Gene Summary

Gene:EPB41; erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1
Aliases: HE, EL1, 4.1R
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene, together with spectrin and actin, constitute the red cell membrane cytoskeletal network. This complex plays a critical role in erythrocyte shape and deformability. Mutations in this gene are associated with type 1 elliptocytosis (EL1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein 4.1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cytoskeleton
  • DNA Methylation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Meningeal Neoplasms
  • Chromosome 1
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • GADD45A
  • GSTP1
  • GSTP1
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Actins
  • ERG
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Blood Proteins
  • Meningioma
  • Oncogenes
  • Trans-Activators
  • erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • erythrocyte membrane band 4.1 protein
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Neuropeptides
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EPB41 (cancer-related)

Yeh CC, Fan Y, Jiang L, et al.
Genistein Suppresses Growth of Human Uterine Sarcoma Cell Lines via Multiple Mechanisms.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The estrogen-like soy isoflavone genistein can suppress the growth of a number of different types of cancer cells, but its effect on uterine sarcoma is unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The impact of genistein on the proliferation of three uterine sarcoma cell lines, MES-SA, MES-SA-Dx5 and SK-UT-1, was evaluated. TOPflash luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were used to assess the influence of genistein on cellular signaling; DNA fragmentation was assessed as a measure of genistein-induced apoptosis.
RESULTS: Genistein inhibited the proliferation of all three cell lines, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 19.2 μM, 13.1 μM and 9.3 μM for SK-UT-1, MES-SA-Dx5, and MES-SA, respectively. This inhibitory activity was accompanied by induction of DNA fragmentation at 48 h. Western blot analyses revealed three major expression patterns: induction of p53 and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) and suppression of histone deacetylase 4/5/7 (HDAC4/5/7), dishevelled protein (DVL), BAX, survivin and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (phospho-MEK) in all three lines; suppression of p27 and β-catenin in the more resistant lines MES-SA-Dx5 and SK-UT-1; and suppression of Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) phosphorylation and activation of caspase-3 in the parental derived lines MES-SA and MES-SA-Dx5. Down-regulation of β-catenin expression also coincided with decreases in TOPflash activity.
CONCLUSION: Genistein reduces sarcoma cell numbers through inhibition of proliferative signaling and through induction of programmed or non-programmed cell death. Genistein-mediated signaling changes were unique in each individual cell line, and the differential signaling responses in these three cell lines may contribute to their different levels of susceptibility to this compound.

Bell RJ, Rube HT, Kreig A, et al.
Cancer. The transcription factor GABP selectively binds and activates the mutant TERT promoter in cancer.
Science. 2015; 348(6238):1036-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactivation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression enables cells to overcome replicative senescence and escape apoptosis, which are fundamental steps in the initiation of human cancer. Multiple cancer types, including up to 83% of glioblastomas (GBMs), harbor highly recurrent TERT promoter mutations of unknown function but specific to two nucleotide positions. We identified the functional consequence of these mutations in GBMs to be recruitment of the multimeric GA-binding protein (GABP) transcription factor specifically to the mutant promoter. Allelic recruitment of GABP is consistently observed across four cancer types, highlighting a shared mechanism underlying TERT reactivation. Tandem flanking native E26 transformation-specific motifs critically cooperate with these mutations to activate TERT, probably by facilitating GABP heterotetramer binding. GABP thus directly links TERT promoter mutations to aberrant expression in multiple cancers.

Ohashi T, Yoshimasu T, Oura S, et al.
Class III Beta-tubulin Expression in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Predictive Factor for Paclitaxel Response.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2669-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: In order to clarify whether class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) is a predictive marker for paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapy, chemosensitivity was examined using an in vitro drug sensitivity assay.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve specimens from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were obtained for dose-response curve analysis and measurement of the half-maximal effective dose (ED50) of PTX using the histoculture drug response assay (HDRA). Forty-one specimens were evaluated using the HDRA and the inhibition ratio (IR) at a concentration of 25 μg/ml PTX (IR25) was measured. TUBB3 expression was evaluated by H-score in immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS: The ED50 of PTX was 24.5 ± 8.06 μg/ml. The median H-score was significantly higher (p=0.0076) in the high effective dose (HE)-group (ED50 >25 μg/ml) than in the low effective (LE)-group (ED50 ≤ 25 μg/ml). The mean IR25 was 53.8 ± 26.6%. The median H-score for the high-inhibition ratio (HI)-group (IR25 >50%) was significantly higher (p=0.0337) than the low-inhibition ratio (LI)-group (IR25 ≤ 50%).
CONCLUSION: High TUBB3 expression in NSCLC appeared to correlate with lower PTX sensitivity.

Zhang X, Xu Y, He C, et al.
Elevated expression of CCAT2 is associated with poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol. 2015; 111(7):834-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: CCAT2, a novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), is found to promote the metastasis and invasion of colon, lung, and breast cancers. This study aimed to investigate the level of CCAT2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to elucidate its clinical significance.
METHODS: The expression level of CCAT2 and the status of MYC amplification were examined in 229 ESCC samples using quantitative real- time PCR.
RESULTS: CCAT2 was upregulated in ESCC tissues, especially in cases with lymph node metastasis (LNM), advanced TNM stages, and MYC amplification. Furthermore, the level of CCAT2 was positively correlated with TNM stages, LNM, and the number of positive lymph nodes. High CCAT2 expression and MYC amplification were significantly associated with TNM stages and LNM. Survival analyses revealed that high CCAT2 expression and MYC amplification were significantly associated with poorer overall survival in ESCC patients. Furthermore, patients with high CCAT2 expression and MYC amplification had a 2.199-fold increased risk of death compared with those with low CCAT2 expression and MYC non-amplification.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first evidence associating CCAT2 expression and poor survival in ESCC. CCAT2 may be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC.

He H, Li W, Liyanarachchi S, et al.
Multiple functional variants in long-range enhancer elements contribute to the risk of SNP rs965513 in thyroid cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(19):6128-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/11/2015 Related Publications
The [A] allele of SNP rs965513 in 9q22 has been consistently shown to be highly associated with increased papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk with an odds ratio of ∼1.8 as determined by genome-wide association studies, yet the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we noted that the expression of two genes in the region, forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) and PTC susceptibility candidate 2 (PTCSC2), is regulated by rs965513 in unaffected thyroid tissue, but the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated. Here, we fine-mapped the 9q22 region in PTC and controls and detected an ∼33-kb linkage disequilibrium block (containing the lead SNP rs965513) that significantly associates with PTC risk. Chromatin characteristics and regulatory element signatures in this block disclosed at least three regulatory elements functioning as enhancers. These enhancers harbor at least four SNPs (rs7864322, rs12352658, rs7847449, and rs10759944) that serve as functional variants. The variant genotypes are associated with differential enhancer activities and/or transcription factor binding activities. Using the chromosome conformation capture methodology, long-range looping interactions of these elements with the promoter region shared by FOXE1 and PTCSC2 in a human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line (KTC-1) and unaffected thyroid tissue were found. Our results suggest that multiple variants coinherited with the lead SNP and located in long-range enhancers are involved in the transcriptional regulation of FOXE1 and PTCSC2 expression. These results explain the mechanism by which the risk allele of rs965513 predisposes to thyroid cancer.

Yin J, Yin M, Vogel U, et al.
NFKB1 common variants and PPP1R13L and CD3EAP in relation to lung cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Gene. 2015; 567(1):31-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variations in NFKB1 have been associated with cancer risk. This investigation intended to evaluate the possible association between common variants in NFKB1 and lung cancer risk and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A study containing 384 Chinese lung cancer cases and 387 cancer-free controls was conducted. 5 htSNPs (rs3774934, rs13117745, rs230541, rs1801, rs3774965) in NFKB1 and interaction with common variants in NFKB1 and PPP1R13L and CD3EAP and smoking-duration were assessed. No association with lung cancer risk was detected for individual htSNP in four genetic models, but the haplotype consisting of the wild-type alleles of rs3774934(G), rs13117745(C), rs230541(A), and rs1801(G) was associated with lowered lung cancer risk after adjustment for smoking duration [OR (95% CI) = 0.71 (0.51-0.98), P = 0.036]. There was no interaction between NFKB1 polymorphisms and PPP1R13L and CD3EAP and smoking status in relation to lung cancer risk. Two significant models: smoking duration as main effect (P < 0.0010) and smoking duration-PPP1R13L rs1970764 combination (P = 0.0040-0.0050) were tested. The results suggest that NFKB1 common variants and smoking duration and smoking duration-PPP1R13L rs1970764 interaction could be concerned with the lung cancer development in a Chinese population. The present findings add to the evidence implicating inflammation in lung cancer etiology.

Liu Y, Zhang X, Han C, et al.
TP53 loss creates therapeutic vulnerability in colorectal cancer.
Nature. 2015; 520(7549):697-701 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/10/2015 Related Publications
TP53, a well-known tumour suppressor gene that encodes p53, is frequently inactivated by mutation or deletion in most human tumours. A tremendous effort has been made to restore p53 activity in cancer therapies. However, no effective p53-based therapy has been successfully translated into clinical cancer treatment owing to the complexity of p53 signalling. Here we demonstrate that genomic deletion of TP53 frequently encompasses essential neighbouring genes, rendering cancer cells with hemizygous TP53 deletion vulnerable to further suppression of such genes. POLR2A is identified as such a gene that is almost always co-deleted with TP53 in human cancers. It encodes the largest and catalytic subunit of the RNA polymerase II complex, which is specifically inhibited by α-amanitin. Our analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) databases reveals that POLR2A expression levels are tightly correlated with its gene copy numbers in human colorectal cancer. Suppression of POLR2A with α-amanitin or small interfering RNAs selectively inhibits the proliferation, survival and tumorigenic potential of colorectal cancer cells with hemizygous TP53 loss in a p53-independent manner. Previous clinical applications of α-amanitin have been limited owing to its liver toxicity. However, we found that α-amanitin-based antibody-drug conjugates are highly effective therapeutic agents with reduced toxicity. Here we show that low doses of α-amanitin-conjugated anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody lead to complete tumour regression in mouse models of human colorectal cancer with hemizygous deletion of POLR2A. We anticipate that inhibiting POLR2A will be a new therapeutic approach for human cancers containing such common genomic alterations.

Zhou F, Huang X, Zhang Z, et al.
Functional polymorphisms of ITGB1 are associated with clinical outcome of Chinese patients with resected colorectal cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(6):1207-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Integrin β1 (ITGB1) has been recognized to play a major role in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ITGB1 gene on the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been reported.
METHODS: A total of 372 patients with resected colorectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled in our study. Three functional SNPs (rs2230395, rs1187075 and rs1187076) in ITGB1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX genotyping system.
RESULTS: We identified two SNPs (rs2230395 and rs1187075) in ITGB1 gene to be significantly associated with CRC overall survival (OS). Compared with the homozygous wild-type (AA) and heterozygous variant (AC), rs2230395 homozygous variant (CC) conferred a 1.55-fold (95 % CI 1.00-2.41, P = 0.049) increased risk of death. Similar result was obtained for homozygous variant (AA) in rs1187075 with a 1.62-fold (95 % CI 1.08-2.42, P = 0.020). In stratified analysis, this association in rs2230395 remained to be significant in patients receiving chemotherapy, but not in those without chemotherapy. We further evaluated the effects of chemotherapy on CRC survival in subgroups stratified by rs2230395 and rs1187075 genotypes. We found that chemotherapy resulted in a significantly better OS in patients with the homozygous wild-type (WW) or heterozygous variant (WV) genotype in both rs2230395 and rs1187075 when compared with patients with homozygous variant (VV) genotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that ITGB1 SNPs might be a prognostic biomarker for CRC patients, especially in those receiving chemotherapy. Our findings warrant validation in larger independent populations.

Xu YF, Mao YP, Li YQ, et al.
MicroRNA-93 promotes cell growth and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting disabled homolog-2.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 363(2):146-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated to contribute to malignant progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We previously reported that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in NPC based on a microarray analysis. However, the potential role and mechanism of action of miR-93 in the initiation and progression of NPC remain largely unknown. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in NPC cell lines and clinical specimens. The MTT assay, colony formation assay, anchorage-independent growth, and Transwell migration and invasion assays showed that depletion of miR-93 inhibited NPC cell growth, invasion and migration in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Disabled homolog-2 (Dab2) was verified as a miR-93 target gene using Luciferase reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting and was involved in miR-93-regulated NPC cell growth, invasion and migration. These results indicated that miR-93 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of NPC by targeting Dab2 and the miR-93/Dab2 pathway may contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for NPC in the future.

Wang X, Zhang L, Ding N, et al.
Identification and characterization of DNAzymes targeting DNA methyltransferase I for suppressing bladder cancer proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 461(2):329-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic inactivation of genes plays a critical role in many important human diseases, especially in cancer. A core mechanism for epigenetic inactivation of the genes is methylation of CpG islands in genome DNA, which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The inhibition of DNMTs may lead to demethylation and expression of the silenced tumor suppressor genes. Although DNMT inhibitors are currently being developed as potential anticancer agents, only limited success is achieved due to substantial toxicity. Here, we utilized a multiplex selection system to generate efficient RNA-cleaving DNAzymes targeting DNMT1. The lead molecule from the selection was shown to possess efficient kinetic profiles and high efficiency in inhibiting the enzyme activity. Transfection of the DNAzyme caused significant down-regulation of DNMT1 expression and reactivation of p16 gene, resulting in reduced cell proliferation of bladder cancers. This study provides an alternative for targeting DNMTs for potential cancer therapy.

He JY, Xi WH, Zhu LB, et al.
Knockdown of Aurora-B alters osteosarcoma cell malignant phenotype via decreasing phosphorylation of VCP and NF-κB signaling.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3895-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of inhibiting Aurora-B on osteosarcoma (OS) cell malignant phenotype, phosphorylation of valosin-containing protein (VCP), and the activity of NF-κB signaling in vitro. The expressions of Aurora-B and p-VCP proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in 24 OS tissues, and the relationship between Aurora-B and p-VCP was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between Aurora-B and p-VCP proteins. The expression of Aurora-B in human OS cell lines U2-OS and HOS cells was inhibited by specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus (AURKB-shRNA lentivirus, Lv-shAURKB) which targeted Aurora-B. The results showed that the phosphorylation of VCP, the activity of NF-κB signaling pathway and the malignant phenotype of OS cells were all suppressed by knockdown of Aurora-B. It indicated that the inhibition of Aurora-B alters OS cells malignant phenotype by downregulating phosphorylation of VCP and activating of the NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro.

Yang L, He Z, Huang XY, et al.
Prevalence of human papillomavirus and the correlation of HPV infection with cervical disease in Weihai, China.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):73-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rate in female genital tracts, as well as the HPV genotype distribution and HPV correlation with cervical disease in Weihai, Shandong Province, China.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A random sample of 9,460 volunteers was simultaneously screened using gene chips and examined by ThinPrep liquid-based cytology test (TCT). Cervical biopsy samples were collected from women with positive HPV-DNA and abnormal TCT for pathological diagnosis.
RESULTS: The overall HPV prevalence was 6.93% (656 of 9,460). A total of 753 subjects were infected with HPV subtypes (including multiple HPV infections). Of those with infections, 688 were infected with high-risk (HR) types (91.37%), and 65 were infected with low-risk subtypes (8.63%). The single-infection rate was 63.1%.The prevalence rates of HPV in women aged 20 to 39 years and 40 to 59 years were 7.29% and 6.71%, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV16. The HR genotypes were associated with cervical diseases such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (37.9%), atypical squamous cells high grade (ASC-H) (42.5%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (50%), and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion HSIL (66.7%). Cervical biopsy results show that the HPV detection rate increased in the following biopsy samples: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (74.11%), CIN II (84.31%), CIN III (90.32%), and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) (100%).
CONCLUSIONS: The HPV infection rate with associated cervical disease in Weihai is equal to those in foreign countries but is lower than the average rate in China. The prevalence of HPV was higher in young people. The most common HPV genotype was 16, followed by 52 and 58. HR HPV is the most probable infection factor for cervical diseases.

Huang DS, Wang Z, He XJ, et al.
Recurrent TERT promoter mutations identified in a large-scale study of multiple tumour types are associated with increased TERT expression and telomerase activation.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(8):969-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several somatic mutation hotspots were recently identified in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter region in human cancers. Large scale studies of these mutations in multiple tumour types are limited, in particular in Asian populations. This study aimed to: analyse TERT promoter mutations in multiple tumour types in a large Chinese patient cohort, investigate novel tumour types and assess the functional significance of the mutations.
METHODS: TERT promoter mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing for 13 different tumour types and 799 tumour tissues from Chinese cancer patients. Thymic epithelial tumours, gastrointestinal leiomyoma, and gastric schwannoma were included, for which the TERT promoter has not been previously sequenced. Functional studies included TERT expression by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), telomerase activity by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay and promoter activity by the luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: TERT promoter mutations were highly frequent in glioblastoma (83.9%), urothelial carcinoma (64.5%), oligodendroglioma (70.0%), medulloblastoma (33.3%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (31.4%). C228T and C250T were the most common mutations. In urothelial carcinoma, several novel rare mutations were identified. TERT promoter mutations were absent in gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), thymic epithelial tumours, gastrointestinal leiomyoma, gastric schwannoma, cholangiocarcinoma, gastric and pancreatic cancer. TERT promoter mutations highly correlated with upregulated TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in adult gliomas. These mutations differentially enhanced the transcriptional activity of the TERT core promoter.
CONCLUSIONS: TERT promoter mutations are frequent in multiple tumour types and have similar distributions in Chinese cancer patients. The functional significance of these mutations reflect the importance to telomere maintenance and hence tumourigenesis, making them potential therapeutic targets.

He YZ, Liang Z, Wu MR, et al.
Overexpression of EPS8 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(6):575-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular markers have become an invaluable tool in monitoring disease status particularly of leukemias, as bone marrow samples can be easily collected for analysis during all stages of disease development including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Two genes that have been used as prognostic markers in acute leukemia are Wilms' tumor (WT1) and multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). A novel gene, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (EPS8), is often over-expressed and associated with poor outcome in some solid tumor types. However, whether EPS8 is also associated with the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unclear. Here, quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of EPS8, MDR1, and WT1 in bone marrow samples of adult ALL patients (n=107) and non-leukemia controls (n=22). EPS8, MDR1, and WT1 were detected in ALL patients, and significant correlations were found between expression profiles for EPS8 and MDR1, EPS8 and WT1, and MDR1 and WT1. In general, high expression of EPS8, MDR1, or WT1 in patients was associated with a higher risk of relapse. Furthermore, when patients were stratified based on high or low expression of the genes, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that disease-free survival of patients with the high-EPS8/high-WT1/high-MDR1 profile was significantly shorter than in patients with the low-EPS8/low-WT1/low-MDR1 profile or those excluded from either of these groups (P<0.0001). Thus, EPS8, as MDR1 and WT1, may be a clinically valuable biomarker for assessing the outcome of ALL patients.

Chen D, Guo W, Qiu Z, et al.
MicroRNA-30d-5p inhibits tumour cell proliferation and motility by directly targeting CCNE2 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 362(2):208-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that are dysregulated in many types of human cancers, although their precise functions in driving non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that miR-30d-5p, often downregulated in NSCLC tissues, significantly inhibited the growth, cell cycle distribution, and motility of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cyclin E2 (CCNE2), which was often upregulated in NSCLC tissues, was a direct target of miR-30d-5p. CCNE2 expression promoted the proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC cells. In addition, the re-introduction of CCNE2 expression antagonised the inhibitory effects of miR-30d-5p on the capacity of NSCLC cells for proliferation and motility. Together, these results suggest that the miR-30d-5p/CCNE2 axis may contribute to NSCLC cell proliferation and motility, indicating miR-30d-5p as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.

Xu Y, He J, Wang Y, et al.
miR-889 promotes proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas through DAB2IP.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(10):1127-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have been reported to play critical roles in various cancers, but there has been no study on the role of miR-889 in cancers. Here, we report that over-expression of miR-889 leads to rapid proliferation of EC109 and EC9706 cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing cells into S-phase. Using bioinformatics methods, DAB2IP was further confirmed to be a direct target of miR-889. In addition, the expression of DAB2IP, which was negatively correlated with that of miR-889, was significantly associated with clinicopathological features of ESCC patients. In conclusion, miR-889 is an important regulator in ESCC and both miR-889 and DAB2IP may serve as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets in patients with ESCC.

Mariani M, Karki R, Spennato M, et al.
Class III β-tubulin in normal and cancer tissues.
Gene. 2015; 563(2):109-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microtubules are polymeric structures composed of tubulin subunits. Each subunit consists of a heterodimer of α- and β-tubulin. At least seven β-tubulin isotypes, or classes, have been identified in human cells, and constitutive isotype expression appears to be tissue specific. Class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin) expression is normally confined to testes and tissues derived from neural cristae. However, its expression can be induced in other tissues, both normal and neoplastic, subjected to a toxic microenvironment characterized by hypoxia and poor nutrient supply. In this review, we will summarize the mechanisms underlying βIII-tubulin constitutive and induced expression. We will also illustrate its capacity to serve as a biomarker of neural commitment in normal tissues and as a pure prognostic biomarker in cancer patients.

Zhang L, Zhou Y, Cheng C, et al.
Genomic analyses reveal mutational signatures and frequently altered genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Am J Hum Genet. 2015; 96(4):597-611 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the fourth most lethal cancer in China. However, although genomic studies have identified some mutations associated with ESCC, we know little of the mutational processes responsible. To identify genome-wide mutational signatures, we performed either whole-genome sequencing (WGS) or whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 104 ESCC individuals and combined our data with those of 88 previously reported samples. An APOBEC-mediated mutational signature in 47% of 192 tumors suggests that APOBEC-catalyzed deamination provides a source of DNA damage in ESCC. Moreover, PIK3CA hotspot mutations (c.1624G>A [p.Glu542Lys] and c.1633G>A [p.Glu545Lys]) were enriched in APOBEC-signature tumors, and no smoking-associated signature was observed in ESCC. In the samples analyzed by WGS, we identified focal (<100 kb) amplifications of CBX4 and CBX8. In our combined cohort, we identified frequent inactivating mutations in AJUBA, ZNF750, and PTCH1 and the chromatin-remodeling genes CREBBP and BAP1, in addition to known mutations. Functional analyses suggest roles for several genes (CBX4, CBX8, AJUBA, and ZNF750) in ESCC. Notably, high activity of hedgehog signaling and the PI3K pathway in approximately 60% of 104 ESCC tumors indicates that therapies targeting these pathways might be particularly promising strategies for ESCC. Collectively, our data provide comprehensive insights into the mutational signatures of ESCC and identify markers for early diagnosis and potential therapeutic targets.

Zhang J, Zhang C, Hu L, et al.
Abnormal Expression of miR-21 and miR-95 in Cancer Stem-Like Cells is Associated with Radioresistance of Lung Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2015; 33(5):165-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study demonstrated that miR-21 and miR-95 expression were significantly higher in the ALDH1(+)CD133(+)subpopulation than in the ALDH1(-)CD133(-) subpopulation of lung cancer cells. Combined delivery of anti-miR-21 and anti-miR-95 by calcium phosphate nanoparticles significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model and sensitized radiotherapy. The anti-miRNAs significantly reduced miR-21 and miR-95 levels, increased PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 protein expression, but reduced Akt Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation. ALDH1(+)CD133(+) subpopulation of NSCLC tumor cells confers radioresistance due to high expression of miR-21 and miR-95. Targeting inhibition of miR-21 and miR-95 can inhibit tumor growth through elevating PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 expression and inhibiting Akt phosphorylation.

He H, Fu W, Jiang H, et al.
The clinical characteristics and prognosis of IGH deletion in multiple myeloma.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(5):515-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of IGH deletion in multiple myeloma (MM).
METHODS: A total of 310 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma were analyzed. Among them 251 patients were newly diagnosed and 59 patients were previously treated, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with IGH break apart probes were done for each case. Patterns of IGH deletion, response rate, overall survival, and progression free survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: Several patterns of IGH deletion were identified, including monoallelic deletion of whole locus of IGH, monoallelic deletion of 3' IGH, monoallelic deletion of 5' IGH, biallelic deletion of 3' IGH deletion, and complicated deletions with various types. The incidence rate of IGH deletion was 22.7% (57/251) in newly diagnosed patients and 27.2% (16/59) in previously treated patients, no significant difference was found between the two groups (p=0.375). IGH deletion was associated with κ light chain M component (p<0.001), 13q deletion (p=0.006), and absence of t(4; 14)(p=0.033). In the cases with 13q deletion, the frequency of IGH deletion is 3.5% (1/28) in patients with t(4;14) and 40.5% (32/79) in patients without t(4;14), significant difference was found (p=0.006). We further analyzed the response rates of patients with IGH deletion who received a uniform induction regimen of PAD composing of bortezomib, epirubicin, and dexamethasone. Overall response rate (ORR) in patients with IGH deletion was better than that in patients without IGH deletion (87.5 vs. 73.6%, p<0.001), while no significant difference was found in survival analysis, either OS or PFS (p=0.158 and p=0.177, respectively).
CONCLUSION: IGH deletion is frequent in multiple myeloma, the incidence rate was higher in patients with 13q deletion and without t(4;14). Patients with IGH deletion had better ORR to PAD induction therapy, while it has no influence on the prognosis of multiple myeloma.

Leung WK, He M, Chan AW, et al.
Wnt/β-Catenin activates MiR-183/96/182 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma that promotes cell invasion.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 362(1):97-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nearly 50% of known miRNAs are found in clusters and transcribed as polycistronic transcripts. In this study, we showed that over-expression of miR-183/96/182 cluster is frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a highly aggressive malignancy that is commonly fatal. In a cohort of HCC patients (n = 81), miR-183/96/182 up-regulation correlated with metastatic features including presence of microvascular invasion, advanced tumor differentiation, and shorter recurrence-free survival. Univariate and multivariate analyses further showed miR-183/96/182 over-expression represented an independent prognostic factor (Relative Risk: 2.0471; P = 0.0289). Functional investigation using siRNA against miR-183/96/182 in two invasive HCC cells indicated significant inhibition on cell migration and invasion without affecting cell viability. Forkhead boxO1 (FOXO1) was further validated as a downstream target of these three miRNAs. In investigating the regulatory mechanism underlining miR-183/96/182 over-expression, a direct interaction of CTNNB1 on the promoter region was confirmed by ChIP-PCR and luciferase reporter validations. Knockdown of CTNNB1 also showed concordant down-regulations of miR-183, -96 and -182, and the re-expression of FOXO1. Our findings demonstrated that over-expression of miR-183/96/182 confers an oncogenic function in HCC cell dissemination, and could serve as an independent prognostic predictor for HCC patients.

He HL, Lee YE, Chen HP, et al.
Overexpression of DNAJC12 predicts poor response to neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 98(3):338-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes associated with protein folding have been found to have certain prognostic significance in a subset of cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical impact of DNAJC12 expression in patients with rectal cancers receiving neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery. Through data mining from a public transcriptomic dataset of rectal cancer focusing on genes associated with protein folding, we found that DNAJC12, a member of the HSP40/DNAJ family, was the most significant such gene correlated with the CCRT response. We further evaluated the expression of DNAJC12 by immunohistochemistry in the pre-treatment tumor specimens from 172 patients with rectal cancers. From this set, we statistically analyzed the association of DNAJC12 expression with various clinicopathological factors, tumor regression grade, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). High expression of DNAJC12 was significantly associated with advanced pre- and post-treatment tumor status (P<0.001), advanced pre- and post-treatment nodal status (P<0.001), increased vascular invasion (P=0.015), increased perineural invasion (P=0.023) and lower tumor regression grade (P=0.009). More importantly, high expression of DNAJC12 was found to be correlated with poor prognosis for OS (P=0.0012), DFS (P<0.0001) and LRFS (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DNAJC12 overexpression still emerged as an independent prognosticator for shorter OS (P=0.040), DFS (P<0.001) and LRFS (P=0.016). The data indicate that DNAJC12 overexpression acts as a negative predictive factor for the response to neoadjuvant CCRT and was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with rectal cancers receiving neoadjuvant CCRT followed by surgery.

He F, Melamed J, Tang MS, et al.
Oncogenic HRAS Activates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Confers Stemness to p53-Deficient Urothelial Cells to Drive Muscle Invasion of Basal Subtype Carcinomas.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(10):2017-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2016 Related Publications
Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (MIUCB) exhibit frequent receptor tyrosine kinase alterations, but the precise nature of their contributions to tumor pathophysiology is unclear. Using mutant HRAS (HRAS*) as an oncogenic prototype, we obtained evidence in transgenic mice that RTK/RAS pathway activation in urothelial cells causes hyperplasia that neither progresses to frank carcinoma nor regresses to normal urothelium through a period of one year. This persistent hyperplastic state appeared to result from an equilibrium between promitogenic factors and compensatory tumor barriers in the p19-MDM2-p53-p21 axis and a prolonged G2 arrest. Conditional inactivation of p53 in urothelial cells of transgenic mice expressing HRAS* resulted in carcinoma in situ and basal-subtype MIUCB with focal squamous differentiation resembling the human counterpart. The transcriptome of microdissected MIUCB was enriched in genes that drive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the upregulation of which is associated with urothelial cells expressing multiple progenitor/stem cell markers. Taken together, our results provide evidence for RTK/RAS pathway activation and p53 deficiency as a combinatorial theranostic biomarker that may inform the progression and treatment of urothelial carcinoma.

He X, Chen P, Yang K, et al.
Association of MDM2 polymorphism with risk and prognosis of leukemia: a meta-analysis.
Acta Haematol. 2015; 133(4):365-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we performed an updated meta-analysis by summarizing all available relevant association studies to evaluate whether the murine double minute-2 (MDM2) T309G polymorphism is associated with risk of leukemia and to determine its prognostic effect.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Studies published in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched till June 2014 using the search terms 'MDM2', 'polymorphism' and 'leukemia'.
RESULTS: Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis, with a total of 2,478 patients accrued. There were 8 studies providing data on single nucleotide polymorphism at position 309 (SNP309) and risk of leukemia and 7 studies providing data on SNP309 and overall survival. Our analysis showed that patients having G/G mutations had a significantly higher risk of developing leukemia (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.56-2.31, p < 0.00001), while the association between G/T and leukemia was not significant (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.96-1.45, p = 0.11). In addition, SNP309 was not significantly associated with patient survival (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.79-2.13, p = 0.31).
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed that the MDM2 T309G variation, especially homozygous G/G, might be associated with an increased risk of leukemia. Additional studies are needed to confirm the findings as well as to understand the underlying mechanisms.

Fu D, Ren C, Tan H, et al.
Sox17 promoter methylation in plasma DNA is associated with poor survival and can be used as a prognostic factor in breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(11):e637 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation that leads to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is known to play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Methylation status of cancer-related genes is considered to be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. This study investigated the methylation status of the Sox17 gene in breast cancer tissue and its corresponding plasma DNA to evaluate the association of methylation levels with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis.The methylation status of the Sox17 gene promoter was evaluated with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in 155 paired breast cancer tissue and plasma samples and in 60 paired normal breast tissue and plasma samples. Association of Sox17 methylation status with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed by χ tests. Overall and disease-free survival (DFS) curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the differences between curves were analyzed by log-rank tests.The frequency of Sox17 gene methylation was 72.9% (113/155) in breast cancer tissues and 58.1% (90/155) in plasma DNA. Sox17 gene methylation was not found in normal breast tissues or in their paired plasma DNA. There was a significant correlation of Sox17 methylation between corresponding tumor tissues and paired plasma DNA (r = 0.688, P < 0.001). Aberrant Sox17 methylation in cancer tissues and in plasma DNA was significantly associated with the tumor node metastasis stage (P = 0.035 and P = 0.001, respectively) and with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that aberrant Sox17 promoter methylation in cancer tissues and plasma DNA was associated with poor DFS (P < 0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that Sox17 methylation in plasma DNA was an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer for both DFS (P = 0.020; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.142; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.128-4.067) and for OS (P = 0.001; HR = 4.737; 95% CI: 2.088-10.747).Sox17 gene promoter methylation may play an important role in breast cancer progression and could be used as a prognostic biomarker to identify patients at risk of developing metastasis or recurrence after mastectomy.

Zheng S, Yang Y, Song R, et al.
Ang-(1-7) promotes the migration and invasion of human renal cell carcinoma cells via Mas-mediated AKT signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 460(2):333-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ang-(1-7) is an active peptide component of renin-angiotensin system and endogenous ligand for Mas receptor. In the current study, we showed that Ang-(1-7) enhanced migratory and invasive abilities of renal cell carcinoma cells 786-O and Caki-1 by wound-healing, transwell migration and transwell invasion assays. Mas antagonist A779 pretreatment or shRNA-mediated Mas knockdown abolished the stimulatory effect of Ang-(1-7). Furthermore, Ang-(1-7)-stimulated AKT activation was inhibited by either A779 pretreatment or Mas knockdown. Blockage of AKT signaling by AKT inhibitor VIII inhibited Ang-(1-7)-induced migration and invasion in 786-O cells. Taken together, our results provided the first evidence for the pro-metastatic role of Ang-(1-7) in RCC, which may help to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the progression of this tumor.

Deng Q, He B, Pan Y, et al.
Polymorphisms of GSTA1 contribute to elevated cancer risk: evidence from 15 studies.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):287-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, and may be linked to carcinogenesis. As a vital component of GSTs, GSTA1 plays an important role in carcinogenesis. However, the studies about the effect of GSTA1 polymorphisms on cancer risk are limited and the conclusions are contradictory. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between GSTA1 polymorphisms (-567T>G, (69C>T and -52G>A) and cancer risk.
METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted from their inception through December 2013. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association of GSTA1 polymorphisms and cancer risk.
RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were enrolled, and the results indicated that GSTA1 BB genotype was associated with elevated cancer risk, especially in colorectal cancer. Further stratifications showed that GSTA1 BB genotype was associated with increased cancer risk in Caucasian populations and in the study with population-based controls.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that GSTA1 BB genotype was a risk factor for colorectal cancer, especially in Caucasian populations.

Sun XX, He X, Yin L, et al.
The nucleolar ubiquitin-specific protease USP36 deubiquitinates and stabilizes c-Myc.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(12):3734-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/09/2015 Related Publications
c-Myc protein stability and activity are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Aberrant stabilization of c-Myc contributes to many human cancers. c-Myc is ubiquitinated by SCF(Fbw7) (a SKP1-cullin-1-F-box complex that contains the F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7, Fbw7, as the F-box protein) and several other ubiquitin ligases, whereas it is deubiquitinated and stabilized by ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 28. The bulk of c-Myc degradation appears to occur in the nucleolus. However, whether c-Myc is regulated by deubiquitination in the nucleolus is not known. Here, we report that the nucleolar deubiquitinating enzyme USP36 is a novel c-Myc deubiquitinase. USP36 interacts with and deubiquitinates c-Myc in cells and in vitro, leading to the stabilization of c-Myc. This USP36 regulation of c-Myc occurs in the nucleolus. Interestingly, USP36 interacts with the nucleolar Fbw7γ but not the nucleoplasmic Fbw7α. However, it abolished c-Myc degradation mediated both by Fbw7γ and by Fbw7α. Consistently, knockdown of USP36 reduces the levels of c-Myc and suppresses cell proliferation. We further show that USP36 itself is a c-Myc target gene, suggesting that USP36 and c-Myc form a positive feedback regulatory loop. High expression levels of USP36 are found in a subset of human breast and lung cancers. Altogether, these results identified USP36 as a crucial and bono fide deubiquitinating enzyme controlling c-Myc's nucleolar degradation pathway.

Zhou J, Qian S, Li H, et al.
Predictive value of microtubule-associated protein Tau in patients with recurrent and metastatic breast cancer treated with taxane-containing palliative chemotherapy.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3941-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tau is a member of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and expressed in normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. Tau expression levels in early breast cancer were correlated with the responsiveness of taxane-containing chemotherapy. However, it is unknown whether Tau contributes to breast cancer progression. Herein, Tau expression in recurrent and metastatic breast cancer (RMBC) and its predictive significance in taxane-containing palliative chemotherapy were investigated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was conducted to detect Tau protein expression levels in biopsies from 285 patients with RMBC, and the correlation between Tau expression and sensitivity to taxane was evaluated. One hundred twenty-one (42.46 %, 121/285) patients were Tau positive in their tumor. One hundred ninety-four (68.07 %, 194/285) patients were effective clinical remission, which evaluated with response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria. In this group, 141 (85.98 %, 141/194) patients were Tau negative. We further analyzed the correlation between Tau expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Tau expression was positively correlated to estrogen receptor (ER) status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Tau expression significantly differentiated patients with effective response to treatment (95 % confidence interval (CI): 4.230-13.88, P < 0.01). Tau expression was identified as an independent factor to predict the sensitivity of tumors to taxane-containing palliative chemotherapy in RMBC, suggesting that Tau expression in RMBC may serve as a clinical predictor for taxane-containing palliative chemotherapy.

Xie Y, Tu W, Zhang J, et al.
SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation.
Mutat Res. 2015; 772:23-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

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