Gene Summary

Gene:EIF4A2; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2
Aliases: DDX2B, EIF4A, EIF4F, BM-010, eIF4A-II, eIF-4A-II
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • MicroRNAs
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Pleural Neoplasms
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Xenograft Models
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Basal Metabolism
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Reference Standards
  • Meningioma
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • hippuristanol
  • Peptide Nucleic Acids
  • Extracellular Space
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • silvestrol
  • pateamine A
  • Pleura
  • Breast Cancer
  • Sterols
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense
  • Transcription Factors
  • Disease Progression
  • Chromosome 3
  • Mesothelioma
  • Base Sequence
  • BCL2 protein
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Epoxy Compounds
  • Macrolides
  • Triterpenes
  • Translocation
  • ANKRD46
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Acidosis
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EIF4A2 (cancer-related)

Liu M, Gong C, Xu R, et al.
MicroRNA-5195-3p enhances the chemosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer to paclitaxel by downregulating EIF4A2.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Chemotherapy based on paclitaxel (PTX) is the standard treatment for a range of cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but the increasing development of resistance has reduced/has negatively impacted its clinical utility. A previous study demonstrated that miR-5195-3p could suppress lung cancer cell growth. This study was designed to investigate whether miR-5195-3p attenuates chemoresistance to PTX by regulating target genes in TNBC cells.
Methods: The study used both PTX-resistant tumor tissues and PTX-resistant TNBC cell lines. The expression of miR-5195-3p was determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. The target genes of miR-5195-3p were predicted with bioinformatics analysis and confirmed using the luciferase reporter assay.
Results: MiR-5195-3p expression was lower in PTX-resistant tumor tissues and PTX-resistant TNBC cell lines. Upregulation of miR-5195-3p enhanced the sensitivity of PTX-resistant TNBC cells to PTX treatment. EIF4A2 was confirmed as a potential target of miR-5195-3p. EIF4A2 knockdown imitated the effects of miR-5195-3p on chemosensitivity, while restoration of EIF4A2 rescued them.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate that miR-5195-3p might be a potential therapeutic target to reverse chemoresistance in TNBC through its targeting of EIF4A2.

Qi NN, Tian S, Li X, et al.
Up-regulation of microRNA-496 suppresses proliferation, invasion, migration and in vivo tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma cells by targeting eIF4E.
Biochimie. 2019; 163:1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurring DNA deletions and amplifications. This study aims to investigate how microRNA-496 (miR-496) affects proliferation, invasion, and migration of human osteosarcoma (OS) cells and in vivo tumorigenicity by targeting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Microarray-based gene expression profiling involving OS was used in order to identify differentially expressed genes. After that, the interaction between miR-496 expression and OS patients' survival rate was determined. The expression pattern of miR-496 and eIF4E was determined in OS tissues and cells, and their potential relationship was further analyzed by using the dual luciferase reporter gene assay. With the purpose of identifying the functional role miR-496 in OS, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured in cells treated with miR-496 mimic or inhibitor. A nude mouse model was constructed in order to investigate the regulatory effects of miR-496 on tumor growth in vivo by regulating eIF4E. OS cells exhibited a down-regulated expression of miR-496 and an up-regulated expression of eIF4E. miR-496 expression was positively correlated to OS patients' survival rate. Bioinformatics analysis suggested eIF4E would be a direct target of miR-496, and the expression of eIF4E was inhibited by overexpression of miR-496. miR-496 elevation was found to exert suppressive effects on OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, with the effects being reversed using miR-496 depletion. Altogether, the above findings support a conclusion that miR-496 could work as a tumor suppressor in OS through down-regulation of eIF4E. This study may provide a novel target for treatment of OS.

Mao Y, Zhang L, Li Y
circEIF4G2 modulates the malignant features of cervical cancer via the miR‑218/HOXA1 pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3714-3722 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) serve important roles in tumorigenesis and may be used as novel molecular biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of circRNAs in cervical cancer (CC) remain unknown. In the present study, circRNA isoform of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4γ2 (circEIF4G2) was revealed to be significantly upregulated in CC tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, increased expression of circEIF4G2 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with CC. circEIF4G2 knockdown suppressed the malignant features of CC cells, including cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. Additionally, circEIF4G2 was identified to serve as a sponge for microRNA‑218 (miR‑218), which targeted homeobox A1 (HOXA1). Furthermore, circEIF4G2 may increase the expression levels of HOXA1 by sponging miR‑218. Rescue experiments suggested that transfection with a miR‑218 inhibitor attenuated the inhibitory effects of circEIF4G2 knockdown on cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, silencing HOXA1 reversed the effects of the miR‑218 inhibitor on CC cells. Collectively, the present findings suggested that circEIF4G2 promoted cell proliferation and migration via the miR‑218/HOXA1 pathway.

Li C, Du L, Ren Y, et al.
SKP2 promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis and radiation tolerance through PDCD4 ubiquitination.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is an oncogene and cell cycle regulator that specifically recognizes phosphorylated cell cycle regulator proteins and mediates their ubiquitination. Programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in cell apoptosis and DNA-damage response via interacting with eukaryotic initiation factor-4A (eIF4A) and P53. Previous research showed SKP2 may interact with PDCD4, however the relationship between SKP2 and PDCD4 is unclear.
METHODS: To validate the interaction between SKP2 and PDCD4, mass spectrometric analysis and reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments were performed. SKP2 stably overexpressed or knockdown breast cancer cell lines were established and western blot was used to detect proteins changes before and after radiation. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to verify whether SKP2 inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes DNA-damage response via PDCD4 suppression. SMIP004 was used to test the effect of radiotherapy combined with SKP2 inhibitor.
RESULTS: We found that SKP2 remarkably promoted PDCD4 phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. SKP2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis and enhanced the response to DNA-damage via PDCD4 suppression in breast cancer. SKP2 and PDCD4 showed negative correlation in human breast cancer tissues. Radiotherapy combine with SKP2 inhibitor SMIP004 showed significant inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: We identify PDCD4 as an important ubiquitination substrate of SKP2. SKP2 promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis and radiation tolerance via PDCD4 degradation. Radiotherapy combine with SKP2-targeted adjuvant therapy may improve breast cancer patient survival in clinical medicine.

Ma X, Li B, Liu J, et al.
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase promotes pancreatic cancer development by interacting with eIF4A1 and eIF4E.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most malignant cancers. The overall 5-year survival rate of its patients is 8%, the lowest among major cancer types. It is very urgent to study the development mechanisms of this cancer and provide potential targets for therapeutics design. Glucose, one of the most essential nutrients, is highly exploited for aerobic glycolysis in tumor cells to provide building blocks. However, the glucose consumption manner in pancreatic cancer cells is unclear. And the mechanism of the substantial metabolic pathway promoting pancreatic cancer development is also unrevealed.

Cuesta R, Berman AY, Alayev A, Holz MK
Estrogen receptor α promotes protein synthesis by fine-tuning the expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit f (eIF3f).
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(7):2267-2278 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
Approximately two thirds of all breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive. The treatment of this breast cancer subtype with endocrine therapies is effective in the adjuvant and recurrent settings. However, their effectiveness is compromised by the emergence of intrinsic or acquired resistance. Thus, identification of new molecular targets can significantly contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In recent years, many studies have implicated aberrant levels of translation initiation factors in cancer etiology and provided evidence that identifies these factors as promising therapeutic targets. Accordingly, we observed reduced levels of the eIF3 subunit eIF3f in ER-positive breast cancer cells compared with ER-negative cells, and determined that low eIF3f levels are required for proper proliferation and survival of ER-positive MCF7 cells. The expression of eIF3f is tightly controlled by ERα at the transcriptional (genomic pathway) and translational (nongenomic pathway) level. Specifically, estrogen-bound ERα represses transcription of the

Urtishak KA, Wang LS, Culjkovic-Kraljacic B, et al.
Targeting EIF4E signaling with ribavirin in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(13):2241-2262 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
The poor outcomes in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) necessitate new treatments. Here we discover that EIF4E protein is elevated in most cases of infant ALL and test EIF4E targeting by the repurposed antiviral agent ribavirin, which has anticancer properties through EIF4E inhibition, as a potential treatment. We find that ribavirin treatment of actively dividing infant ALL cells on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) at clinically achievable concentrations causes robust proliferation inhibition in proportion with EIF4E expression. Further, we find that ribavirin treatment of KMT2A-rearranged (KMT2A-R) infant ALL cells and the KMT2A-AFF1 cell line RS4:11 inhibits EIF4E, leading to decreases in oncogenic EIF4E-regulated cell growth and survival proteins. In ribavirin-sensitive KMT2A-R infant ALL cells and RS4:11 cells, EIF4E-regulated proteins with reduced levels of expression following ribavirin treatment include MYC, MCL1, NBN, BCL2 and BIRC5. Ribavirin-treated RS4:11 cells exhibit impaired EIF4E-dependent nuclear to cytoplasmic export and/or translation of the corresponding mRNAs, as well as reduced phosphorylation of the p-AKT1, p-EIF4EBP1, p-RPS6 and p-EIF4E signaling proteins. This leads to an S-phase cell cycle arrest in RS4:11 cells corresponding to the decreased proliferation. Ribavirin causes nuclear EIF4E to re-localize to the cytoplasm in KMT2A-AFF1 infant ALL and RS4:11 cells, providing further evidence for EIF4E inhibition. Ribavirin slows increases in peripheral blasts in KMT2A-R infant ALL xenograft-bearing mice. Ribavirin cooperates with chemotherapy, particularly L-asparaginase, in reducing live KMT2A-AFF1 infant ALL cells in BMSC co-cultures. This work establishes that EIF4E is broadly elevated across infant ALL and that clinically relevant ribavirin exposures have preclinical activity and effectively inhibit EIF4E in KMT2A-R cases, suggesting promise in EIF4E targeting using ribavirin as a means of treatment.

Rivera-Calderón LG, Fonseca-Alves CE, Kobayashi PE, et al.
p-mTOR, p-4EBP-1 and eIF4E expression in canine prostatic carcinoma.
Res Vet Sci. 2019; 122:86-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mTOR/4E-BP1/eIF4E pathway plays important roles in the neoplastic transformation process and in tumour growth. In men, the mTOR/4E-BP1/eIF4E pathway was described as altered in different tumours, including prostate cancer (PC). Apart from humans, the dog is the only species that develops PC with high frequency and is considered a good model for comparative oncology initiatives. Due to limited information on this pathway in canine tumours, this study aimed to investigate mTOR, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E gene and protein expression in canine PC, as well as in metastatic and normal prostatic tissues, and to evaluate the correlations between gene/protein expression and Gleason score (GS) in PC. A total of 35 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, including 13 of normal prostatic tissue, 17 PC samples and 5 metastasis samples, were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. mTOR gene mutation in the kinase domain was also investigated. We identified higher p-mTOR and eIF4E protein levels in canine PC with higher GS values (≥ 8) and a significant positive correlation in expression between these proteins. eIF4E overexpression was observed in metastasis relative to expression in normal samples. Our data suggest that p-mTOR and eIF4E expression is positively correlated with GS in canine PC, similar to the pattern in humans. More studies of the mTOR/4EBP1/eIF4E pathway should be performed to identify possible correlations of the proteins involved with clinical and pathologic findings in canine PC and the roles of these proteins as therapeutic targets for the treatment of canine PC.

Chen J, Xu X, Chen J
Clinically relevant concentration of anti-viral drug ribavirin selectively targets pediatric osteosarcoma and increases chemosensitivity.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 506(3):604-610 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ribavirin is an anti-viral drug but has recently gained attention as a potential candidate for cancer treatment. In line with these efforts, our work is the first to demonstrate that ribavirin, at clinically relevant concentration, selectively targets pediatric osteosarcoma and increases chemosensitivity. Using preclinical osteosarcoma cell and xenograft models, we found that ribavirin is active against osteosarcoma bulk and subpopulations with highly proliferative and invasive properties via inhibiting growth, inducing apoptosis and suppressing colony formation. At the same concentrations, ribavirin either did not or affected human normal osteoblastic cell and fibroblast cells in a less extent than osteosarcoma cells. Notably, the combination of ribavirin with doxorubicin resulted in greater efficacy than single drug alone. The combination completely arrested the osteosarcoma growth in vivo throughout the whole duration of drug treatment. We further showed that ribavirin acted on osteosarcoma largely via targeting eIF4E. In addition to eIF4E, ribavirin also modulated phosphorylation of Erk and expression of EZH2 and Snail without affecting Akt and mTOR. Lastly, we found that eIF4E expression and phosphorylation were elevated in osteosarcoma compared to normal cells, which might explain the selective anti-osteosarcoma activity of ribavirin. eIF4E depletion mimics the inhibitory effects of ribavirin, further confirm that eIF4E is the essential target of ribavirin in osteosarcoma. Our work provides fundamental evidence of repurposing ribavirin for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Our findings also highlight the therapeutic value of inhibiting eIF4E in osteosarcoma.

Cerezo M, Guemiri R, Druillennec S, et al.
Translational control of tumor immune escape via the eIF4F-STAT1-PD-L1 axis in melanoma.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(12):1877-1886 [PubMed] Related Publications
Preventing the immune escape of tumor cells by blocking inhibitory checkpoints, such as the interaction between programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, is a powerful anticancer approach. However, many patients do not respond to checkpoint blockade. Tumor PD-L1 expression is a potential efficacy biomarker, but the complex mechanisms underlying its regulation are not completely understood. Here, we show that the eukaryotic translation initiation complex, eIF4F, which binds the 5' cap of mRNAs, regulates the surface expression of interferon-γ-induced PD-L1 on cancer cells by regulating translation of the mRNA encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) transcription factor. eIF4F complex formation correlates with response to immunotherapy in human melanoma. Pharmacological inhibition of eIF4A, the RNA helicase component of eIF4F, elicits powerful antitumor immune-mediated effects via PD-L1 downregulation. Thus, eIF4A inhibitors, in development as anticancer drugs, may also act as cancer immunotherapies.

Ichiyanagi O, Naito S, Ito H, et al.
Levels of 4EBP1/eIF4E Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma Could Differentially Predict Its Early and Late Recurrence.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018; 16(5):e1029-e1058 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective was to explore the predictive markers of late recurrence (LR) > 5 years after curative nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined the data from 303 patients with localized clear cell RCC treated surgically at our institution from 1993 to 2011. Activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1)/eIF4E axis at the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was evaluated in the tumor specimens. Weak, intermediate, and strong immunohistochemistry staining grades were defined for 4EBP1, phosphorylated 4EBP1, and eIF4E. The effects of clinicopathologic factors and activation level grades on tumor recurrence were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression models. To validate the present findings, we investigated clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and protein/phosphoprotein data from corresponding patients from The Cancer Proteome Atlas.
RESULTS: Of the 303 patients, 31 and 16 patients developed early recurrence (ER, ≤ 5 years) and LR, respectively. The activation levels were comparable among the subcategories of pathologic TN stage, Fuhrman grade, and microvascular and capsular invasion. Pathologic stage ≥ T1b, Fuhrman grade 3/4, and an intermediate or strong activation level correlated significantly with overall recurrence and ER. Strong activation of the axis and pathologic stage ≥ T1b were identified as independent predictors of LR. Only 2 patients with weak activation experienced recurrence (1 each with ER and LR). Similar results were confirmed by the analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas and The Cancer Proteome Atlas data.
CONCLUSION: The activation level of the axis in RCC tissues could independently predict for recurrence and differentially affect the timing of recurrence.

Zakaria C, Sean P, Hoang HD, et al.
Active-site mTOR inhibitors augment HSV1-dICP0 infection in cancer cells via dysregulated eIF4E/4E-BP axis.
PLoS Pathog. 2018; 14(8):e1007264 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1) is amongst the most clinically advanced oncolytic virus platforms. However, efficient and sustained viral replication within tumours is limiting. Rapamycin can stimulate HSV1 replication in cancer cells, but active-site dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and 2) inhibitors (asTORi) were shown to suppress the virus in normal cells. Surprisingly, using the infected cell protein 0 (ICP0)-deleted HSV1 (HSV1-dICP0), we found that asTORi markedly augment infection in cancer cells and a mouse mammary cancer xenograft. Mechanistically, asTORi repressed mRNA translation in normal cells, resulting in defective antiviral response but also inhibition of HSV1-dICP0 replication. asTORi also reduced antiviral response in cancer cells, however in contrast to normal cells, transformed cells and cells transduced to elevate the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or to silence the repressors eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs), selectively maintained HSV1-dICP0 protein synthesis during asTORi treatment, ultimately supporting increased viral replication. Our data show that altered eIF4E/4E-BPs expression can act to promote HSV1-dICP0 infection under prolonged mTOR inhibition. Thus, pharmacoviral combination of asTORi and HSV1 can target cancer cells displaying dysregulated eIF4E/4E-BPs axis.

Dong QF, Yan ZF, Li PQ, et al.
Inhibition of eIF4F complex loading inhibits the survival of malignant glioma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(4):2399-2407 [PubMed] Related Publications
The eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E‑binding proteins (4E‑BPs) regulate cap‑dependent protein translation and control the assembly of the eIF4F complex. In the present study, a phosphorylation‑deficient truncated 4E‑BP2 (eIF4FD) was constructed into the eukaryotic expression vector pSecTag2, and the in vitro and in vivo effects on malignant glioma survival were determined through inhibiting eIF4F complex assembly. Cell cycle distribution analysis and TUNEL staining show that overexpression of eIF4FD suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in U251 cells. Western blotting showed that the cell cycle‑related genes cyclin D1 and C‑myc, and anti‑apoptotic genes B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑extra large and survivin were reduced following the overexpression of eIF4FD. Furthermore, eIF4FD suppressed glioma vascularization via reductions in the expression of β‑catenin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the orthotopic xenograft model, the stable expression of eIF4FD in U251 cells attenuated cell growth and increased the rate of apoptosis. Accordingly, pSecTag2‑PTD‑eIF4FD injection via the tail vein of mice also lead to cell growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the study showed that phosphorylation‑deficient truncated 4E‑BP2 efficiently inhibited eIF4E and prevented the formation of the eIF4F complex, which further contributed to the inhibition of cell proliferation and vascularization, and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the 4E‑BP2‑based phosphorylation‑deficient truncation designed in the present study may represent a novel approach for the targeted therapy of human malignant glioma though inhibition of the translation initiation complex.

Yin Y, Long J, Sun Y, et al.
The function and clinical significance of eIF3 in cancer.
Gene. 2018; 673:130-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal regulation of gene expression is essential for tumorigenesis. Several studies indicate that regulation of oncogene expression and neoplastic transformation are controlled by subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs). Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is the largest (800 kDa) and the most complex mammalian initiation factor. It is composed of 13 non-identical polypeptides designated as eIF3a-m and plays a pivotal role in protein synthesis that bridges the 43S pre-initiation complex and eIF4F-bound mRNA. However, the functional roles of individual subunits are not yet very clear. This review presents on several of aberrant expressed eIF3 subunits which are detected in various human cancers and the associated mechanisms have been acknowledged or are still not sure. Finally, identifying novel targets and biomarkers for caner is of great importance in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. eIF3 may be a novel target molecule in drug development for cancer treatment and prevention.

Xu XF, Cheng RB, Zhang XJ, Gao RL
Total Saponins of Rubus Parvifolius L. Exhibited Anti-Leukemia Effect in vivo through STAT3 and eIF4E Signaling Pathways.
Chin J Integr Med. 2018; 24(12):920-924 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-leukemia effect of total saponins of Rubus parvifolius L. (TSRP) on K562 cell xenografts in nude mice and the mechanisms of action.
METHODS: The K562 cell xenografts in nude mice were established, and then randomly divided into 5 groups, the control group, the cytosine arabinoside group(Ara-c) and 3 TSRP groups (20, 40 and 100 mg/kg). The tumor volume and mass of each group of nude mice were measured and the anti-tumor rates of TSRP were calculated subsequently. The apoptosis status of tumor cells was detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining analysis. Finally, the activities of apoptosis related signaling of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) were determined with immunohistochemistry tests.
RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of K562 cells induced tumor formation in nude mice, and the TSRP treated group showed a signifificant inhibitory effect on tumor formation. The nude mice treated with TSRP showed a signifificant decrease in tumor growth rate and tumor weight in comparison to the control group (all P<0.05). The HE staining and TUNEL assay showed that TSRP induced cell death by apoptosis. The immunohistochemical assay showed down-regulation of the bcl-2 gene in the TSRP treated cells. The phosphorylation levels of eIF4E and STAT3 were decreased obviously after the treatment of TSRP.
CONCLUSION: TSRP had an excellent tumor-suppressing effect on K562 cells in the nude mice xenograft model, suggesting that TSPR can be developed as a promising anti-chronic myeloide leukemia drug.

Glück AA, Orlando E, Leiser D, et al.
Identification of a MET-eIF4G1 translational regulation axis that controls HIF-1α levels under hypoxia.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(30):4181-4196 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poor oxygenation is a common hallmark of solid cancers that strongly associates with aggressive tumor progression and treatment resistance. While a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-associated transcriptional overexpression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) MET has been previously documented, any regulation of the HIF-1α system through MET downstream signaling in hypoxic tumors has not been yet described. By using MET-driven in vitro as well as ex vivo tumor organotypic fresh tissue models we report that MET targeting results in depletion of HIF-1α and its various downstream targets. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that MET regulates HIF-1α levels through a protein translation mechanism that relies on phosphorylation modulation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G1 (eIF4G1) on serine 1232 (Ser-1232). Targeted phosphoproteomics data demonstrate a significant drop in eIF4G1 Ser-1232 phosphorylation following MET targeting, which is linked to an increased affinity between eIF4G1 and eIF4E. Since phosphorylation of eIF4G1 on Ser-1232 is largely mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), we show that expression of a constitutively active K-RAS variant is sufficient to abrogate the inhibitory effect of MET targeting on the HIF-1α pathway with subsequent resistance of tumor cells to MET targeting under hypoxic conditions. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data demonstrates frequent co-expression of MET, HIF-1α and eIF4G1 in various solid tumors and its impact on disease-free survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Clinical relevance of the MET-eIF4G1-HIF-1α pathway is further supported by a co-occurrence of their expression in common tumor regions of individual lung cancer patients.

Connelly JA, Mody RJ, Wu YM, et al.
Identification of novel
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018; 4(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a rare hematologic disorder characterized by defective myelopoiesis and a high incidence of malignant transformation to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). SCN patients who develop MDS/AML have excessive toxicities to traditional chemotherapy, and safer therapies are needed to improve overall survival in this population. In this report, we outline the use of a prospective integrative clinical sequencing trial (PEDS-MIONCOSEQ) in a patient with SCN and AML to help identify oncogenic targets for less toxic agents. Integrative sequencing identified two somatic

Zhang S, Leng T, Zhang Q, et al.
Sanguinarine inhibits epithelial ovarian cancer development via regulating long non-coding RNA CASC2-EIF4A3 axis and/or inhibiting NF-κB signaling or PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 102:302-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects and possible regulatory mechanisms of sanguinarine in epithelial ovarian cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effects of sanguinarine on the malignant behaviors of epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells and the expression of long non-coding RNA CASC2 were investigated. The expression of CASC2 and EIF4A3 in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cells were detected, and the potential mechanisms of sanguinarine were explored by investigating the interactions between CASC2 and EIF4A3. Furthermore, the regulatory relationship between sanguinarine and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling or PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was explored.
RESULTS: Sanguinarine exhibited antitumor effects in SKOV3 cells by significantly inhibiting cell viability, migration and invasion and promoting cell apoptosis. Moreover, sanguinarine induced CASC2 expression and silencing of CASC2 reversed the effects of sanguinarine in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. CASC2 was significantly lowly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues and cells, while EIF4A3 was highly expressed. EIF4A3 was identified as a CASC2 binding protein. Knockdown of EIF4A3 reversed the effects of sanguinarine plus CASC2 silencing. Besides, sanguinarine markedly inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling or PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which was reversed by CASC2 silencing. And the effects of sanguinarine plus CASC2 silencing on the activation of these pathways were further reversed after knockdown of EIF4A3 at the same time.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that sanguinarine exhibits antitumor effects in epithelial ovarian cancer cells possible via regulating CASC2-EIF4A3 axis and/or inhibiting NF-κB signaling or PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Sanguinarine may serve as a potential therapeutic reagent for epithelial ovarian cancer.

Venturi V, Masek T, Pospisek M
A blood pact: the significance and implications of eIF4E on lymphocytic leukemia.
Physiol Res. 2018; 67(3):363-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elevated levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) are implicated in neoplasia, with cumulative evidence pointing to its role in the etiopathogenesis of hematological diseases. As a node of convergence for several oncogenic signaling pathways, eIF4E has attracted a great deal of interest from biologists and clinicians whose efforts have been targeting this translation factor and its biological circuits in the battle against leukemia. The role of eIF4E in myeloid leukemia has been ascertained and drugs targeting its functions have found their place in clinical trials. Little is known, however, about the pertinence of eIF4E to the biology of lymphocytic leukemia and a paucity of literature is available in this regard that prospectively evaluates the topic to guide practice in hematological cancer. A comprehensive analysis on the significance of eIF4E translation factor in the clinical picture of leukemia arises, therefore, as a compelling need. This review presents aspects of eIF4E involvement in the realm of the lymphoblastic leukemia status; translational control of immunological function via eIF4E and the state-of-the-art in drugs will also be outlined.

Robichaud N, Hsu BE, Istomine R, et al.
Translational control in the tumor microenvironment promotes lung metastasis: Phosphorylation of eIF4E in neutrophils.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(10):E2202-E2209 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
The translation of mRNAs into proteins serves as a critical regulatory event in gene expression. In the context of cancer, deregulated translation is a hallmark of transformation, promoting the proliferation, survival, and metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. The best-studied factor involved in the translational control of cancer is the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). We and others have shown that eIF4E availability and phosphorylation promote metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer by selectively augmenting the translation of mRNAs involved in invasion and metastasis. However, the impact of translational control in cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that regulatory events affecting translation in cells of the TME impact cancer progression. Mice bearing a mutation in the phosphorylation site of eIF4E (S209A) in cells comprising the TME are resistant to the formation of lung metastases in a syngeneic mammary tumor model. This is associated with reduced survival of prometastatic neutrophils due to decreased expression of the antiapoptotic proteins BCL2 and MCL1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of eIF4E phosphorylation prevents metastatic progression in vivo, supporting the development of phosphorylation inhibitors for clinical use.

Ding M, Van der Kwast TH, Vellanki RN, et al.
The mTOR Targets 4E-BP1/2 Restrain Tumor Growth and Promote Hypoxia Tolerance in PTEN-driven Prostate Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):682-695 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mTOR signaling pathway is a central regulator of protein synthesis and cellular metabolism in response to the availability of energy, nutrients, oxygen, and growth factors. mTOR activation leads to phosphorylation of multiple downstream targets including the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding proteins-1 and -2 (EIF4EBP1/4E-BP1 and EIF4EBP2/4E-BP2). These binding proteins inhibit protein synthesis, but are inactivated by mTOR to stimulate cell growth and metabolism. However, the role of these proteins in the context of aberrant activation of mTOR, which occurs frequently in cancers through loss of PTEN or mutational activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, is unclear. Here, even under conditions of aberrant mTOR activation, hypoxia causes dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1/4E-BP2 and increases their association with eIF4E to suppress translation. This is essential for hypoxia tolerance as knockdown of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 decreases proliferation under hypoxia and increases hypoxia-induced cell death. In addition, genetic deletion of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 significantly accelerates all phases of cancer development in the context of PTEN loss-driven prostate cancer in mice despite potent PI3K/AKT and mTOR activation. However, even with a more rapid onset, tumors that establish in the absence of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 have reduced levels of tumor hypoxia and show increased cell death within hypoxic tumor regions. Together, these data demonstrate that 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 act as essential metabolic breaks even in the context of aberrant mTOR activation and that they are essential for the creation of hypoxia-tolerant cells in prostate cancer.

Piserà A, Campo A, Campo S
Structure and functions of the translation initiation factor eIF4E and its role in cancer development and treatment.
J Genet Genomics. 2018; 45(1):13-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
In eukaryotic cells, protein synthesis is a complex and multi-step process that has several mechanisms to start the translation including cap-dependent and cap-independent initiation. The translation control of eukaryotic gene expression occurs principally at the initiation step. In this context, it is critical that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E bind to the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap present at the 5'-UTRs of most eukaryotic mRNAs. Combined with other initiation factors, eIF4E mediates the mRNA recruitment on ribosomes to start the translation. Moreover, the eIF4E nuclear bodies are involved in the export of specific mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In this review, we focus on the eIF4E structure and its physiological functions, and describe the role of eIF4E in cancer development and progression and the current therapeutic strategies to target eIF4E.

Ge Y, Wu Q, Ma G, et al.
Hypermethylation of EIF4E promoter is associated with early onset of gastric cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(1):66-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although gastric cancer (GC) in young adults (≤ 45 years) accounts for fewer than 10% of newly diagnosed cases, the young patients are more likely to have advanced disease at presentation compared with elderly patients. Previous studies have identified that the DNA methylation of genomes are different during aging. Our study aimed to explore the association between DNA methylation and the onset of GC. We applied Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to examine methylation expression profiles and compared methylation expression patterns in five early onset GC patients and seven elderly patients. Additionally, we evaluated the associations of methylation expression with different clinicopathological characteristics of GC. Our results showed that the pattern of genome-wide methylation expression was significantly different between early onset and elderly GC. The top 10 hypomethylation and hypermethylation CpG sites were selected for further analyses in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We found that the hypermethylation of cg11037477, located at the promoter of EIF4E, was significantly associated with age at diagnosis and the expression of EIF4E. Besides, GC patients with high level of cg11037477 were more likely to have advance disease with T3/T4 invasion and III/IV stage. The cg11037477 hypermethylation and EIF4E down-expression were significantly related to poor survival of GC patients. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of early onset patients with GC and suggests that methylation of cg11037477 and expression of EIF4E may act as prognostic markers in GC.

Gao Z, Yuan T, Zhou X, et al.
Targeting BRD4 proteins suppresses the growth of NSCLC through downregulation of eIF4E expression.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(5):407-415 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins act as epigenome readers for gene transcriptional regulation. Among BET family members, BRD4 was well studied, but for its mechanism in non-small cell lung carcinoma has not been elucidated. eIF4E regulates gene translation and has been proved to play an important role in the progression of lung cancer. In this study, we first confirmed that BET inhibitors JQ1 and I-BET151 suppressed the growth of NSCLCs, in parallel with downregulated eIF4E expression. Then we found that knockdown of BRD4 expression using siRNAs inhibited the growth of NSCLCs as well as decreased eIF4E protein levels. Moreover, overexpression of eIF4E partially abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of JQ1, while knockdown of eIF4E enhanced the inhibitory effect of JQ1. Furthermore, JQ1 treatment or knockdown of BRD4 expression decreased eIF4E mRNA levels and inhibited its promoter activity by luciferase reporter assay. JQ1 treatment significantly decreased the binding of eIF4E promoter with BRD4. Finally, JQ1 inhibited the growth of H460 tumors in parallel with downregulated eIF4E mRNA and protein levels in a xenograft mouse model. These findings suggest that inhibition of BET by JQ1, I-BET151, or BRD4 silencing suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung carcinoma through decreasing eIF4E transcription and subsequent mRNA and protein expression. Considering that BET regulates gene transcription epigenetically, our findings not only reveal a new mechanism of BET-regulated eIF4E in lung cancer, but also indicate a novel strategy by co-targeting eIF4E for enhancing BET-targeted cancer therapy.

Melanson G, Timpano S, Uniacke J
The eIF4E2-Directed Hypoxic Cap-Dependent Translation Machinery Reveals Novel Therapeutic Potential for Cancer Treatment.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017:6098107 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/02/2020 Related Publications
Hypoxia is an aspect of the tumor microenvironment that is linked to radiation and chemotherapy resistance, metastasis, and poor prognosis. The ability of hypoxic tumor cells to achieve these cancer hallmarks is, in part, due to changes in their gene expression profiles. Cancer cells have a high demand for protein synthesis, and translational control is subsequently deregulated. Various mechanisms of translation initiation are active to improve the translation efficiency of select transcripts to drive cancer progression. This review will focus on a noncanonical cap-dependent translation initiation mechanism that utilizes the eIF4E homolog eIF4E2, a hypoxia-activated cap-binding protein that is implicated in hypoxic cancer cell migration, invasion, and tumor growth in mouse xenografts. A historical perspective about eIF4E2 and its various aliases will be provided followed by an evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies. The recent successes of disabling canonical translation and eIF4E with drugs should highlight the novel therapeutic potential of targeting the homologous eIF4E2 in the treatment of hypoxic solid tumors.

Geter PA, Ernlund AW, Bakogianni S, et al.
Hyperactive mTOR and MNK1 phosphorylation of eIF4E confer tamoxifen resistance and estrogen independence through selective mRNA translation reprogramming.
Genes Dev. 2017; 31(22):2235-2249 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of breast cancers expresses the estrogen receptor (ER

Shi ZM, Liu YN, Fu B, et al.
Expression profile of eukaryotic translation initiation factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in endometrial cancer tissue.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017 Oct-Dec; 31(4):1053-1059 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to provide a novel method for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of endometrial cancer by the determination of the characteristic expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and the enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in endometrial cancer tissue. Three types of endometrial tissue specimens were selected (including 20 cases of normal endometrial tissue specimens, 15 cases of hyperplastic endometrial tissue specimens and 45 cases of endometrial cancer tissue specimens). The expression of eIF4E and MMP9 in the specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry and their corresponding levels were statistically analyzed. The positive expression rates of eIF4E and MMP9 in endometrial cancer specimens were 64.44% and 66.67% respectively, which were higher than those noted in hyperplastic endometrial tissue specimens and normal endometrial tissue specimens (p less than 0.05). The comparisons between the groups indicated that the expression levels of eIF4E and MMP9 in the endometrial cancer specimens were increased compared with those noted in the normal endometrial tissue specimens (p less than 0.0167). In endometrial cancer specimens, the positive expression rates of eIF4E and MMP9 were related to the endometrial cancer stages as determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), tumor cell differentiation degree and lymphatic metastasis (p less than 0.05) classifications. eIF4E expression was positively related to MMP9 expression in endometrial cancer specimens. High expression levels of eIF4E and MMP9 proteins were noted in endometrial cancer specimens, which were correlated with FIGO stages, histological grade and degree of lymphatic metastasis. Thus, endometrial cancer and malignant biological behavior may be connected to the high expression of eIF4E and MMP9. The positive correlation between eIF4E and MMP9 expression in endometrial cancer specimens suggests their potential up-regulation during carcinogenesis.

Chu J, Ramon Y Cajal S, Sonenberg N, Pelletier J
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4F-sidestepping resistance mechanisms arising from expression heterogeneity.
Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2018; 48:89-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is enormous diversity in the genetic makeup and gene expression profiles between and within tumors. This heterogeneity leads to phenotypic variation and is a major mechanism of resistance to molecular targeted therapies. Here we describe a conceptual framework for targeting eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F in cancer-an essential complex that drives and promotes multiple Cancer Hallmarks. The unique nature of eIF4F and its druggability bypasses several of the heterogeneity issues that plague molecular targeted drugs developed for cancer therapy.

De A, Jacobson BA, Peterson MS, et al.
4EGI-1 represses cap-dependent translation and regulates genome-wide translation in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Invest New Drugs. 2018; 36(2):217-229 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of cap-dependent translation has been implicated in the malignant transformation of numerous human tissues. 4EGI-1, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, disrupts formation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex. The effects of 4EGI-1-mediated inhibition of translation initiation in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) were examined. 4EGI-1 preferentially inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in MPM cells compared to normal mesothelial (LP9) cells. This effect was associated with hypophosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and decreased protein levels of the cancer-related genes, c-myc and osteopontin. 4EGI-1 showed enhanced cytotoxicity in combination with pemetrexed or gemcitabine. Translatome-wide polysome microarray analysis revealed a large cohort of genes that were translationally regulated upon treatment with 4EGI-1. The 4EGI-1-regulated translatome was negatively correlated to a previously published translatome regulated by eIF4E overexpression in human mammary epithelial cells, which is in agreement with the notion that 4EGI-1 inhibits the eIF4F complex. These data indicate that inhibition of the eIF4F complex by 4EGI-1 or similar translation inhibitors could be a strategy for treating mesothelioma. Genome wide translational profiling identified a large cohort of promising target genes that should be further evaluated for their potential significance in the treatment of MPM.

Tan J, Ye J, Song M, et al.
Ribavirin augments doxorubicin's efficacy in human hepatocellular carcinoma through inhibiting doxorubicin-induced eIF4E activation.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018; 32(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is a cellular survival mechanism in response to chemotherapy in cancers. In this work, we demonstrate that targeting eIF4E by ribavirin sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell response to doxorubicin. Ribavirin inhibits growth and survival of HCC cells, and to a greater extent than in normal liver cells. Its combination with doxorubicin achieves greater efficacy than single drug in vitro and in vivo. Ribavirin suppresses phosphorylation of molecules involved in Akt/mTOR/eIF4E pathway. Overexpression of the phosphomimetic form (S209D) but not the nonphosphorylatable form (S209A) eIF4E significantly reverses the inhibitory effects of ribavirin. Interestingly, doxorubicin significantly increases p-eIF4E(S209) level in a dose- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that doxorubicin induces eIF4E activation in HCC cells. In addition, eIF4E activation induced by doxorubicin in HCC cells is inhibited by ribavirin. Our work demonstrates the greater efficacy of ribavirin and doxorubicin combination and its underlying mechanisms.

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