD1d inhibits iNKT-mediated antitumor immunity and promotes metastatic breast cancer progression in a CD1d-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Using NKT-deficient transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate important differences between type I and type II NKT cells in their ability to regulate antitumor immunity of CD1d-expressing breast tumors.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study emphasize the importance of determining the CD1d expression status of the tumor when tailoring NKT-based immunotherapies for the prevention and treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer


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