Gene Summary

Gene:EPB41; erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1
Aliases: HE, EL1, 4.1R
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene, together with spectrin and actin, constitute the red cell membrane cytoskeletal network. This complex plays a critical role in erythrocyte shape and deformability. Mutations in this gene are associated with type 1 elliptocytosis (EL1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein 4.1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Actins
  • Meningioma
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Oncogenes
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Xenograft Models
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • myc Genes
  • China
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1
  • GSTP1
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • GADD45A
  • Genome, Human
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Meningeal Neoplasms
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Portal Vein
  • Chromosome 1
  • Liver Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • Genomics
  • erythrocyte membrane band 4.1 protein
  • ERG
  • Blood Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • MYC
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EPB41 (cancer-related)

Xiao B, Zhang W, Kuang Z, et al.
SOX9 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion through BMP2 and mTOR signaling.
Gene. 2019; 715:144017 [PubMed] Related Publications
SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (SOX9) is a member of the SOX family of transcription factors. Accumulating evidence has shown that SOX9 plays a significant role in various malignancies. However, the role of SOX9 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. In the present study, up-regulation of SOX9 was observed in both NPC tissues and different NPC cells. Overexpression of SOX9 promoted NPC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conversely, knock down of SOX9 inhibited NPC proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. Mechanistically, SOX9 bound directly to the promoter region of BMP2 and increased BMP2 expression. In addition, overexpression of SOX9 activated the mTOR pathway partly through BMP2. Collectively, these results identify a novel role for SOX9 as a potential therapeutic marker for the prevention and treatment of NPC.

Li Y, He S, Zhan Y, et al.
microRNA-183-3p Inhibits Progression of Human Prostate Cancer by Downregulating High-Mobility Group Nucleosome Binding Domain 5.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(8):840-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs are a class of noncoding RNAs that play important roles in cancer progression. microRNA-183-3p (miR-183-3p) is a novel microRNA that is dysregulated in many kinds of cancers. Our previous studies found high expression and oncologic role of high-mobility group nucleosome binding domain 5 (

Wang S, Li GX, Tan CC, et al.
FOXF2 reprograms breast cancer cells into bone metastasis seeds.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2707 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone metastases occur in most advanced breast cancer patients and cause serious skeletal-related complications. The mechanisms by which bone metastasis seeds develop in primary tumors and specifically colonize the bone remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that forkhead box F2 (FOXF2) functions as a master transcription factor for reprogramming cancer cells into an osteomimetic phenotype by pleiotropic transactivation of the BMP4/SMAD1 signaling pathway and bone-related genes that are expressed at early stages of bone differentiation. The epithelial-to-osteomimicry transition regulated by FOXF2 confers a tendency on cancer cells to metastasize to bone which leads to osteolytic bone lesions. The BMP antagonist Noggin significantly inhibits FOXF2-driven osteolytic bone metastasis of breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting the FOXF2-BMP/SMAD axis might be a promising therapeutic strategy to manage bone metastasis. The role of FOXF2 in transactivating bone-related genes implies a biological function of FOXF2 in regulating bone development and remodeling.

Yan Q, Chen T, Yang H, et al.
The Effect of FERMT1 Regulated by miR-24 on the Growth and Radiation Resistance of Esophageal Cancer.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019; 15(3):621-631 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study addresses the role and underlying mechanism of FERMT1 in the development of esophageal cancer (EC). High level of FERMT1 expression was found in human EC tissues and was significantly correlated with poor overall survival. Overexpression of FERMT1 by a lentiviral vector markedly promoted EC cell proliferation and radiation resistance

Yang H, Geng YH, Wang P, et al.
Extracellular ATP promotes breast cancer invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via hypoxia-inducible factor 2α signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2456-2470 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extracellular ATP has been shown to play an important role in invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in breast cancer; however, the mechanism is unclear. Here, by using a cDNA microarray, we demonstrated that extracellular ATP could stimulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling and upregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1/2α (HIF-1/2α) expression. After knocking down HIF-1/2α using siRNA, we found that ATP-driven invasion and EMT were significantly attenuated via HIF2A-siRNA in breast cancer cells. By using ChIP assays, we revealed that the biological function of extracellular ATP in invasion and EMT process depended on HIF-2α direct targets, among which lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediated ATP-driven invasion, and E-cadherin and Snail mediated ATP-driven EMT, respectively. In addition, using silver staining and mass spectrometry, we found that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) could interact with HIF-2α and mediate ATP-driven HIF-2α upregulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that expressions of HIF-2α and its target proteins could be regulated via ATP by AKT-PGK1 pathway. Using a Balb/c mice model, we illustrated the function of HIF-2α in promoting tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, by exploring online databases, we found that molecules involved in ATP-HIF-2α signaling were highly expressed in human breast carcinoma tissues and were associated with poor prognosis. Altogether, these findings suggest that extracellular ATP could promote breast carcinoma invasion and EMT via HIF-2α signaling, which may be a potential target for future anti-metastasis therapy.

He J, Yang Y, Chen Z, et al.
Identification of variants and therapeutic epitopes in HPV-33/HPV-58 E6 and E7 in Southwest China.
Virol J. 2019; 16(1):72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins play a crucial role in HPV-related diseases, such as cervical cancer, and can be used as ideal targets for therapeutic vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) participates in the immune response to block HPV infection and invasion by its target/recognition function. HPV-33 and HPV-58 are highly prevalent among Chinese women. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the E6 and E7 region-specific gene polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China and to identify ideal epitopes for vaccine design. Both HPV-33 and HPV-58 belong to α-9 genus HPV and are highly homologous, so their correlations are included in our research.
METHODS: To study the E6 and E7 variations and polymorphisms of HPV-33 and HPV-58 in Southwest China, we collected samples, extracted and sequenced DNA, and identified variants. Nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids by Mega 6.0 software. The physical/chemical properties, amino acid-conserved sequences and secondary structure of protein sequences were analysed by the Protparam server, ConSurf server and PSIPRED software. The T and B cell epitopes of the E6/E7 reference and variant sequences in HPV-33 and HPV-58 were predicted by the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) analysis server and the ABCpred server, respectively.
RESULTS: Five and seven optimal HLA-I restricted T cell epitopes were selected from HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6, respectively, and these optimal epitopes are mainly located in
CONCLUSIONS: HPV-33/HPV-58 E6/E7 gene polymorphisms and T/B cell epitopes of their reference and variant sequences were studied, and candidate epitopes were selected by bioinformatics techniques for therapeutic vaccine design for people in Southwest China. This study was the first to investigate the correlation of epitopes between HPV-33 and HPV-58. After experimental validation, these selected epitopes will be employed to induce a wide range of immune responses in heterogeneous HLA populations.

Yang Z, Shi J, Guo Z, et al.
A pilot study on polycystic ovarian syndrome caused by neonatal exposure to tributyltin and bisphenol A in rats.
Chemosphere. 2019; 231:151-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) could be caused by exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In the current study, two commonly found EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and tributyltin (TBT), were investigated for their effects on PCOS occurrence in neonatal female rats. TBT (10 and 100 ng kg

De Falco V, Natalicchio MI, Napolitano S, et al.
A case report of a severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity due to an uncommon DPYD variant.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(21):e15759 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Fluoropyrimidines such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its orally active prodrug, capecitabine, are widely used in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, including colorectal cancer. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) plays an important role in the 5-FU metabolism. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) is a highly polymorphic gene with several hundreds of reported genetic variants and DPD activity levels vary considerably among individuals, with different 5-FU-related efficacy and toxicity. About 5% of the population is deficient in DPD enzyme activity. The most well studied DPYD variant is the IVS14+1G>A, also known as DPYD *2A. In this report, we present a case of a patient with a double heterozygote DPYD variant (DPYD activity score: 0,5 according to Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium) who experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity resolved without any consequence.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-years-old Caucasian man with diagnosis of left colon adenocarcinoma underwent left hemicolectomy on July 2017: pT3 G3 N1c M0. According to the disease stage, he started an adjuvant therapy with XELOX using capecitabine at 50% of total dose, because of his DPYD IVS14+1G>A variant, detected before the treatment.
DIAGNOSIS: After few days, despite of this dose reduction, he experienced life-threatening adverse events such as mucositis G3, diarrhea G3, neutropenia G4, thrombocytopenia G4, and hyperbilirubinemia G3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 5.0.
INTERVENTIONS: As first, we set up an intensive rehydration therapy, antibiotic and antifungal prophylaxis, Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factors, and supportive blood transfusions. Additional genetic tests revealed a double heterozygote variant of DPYD gene (DPYD IVS14+1G>A and 2846A>T) which is a very rare situation and only 3 cases are described in literature, all of them concluded with patient's death.
OUTCOMES: After 3 weeks of intensive therapy, the patient was fully recovered. Furthermore, all the whole-body CT scans performed since discharge from the hospital until now, have confirmed no evidence of disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies demonstrated that screening strategy for the most common DPYD variants allowed for avoiding toxicities and saving money. This report underlines the importance of genotyping DPYD before treatment and emphasizes the role of genotype-guided dose individualization.

Jyotsana N, Sharma A, Chaturvedi A, et al.
Lipid nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery for safe targeting of human CML in vivo.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(8):1905-1918 [PubMed] Related Publications
Efficient and safe delivery of siRNA in vivo is the biggest roadblock to clinical translation of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. To date, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have shown efficient delivery of siRNA to the liver; however, delivery to other organs, especially hematopoietic tissues still remains a challenge. We developed DLin-MC3-DMA lipid-based LNP-siRNA formulations for systemic delivery against a driver oncogene to target human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells in vivo. A microfluidic mixing technology was used to obtain reproducible ionizable cationic LNPs loaded with siRNA molecules targeting the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene found in CML. We show a highly efficient and non-toxic delivery of siRNA in vitro and in vivo with nearly 100% uptake of LNP-siRNA formulations in bone marrow of a leukemic model. By targeting the BCR-ABL fusion oncogene, we show a reduction of leukemic burden in our myeloid leukemia mouse model and demonstrate reduced disease burden in mice treated with LNP-BCR-ABL siRNA as compared with LNP-CTRL siRNA. Our study provides proof-of-principle that fusion oncogene specific RNAi therapeutics can be exploited against leukemic cells and promise novel treatment options for leukemia patients.

Barczi E, Meszaros M, Bohacs A, et al.
Testicular Cancer in a Lung Transplant Patient With Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Report.
Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(4):1293-1295 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic disorders that develops from a mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene. Patients with CF are known to be at risk for malignancies, and lung transplantation-associated immunosuppression further increases this risk.
CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 29-year-old male patient with CF who developed testicular cancer 14 months after a lung transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy included antithymocyte globulin induction and tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisolone maintenance therapy as compared to standard alemtuzumab induction, followed by tacrolimus and prednisolone, as used in our center. He underwent semicastration and refused chemotherapy. Immunosuppressive treatment was changed to tacrolimus, everolimus, and prednisolone, which did not influence excellent graft function. This case report highlights the importance of uro-oncological observation of patients with CF following lung transplantations.

Wu Y, Song T, Liu M, et al.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(7):700-707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Substantial research has revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) plays a critical role in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and recent studies have shown different effects in the progression of different tumors. However, the role of PPARG and its target gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are incompletely understood. Clinical data revealed abnormal glucolipid metabolism in primary ccRCC samples. In addition, transcriptional profiling indicated that PPARG expression was positively correlated, whereas Six2 expression was negatively correlated with the overall survival of ccRCC patients. Staining showed that PPARG was mainly expressed in tumor cell cytoplasm, and Six2 was localized to the nuclei. In a ccRCC cell line, PPARG activation promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited cell migration and proliferation, and reduced Six2 expression. Mechanistically, overexpressing Six2 downregulated E-cadherin expression and cell apoptosis, but PPARG activation reversed those effects. Taken together, PPARG promotes apoptosis and suppresses the migration and proliferation of ccRCC cells by inhibiting Six2. These findings reveal that the PPARG/Six2 axis acts as a central pathobiological mediator of ccRCC formation and as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with ccRCC.

Ji Y, Fioravanti J, Zhu W, et al.
miR-155 harnesses Phf19 to potentiate cancer immunotherapy through epigenetic reprogramming of CD8
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T cell senescence and exhaustion are major barriers to successful cancer immunotherapy. Here we show that miR-155 increases CD8

Fabri O, Horakova J, Bodova I, et al.
Diagnosis and treatment of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in Slovak Republic: novel approaches.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare, aggressive clonal myeloproliferative disorder of infancy and early childhood caused by oncogenic mutations in genes involved in the Ras pathway. Long-term survival has only been achieved with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), being able to cure more than 50% patients. To manage the disease before HSCT remains an important issue with constant searching for optimal treatment modalities. According to several retrospective analyses, azacytidine (AZA) induced clinical and molecular responses in patients with relapsed JMML pre-transplant and post-transplant, suggesting its use as a promising "bridging" therapy before HSCT. In this paper we report our first consecutive cohort of patients with JMML treated at our institution as well as our experience with the diagnosis, novel treatment and management of these patients before the HSCT. We present 6 patients with JMML, harboring different somatic mutations (PTPN11 and NRAS), with distinct clinical features; 3 of them had been treated with AZA 75mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle before the HSCT. Response to therapy was evaluated after each cycle in accordance with the International response criteria. One patient had a progression of splenomegaly during the treatment and after three cycles he was urgently transplanted. At present, he is remaining in complete remission 3 years after HSCT. Two patients showed impressive response following the first cycle of the therapy with a regression of splenomegaly and monocyte count, normalized leukocytes, platelets, and absent blasts in peripheral blood. The treatment was well-tolerated with no adverse effect recorded. The clinical activity and favorable toxicity of AZA in JMML provide a rationale for its use as a "bridging" therapy before HSCT. Prospective trials with accompanying translational studies are required to provide further information regarding individual factors that may direct the most appropriate choice of pretransplantation therapy.

Lu G, Qiao L, Li D, et al.
Concurrent lymphoma and hemophilia B in a pediatric patient: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(19):e15474 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Lymphoma is the third most common cancer among children in the United States and Europe. Hemophilia is a congenital bleeding disorder characterized by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or IX. Hemophilia B is a consequence of factor IX deficiency and has an incidence of 1 in 20,000 male births. A concurrence of these 2 uncommon diseases is rare except in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report a case of a patient with both Burkitt lymphoma and hemophilia B; this is only such report in China since 1987.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 3-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of melena and jaundice for several days. His older brother had died due to hemophilia B and ventricular septal defect. The patient had not experienced any previous episodes of severe bleeding. Gradual abdominal distention was observed after admission; the patient's superficial lymph nodes were not enlarged. Results of blood routine and bone marrow examinations showed no abnormalities. He was diagnosed with sclerosing cholangitis, abdominal infection, and hepatitis. However, after treatment of reducing enzyme activity and eliminating jaundice, the patient's condition deteriorated. Hydrops abdominis was detected on abdominal ultrasonography. Tumor cells were found by pathological examination of peritoneal effusion. Both a c-myc gene translocation and a c-myc-IgH gene fusion were detected.
DIAGNOSIS: Burkitt lymphoma and hemophilia B.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient was transferred to the Pediatric Hematology Department of our hospital and treated with a modified B-NHL-BFM-95 protocol. During chemotherapy, platelet changes were monitored regularly and blood products were infused timely.
OUTCOMES: The patient died of infection and bleeding after chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Concurrent hemophilia and lymphoma are rare, especially in children. When encountering a patient with unexplained obstructive jaundice and massive ascites, the possibility of a tumor should be considered. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment of such tumor may improve prognosis.

Shen ML, Xiao A, Yin SJ, et al.
Associations between UGT2B7 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis.
Gene. 2019; 706:115-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: UGT2B7 was recently acknowledged as a new critical enzyme involved in biotransformation of a variety of carcinogens, whose function was reported to be significantly associated with its encoding gene (UGT2B7) polymorphisms. However, results regarding the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of UGT2B7 and cancer risk still remained controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to further elucidate the role of UGT2B7 SNPs on cancer susceptibilities.
METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Technology of Chongqing (VIP) and Wan Fang Database were searched for eligible studies until March 2019. All analysis was carried out using the Review Manager 5.3 software. Subgroup analyses were performed by cancer types, ethnicity or source of controls.
RESULTS: 13 studies with a total of 7688 cancer cases and 11,281 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that UGT2B7 rs7439366 increased the colorectal cancer risk in dominant model (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.61-0.95, P = 0.02). However, as for the rs7435335 and rs12233719, we did not find their associations with cancer risk in all genetic models. In addition, the rs7441774 was found to be associated with breast cancer risk and significantly reduced papillary thyroid cancer risk in rs3924194 was also observed. Nevertheless, these findings remained to be further proven in future studies since these 2 SNPs were only respectively involved in 1 study.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirmed the association of UGT2B7 rs7439366 with colorectal cancer risk, which may be a potential promising biomarker for prediction of colorectal cancer risk.

Wu F, Wu S, Tong H, et al.
HOXA6 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by suppressing the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):2095-2105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cell carcinoma and the incidence of this disease is increasing. The present study aimed to investigate the role of homeobox A6 (HOXA6) in the proliferation and apoptosis of ccRCC cells. Analysis of the GSE6344 dataset and immunohistochemistry revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXA6 were suppressed in ccRCC tissues. To evaluate the roles of HOXA6 in cell proliferation and apoptosis, ccRCC cell lines (786‑O and 769‑P) were transfected with plasmids expressing HOXA6, empty vector, short hairpin (sh)HOXA6 and non‑targeting shRNA (NC). Cell Counting Kit‑8, colony formation and 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine staining assays were performed to analyze cell proliferation. In addition, Caspase‑Glo and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays were performed to detect apoptosis. Furthermore, the cell cycle and apoptotic rates of 786‑O and 769‑P cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that, compared with the empty vector group, the proliferation of 786‑O and 769‑P cells decreased following HOXA6 overexpression; however, compared with the NC group, cell proliferation increased in the shHOXA6 group. The rate of apoptosis of HOXA6‑overexpressing cells was increased compared with the empty vector group, while the rate of apoptosis in the shHOXA6 group was reduced compared with the NC group. In addition, flow cytometry demonstrated that upregulated HOXA6 expression levels could inhibit the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt), mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase, p‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) were suppressed in cells overexpressing HOXA6; however, the protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved‑poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase were increased compared with the empty vector group. Opposing results were reported for the shHOXA6 group compared with the NC group. In summary, the results demonstrated that HOXA6 suppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, which may occur via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/ERK cascade. These findings indicate the role of HOXA6 in ccRCC; however, the underlying mechanism requires further investigation.

Ding Y, He J, Huang J, et al.
Harmine induces anticancer activity in breast cancer cells via targeting TAZ.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(6):1995-2004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Harmine (HM) is a β‑carboline alkaloid found in multiple medicinal plants. It has been used in folk medicine for anticancer therapy; however, the molecular mechanism of HM on human breast cancer remains unclear. Transcriptional co‑activator with PDZ‑binding motif (TAZ), also known as WW domain‑containing transcription regulator 1, serves an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential anticancer activity and mechanism of HM in breast cancer, in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation was measured using a CCK‑8 assay, apoptotic activity was detected by flow cytometry and DAPI staining, and cell migration was examined using a wound healing assay. The expression of proteins, including extracellular signal‑regulate kinase (Erk), phosphorylated (p‑) Erk, protein kinase B (Akt), p‑Akt, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax), were determined by western blotting. The mRNA expression of TAZ was detected using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of proteins in mouse tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. HM significantly suppressed cellular proliferation and migration, promoted apoptosis in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. In addition, HM significantly decreased the expression of TAZ, p‑Erk, p‑Akt and Bcl‑2, but increased that of Bax. The overexpression of TAZ in breast cancer cells inhibited the antitumor effect of HM. In conclusion, HM was found to induce apoptosis and prevent the proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cell lines, possibly via the downregulation of TAZ.

Lin X, Chai G, Wu Y, et al.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
N6-Methyladenosine (m

Jiang D, Wang X, Wang Y, et al.
Mutation in BRAF and SMAD4 associated with resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(1):39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study was done in order to identify novel molecular markers to predict which locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs) might be resistant to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Seventy-four patients with LARCs treated with nCRT were collected. Pathological evaluation after nCRT was performed according to the tumor regression grading (TRG) system. Next-generation sequencing kit including 279 exons of 59 genes was performed on Illumina Miseq Platform. Sanger sequencing was performed to confirm some mutations. Four of the tumors (4/74, 5.4%) had BRAF mutation, which presented in one TRG 2 tumor and three TRG 3 tumors but was not observed in TRG 0-1 tumors. Higher mutational frequency of BRAF gene in TRG 3 tumors (3/12, 25%) was found in comparison with the TRG 0-2 tumors (1/62, 1.6%; p = 0.012). Eight tumors (8/74, 10.8%) harbored SMAD4 mutations, which was mutated across all TRG groups. However, SMAD4 mutated more in TRG 3 tumors (4/12, 33.3%) compared with that in TRG 0-2 tumors (4/62, 6.5%; p = 0.020). The patients with BRAF-mutated LARCs had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.045) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p = 0.000) than the BRAF wild-type (WT) ones. The patients with SMAD4-mutated tumors had shorter PFS than the WT cases (p = 0.008). BRAF and SMAD4 genetic mutations might be important molecular markers to predict resistance to nCRT and poor prognosis in LARCs. More cases are needed to confirm these findings in the near future.

Liu Y, Luo G, He D
Clinical importance of S100A9 in osteosarcoma development and as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.
Bioengineered. 2019; 10(1):133-141 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/05/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding molecule of S100 family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of S100A9 in osteosarcoma (OS) and its value as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in OS.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and microdissection-based mRNA analysis were used to detect S100A9 mRNA and protein expression in OS and normal bone tissues and its potential as a diagnostic marker in OS. In vitro experiments with RNA interference were performed to evaluate the functional role of S100A9 and its potential as a therapeutic target in OS.
RESULTS: S100A9 mRNA levels were significantly higher in OS tissues than that of in normal bone tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that S100A9 could be a useful diagnostic marker in OS. In vitro data showed that inhibition of S100A9 decreased the proliferation and invasiveness of OS cells, and these findings were supported by microarray data.
CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of S100A9 mRNA expression is a promising tool for the diagnosis of OS, and S100A9 may be a promising therapeutic target in OS.

Sheng Y, Ji Z, Zhao H, et al.
Downregulation of the histone methyltransferase SETD2 promotes imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12611 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Epigenetic modifiers were important players in the development of haematological malignancies and sensitivity to therapy. Mutations of SET domain-containing 2 (SETD2), a methyltransferase that catalyses the trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 36 (H3K36me3), were found in various myeloid malignancies. However, the detailed mechanisms through which SETD2 confers chronic myeloid leukaemia progression and resistance to therapy targeting on BCR-ABL remain unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of SETD2 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells was examined by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR. We analysed CD34
RESULTS: SETD2 was found to act as a tumour suppressor in CML. The novel oncogenic targets MYCN and ERG were shown to be the direct downstream targets of SETD2, where their overexpression induced by SETD2 knockdown caused imatinib insensitivity and leukaemic stem cell enrichment in CML cell lines. Treatment with JIB-04, an inhibitor that restores H3K36me3 levels through blockade of its demethylation, successfully improved the cell imatinib sensitivity and enhanced the chemotherapeutic effect.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study not only emphasizes the regulatory mechanism of SETD2 in CML, but also provides promising therapeutic strategies for overcoming the imatinib resistance in patients with CML.

Fan CM, Wang JP, Tang YY, et al.
circMAN1A2 could serve as a novel serum biomarker for malignant tumors.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2180-2188 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/05/2020 Related Publications
Novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancers are needed to improve precision medicine. Circular RNAs act as important regulators in cancers at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The circular RNA circMAN1A2 is highly expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to our previous RNA sequencing data; however, the expression and functions of circMAN1A2 in cancers are still obscure. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of circMAN1A2 in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other malignant tumors and analyzed its correlations with clinical features and diagnostic values. The expression levels of circMAN1A2 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR, and the correlations of clinical features with circMAN1A2 expression were analyzed by χ

Guo D, Li Y, Chen Y, et al.
DANCR promotes HCC progression and regulates EMT by sponging miR-27a-3p via ROCK1/LIMK1/COFILIN1 pathway.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12628 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This research aims to verify that the long non-coding RNA differentiation antagonizing nonprotein coding RNA (LncRNA DANCR) could modulate the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it thus may work as a novel biomarker to render new orientation for early diagnosis and clinical therapy of HCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of genes including LncRNA DANCR and miR-27a-3p. Next, MTT assay, Ethynyldeoxyuridine (EdU) analysis and clone formation assay were used for investigating cell growth and proliferation. Meanwhile, transwell assay and wound healing assay were applied to evaluate the capacity of cell metastasis and motility, respectively. In addition, bioinformatic analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were applied to analyse molecular interaction. Next, we conducted immunofluorescence and Western blot for mechanic investigation. Last but not the least, xenograft tumours in nude mice were built by subcutaneously injecting Hep3B cells stably transfected with sh-NC and sh-DANCR to detect proliferation and SMMC-7721 cells stably transfected with sh-NC and sh-DANCR to investigate metastasis.
RESULTS: The results of qRT-PCR and bioinformatic analysis revealed the high expression of DANCR in HCC. DANCR accelerated proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells and the knockdown of DANCR had the opposite effect. Meanwhile, xenograft tumours in sh-DANCR group grow slower and have smaller volumes compared with negative control group. Next, the antineoplastic effect of miR-27a-3p on cell growth and motility of HCC was confirmed. In addition, we clarified that DANCR acted as a ceRNA to decoy miR-27a-3p via mediating ROCK1/LIMK1/COFILIN1 pathway. In the end, we validated that DANCR/miR-27a-3p axis regulates EMT progression by cell immunofluorescence and Western blot.
CONCLUSIONS: In a word, DANCR promotes HCC development and induces EMT by decoying miR-27a-3p to regulate ROCK1/LIMK1/COFILIN1 pathway.

Xu Y, He Y, Xu W, et al.
Promotive effects of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 on glioma cell invasion and the molecular mechanism.
Folia Neuropathol. 2019; 57(1):6-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to explore the role of capillary morphogenetic protein 2 (CMG2) in glioma cell invasion and the possible molecular mechanism. Glioma cells U87 and U251 stably overexpressing CMG2 were constructed by lentiviral transfection. The changes of cell invasion and migration were tested by Matrigel-transwell assay and scratch assay, respectively. A mouse model with orthotopically transplanted tumour was established to evaluate the effects of CMG2 overexpression on the in vivo invasion of glioma cells and survival time. The differences of filopodia and lamellar pseudopodia among glioma cells with different CMG2 expressions were observed by immunofluorescence assay. The expressions of YAP and p-YAP in glioma cells overexpressing CMG2 or not were compared by Western blot. Compared with the control group, overexpression of CMG2 enhanced the invasion and migration capacities of glioma cells (p < 0.05). The tumour tissues of mice transplanted with glioma cells overexpressing CMG2 were obviously invaded, and their survival time was significantly shortened (p < 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining showed that glioma cells overexpressing CMG2 formed more lamellipodia and filopodia than those of the control group. As glioma cells overexpressing CMG2 formed more pseudopodia, the expression of YAP, a key effector protein of the Hippo pathway, was up-regulated. CMG2 promoted the invasion of glioma cells, and may induce pseudopodium formation by up-regulating YAP expression.

Liu Z, He F, OuYang S, et al.
miR-140-5p could suppress tumor proliferation and progression by targeting TGFBRI/SMAD2/3 and IGF-1R/AKT signaling pathways in Wilms' tumor.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):405 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms' tumor is also called nephroblastoma and is the most common pediatric renal cancer. Several genetic and epigenetic factors have been found to account for the development of Wilms' tumor. MiRNAs play important roles in this tumorigenic process. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-140-5p in nephroblastoma by identifying its targets, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism of action.
METHODS: The miRNA expression profile of nephroblastoma samples was investigated and the targets of miR-140-5p were predicted and validated using the miRNA luciferase reporter method. Moreover, the roles of miR-140-5p in regulating nephroblastoma cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle were analyzed by the CCK8, migration and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The downstream protein of the direct target of miR-140-5p was also identified.
RESULTS: miR-140-5p was downregulated in Wilms' tumor tissues, whereas in the nephroblastoma cell lines G401 and WT-CLS1 that exhibited high levels of miRNA-140-5p, inhibition of cellular proliferation and metastasis were noted as well as cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase. TGFBRI and IGF1R were identified as direct target genes for miRNA-140-5p. In addition, SMAD2/3 and p-AKT were regulated by TGFBRI and IGF1R separately and participated in the miRNA-140-5p regulatory network. Ectopic expression of TGFBR1 and IGF-1R could abrogate the inhibitory effect of miR-140-5p.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that miRNA-140-5p participates in the progression of Wilms' tumor by targeting the TGFBRI/SMAD2/3 and the IGF-1R/AKT signaling pathways.

Hua RX, Zhuo Z, Zhu J, et al.
LIG3 gene polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer in a Southern Chinese population.
Gene. 2019; 705:90-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA ligase III (LIG3) has been implicated in the etiology of cancer. However, few studies have accessed the association of LIG3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with gastric cancer risk, especially in Chinese population. The current study was undertaken to investigate contribution of LIG3 gene polymorphisms to gastric cancer risk. We first applied TaqMan assay to genotype three LIG3 gene SNPs (rs1052536 C > T, rs3744356 C > T, rs4796030 A > C) in 1142 patients with gastric cancer and 1173 healthy controls. And then, we adopted unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the association between LIG3 SNP genotypes and gastric cancer risk. In all, no positive association was found between the three LIG3 SNPs and gastric cancer risk in single locus analysis or combined risk genotypes analysis. However, compared with participants with rs4796030 AA genotype, participants with the AC/CC had a decreased risk of developing tumors from cardia at an adjusted OR of 0.68 (95% CI = 0.48-0.96, P = 0.026). In addition, we found that participants harboring 2-3 risk genotypes were at a significantly increased risk of developing tumor from cardia (adjusted OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.16-2.28, P = 0.005). These results suggest that genetic variations in LIG3 gene may play a weak role in modifying the risk of gastric cancer. Future functional studies should be performed to elucidate the biological role of LIG3 polymorphisms in gastric cancer carcinogenesis.

Liang W, Guo M, Pan Z, et al.
Association between certain non-small cell lung cancer driver mutations and predictive markers for chemotherapy or programmed death-ligand 1 inhibition.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2014-2021 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/05/2020 Related Publications
This study aimed to analyze the association between driver mutations and predictive markers for some anti-tumor agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A cohort of 785 Chinese patients with NSCLC who underwent resection from March 2016 to November 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was investigated. The specimens were subjected to hybridization capture and sequence of 8 important NSCLC-related driver genes. In addition, the slides were tested for PD-L1, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), thymidylate synthase (TS) and β-tubulin III by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 498 (63.4%) patients had at least 1 driver gene alteration. Wild-type, EGFR rare mutation (mut), ALK fusion (fus), RAS mut, RET fus and MET mut had relatively higher proportions of lower ERCC1 expression. EGFR 19del, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut, ALK fus, HER2 mut, ROS1 fus and MET mut were more likely to have TS low expression. Wild-type, EGFR L858R, EGFR rare mut and BRAF mut were associated with lower β-tubulin III expression. In addition, wild-type, RAS mut, ROS1 fus, BRAF and MET mut had higher proportion of PD-L1 high expression. As a pilot validation, 21 wild-type patients with advanced NSCLC showed better depth of response and response rate to taxanes compared with pemetrexed/gemcitabine (31.2%/60.0% vs 26.6%/45.5%). Our study may aid in selecting the optimal salvage regimen after targeted therapy failure, or the chemo-regimen where targeted therapy has not been a routine option. Further validation is warranted.

Bu Z, Lu C, Yang X, et al.
Partial response after treatment with Conversion chemotherapy: A case report of a patient with colon cancer and unresectable hepatic metastases.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(17):e15239 [PubMed] Related Publications
RATIONALE: Many studies have reported radical resection for liver metastasis and the primary tumor could represent an important prognostic factor in patients affected by colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, resection of huge liver metastases from colon cancer has been seldom reported.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old man presented with huge liver metastases from colon cancer. Laboratory tests revealed elevated tumor markers and a wild-type mutation in the K-RAS gene. A computed tomography scan demonstrated unresectable liver masses with a 16.5-cm maximum diameter and intrahepatic duct dilatation due to compression by the liver metastases.
DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with stage IV descending colon carcinoma with multiple huge hepatic metastases.
INTERVENTIONS: He was administered 3 treatment courses, including 9 cycles of combined chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 plus cetuximab (mFOLFOX6 + Cet), and the liver masses reduced. After a preoperative assessment by a multidisciplinary team when the 9 cycles of systemic chemotherapy had been completed, the patient underwent hepatectomy, followed 4 months later by a laparoscopic colectomy. We used a reverse strategy (liver-first) for the patient.
OUTCOMES: In this case, liver-first treatment (systemic chemotherapy of mFOLFOX6 + Cet) was an effective treatment for unresectable CRLM. No postoperative complications occurred. The patient continued to receive postoperative chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6 + Cet) at the latest follow-up. During the 17 months of follow-up, tumor recurrence was un-noted.
LESSONS: Treating colorectal cancer patients with huge hepatic metastases is possible, and surgeons should consider various treatment options in the management of these patients.

Ma Q, Gao Y, Xu P, et al.
Atorvastatin Inhibits Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulating PTEN/AKT Pathway via Promoting Ras Homolog Family Member B (RhoB).
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:3235021 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/05/2020 Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in women around the world. Atorvastatin (ATO) was found to be associated with a decreased risk of recurrence and mortality in cancer. But the exact mechanism of its carcinostatic effects is unclear. The expression level of Ras homolog family member B (RhoB) in breast cancer cells was found to be upregulated after being treated with ATO. Thus, we conjecture that altered expression of RhoB induced by ATO may be decisive for the migration and progression of breast cancer.
Methods: The effects of ATO on breast tumor cells
Results: ATO inhibits proliferation, invasion, EMT, and PTEN/AKT pathway and promotes apoptosis in breast tumor cells. In addition, ATO inhibits the volume and weight of breast tumor in tumor-bearing mice and upregulated RhoB in tumor tissues. The expression of RhoB in mRNA and protein level was upregulated in statin-treated breast cancer cells and downregulated in cancer tissues. Low expression of RhoB links with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer (HR = 0.74[0.66-0.83],
Conclusions: The exact mechanism of ATO's carcinostatic effects in breast cancer is related to downregulating PTEN/AKT pathway via promoting RhoB. Our study also demonstrates the potential applicability of RhoB as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Chen H, Hu W, He H, et al.
Noninvasive assessment of H3 K27M mutational status in diffuse midline gliomas by using apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.
Eur J Radiol. 2019; 114:152-159 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline gliomas are associated with worse prognosis than H3 K27M wild-type gliomas. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) of H3 K27M-mutant glioma and examine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) could noninvasively predict H3 K27M mutational status in brain diffuse midline gliomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Thirty-eight patients with brain diffuse midline gliomas were retrospectively reviewed. The parameters of preoperative cMRI were evaluated. The minimal ADC, peritumoral ADC, ratio of minimal ADC, and ratio of peritumoral ADC were measured, and significant differences between the two groups were identified by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and tumor location. Receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and tumor location were used to assess the diagnostic performances of the minimal ADC, peritumoral ADC, ratio of minimal ADC, and ratio of peritumoral ADC.
RESULTS: H3 K27M-mutant gliomas in different locations have diverse imaging characteristics. Minimal ADC, peritumoral ADC, ratio of minimal ADC, and ratio of peritumoral ADC values were significantly lower in the H3 K27M-mutant gliomas than in the wild-type gliomas (P < 0.05). The combination of ratio of minimal ADC and ratio of peritumoral ADC provided the largest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.872 in defining H3 K27M-mutational status.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of ratio of minimal ADC and ratio of peritumoral ADC can noninvasively detect the H3 K27M mutational status in brain diffuse midline gliomas.

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