Gene Summary

Gene:KDM5B; lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B
Aliases: CT31, PLU1, PUT1, PLU-1, JARID1B, PPP1R98, RBBP2H1A
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysine-specific demethylase 5B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Methylation
  • Melanoma
  • Skin Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • Cell Cycle
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Messenger RNA
  • Wound Healing
  • siRNA
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Sulfonamides
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Up-Regulation
  • Binding Sites
  • Breast Cancer
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Chromosome 1
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug Resistance
  • Epigenetics
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Histones
  • Phosphorylation
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Tumor Markers
  • Brain Tumours
  • Transfection
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KDM5B (cancer-related)

Zubrilov I, Sagi-Assif O, Izraely S, et al.
Vemurafenib resistance selects for highly malignant brain and lung-metastasizing melanoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 361(1):86-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
V600E being the most common mutation in BRAF, leads to constitutive activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. The majority of V600E BRAF positive melanoma patients treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib showed initial good clinical responses but relapsed due to acquired resistance to the drug. The aim of the present study was to identify possible biomarkers associated with the emergence of drug resistant melanoma cells. To this end we analyzed the differential gene expression of vemurafenib-sensitive and vemurafenib resistant brain and lung metastasizing melanoma cells. The major finding of this study is that the in vitro induction of vemurafenib resistance in melanoma cells is associated with an increased malignancy phenotype of these cells. Resistant cells expressed higher levels of genes coding for cancer stem cell markers (JARID1B, CD271 and Fibronectin) as well as genes involved in drug resistance (ABCG2), cell invasion and promotion of metastasis (MMP-1 and MMP-2). We also showed that drug-resistant melanoma cells adhere better to and transmigrate more efficiently through lung endothelial cells than drug-sensitive cells. The former cells also alter their microenvironment in a different manner from that of drug-sensitive cells. Biomarkers and molecular mechanisms associated with drug resistance may serve as targets for therapy of drug-resistant cancer.

Wang L, Mao Y, Du G, et al.
Overexpression of JARID1B is associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2465-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
JARID1B, a histone demethylase, has been reported to be highly expressed in various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the association of JARID1B level with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and prognosis of patients with EOC. We analyzed JARID1B expression in 20 normal ovaries, 20 benign ovarian tumor (BOT) samples, and 45 epithelial ovarian carcinoma specimens by quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting analyses. JARID1B was further examined in 120 EOC specimens from patients with different histological stages via immunohistochemistry. Possible correlations between JARID1B levels and prognosis as well as chemotherapy resistance of EOC patients were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. JARID1B level was significantly increased in EOC, as compared to normal ovaries and BOT. Among 120 EOC cases examined, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 17 and 85% in patients with high and low JARID1B expression, respectively (hazard ratio = 17.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.31-50.51, P < 0.001). Similarly, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for patients with high and low JARID1B expression were 28 and 92% respectively (hazard ratio = 21.8, 95% CI 5.92-71.81, P < 0.001). Positive correlation between JARID1B level and chemotherapy resistance was observed in patients with EOC (odds ratio (OR) 36.81, 95% CI 4.84-280.11, P < 0.001). JARID1B could serve as an important biomarker for prognosis and chemotherapy resistance of EOC patients.

Dai B, Hu Z, Huang H, et al.
Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 454(1):221-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management.

Rasmussen PB, Staller P
The KDM5 family of histone demethylases as targets in oncology drug discovery.
Epigenomics. 2014; 6(3):277-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is growing evidence for a causal role of the KDM5 family of histone demethylases in human cancer. In particular, KDM5A (JARID1A/RBP2) and KDM5B (JARID1B/PLU1) contribute to cancer cell proliferation, reduce the expression of tumor suppressor genes, promote the development of drug tolerance and maintain tumor-initiating cells. KDM5 enzymes remove tri- and di-methylations of lysine 4 of histone H3 - modifications that occur at the start site of transcription in actively transcribed genes. However, the importance of the histone demethylase activity of KDM5 proteins for cancer cells has not been resolved so far. The currently available approaches suppress or remove the targeted proteins and thereby affect their putative functions as structural components and recruitment factors for other chromatin-associated proteins. Therefore, the development of specific enzymatic inhibitors for KDM5 will promote our understanding of the biological role of their catalytic activity and yield potential novel anticancer therapeutics.

Yamamoto S, Wu Z, Russnes HG, et al.
JARID1B is a luminal lineage-driving oncogene in breast cancer.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(6):762-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent mutations in histone-modifying enzymes imply key roles in tumorigenesis, yet their functional relevance is largely unknown. Here, we show that JARID1B, encoding a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in luminal breast tumors and a somatic mutation in a basal-like breast cancer results in the gain of unique chromatin binding and luminal expression and splicing patterns. Downregulation of JARID1B in luminal cells induces basal genes expression and growth arrest, which is rescued by TGFβ pathway inhibitors. Integrated JARID1B chromatin binding, H3K4 methylation, and expression profiles suggest a key function for JARID1B in luminal cell-specific expression programs. High luminal JARID1B activity is associated with poor outcome in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast tumors.

Yeh IJ, Song K, Wittmann BM, et al.
HEXIM1 plays a critical role in the inhibition of the androgen receptor by anti-androgens.
Biochem J. 2014; 462(2):315-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
We show that HEXIM1 (hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible 1) functions as an AR (androgen receptor) co-repressor as it physically interacts with the AR and is required for the ability of anti-androgens to inhibit androgen-induced target gene expression and cell proliferation. Oncomine™ database and IHC (immunohistochemistry) analyses of human prostate tissues revealed that expression of HEXIM1 mRNA and protein are down-regulated during the development and progression of prostate cancer. Enforced down-regulation of HEXIM1 in parental hormone-dependent LNCaP cells results in resistance to the inhibitory action of anti-androgens. Conversely, ectopic expression of HEXIM1 in the CRPC (castration-resistant prostate cancer) cell line, C4-2, enhances their sensitivity to the repressive effects of the anti-androgen bicalutamide. Novel insight into the mechanistic basis for HEXIM1 inhibition of AR activity is provided by the present studies showing that HEXIM1 induces expression of the histone demethylase KDM5B (lysine-specific demethylase 5B) and inhibits histone methylation, resulting in the inhibition of FOXA1 (forkhead box A1) licensing activity. This is a new mechanism of action attributed to HEXIM1, and distinct from what has been reported so far to be involved in HEXIM1 regulation of other nuclear hormone receptors, including the oestrogen receptor.

Viré E, Curtis C, Davalos V, et al.
The breast cancer oncogene EMSY represses transcription of antimetastatic microRNA miR-31.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(5):806-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Amplification of the EMSY gene in sporadic breast and ovarian cancers is a poor prognostic indicator. Although EMSY has been linked to transcriptional silencing, its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we report that EMSY acts as an oncogene, causing the transformation of cells in vitro and potentiating tumor formation and metastatic features in vivo. We identify an inverse correlation between EMSY amplification and miR-31 expression, an antimetastatic microRNA, in the METABRIC cohort of human breast samples. Re-expression of miR-31 profoundly reduced cell migration, invasion, and colony-formation abilities of cells overexpressing EMSY or haboring EMSY amplification. We show that EMSY is recruited to the miR-31 promoter by the DNA binding factor ETS-1, and it represses miR-31 transcription by delivering the H3K4me3 demethylase JARID1b/PLU-1/KDM5B. Altogether, these results suggest a pathway underlying the role of EMSY in breast cancer and uncover potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in sporadic breast cancer.

Zhang L, Sokolowski N, Atmadibrata B, Liu T
Histone demethylase JARID1B promotes cell proliferation but is downregulated by N-Myc oncoprotein.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(4):1935-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myc oncoproteins induce tumor initiation and promote tumor progression by modulating gene transcription. We have previously shown that N-Myc represses gene transcription by recruiting histone deacetylases to Sp1-binding site-enriched regions of target gene promoters. The histone demethylase JARID1B plays a dual role in cancer. In the present study, we examined published microarray gene expression datasets and found that JARID1B was commonly repressed by Myc oncoproteins and histone deacetylases in cancer cell lines of various organ origins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that N-Myc repressed JARID1B expression by direct binding to the Sp1-binding site-enriched region of the JARID1B gene promoter, and cell proliferation assays showed that transcriptional repression of JARID1B reduced neuroblastoma cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that Myc-mediated transcriptional repression of JARID1B counterintuitively inhibits Myc-regulated cell proliferation and potentially tumorigenesis.

Klein BJ, Piao L, Xi Y, et al.
The histone-H3K4-specific demethylase KDM5B binds to its substrate and product through distinct PHD fingers.
Cell Rep. 2014; 6(2):325-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B regulates gene transcription and cell differentiation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. It contains multiple conserved chromatin-associated domains, including three PHD fingers of unknown function. Here, we show that the first and third, but not the second, PHD fingers of KDM5B possess histone binding activities. The PHD1 finger is highly specific for unmodified histone H3 (H3K4me0), whereas the PHD3 finger shows preference for the trimethylated histone mark H3K4me3. RNA-seq analysis indicates that KDM5B functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Biochemical analysis reveals that KDM5B associates with components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex and may cooperate with the histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in gene repression. KDM5B is downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer relative to estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of KDM5B in the MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasion, and the PHD1-H3K4me0 interaction is essential for inhibiting migration. These findings highlight tumor-suppressive functions of KDM5B in triple-negative breast cancer cells and suggest a multivalent mechanism for KDM5B-mediated transcriptional regulation.

Mulrane L, Gallagher WM, O'Connor DP
A novel mechanism of regulation of the anti-metastatic miR-31 by EMSY in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(6):467 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
miR-31 is well known as an anti-metastatic microRNA (miRNA) in the context of breast cancer. However, to date the mechanism of regulation of this miRNA has yet to be elucidated. The recent publication by Viré et al. in Molecular Cell demonstrates for the first time that one mechanism of regulation of miR-31 is through the putative oncogene EMSY, whose amplification in breast cancer patients correlates with reduced expression of the miRNA. This regulation is dependent on the DNA-binding transcription factor ETS-1 which recruits EMSY and the histone demethylase KDM5B to the miR-31 promoter, thus repressing its transcription.

Han L, Liang XH, Chen LX, et al.
SIRT1 is highly expressed in brain metastasis tissues of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in positive regulation of NSCLC cell migration.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(11):2357-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Brain metastases are a frequent and ongoing major complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To deepen our understanding to the underlying mechanisms by which NSCLC cells metastasize to brain and hence to improve the therapy, a high throughput RNAi screening with shRNA library of 153 epigenetic genes was subjected to A549, a NSCLC cell line with high migration ability, to examine the effects of these genes on cell migration by wound-healing assay. The screening results showed that knockdown of 2 genes (KDM5B and SIRT1) dramatically and specifically inhibits A549 migration but not affects the proliferation, which was subsequently confirmed through transwell migration assay. Furthermore, SIRT1 is found to be highly expressed in brain metastasis tissues of NSCLC, compared to the NSCLC tissues, suggesting that SIRT1 may play roles in brain metastasis of NSCLC. The relationship between SIRT1 expression and cell migration ability was further investigated in three NSCLC cell lines and the result indicated that SIRT1 expression is tightly correlated with cell migration ability. Collectively, our work provides potential biomarker and therapeutic target for brain metastasis of NSCLC.

Wouters J, Stas M, Gremeaux L, et al.
The human melanoma side population displays molecular and functional characteristics of enriched chemoresistance and tumorigenesis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76550 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma remains the most lethal skin cancer, mainly because of high resistance to therapy. Side population (SP) cells are found in many types of cancer and are usually enriched in therapy-resistant as well as tumorigenic cells. Here, we identified a Hoechst dye-effluxing SP in a large series of human melanoma samples representing different progression phases. The SP size did not change with disease stage but was correlated with the prognostic "Breslow's depth" in the primary (cutaneous) tumors. When injected into immunodeficient mice, the SP generated larger tumors than the bulk "main population" (MP) melanoma cells in two consecutive generations, and showed tumorigenic capacity at lower cell numbers than the MP. In addition, the SP reconstituted the heterogeneous composition of the human A375 melanoma cell line, and its clonogenic activity was 2.5-fold higher than that of the MP. Gene-expression analysis revealed upregulated expression in the melanoma SP (versus the MP) of genes associated with chemoresistance and anti-apoptosis. Consistent with these molecular characteristics, the SP increased in proportion when A375 cells were exposed to the melanoma standard chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine, and to the aggravating condition of hypoxia. In addition, the SP showed enhanced expression of genes related to cell invasion and migration, as well as to putative (melanoma) cancer stem cells (CSC) including ABCB1 and JARID1B. ABCB1 immunoreactivity was detected in a number of tumor cells in human melanomas, and in particular in clusters at the invasive front of the primary tumors. Together, our findings support that the human melanoma SP is enriched in tumorigenic and chemoresistant capacity, considered key characteristics of CSC. The melanoma SP may therefore represent an interesting therapeutic target.

Lee HY, Yang EG, Park H
Hypoxia enhances the expression of prostate-specific antigen by modifying the quantity and catalytic activity of Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(12):2706-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxygen concentration in prostate cancer tissue is significantly low, i.e. ~0.3% O2. This study showed that pathological hypoxia (<0.5% O2) increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) target genes such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by modifying the quantity and activity of related Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylases (JMJDs). Under pathological hypoxia, the catalytic activities of JMJD2A, JMJD2C and Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein 1B (JARID1B) were blocked due to the lack of their substrate, i.e. oxygen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that hypoxia increased the appearance of H3K9me3 and H3K4me3, substrates of JMJD2s and JARID1B, respectively, in the PSA enhancer. In contrast, JMJD1A, which demethylates both H3K9me2 and H3K9me1, maintained its catalytic activity even under severe hypoxia. Furthermore, hypoxia increased the expression of JMJD1A. Hypoxia and androgen additively increased the recruitment of JMJD1A and p300 on the enhancer region of PSA through interaction with the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and AR, both of which bind the PSA enhancer. Thus, hypoxia enhanced the demethylation of H3K9me2 and H3K9me1, leading to provide unmethylated H3K9 residues that are substrates for histone acetyltransferase, p300. Consequently, hypoxia increased the acetylation of histones of the PSA enhancer, which facilitates its transcription.

Roesch A, Vultur A, Bogeski I, et al.
Overcoming intrinsic multidrug resistance in melanoma by blocking the mitochondrial respiratory chain of slow-cycling JARID1B(high) cells.
Cancer Cell. 2013; 23(6):811-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite success with BRAFV600E inhibitors, therapeutic responses in patients with metastatic melanoma are short-lived because of the acquisition of drug resistance. We identified a mechanism of intrinsic multidrug resistance based on the survival of a tumor cell subpopulation. Treatment with various drugs, including cisplatin and vemurafenib, uniformly leads to enrichment of slow-cycling, long-term tumor-maintaining melanoma cells expressing the H3K4-demethylase JARID1B/KDM5B/PLU-1. Proteome-profiling revealed an upregulation in enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative-ATP-synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation) in this subpopulation. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration blocked the emergence of the JARID1B(high) subpopulation and sensitized melanoma cells to therapy, independent of their genotype. Our findings support a two-tiered approach combining anticancer agents that eliminate rapidly proliferating melanoma cells with inhibitors of the drug-resistant slow-cycling subpopulation.

Enkhbaatar Z, Terashima M, Oktyabri D, et al.
KDM5B histone demethylase controls epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells by regulating the expression of the microRNA-200 family.
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(13):2100-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone methylation is implicated in various biological and pathological processes including cancer development. In this study, we discovered that ectopic expression of KDM5B, a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase, promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. KDM5B increased the expression of transcription factors, ZEB1 and ZEB2, followed by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal marker genes. The expression of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family, which specifically targets ZEB1 and ZEB2, was reduced in the cells with KDM5B overexpression. We found that KDM5B repressed the expression of the miR-200 family by changing histone H3 methylation status of their regulatory regions. The introduction of miR-200 precursor in the cells inhibited EMT induction by KDM5B, suggesting that miR-200 family was a critical downstream mediator of KDM5B-promoted EMT. Furthermore, knockdown of KDM5B was shown to affect the expression of EMT-related genes, indicating the involvement of endogenous KDM5B. Our study demonstrated a novel role of KDM5B histone lysine demethylase in EMT, which may contribute to malignant progression of cancer.

Vicent GP, Nacht AS, Zaurin R, et al.
Unliganded progesterone receptor-mediated targeting of an RNA-containing repressive complex silences a subset of hormone-inducible genes.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(10):1179-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A close chromatin conformation precludes gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Genes activated by external cues have to overcome this repressive state by locally changing chromatin structure to a more open state. Although much is known about hormonal gene activation, how basal repression of regulated genes is targeted to the correct sites throughout the genome is not well understood. Here we report that in breast cancer cells, the unliganded progesterone receptor (PR) binds genomic sites and targets a repressive complex containing HP1γ (heterochromatin protein 1γ), LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1), HDAC1/2, CoREST (corepressor for REST [RE1 {neuronal repressor element 1} silencing transcription factor]), KDM5B, and the RNA SRA (steroid receptor RNA activator) to 20% of hormone-inducible genes, keeping these genes silenced prior to hormone treatment. The complex is anchored via binding of HP1γ to H3K9me3 (histone H3 tails trimethylated on Lys 9). SRA interacts with PR, HP1γ, and LSD1, and its depletion compromises the loading of the repressive complex to target chromatin-promoting aberrant gene derepression. Upon hormonal treatment, the HP1γ-LSD1 complex is displaced from these constitutively poorly expressed genes as a result of rapid phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 mediated by MSK1, which is recruited to the target sites by the activated PR. Displacement of the repressive complex enables the loading of coactivators needed for chromatin remodeling and activation of this set of genes, including genes involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation. These results highlight the importance of the unliganded PR in hormonal regulation of breast cancer cells.

Yamada R, Takahashi A, Torigoe T, et al.
Preferential expression of cancer/testis genes in cancer stem-like cells: proposal of a novel sub-category, cancer/testis/stem gene.
Tissue Antigens. 2013; 81(6):428-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer/testis (CT) antigens encoded by CT genes are immunogenic antigens, and the expression of CT gene is strictly restricted to only the testis among mature organs. Therefore, CT antigens are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. In a previous study, we identified a novel CT antigen, DNAJB8. DNAJB8 was found to be preferentially expressed in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs), and it is thus a novel CSC antigen. In this study, we hypothesized that CT genes are preferentially expressed in CSCs/CICs rather than in non-CSCs/-CICs and we examined the expression of CT genes in CSCs/CICs. The expression of 74 CT genes was evaluated in side population (SP) cells (=CSC) and main population (MP) cells (=non-CSC) derived from LHK2 lung adenocarcinoma cells, SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Eighteen genes (MAGEA2, MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEA6, MAGEA12, MAGEB2, GAGE1, GAGE8, SPANXA1, SPANXB1, SPANXC, XAGE2, SPA17, BORIS, PLU-1, SGY-1, TEX15 and CT45A1) showed higher expression levels in SP cells than in MP cells, whereas 10 genes (BAGE1, BAGE2, BAGE4, BAGE5, XAGE1, LIP1, D40, HCA661, TDRD1 and TPTE) showed similar expression levels in SP cells and MP cells. Thus, considerable numbers of CT genes showed preferential expression in CSCs/CICs. We therefore propose a novel sub-category of CT genes in this report: cancer/testis/stem (CTS) genes.

Sayegh J, Cao J, Zou MR, et al.
Identification of small molecule inhibitors of Jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) histone demethylase by a sensitive high throughput screen.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(13):9408-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
JARID1B (also known as KDM5B or PLU1) is a member of the JARID1 family of histone lysine demethylases responsible for the demethylation of trimethylated lysine 27 in histone H3 (H3K4me3), a mark for actively transcribed genes. JARID1B is overexpressed in several cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. In addition, JARID1B is required for mammary tumor formation in syngeneic or xenograft mouse models. JARID1B-expressing melanoma cells are associated with increased self-renewal character. Therefore, JARID1B represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here we characterized JARID1B using a homogeneous luminescence-based demethylase assay. We then conducted a high throughput screen of over 15,000 small molecules to identify inhibitors of JARID1B. From this screen, we identified several known JmjC histone demethylase inhibitors, including 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and catechols. More importantly, we identified several novel inhibitors, including 2-4(4-methylphenyl)-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one (PBIT), which inhibits JARID1B with an IC50 of about 3 μm in vitro. Consistent with this, PBIT treatment inhibited removal of H3K4me3 by JARID1B in cells. Furthermore, this compound inhibited proliferation of cells expressing higher levels of JARID1B. These results suggest that this novel small molecule inhibitor is a lead compound that can be further optimized for cancer therapy.

Ohta K, Haraguchi N, Kano Y, et al.
Depletion of JARID1B induces cellular senescence in human colorectal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1212-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The global incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing. Although there are emerging epigenetic factors that contribute to the occurrence, development and metastasis of CRC, the biological significance of epigenetic molecular regulation in different subpopulations such as cancer stem cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of the H3K4 demethylase, jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B), an epigenetic factor required for the continuous cell growth of melanomas, in CRC. We found that CD44(+)/aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)(+) slowly proliferating immature CRC stem cell populations expressed relatively low levels of JARID1B and the differentiation marker, CD20, as well as relatively high levels of the tumor suppressor, p16/INK4A. Of note, lentiviral‑mediated continuous JARID1B depletion resulted in the loss of epithelial differentiation and suppressed CRC cell growth, which was associated with the induction of phosphorylation by the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (Jnk/Sapk) and senescence‑associated β‑galactosidase activity. Moreover, green fluorescent‑labeled cell tracking indicated that JARID1B‑positive CRC cells had greater tumorigenicity than JARID1B‑negative CRC cells after their subcutaneous inoculation into immunodeficient mice, although JARID1B‑negative CRC cells resumed normal growth after a month, suggesting that continuous JARID1B inhibition is necessary for tumor eradication. Thus, JARID1B plays a role in CRC maintenance. JARID1B may be a novel molecular target for therapy‑resistant cancer cells by the induction of cellular senescence.

Sugihara E, Saya H
Complexity of cancer stem cells.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(6):1249-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heterogeneity of tumor tissue has been accounted for in recent years by a hierarchy-based model in which cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability both to self-renew and to give rise to differentiated tumor cells and are responsible for the overall organization of a tumor. Research into CSCs has progressed rapidly and concomitantly with recent advances in the biology of normal tissue stem cells, resulting in the identification of CSCs in a wide range of human tumors. Studies of mouse models of human cancer have provided further insight into the characteristics of CSCs as well as a basis for the development of novel therapies targeted to these cells. However, recent studies have revealed complexities, such as plasticity of stem cell properties and clonal diversity of CSCs, in certain tumor types that have led to revision of the original CSC model. In this review, we summarize the history of the discovery and characterization of CSCs, as well as address recent advances that have revealed the complexity of these cells and their therapeutic implications.

Kristensen LH, Nielsen AL, Helgstrand C, et al.
Studies of H3K4me3 demethylation by KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 reveals strong substrate recognition in vitro and identifies 2,4-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid as an in vitro and in cell inhibitor.
FEBS J. 2012; 279(11):1905-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dynamic methylations and demethylations of histone lysine residues are important for gene regulation and are facilitated by histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases (HDMs). KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 is an H3K4me3/me2-specific lysine demethylase belonging to the JmjC domain-containing family of histone demethylases (JHDMs). Several studies have linked KDM5B to breast, prostate and skin cancer, highlighting its potential as a drug target. However, most inhibitor studies have focused on other JHDMs, and inhibitors for KDM5B remain to be explored. Here, we report the expression, purification and characterization of the catalytic core of recombinant KDM5B (ccKDM5B, residues 1-769). We show that ccKDM5B, recombinantly expressed in insect cells, demethylates H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in vitro. The kinetic characterization showed that ccKDM5B has an apparent Michaelis constant (K(m) (app) ) value of 0.5 μm for its trimethylated substrate H3(1-15)K4me3, a considerably increased apparent substrate affinity than reported for related HDMs. Despite the presence of a PHD domain, the catalytic activity was not affected by additional methylation at the H3K9 position, suggesting that in vitro chromatin cross-talk between H3K4 and H3K9 does not occur for ccKDM5B. Inhibition studies of ccKDM5B showed both in vitro and in cell inhibition of ccKDM5B by 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA) with a potency similar to that reported for the HDM KDM4C. Structure-guided sequence alignment indicated that the binding mode of 2,4-PDCA is conserved between KDM4A/C and KDM5B.

Katoh H, Qin ZS, Liu R, et al.
FOXP3 orchestrates H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation for activation of multiple genes by recruiting MOF and causing displacement of PLU-1.
Mol Cell. 2011; 44(5):770-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation are required for gene activation. However, it is still largely unclear how these modifications are orchestrated by transcriptional factors. Here, we analyzed the mechanism of the transcriptional activation by FOXP3, an X-linked suppressor of autoimmune diseases and cancers. FOXP3 binds near transcriptional start sites of its target genes. By recruiting MOF and displacing histone H3K4 demethylase PLU-1, FOXP3 increases both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation at the FOXP3-associated chromatins of multiple FOXP3-activated genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of MOF reduced both gene activation and tumor suppression by FOXP3, while both somatic mutations in clinical cancer samples and targeted mutation of FOXP3 in mouse prostate epithelial cells disrupted nuclear localization of MOF. Our data demonstrate a pull-push model in which a single transcription factor orchestrates two epigenetic alterations necessary for gene activation and provide a mechanism for somatic inactivation of the FOXP3 protein function in cancer cells.

Björkman M, Östling P, Härmä V, et al.
Systematic knockdown of epigenetic enzymes identifies a novel histone demethylase PHF8 overexpressed in prostate cancer with an impact on cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(29):3444-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our understanding of key epigenetic regulators involved in specific biological processes and cancers is still incomplete, despite great progress in genome-wide studies of the epigenome. Here, we carried out a systematic, genome-wide analysis of the functional significance of 615 epigenetic proteins in prostate cancer (PrCa) cells. We used the high-content cell-spot microarray technology and siRNA silencing of PrCa cell lines for functional screening of cell proliferation, survival, androgen receptor (AR) expression, histone methylation and acetylation. Our study highlights subsets of epigenetic enzymes influencing different cancer cell phenotypes. Plant homeo domain (PHD) finger proteins have a key role in cell survival and histone methylation, whereas histone deacetylases were primarily involved in regulating AR expression. In contrast, JumonjiC-domain (JmjC) containing histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) mainly had an impact on cell proliferation. Our results show that the KDMs JARID1B, PHF8, KDM3A, KDM3B and KDM4A were highly expressed in clinical PrCa samples. The PHD-finger protein 8 (PHF8), a transcriptional coactivator with both PHD- and JmjC-domains, was moderately to strongly expressed in 80% of clinical PrCa samples, whereas 76% of normal and benign samples were negative or only showed weak PHF8 expression. Strong PHF8 expression correlated significantly with high Gleason grade and was borderline significant for poor prognosis. The results of functional PHF8 knockdown implicate a role in cell migration and invasion, as shown by cell motility and 3-D invasion assays. Our study suggests that various cellular phenotypes are regulated by distinct subsets of epigenetic enzymes. Proteins interpreting and modifying histone methylation, such as JmjC-domain and particularly PHD-finger proteins like PHF8, are activated in subsets of PrCa's and promote cancer relevant phenotypes.

Mitra D, Das PM, Huynh FC, Jones FE
Jumonji/ARID1 B (JARID1B) protein promotes breast tumor cell cycle progression through epigenetic repression of microRNA let-7e.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(47):40531-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in multiple tumor types. Although miR expression is tightly regulated, the molecular basis of miR regulation is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the influence of the histone demethylase Jumonji/ARID1 B (JARID1B) on miR regulation in breast tumor cells. In MCF-7 cells with stable RNAi-mediated suppression of JARID1B expression we identified altered regulation of multiple miRs including let-7e, a member of the let-7 family of tumor suppressor miRs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated JARID1B binding to the let-7e promoter region as well as removal of the of H3K4me3 histone mark associated with active gene expression. These results suggest that JARID1B epigenetically represses let-7e expression. JARID1B stimulates tumor cell proliferation by promoting the G(1) to S transition. As predicted, suppression of JARID1B resulted in an accumulation of MCF-7 cells in G(1). We confirmed that cyclin D1, which also promotes G(1) progression, is a direct target of let-7e, and we show that cyclin D1 expression is suppressed in JARID1B knockdown cells. Cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression were restored following inhibition of let-7e, suggesting that JARID1B repression of let-7e contributes to cyclin D1 expression and JARID1B-mediated cell cycle progression. Our results indicate that the JARID1B demethylase contributes to tumor cell proliferation through the epigenetic repression of a tumor suppressor miR.

Li Q, Shi L, Gui B, et al.
Binding of the JmjC demethylase JARID1B to LSD1/NuRD suppresses angiogenesis and metastasis in breast cancer cells by repressing chemokine CCL14.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(21):6899-908 [PubMed] Related Publications
JARID1B is a member of the JmjC/ARID family of demethylases that specifically demethylates tri- and di-methylated forms of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) that are associated with active genes. JARID1B expression is dysregulated in several cancers in which it has been implicated, but how it might affect tumor progression is unclear. In this study, we report that JARID1B is a physical component of the LSD1/NuRD complex that functions in transcriptional repression. JARID1B and LSD1 acted in a sequential and coordinated manner to demethylate H3K4. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed that among the cellular signaling pathways targeted by the JARID1B/LSD1/NuRD complex is the CCL14 chemokine pathway of cell migration and angiogenesis. JARID1B repressed the expression of CCL14, an epithelial derived chemokine, suppressing the angiogenic and metastatic potential of breast cancer cells in vivo. Our findings indicate that CCL14 is a critical mediator of the JARID1B/LSD1/NuRD complex in regulation of angiogenesis and metastasis in breast cancer, identifying a novel potential therapeutic target for breast cancer intervention.

Niu X, Zhang T, Liao L, et al.
The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein regulates gene expression and tumor growth through histone demethylase JARID1C.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(6):776-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), inactivation of the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) occurs in the majority of the tumors and is causal for the pathogenesis of ccRCC. Recently, a large-scale genomic sequencing study of ccRCC tumors revealed that enzymes that regulate histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4Me3), such as JARID1C/KDM5C/SMCX and MLL2, were mutated in ccRCC tumors, suggesting that H3K4Me3 might have an important role in regulating gene expression and tumorigenesis. In this study we report that in VHL-deficient ccRCC cells, the overall H3K4Me3 levels were significantly lower than that of VHL+/+ counterparts. Furthermore, this was hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) dependent, as depletion of HIF subunits by small hairpin RNA in VHL-deficient ccRCC cells restored H3K4Me3 levels. In addition, we demonstrated that only loss of JARID1C, not JARID1A or JARID1B, abolished the difference of H3K4Me3 levels between VHL-/- and VHL+/+ cells, and JARID1C displayed HIF-dependent expression pattern. JARID1C in VHL-/- cells was responsible for the suppression of HIF-responsive genes insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), DNAJC12, COL6A1, growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and density-enhanced phosphatase 1. Consistent with these findings, the H3K4Me3 levels at the promoters of IGFBP3, DNAJC12, COL6A1 and GDF15 were lower in VHL-/- cells than in VHL+/+ cells, and the differences disappeared after JARID1C depletion. Although HIF2α is an oncogene in ccRCC, some of its targets might have tumor suppressive activity. Consistent with this, knockdown of JARID1C in 786-O VHL-/- ccRCC cells significantly enhanced tumor growth in a xenograft model, suggesting that JARID1C is tumor suppressive and its mutations are tumor promoting in ccRCC. Thus, VHL inactivation decreases H3K4Me3 levels through JARID1C, which alters gene expression and suppresses tumor growth.

Yoshida M, Ishimura A, Terashima M, et al.
PLU1 histone demethylase decreases the expression of KAT5 and enhances the invasive activity of the cells.
Biochem J. 2011; 437(3):555-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
PLU1 is a candidate oncogene that encodes H3K4 (Lys(4) of histone H3) demethylase. In the present study, we found that ectopic expression of PLU1 enhanced the invasive potential of the weakly invasive cells dependent on its demethylase activity. PLU1 was shown to repress the expression of the KAT5 gene through its H3K4 demethylation on the promoter. The regulation of KAT5 by PLU1 was suggested to be responsible for PLU1-induced cell invasion. First, knockdown of KAT5 similarly increased the invasive potential of the cells. Secondly, knockdown of PLU1 in the highly invasive cancer cells increased KAT5 expression and reduced the invasive activity. Thirdly, simultaneous knockdown of KAT5 partially relieved the suppression of cell invasion imposed by PLU1 knockdown. Finally, we found that CD82, which was transcriptionally regulated by KAT5, might be a candidate effector of cell invasion promoted by PLU1. The present study demonstrated a functional contribution of PLU1 overexpression with concomitant epigenetic dysregulation in cancer progression.

Rao M, Chinnasamy N, Hong JA, et al.
Inhibition of histone lysine methylation enhances cancer-testis antigen expression in lung cancer cells: implications for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(12):4192-204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer-testis antigens (CTA), such as NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A1, and MAGE-A3, are immunogenic proteins encoded by genes, which are normally expressed only in male germ cells but are activated by ill-defined epigenetic mechanisms in human tumors, including lung cancers. Previously, we reported induction of these CTAs in cancer cells, but not normal cells, by DNA-demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors using clinically achievable exposure conditions. In the present study, we evaluated chromatin alterations associated with repression/activation of cancer-testis genes in lung cancer cells to further develop gene-induction regimens for cancer immunotherapy. Repression of NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A1, and MAGE-A3 coincided with DNA hypermethylation, recruitment, and binding of polycomb-group proteins, and histone heterochromatin modifications within the promoters of these genes. Derepression coincided with DNA demethylation, dissociation of polycomb proteins, and presence of euchromatin marks within the respective promoters. Short hairpin RNAs were used to inhibit several histone methyltransferases (KMT) and histone demethylases (KDM) that mediate histone methylation and repress gene expression. Knockdown of KMT6, KDM1, or KDM5B markedly enhanced deoxyazacytidine (DAC)-mediated activation of these cancer-testis genes in lung cancer cells. DZNep, a pharmacologic inhibitor of KMT6 expression, recapitulated the effects of KMT6 knockdown. Following DAC-DZNep exposure, lung cancer cells were specifically recognized and lysed by allogeneic lymphocytes expressing recombinant T-cell receptors recognizing NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A3. Combining DNA-demethylating agents with compounds, such as DZNep, that modulate histone lysine methylation may provide a novel epigenetic strategy to augment cancer-testis gene expression as an adjunct to adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

Catchpole S, Spencer-Dene B, Hall D, et al.
PLU-1/JARID1B/KDM5B is required for embryonic survival and contributes to cell proliferation in the mammary gland and in ER+ breast cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 38(5):1267-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
The four members of the JARID1/KDM5 family of proteins, a sub-group of the larger ARID (AT rich DNA binding domain) family, have been shown to demethylate trimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me3), a chromatin mark associated with actively transcribed genes. In some lower organisms a single homologue of JARID1 is found, and functions of the four proteins found in mice and humans may be specific or overlapping. To investigate the function of the Jarid1B protein we examined the effects of deletion of the gene in mice. Systemic knock out of Jarid1b resulted in early embryonic lethality, whereas mice not expressing the related Jarid1A gene are viable and fertile. A second mouse strain expressing a Jarid1b gene with the ARID domain deleted was viable and fertile but displayed a mammary phenotype, where terminal end bud development and side branching was delayed at puberty and in early pregnancy. Since development of terminal end buds are completely dependent on signalling from the estrogen receptor (ERα), we investigated the expression of a target gene (progesterone receptor) in the ∆ARID mouse and found levels to be reduced as compared to wild-type. JARID1B is widely expressed in ER+ breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines, and interaction with ERα was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitations in cells transfected with tagged ERα and JARID1B genes. Down-regulation of expression of JARID1B using shRNAi in MCF-7 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in E2 stimulated tumour growth in nude mice. The data demonstrate a specific role for Jarid1B in early embryonic development, in the development and differentiation of the normal mammary gland, and in estrogen induced growth of ER+ breast cancer.

Kaelin WG
New cancer targets emerging from studies of the Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010; 1210:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) causes the most common form of kidney cancer. pVHL is part of a complex that polyubiquitinates the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF. In the presence of oxygen, HIF1α is prolyl hydroxylated by EglN1 (also called PHD2); this modification recruits pVHL, which then targets HIF1α for proteasomal degradation. In hypoxic or pVHL-defective cells, HIF1α accumulates, binds to HIF1β, and transcriptionally activates genes such as VEGF. VEGF inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors, which indirectly affect HIF, are now approved for the treatment of kidney cancer. EglN1 is a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase; such enzymes can be inhibited with drug-like small molecules and EglN1 inhibitors are currently being tested for the treatment of anemia. EglN2 (PHD1) and EglN3 (PHD3), which are EglN1 paralogs, appear to play HIF-independent roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively, and are garnering interest as potential cancer targets. A number of JmjC-containing proteins, including RBP2 and PLU-1, are 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that demethylate histones. Preclinical data suggest that inhibition of RBP2 or PLU-1 would suppress tumor growth.

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