Gene Summary

Gene:IGFBP1; insulin like growth factor binding protein 1
Aliases: AFBP, IBP1, PP12, IGF-BP25, hIGFBP-1
Summary:This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IGFBP1 (cancer-related)

Merritt MA, Strickler HD, Einstein MH, et al.
Insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes in human endometrium and associations with endometrial cancer risk factors.
Cancer Causes Control. 2016; 27(6):737-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Experimental and observational data link insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and estrogens to endometrial tumorigenesis. However, there are limited data regarding insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes protein and gene expression in normal endometrial tissues, and very few studies have examined the impact of endometrial cancer risk factors on endometrial tissue biology.
METHODS: We evaluated endometrial tissues from 77 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications and had provided epidemiological data. Endometrial tissue mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
RESULTS: In postmenopausal women, we observed higher levels of phosphorylated IGF-I/insulin receptor (pIGF1R/pIR) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women (p value =0.02), while women who reported regular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use versus no use had higher levels of insulin and progesterone receptors (both p values ≤0.03). We also noted differences in pIGF1R/pIR staining with OC use (postmenopausal women only), and the proportion of estrogen receptor-positive tissues varied by the number of live births and PTEN status (premenopausal only) (p values ≤0.04). Compared to premenopausal proliferative phase women, postmenopausal women exhibited lower mRNA levels of IGF1, but higher IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 expression (all p values ≤0.004), and higher protein levels of the receptors for estrogen, insulin, and IGF-I (all p values ≤0.02). Conversely, pIGF1R/pIR levels were higher in premenopausal proliferative phase versus postmenopausal endometrium (p value =0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight links between endometrial cancer risk factors and mechanistic factors that may contribute to early events in the multistage process of endometrial carcinogenesis.

Yang LJ, Tang Q, Wu J, et al.
Inter-regulation of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a unveils novel mechanism in ursolic acid-inhibited growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, exerts anti-tumor effects in various cancer types including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this remain largely unknown.
METHODS: Cell viability and cell cycle were examined by MTT and Flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis was performed to measure the phosphorylation and protein expression of p38 MAPK, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to examine the mRNA levels of IGFBP1 gene. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) method was used to knockdown IGFBP1 gene. Exogenous expressions of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a were carried out by transient transfection assays. IGFBP1 promoter activity was measured by Secrete-Pair™ Dual Luminescence Assay Kit . In vivo nude mice xenograft model and bioluminescent imaging system were used to confirm the findings in vitro.
RESULTS: We showed that UA stimulated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. In addition, UA increased the protein, mRNA levels, and promoter activity of IGFBP1, which was abrogated by the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580). Intriguingly, we showed that UA increased the expression of FOXO3a and that overexpressed FOXO3a enhanced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, all of which were not observed in cells silencing of endogenous IGFBP1 gene. Moreover, exogenous expressed IGFBP1 strengthened UA-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and FOXO3a protein expression, and more importantly, restored the effect of UA-inhibited growth in cells silencing of endogenous IGFBP1 gene. Consistent with these, UA suppressed tumor growth and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, protein expressions of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results show that UA inhibits growth of HCC cells through p38 MAPK-mediated induction of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a expression. The interactions between IGFBP1 and FOXO3a, and feedback regulatory loop of p38 MAPK by IGFBP1 and FOXO3a resulting in reciprocal pathways, contribute to the overall effects of UA. This in vitro and in vivo study corroborates a potential novel mechanism by which UA controls HCC growth and implies that the rational targeting IGFBP1 and FOXO3a can be potential for the therapeutic strategy against HCC.

Shafiee MN, Seedhouse C, Mongan N, et al.
Up-regulation of genes involved in the insulin signalling pathway (IGF1, PTEN and IGFBP1) in the endometrium may link polycystic ovarian syndrome and endometrial cancer.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016; 424:94-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological cancer amongst women in the UK. Although previous studies have found that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have at least a three-fold increase in endometrial cancer (EC) risk compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which link between PCOS and EC remain unclear. It has been suggested that insulin resistance may contribute to the increased risk of EC in PCOS. The specific expression of genes related to the insulin-signalling pathway including the IGF system in the endometrium of women with PCOS has however never been measured and compared to that in women with EC without PCOS and control women without EC or PCOS. .
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that insulin signalling plays a key role in the development of EC in women with PCOS by measuring and comparing the expression of three key genes involved in the insulin signalling pathway (IGF1, PTEN and IGFBP1) in endometrial tissue obtained from three groups of women; PCOS without EC, women with EC without PCOS and non-PCOS women without EC (controls). We also aimed to determine the correlation between the gene expressions to various clinical variables among participants.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 102 women in 3 groups (PCOS, EC and controls) at a University teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Clinical assessment (blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip-circumference ratio), venepuntures (fasting blood sugar, insulin, lipid profile, hormones) and endometrial tissue biopsies were taken in all participants. Endometrial tissue RNA extraction was performed before real time polymerase-chain-reaction for the genes of interest (IGF1, IGFBP1 and PTEN) was carried out. To compare the baseline characteristics of the study population, One-Way-ANOVA test or the Independent t-test was used. For variables that were not normally distributed, the Spearman correlation test was used to calculate the r value. A "p" value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: IGF1, IGFBP1 and PTEN gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the endometrium of PCOS and EC women compared to controls. However there was no significant difference in the expression of these genes in PCOS compared to EC endometrium. The BMI of women with PCOS and controls, were not significantly different (29.28 (± 2.91) vs 28.58 (± 2.62) kg/m(2)) respectively, women with EC however had a higher mean BMI (32.22 (± 5.70) kg/m(2)). PCOS women were younger (31.8 (± 5.97) years) than women with EC (63.44 (± 10.07) years) and controls (43.68 (± 13.12) years). The changes in gene expression were independent of BMI, waist hip ratio, estradiol and androgen levels. Protein validation test in the serum samples in the three groups were consistent with the gene findings.
CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS and EC have an increased endometrial expression of genes (IGF1, IGFBP1 and PTEN) involved in the insulin signalling pathway compared with control women. This may explain the increased risk of EC in PCOS women. This study provides a strong basis for clinical trials aiming to prevent EC in women with PCOS by investigating drugs targeting the insulin signalling pathway. This panel of genes may also serve as clinically useful early biomarkers which predict which women with PCOS will go on to develop EC.

Diep CH, Knutson TP, Lange CA
Active FOXO1 Is a Key Determinant of Isoform-Specific Progesterone Receptor Transactivation and Senescence Programming.
Mol Cancer Res. 2016; 14(2):141-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Progesterone promotes differentiation coupled to proliferation and prosurvival in the breast, but inhibits estrogen-driven growth in the reproductive tract and ovaries. Herein, it is demonstrated, using progesterone receptor (PR) isoform-specific ovarian cancer model systems, that PR-A and PR-B promote distinct gene expression profiles that differ from PR-driven genes in breast cancer cells. In ovarian cancer models, PR-A primarily regulates genes independently of progestin, while PR-B is the dominant ligand-dependent isoform. Notably, FOXO1 and the PR/FOXO1 target gene p21 (CDKN1A) are repressed by PR-A, but induced by PR-B. In the presence of progestin, PR-B, but not PR-A, robustly induced cellular senescence via FOXO1-dependent induction of p21 and p15 (CDKN2B). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays performed on PR isoform-specific cells demonstrated that while each isoform is recruited to the same PRE-containing region of the p21 promoter in response to progestin, only PR-B elicits active chromatin marks. Overexpression of constitutively active FOXO1 in PR-A-expressing cells conferred robust ligand-dependent upregulation of the PR-B target genes GZMA, IGFBP1, and p21, and induced cellular senescence. In the presence of endogenous active FOXO1, PR-A was phosphorylated on Ser294 and transactivated PR-B at PR-B target genes; these events were blocked by the FOXO1 inhibitor (AS1842856). PR isoform-specific regulation of the FOXO1/p21 axis recapitulated in human primary ovarian tumor explants treated with progestin; loss of progestin sensitivity correlated with high AKT activity.
IMPLICATIONS: This study indicates FOXO1 as a critical component for progesterone signaling to promote cellular senescence and reveals a novel mechanism for transcription factor control of hormone sensitivity.

Park JH, Rasch MG, Qiu J, et al.
Presence of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins correlates with tumor-promoting effects of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in breast cancer.
Neoplasia. 2015; 17(5):421-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The stroma of breast cancer can promote the disease's progression, but whether its composition and functions are shared among different subtypes is poorly explored. We compared stromal components of a luminal [mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu] and a triple-negative/basal-like [C3(1)-Simian virus 40 large T antigen (Tag)] genetically engineered breast cancer mouse model. The types of cytokines and their expression levels were very different in the two models, as was the extent of innate immune cell infiltration; however, both models showed infiltration of innate immune cells that expressed matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), an extracellular protease linked to the progression of many types of cancer. By intercrossing with Mmp9 null mice, we found that the absence of MMP9 delayed tumor onset in the C3(1)-Tag model but had no effect on tumor onset in the MMTV-Neu model. We discovered that protein levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), an MMP9 substrate, were increased in C3(1)-Tag;Mmp9(-/-) compared to C3(1)-Tag;Mmp9(+/+) tumors. In contrast, IGFBP-1 protein expression was low in MMTV-Neu tumors regardless of Mmp9 status. IGFBP-1 binds and antagonizes IGFs, preventing them from activating their receptors to promote cell proliferation and survival. Tumors from C3(1)-Tag;Mmp9(-/-) mice had reduced IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation, consistent with slower tumor onset. Finally, gene expression analysis of human breast tumors showed that high expression of IGFBP mRNA was strongly correlated with good prognosis but not when MMP9 mRNA was also highly expressed. In conclusion, MMP9 has different effects on breast cancer progression depending on whether IGFBPs are expressed.

Minchenko DO, Kharkova AP, Karbovskyi LL, Minchenko OH
Expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein genes and its hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells depends on ERN1 mediated signaling pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Endocr Regul. 2015; 49(2):73-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the expression of insulin-like growth binding protein-1 and -2 (IGFBP1 and IGFBP2), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3/KH domain containing protein over-expressed in cancer (IGF2BP3/KOC1), and HtrA serine peptidase 1/serine protease with IGF-binding domain (HTRA1/PRSS11) genes and function of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by ERN1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) as well as the regulation of these genes by hypoxia in U87glioma cells.
METHODS: The expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGF2BP3, and HTRA1 genes in U87 glioma cells and its subline with ERN1 signaling enzyme loss of function, were analyzed by qPCR. Cells underwent to hypoxia exposure (3% oxygen, 16 h).
RESULTS: The blockade of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of ERN1 in glioma cells led to a significant down-regulation of the expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and IGF2BP3 genes and strong up-regulation of HTRA1. At the same time, the inhibition of ERN1 endoribonuclease significantly increased the expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and HTRA1 genes and did not affect the IGF2BP3 gene expression. Hypoxia up-regulated the expression of IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 genes in control glioma cells, with more significant changes in IGFBP1 gene. Furthermore, effect of hypoxia on these gene expressions was significantly lower in glioma cells without ERN1 signaling enzyme function.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrate the dependence of insulin-like growth binding proteins as well as IGF2BP3 and HTRA1 gene expressions in U87 glioma cells on ERN1 signaling enzyme function and hypoxia, indicating its participation in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes via IGF/INS receptors, because endoplasmic reticulum stress is an important component of tumor growth and metabolic diseases.

Geis T, Popp R, Hu J, et al.
HIF-2α attenuates lymphangiogenesis by up-regulating IGFBP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biol Cell. 2015; 107(6):175-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Tumour-associated lymphangiogenesis was identified as an important clinical determinant for the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and significantly influences patient survival. However, in this context, little is known about regulation of lymphangiogenesis by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In HCC, mainly HIF-1α was positively correlated with lymphatic invasion and metastasis, whereas a defined role of HIF-2α is missing.
RESULTS: We created a stable knockdown (k/d) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HepG2 cells and generated co-cultures of HepG2 spheroids with embryonic bodies. This constitutes an in vitro tumour model mimicking the cancer microenvironment and allows addressing the role of distinct HIF isoforms in regulating HCC lymphangiogenesis. In co-cultures with a HIF-2α k/d, lymphangiogenesis was significantly increased, whereas the k/d of HIF-1α showed no effect. The HIF-2α-dependent lymphangiogenic phenotype was confirmed in vivo using matrigel plug assays with supernatants of HIF-2α k/d HepG2 cells. We identified and verified insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) as a HIF-2α target gene. The potential of HepG2 cells to induce lymphangiogenesis in two independent functional assays was significantly enhanced either by a k/d of HIF-2α or by silencing IGFBP1. Moreover, we confirmed IGF as a potent pro-lymphatic growth factor with IGFBP1 being its negative modulator.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose that HIF-2α acts as an important negative regulator of hepatic lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by inducing IGFBP1 and thus, interfering with IGF signalling. Therefore, HIF-2α may constitute a critical target in HCC therapy.

Dai B, Ruan B, Wu J, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 inhibits cancer cell invasion and is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5645-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. However, the expression of IGFBP-1 remains equivocal, and little is known about its clinicopathological significance and prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we evaluated the expression of IGFBP-1 in 90 paired HCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues and analyzed its clinical and prognostic significance. The results showed that IGFBP-1 was detected in cytoplasm as well as cell nucleus, and down-regulated in HCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues. The decreased expression of IGFBP-1 was correlated with tumor differentiation, liver cirrhosis, microvascular invasion or metastasis, TNM stage and poor survival. Moreover, low levels of IGFBP-1 may be an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with HCC. We also evaluated its function by adding recombinant IGFBP-1 to the cultured HCC cell lines HepG2 and MHCC97-H. The result of the invasion chamber assay showed that IGFBP-1 could inhibit the invasion of HepG2 and MHCC97-H. MMP-9 secretion by these cells was significantly decreased when the cells were treated with IGFBP-1. Our results suggest that IGFBP-1 inhibits the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells and that IGFBP-1 may be useful as a valuable marker for the prognosis of patients with HCC.

Ozhand A, Lee E, Wu AH, et al.
Variation in inflammatory cytokine/growth-factor genes and mammographic density in premenopausal women aged 50-55.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65313 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) has been found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Although data from twin studies suggest that MD has a strong genetic component, the exact genes involved remain to be identified. Alterations in stromal composition and the number of epithelial cells are the most predominant histopathological determinants of mammographic density. Interactions between the breast stroma and epithelium are critically important in the maturation and development of the mammary gland and the cross-talk between these cells are mediated by paracrine growth factors and cytokines. The potential impact of genetic variation in growth factors and cytokines on MD is largely unknown.
METHODS: We investigated the association between 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 cytokine/growth-factor genes (FGFR2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, TGFB1, TNF, VEGF, IL6) and percent MD in 301 premenopausal women (aged 50 to 55 years) participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated the suggestive associations in 216 premenopausal Singapore Chinese Women of the same age.
RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between 9 tagging SNPs in the IL6 gene and MD in Norwegian women; the effect ranged from 3-5% in MD per variant allele (p-values = 0.02 to 0.0002). One SNP in the IL6 (rs10242595) significantly influenced MD in Singapore Chinese women.
CONCLUSION: Genetic variations in IL6 may be associated with MD and therefore may be an indicator of breast cancer risk in premenopausal women.

Levine AJ, Ihenacho U, Lee W, et al.
Genetic variation in insulin pathway genes and distal colorectal adenoma risk.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012; 27(12):1587-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin, glucose, and other insulin-related proteins that mediate insulin signaling are associated with colorectal neoplasia risk, but associations with common genetic variation in insulin axis genes are less clear. In this study, we used a comprehensive tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) approach to define genetic variation in six insulin axis genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, IRS1, and IRS2) and three genes associated with estrogen signaling (ESR1, ESR2, and PGR).
METHODS: We assessed associations between SNPs and distal colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk in a case-control study of 1,351 subjects. Cases were individuals with one or more adenomas diagnosed during sigmoidoscopy, and controls were individuals with no adenomas at the sigmoidoscopy exam. We used unconditional logistic regression assuming an additive model to assess SNP-specific risks adjusting for multiple comparisons with P (act).
RESULTS: Distal adenoma risk was significantly increased for one SNP in IGF2 [per minor allele OR = 1.41; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.67; P (act) = 0.005] and decreased for an ESR2 SNP (per minor allele OR = 0.78; 95 % CI = 0.66, 0.91; P (act) = 0.041). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity of these associations by race, sex, BMI, physical activity, or, in women, hormone replacement therapy use. Risk estimates did not differ in the colon versus rectum or for smaller (<1 cm) versus larger (>1 cm) adenomas.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that selected genetic variability in IGF2 and ESR2 may be modifiers of CRA risk.

Gray A, Aronson WJ, Barnard RJ, et al.
Global Igfbp1 deletion does not affect prostate cancer development in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model.
J Endocrinol. 2011; 211(3):297-304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) levels vary in response to nutritional status, and pre-clinical studies suggest that elevated IGFBP1 may be protective against the development and progression of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that global deletion of Igfbp1 would accelerate the development of prostate cancer in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model. To test our hypothesis, c-Myc transgenic mice (Myc/BP-1 wild-type (WT)) were crossed and interbred with the Igfbp1 knockout mice (Myc/BP-1 KO). The animals were placed on a high-protein diet at weaning, weighed every 2 weeks, and euthanized at 16 weeks of age. Prostate histopathology was assessed and proliferation status was determined by Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen analyses. IGF-related serum biomarkers and body composition were measured. No significant difference in the incidence of prostate cancer was observed between the Myc/BP-1 KO and the Myc/BP-1 WT mice (65 and 80% respectively, P=0.48). Proliferation was significantly decreased by 71% in prostate tissue of Myc/BP-1 KO mice compared with Myc/BP-1 WT mice. Myc/BP-1 KO mice exhibited a significant 6.7% increase in body weight relative to the Myc/BP-1 WT mice that was attributed to an increase in fat mass. Fasting insulin levels were higher in the Myc/BP-1 KO mice without any difference between the groups in fasting glucose concentrations. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, global deletion of Igfbp1 in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model did not accelerate the development of prostate cancer. Global Igfbp1 deletion did result in a significant increase in body weight and body fat mass. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms for these metabolic effects.

Dong X, Li Y, Tang H, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor axis gene polymorphisms modify risk of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36(2):206-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis genes plays a critical role in cancer development and progression via their impact on the RAS/MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. We hypothesized that IGF-axis genetic variants modify individual susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We retrospectively genotyped 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 10 IGF-axis genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, IGFBP5, IRS1, IRS2, and IRS4) in 706 pancreatic cancer patients and 706 cancer-free controls using Sequenom and TaqMan technology. The association between genotype and pancreatic cancer risk was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. A P value ≤.007 at a false discovery rate of 10% was set as the significance level.
RESULTS: We observed that the IGF1 *10212C>A and Ex4+2776G>A and IGF1R IVS2-70184A>G and IVS2+46329T>C variant genotypes were significantly associated with decreased pancreatic cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.60-0.75) and that IGFBP1 Ex4+111A>G (I253M) was significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR=1.46) after adjusted for other risk factors and multiple comparisons (P≤.007). IGF2R and IGFBP3 variant haplotypes were associated with increased and decreased pancreatic cancer risk, respectively (P<.001). We also observed a weak interaction of the IGF1R IVS2+46329T>C and IGF2R Ex45+11C>T (L2222L) genotypes with diabetes (P(interaction)=.05) and interaction of IGF2R and IRS1 genotypes with alcohol consumption (P(interaction)=.03 and .019, respectively) on increased pancreatic cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: These findings support our hypothesis that polymorphic variants of IGF-axis genes act alone or jointly with other risk factors to affect susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

Pearce CL, Doherty JA, Van Den Berg DJ, et al.
Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor 2 may play a role in ovarian cancer risk.
Hum Mol Genet. 2011; 20(11):2263-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this pathway may influence risk of ovarian cancer. A three-center study of non-Hispanic whites including 1880 control women, 1135 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 321 women with borderline epithelial ovarian tumors was carried out to test the association between tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (n=58) in this pathway and risk of ovarian cancer. We found no association between variation in IGF1, IGFBP1 or IGFBP3 and risk of invasive disease, whereas five tSNPs in IGF2 were associated with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer at P<0.05 and followed-up one of the associated SNPs. We conducted genotyping in 3216 additional non-Hispanic white cases and 5382 additional controls and were able to independently replicate our initial findings. In the combined set of studies, rs4320932 was associated with a 13% decreased risk of ovarian cancer per copy of the minor allele carried (95% confidence interval 0.81-0.93, P-trend=7.4 × 10(-5)). No heterogeneity of effect across study centers was observed (p(het)=0.25). IGF2 is emerging as an important gene for ovarian cancer; additional genotyping is warranted to further confirm these associations with IGF2 and to narrow down the region harboring the causal SNP.

Rosendahl AH, Hietala M, Henningson M, et al.
IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGFBP-3 levels among women from high-risk breast cancer families.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 127(3):785-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been implicated as risk modifier in premenopausal breast cancer. In this study, associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and diplotypes in the IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genes and circulating IGFBP-3 levels, BRCA family status and breast cancer among women from high-risk breast cancer families were investigated. Nine IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 SNPs were genotyped with PCR-based methods in 323 women. Nine IGFBP1 and ten IGFBP3 diplotypes were identified. Plasma IGFBP-3 levels obtained during cycle day 18-23 were available for 231 women, 87 current users of combined oral contraceptives and 144 non-users. IGFBP1 (rs1995051 and rs4988515) and IGFBP3 (rs2471551 and rs2854744) SNPs were associated with circulating IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). IGFBP1 (low) diplotypes were associated with lower IGFBP-3 levels and were more common in BRCA2 families OR 2.05 (95%CI 0.97-4.30). IGFBP3 (high) diplotypes were associated with higher IGFBP-3 levels and were more common in BRCAX families OR 1.68 (95%CI 1.04-2.74). After adjusting the models for BRCA family status, both the BRCA1 and BRCA2 family status (P ≤ 0.006) and the IGFBP1 diplotype GTAC/ACAT (P = 0.004) were associated with lower IGFBP-3 levels. Similarly, both the BRCA1 and BRCA2 family status (P ≤ 0.03) and the IGFBP-3 diplotypes GCA/GCG (P = 0.007) and GCG/CCG (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with lower IGFBP-3 levels, adjusted for age, weight, OC use, and other IGFBP diplotypes. No individual SNP was associated with breast cancer. There were 23 cases of breast cancer and one IGFBP1 diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer after age 18 (log rank P=0.05). In conclusion, independent effects from IGFBP1, IGFBP3 diplotypes, and BRCA family status on IGFBP-3 levels were observed. These factors may influence the risk of breast cancer among women from high-risk breast cancer families.

McGrath M, Lee IM, Buring J, De Vivo I
Common genetic variation within IGFI, IGFII, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 and endometrial cancer risk.
Gynecol Oncol. 2011; 120(2):174-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway plays a critical role in the growth and development of the uterus and is believed to function as a mediator of steroid hormone actions in the endometrium. The local expression of genes encoding IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) is important in determining IGF bioactivity in the uterus. Genetic variation in key genes within the IGF pathway may influence the rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the uterus and ultimately affect the risk of endometrial cancer. Our hypothesis is that variant alleles in key genes involved in the IGF pathway will influence the development of endometrial cancer.
METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Women's Health Study (WHS) to investigate the association between forty-four polymorphisms within IGFI, IGFII, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 with endometrial cancer risk using 692 invasive endometrial cancer cases and 1723 matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the risk of endometrial cancer.
RESULTS: We observed an inverse association with IGFII rs3741211 and endometrial cancer risk (OR=0.79 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.99)) and IGFII rs1004446 and endometrial cancer risk (OR=0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.94)). We also observed an inverse association with IGFBP-3 rs2453839 and endometrial cancer risk (OR=0.81 (95%CI: 0.67, 0.98). However, we did not observe any statistically significant associations with the polymorphisms in IGFI and IGFBP1 and endometrial cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation with IGFII and IGFBP-3 may influence endometrial cancer risk in Caucasians. Polymorphisms in IGFI and IGFBP-1 were not associated with endometrial cancer risk, but further research is needed.

Schumacher FR, Cheng I, Freedman ML, et al.
A comprehensive analysis of common IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genetic variation with prospective IGF-I and IGFBP-3 blood levels and prostate cancer risk among Caucasians.
Hum Mol Genet. 2010; 19(15):3089-101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been implicated in prostate development and carcinogenesis. We conducted a comprehensive analysis, utilizing a resequencing and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGF binding protein (BP) 1, and IGFBP3 genes with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 blood levels, and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, among Caucasians in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We genotyped 14 IGF1 SNPs and 16 IGFBP1/IGFBP3 SNPs to capture common [minor allele frequency (MAF) >or= 5%] variation among Caucasians. For each SNP, we assessed the geometric mean difference in IGF blood levels (N = 5684) across genotypes and the association with PCa risk (6012 PCa cases/6641 controls). We present two-sided statistical tests and correct for multiple comparisons. A non-synonymous IGFBP3 SNP in exon 1, rs2854746 (Gly32Ala), was associated with IGFBP-3 blood levels (P(adj) = 8.8 x 10(-43)) after adjusting for the previously established IGFBP3 promoter polymorphism A-202C (rs2854744); IGFBP-3 blood levels were 6.3% higher for each minor allele. For IGF1 SNP rs4764695, the risk estimates among heterozygotes was 1.01 (99% CI: 0.90-1.14) and 1.20 (99% CI: 1.06-1.37) for variant homozygotes with overall PCa risk. The corrected allelic P-value was 8.7 x 10(-3). IGF-I levels were significantly associated with PCa risk (P(trend) = 0.02) with a 21% increase of PCa risk when compared with the highest quartile to the lowest quartile. We have identified SNPs significantly associated with IGFBP-3 blood levels, but none of these alter PCa risk; however, a novel IGF1 SNP, not associated with IGF-I blood levels, shows preliminary evidence for association with PCa risk among Caucasians.

Taverne CW, Verheus M, McKay JD, et al.
Common genetic variation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-3, and acid labile subunit in relation to serum IGF-I levels and mammographic density.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 123(3):843-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammographic density is strongly related to increased breast cancer risk. Accumulating evidence indicates that a role for the IGF-pathway in mammographic density and breast cancer development. Here, we investigate whether common genetic variation in this pathway influences insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and mammographic density. In 1,916 premenopausal women within the Prospect-EPIC cohort, we examined associations of 14 haplotype tagging SNPs in the ALS, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes with IGF-I circulating levels and mammographic density. In 657 women, who became postmenopausal during follow-up, we investigated how these SNPs were related with the decrease in density over menopause. Linear regression models were used for statistical analysis. None of the ALS or IGFBP3 SNPs were statistically significantly associated with IGF-I levels or mammographic density. The CC genotype for rs1908751 (IGFBP1) was associated with lower levels of IGF-I (110.9 ng/ml) compared to the CT/TT genotypes (115.7 ng/ml) (P = 0.04). Women with the CC genotype also had lower percent density, although not statistically significantly (P = 0.12). Women carrying the AA genotype for rs1995051 (IGFBP1) showed that borderline significantly lower IGF-I levels (P = 0.06) and significantly lower mammographic density (40.3% compared to 43.5% in the GG/GA genotypes; P = 0.05). No relationships were found for any of the SNPs in relation with changes in breast density over menopause. These findings suggest that common genetic variation in the IGFBP1 gene is weakly related to IGF-I levels and mammographic density. Our results do not provide support for such a role of genetic variants in the IGFBP3 and ALS genes.

van der Meer DL, Degenhardt T, Väisänen S, et al.
Profiling of promoter occupancy by PPARalpha in human hepatoma cells via ChIP-chip analysis.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2010; 38(9):2839-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism. While PPARalpha is known to activate transcription of numerous genes, no comprehensive picture of PPARalpha binding to endogenous genes has yet been reported. To fill this gap, we performed Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip in combination with transcriptional profiling on HepG2 human hepatoma cells treated with the PPARalpha agonist GW7647. We found that GW7647 increased PPARalpha binding to 4220 binding regions. GW7647-induced binding regions showed a bias around the transcription start site and most contained a predicted PPAR binding motif. Several genes known to be regulated by PPARalpha, such as ACOX1, SULT2A1, ACADL, CD36, IGFBP1 and G0S2, showed GW7647-induced PPARalpha binding to their promoter. A GW7647-induced PPARalpha-binding region was also assigned to SREBP-targets HMGCS1, HMGCR, FDFT1, SC4MOL, and LPIN1, expression of which was induced by GW7647, suggesting cross-talk between PPARalpha and SREBP signaling. Our data furthermore demonstrate interaction between PPARalpha and STAT transcription factors in PPARalpha-mediated transcriptional repression, and suggest interaction between PPARalpha and TBP, and PPARalpha and C/EBPalpha in PPARalpha-mediated transcriptional activation. Overall, our analysis leads to important new insights into the mechanisms and impact of transcriptional regulation by PPARalpha in human liver and highlight the importance of cross-talk with other transcription factors.

Verheus M, Maskarinec G, Woolcott CG, et al.
IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes and mammographic density: the Multiethnic Cohort.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(5):1115-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has mitogenic properties and stimulates cell growth. In this analysis, we investigated the relation between common genetic variation in IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3, and mammographic density among 819 women of Hawaiian, European, and Japanese ancestry from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Mammographic density was assessed using a quantitative computer-assisted method. Previously identified tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for IGF1 (26 tag SNPs) and IGFBP1/IGFBP3 (22 tag SNPs) were genotyped among the 819 women. Mixed models were conducted to evaluate the associations between genetic variation and mammographic density. Two SNPs were borderline statistical significantly associated with mammographic density: rs35539615 on IGFBP1 (p = 0.05) and rs2453839 on IGFBP3 (p = 0.01). Rs35767on IGF1 (p = 0.03) was also associated with mammographic density, although in opposite direction of what was expected from previous findings with IGF-I levels. The majority of SNPs were, however, not associated with mammographic density. Analyses stratified by ethnicity showed similar results as the overall analyses for IGF1 and IGFBP1. However, for 4 SNPs in the IGFBP3 gene, the minor allele was associated with lower mammographic density in Japanese Americans and higher mammographic density in Caucasians. Given the large number of SNPs tested and the few borderline significant results, we only found weak evidence that genetic variations in IGFBP1 or IGFBP3 may be related to mammographic density. Ethnicity may modify these relations.

Terry KL, Tworoger SS, Gates MA, et al.
Common genetic variation in IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 and ovarian cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis. 2009; 30(12):2042-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and its binding proteins foster cellular proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. In vitro studies show that IGF1 increases ovarian cell growth and invasive potential, suggesting a role for the IGF1 pathway in ovarian cancer etiology. We evaluated genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genes in relation to ovarian cancer risk by genotyping 29 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in 1173 cases and 1201 controls from the New England Case-Control (NECC) study and 296 cases and 854 controls from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). The association of haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ovarian cancer was estimated using unconditional (NECC) and conditional (NHS) logistic regression. Additionally, we evaluated the association of SNPs with IGF1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) 3 and IGFBP2 plasma levels (n = 380 NHS controls). Our data suggest a decreased risk for women carrying haplotype 2C of the IGF1 gene [odds ratios (ORs) = 0.82, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.69-0.98] and an increased risk for women carrying haplotype 1D (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.03-1.94) or 2D (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.41) in the binding proteins. When evaluated individually, three SNPs in the IGFBPs (rs10228265, rs4988515 and rs2270628) were associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, and several IGF1 (rs11111285, rs1996656 and rs1019731) and IGFBP3 (rs2270628, rs2854746 and rs2854744) SNPs were significantly associated with IGF1, IGFBP3 and IGFBP2 plasma levels. Some haplotypes and SNPs in the IGF pathway genes may be associated with ovarian cancer risk; however, these results need to be confirmed. Of particular interest was the IGFBP3 SNP rs2270628, which was associated with both increased IGF1 plasma levels and higher ovarian cancer risk.

Neuhausen SL, Brummel S, Ding YC, et al.
Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor signaling genes and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
Breast Cancer Res. 2009; 11(5):R76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Women who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general population. However, risk estimates range from 20 to 80%, suggesting the presence of genetic and/or environmental risk modifiers. Based on extensive in vivo and in vitro studies, one important pathway for breast cancer pathogenesis may be the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, which regulates both cellular proliferation and apoptosis. BRCA1 has been shown to directly interact with IGF signaling such that variants in this pathway may modify risk of cancer in women carrying BRCA mutations. In this study, we investigate the association of variants in genes involved in IGF signaling and risk of breast cancer in women who carry deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
METHODS: A cohort of 1,665 adult, female mutation carriers, including 1,122 BRCA1 carriers (433 cases) and 543 BRCA2 carriers (238 cases) were genotyped for SNPs in IGF1, IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP5), and IGF receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model time from birth to diagnosis of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers separately. For linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks with multiple SNPs, an additive genetic model was assumed; and for single SNP analyses, no additivity assumptions were made.
RESULTS: Among BRCA1 carriers, significant associations were found between risk of breast cancer and LD blocks in IGF1R (global P = 0.011 for LD block 2 and global P = 0.012 for LD block 11). Among BRCA2 carriers, an LD block in IGFBP2 (global P = 0.0145) was found to be associated with the time to breast cancer diagnosis. No significant LD block associations were found for the other investigated genes among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the role of genetic variation in IGF signaling and breast cancer risk in women carrying deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. We identified significant associations in variants in IGF1R and IRS1 in BRCA1 carriers and in IGFBP2 in BRCA2 carriers. Although there is known to be interaction of BRCA1 and IGF signaling, further replication and identification of causal mechanisms are needed to better understand these associations.

Johansson M, McKay JD, Rinaldi S, et al.
Genetic and plasma variation of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in relation to prostate cancer incidence and survival.
Prostate. 2009; 69(12):1281-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Binding proteins regulate bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the circulation and affect apoptosis of tumor cells in the prostate. We analyzed genetic variation within genes coding for IGF binding proteins in relation to prostate cancer incidence and survival. We also investigated if circulating IGFBP3 affects prostate cancer-specific survival.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven haplotype tagging SNPs and two single SNPs in the IGFBP1, IGFBP3, and IGFALS genes were genotyped within the CAncer Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study including 2,774 cases and 1,736 controls. Plasma samples for analyses of total- and intact IGFBP3 levels were available for 1,521 cases and 909 controls. Complete follow-up of vital status was achieved by linkage to the Swedish Cause of Death Register.
RESULTS: We found no clear association between the genetic variants and prostate cancer incidence or survival. The rare allele of the IGFBP3 SNP rs2854744 was associated with elevated plasma levels of total IGFBP3 (P(trend) = 9 x 10(-8)), but not intact IGFBP3 (P(trend) = 0.16). Elevated levels of total- (P(trend) = 0.03) and intact IGFBP3 (P(trend) = 6 x 10(-14)) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer specific death. Treatment and tumor characteristics accounted for the association with total IGFBP3, whereas the association with intact IGFBP3 was attenuated, but still statistically significant in adjusted analysis (P(trend-adjusted) = 0.0004). Elevated intact IGFBP3 was also significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific death among patients who were chemically or surgically castrated (P(trend-adjusted) = 0.0003), and among patients who had not been treated (P(trend-adjusted) = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Circulating levels of intact IGFBP3 measured after diagnosis is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific death.

Stockwin LH, Vistica DT, Kenney S, et al.
Gene expression profiling of alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS).
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) is an extremely rare, highly vascular soft tissue sarcoma affecting predominantly adolescents and young adults. In an attempt to gain insight into the pathobiology of this enigmatic tumor, we performed the first genome-wide gene expression profiling study.
METHODS: For seven patients with confirmed primary or metastatic ASPS, RNA samples were isolated immediately following surgery, reverse transcribed to cDNA and each sample hybridized to duplicate high-density human U133 plus 2.0 microarrays. Array data was then analyzed relative to arrays hybridized to universal RNA to generate an unbiased transcriptome. Subsequent gene ontology analysis was used to identify transcripts with therapeutic or diagnostic potential. A subset of the most interesting genes was then validated using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Analysis of patient array data versus universal RNA identified elevated expression of transcripts related to angiogenesis (ANGPTL2, HIF-1 alpha, MDK, c-MET, VEGF, TIMP-2), cell proliferation (PRL, IGFBP1, NTSR2, PCSK1), metastasis (ADAM9, ECM1, POSTN) and steroid biosynthesis (CYP17A1 and STS). A number of muscle-restricted transcripts (ITGB1BP3/MIBP, MYF5, MYF6 and TRIM63) were also identified, strengthening the case for a muscle cell progenitor as the origin of disease. Transcript differentials were validated using real-time PCR and subsequent immunohistochemical analysis confirmed protein expression for several of the most interesting changes (MDK, c-MET, VEGF, POSTN, CYP17A1, ITGB1BP3/MIBP and TRIM63).
CONCLUSION: Results from this first comprehensive study of ASPS gene expression identifies several targets involved in angiogenesis, metastasis and myogenic differentiation. These efforts represent the first step towards defining the cellular origin, pathogenesis and effective treatment strategies for this atypical malignancy.

Patel AV, Cheng I, Canzian F, et al.
IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
PLoS One. 2008; 3(7):e2578 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses) comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

Thakur A, Bollig A, Wu J, Liao DJ
Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice.
Mol Cancer. 2008; 7:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials.
RESULTS: Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT) and liver metastatic lesions (LM) compared to normal pancreas (NP). In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1) and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1), and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples.
CONCLUSION: We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

Li ZQ, Yu WP, Xie XD, et al.
Association of gastric cancer with tyrosine hydroxylase gene polymorphism in a northwestern Chinese population.
Clin Exp Med. 2007; 7(3):98-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common and complex disease caused by multifactors. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the common polymorphisms detected in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II, IGF-1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), insulin (INS) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) with susceptibility to GC in a northwestern Chinese population. One hundred and fifty-four GC patients and 166 healthy controls were investigated in our study. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of CC and CT genotypes of TH were significantly higher in GC patients than in controls, as the odds ratios were 3.03 (95%CI 1.438-6.362, P=0.003) and 1.97 (95%CI 1.218-3.167, P=0.005), respectively. No association was found between the polymorphisms of IGF-II ApaI, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor MnlI, IGFBP1 Bgl II and INS-23HphI and the development of GC. The presence of CC and CT genotypes of TH was associated with a significantly increased risk of GC. But the polymorphisms of other genes detected did not indicate an increased risk of GC in the investigated population.

Magne L, Blanc E, Marchand A, et al.
Stabilization of IGFBP-1 mRNA by ethanol in hepatoma cells involves the JNK pathway.
J Hepatol. 2007; 47(5):691-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) modulates cell growth and metabolism in a variety of physiopathological conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in IGFBP-1 upregulation by ethanol.
METHODS: We studied IGFBP-1 regulation by ethanol at the protein, mRNA and gene promoter levels in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, which does not express significantly ethanol-metabolizing enzymes.
RESULTS: Ethanol (35-150mM) induced the IGFBP-1 mRNA and protein up to 5-fold in a dose-dependent manner. A similar effect was observed using primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Various inhibitors of ethanol metabolism and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine did not prevent ethanol effects. While ethanol did not modify the IGFBP-1 gene promoter activity, it elicited a 2- to 3-fold increase in IGFBP-1 mRNA half-life and this stabilization required the 5' and the 3' untranslated mRNA region. Ethanol triggered a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) in HepG2 cells and IGFBP-1 induction was significantly decreased by a specific inhibitor of JNK.
CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a novel pathway of gene regulation by alcohol which involves the activation of JNK and the consequent mRNA stabilization.

Sato Y, Chen Z, Miyazaki K
Strong suppression of tumor growth by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-related protein 1/tumor-derived cell adhesion factor/mac25.
Cancer Sci. 2007; 98(7):1055-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) has been shown to induce cellular senescence or apoptosis of breast and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. To examine whether IGFBP-rP1 acts as a tumor-suppressive protein in vivo, we established two model systems. Expression of IGFBP-rP1 in the human bladder carcinoma cell line EJ-1 was blocked by RNA interference. Human colon cancer cell line DLD-1, which did not express endogenous IGFBP-rP1, was transfected with an IGFBP-rP1 expression vector. When injected intraperitoneally or subcutaneously into nude mice, the IGFBP-rP1-expressing EJ-1 and DLD-1 cell lines grew poorly, whereas the IGFBP-rP1 non-producers grew rapidly and produced large tumors. In monolayer culture the IGFBP-rP1 producers and non-producers grew similarly in each model, whereas in soft agar culture the former produced far less colonies than the latter. The IGFBP-rP1 producers had IGFBP-rP1 bound to the cell surface, and adhered more efficiently to fibronectin and laminin-5 than the respective non-producers. Expression of IGFBP-rP1 did not affect the efficiency of insulin signaling. These results demonstrate that IGFBP-rP1 strongly suppresses tumor growth by an insulin-independent or insulin-like growth factor-independent mechanism. Cell surface IGFBP-rP1 may reduce the anchorage-independent growth ability, leading to the marked loss of tumorigenicity.

Walker G, MacLeod K, Williams AR, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins IGFBP3, IGFBP4, and IGFBP5 predict endocrine responsiveness in patients with ovarian cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(5):1438-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study sought to explore the predictive value of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBP) as markers of response in ovarian cancer patients treated with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: IGFBP mRNA expression in cell lines was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and IGFBP protein expression measured in sections from primary tumors of patients treated with letrozole by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that IGFBP3 and IGFBP5 were down-regulated and IGFBP4 was up-regulated by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in an estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ovarian cancer cell line. Expressions of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and IGFBP6 were unaffected by E(2). The E(2) modulation of these genes was reversed by tamoxifen. Using ERalpha-specific (propyl pyrazole triol) and ERbeta-specific (diarylpropionitrile) agonists, the gene expression modulations produced by E(2) could be replicated by propyl pyrazole triol but not by diarylpropionitrile. For ovarian cancer patients being treated with letrozole, we tested the predictive value of the IGFBPs in paraffin-fixed sections from their primary tumors by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. Using serum CA125 as an indicator of progression/response, significant differences in expression levels of IGFBPs were observed between tumors from CA125 responding/stable patients compared with tumors from progressing patients. Mean immunoscores for IGFBP3 and IGFBP5 were significantly lower, and mean expression of IGFBP4 was significantly higher in tumors from patients demonstrating CA125 response or stabilization compared with CA125 progression.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that expression levels of certain IGFBP family members in ovarian cancers are estrogen regulated and can, thus, help identify patients who could benefit from endocrine therapy.

Tamimi RM, Cox DG, Kraft P, et al.
Common genetic variation in IGF1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 in relation to mammographic density: a cross-sectional study.
Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9(1):R18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is believed to represent epithelial and stromal proliferation. Because of the high heritability of breast density, and the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway in cellular proliferation and breast development, we examined the association between common genetic variation in this pathway and mammographic density.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among controls (n = 1,121) who were between the ages of 42 and 78 years at mammography, from a breast cancer case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. At the time of mammography, 204 women were premenopausal and 917 were postmenopausal. We genotyped 29 haplotype-tagging SNPs demonstrated to capture common genetic variation in IGF1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-3.
RESULTS: Common haplotype patterns in three of the four haplotype blocks spanning the gene encoding IGF1 were associated with mammographic density. Haplotype patterns in block 1 (p = 0.03), block 3 (p = 0.009), and block 4 (p = 0.007) were associated with mammographic density, whereas those in block 2 were not. None of the common haplotypes in the three haplotype blocks spanning the genes encoding IGFBP-1/IGFBP-3 were significantly associated with mammographic density. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs in IGF1, rs1520220 and rs2946834, showed a strong association with mammographic density. Those with the homozygous variant genotype for rs1520220 had a mean percentage mammographic density of 19.6% compared with those with the homozygous wild-type genotype, who had a mean percentage mammographic density of 27.9% (p for trend < 0.0001). Those that were homozygous variant for rs2946834 had a mean percentage mammographic density of 23.2% compared with those who were homozygous wild-type with a mean percentage mammographic density of 28.2% (p for trend = 0.0004). Permutation testing demonstrated that results as strong as these are unlikely to occur by chance (p = 0.0005).
CONCLUSION: Common genetic variation in IGF1 is strongly associated with percentage mammographic density.

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