Research IndicatorsGraph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
TICdb, Universidad de Navarra
Search the database of Translocation breakpoints In Cancer for "FOXO4"
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: FOXO4 (cancer-related)
Zhang T, Zhang X, Shi W, et al.The DNA damage repair protein Ku70 regulates tumor cell and hepatic carcinogenesis by interacting with FOXO4.
Pathol Res Pract. 2016; 212(3):153-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The capability for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair is crucial for chromatin dramatic changes and DNA damage in normal and tumor cells. We have investigated the clinicopathological significance of DNA repair gene Ku70 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. We demonstrated that Ku70 expression was significantly increased in HCC, and the high expression levels were significantly correlated with gender, maximal tumor size, HBsAg status, tumor nodule number, distant metastasis and Ki-67 expression by clinicopathological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that increasing Ku70 expression was associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. Ku70 expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall HCC patient survival in a multivariate analysis. In addition, through serum starvation and refeeding, we found that Ku70 was lowly expressed in serum-starved Huh7 and HepG2 HCC cells, and was progressively increased after serum-additioning. Furthermore, knockdown of Ku70 inhibited cell proliferation accompanying an increase in p27(kip1) levels through interacting with FOXO4. These findings provide a rational framework for the progression of HCC and could be a potential molecular therapy by targeting the Ku70-FOXO4 interaction.
Tian W, Liu J, Pei B, et al.Identification of miRNAs and differentially expressed genes in early phase non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2171-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To explore the potential therapeutic targets of early‑stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gene microarray analysis was conducted. The microarray data of NSCLC in stage IA, IB, IIA, and IIB (GSE50081), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in IB vs. IA, IIA vs. IB, IIB vs. IIA were screened out via R. ToppGene Suite was used to get the enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs. The GeneCoDis3 database and Cytoscape software were used to construct the transcriptional regulatory network. In total, 25, 17 and 14 DEGs were identified in IB vs. IA, IIA vs. IB, IIB vs. IIA of NSCLC, respectively. Some GO terms and pathways (e.g., extracellular space, alveolar lamellar body, bioactivation via cytochrome P450 pathway) were found significantly enriched in DEGs. Genes S100P, ALOX15B, CCL11, NLRP2, SERPINA3, FoxO4 and hsa-miR-491 may play important roles in the development of early-stage NSCLC. Thus, by bioinformatics analysis the key genes and biological processes involving in the development of early-stage NSCLC could be established, providing more potential references for the therapeutic targets.
Wang W, Zhou PH, Hu WOverexpression of FOXO4 induces apoptosis of clear-cell renal carcinoma cells through downregulation of Bim.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(3):2229-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) has been reported to be a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal cancers; however, its role in clear‑cell renal carcinoma cells (ccRCC) has remained largely elusive. The present study assessed the expression levels of FOXO4 in RCC tissues and cells. Furthermore, the effects of vector‑mediated overexpression of FOXO4 on the apoptotic rate of the 786‑0 and Caki‑1 cell lines and the role of Bim in this process were investigated. The results demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FOXO4 were decreased in renal cancer tissues and cell lines compared with those in normal tissues and cell lines. FOXO4 overexpression significantly increased the apoptotic rate of ccRCC cells in vitro, along with increased protein expression levels of Bim, cleaved‑caspase 3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c, as well as a decrease in Bcl‑2 expression. Of note, the apoptotic effects of FOXO4 overexpression in 786‑0 cells were inhibited by small interfering RNA‑mediated knockdown of Bim. The results of the present study indicated that FOXO4 has an inhibitory effect in ccRCC, at least in part through inducing apoptosis via upregulation of Bim in the mitochondria-dependent pathway.
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of microRNA-150 (miR-150) is commonly observed in solid tumor and has been reported to be involved in multiple important biological processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Elevated miR-150 level was also detected in cervical carcinoma, whereas its function in cancer progression has not been studied yet.
METHODS: The expression of miRNA-150 in cervical carcinoma was compared with normal cervical tissue and using qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-150 on cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the expression of cycle- and apoptosis-related genes, were determined using flow cytometry, TUNEL assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively. The direct target of miR-150 was confirmed using 3' untranslated region (UTR) luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: miR-150 promotes cervical cancer cell survival and growth, while the inhibition of miR-150 suppresses these actions. miR-150 also induced the cell cycle progression from G1/G0 to S phase, resulting in an enhancement of growth. Several cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes, CyclinD1, p27, BIM, and FASL were modulated by miR-150. Moreover, miR-150 directly reduced the expression of FOXO4, which regulates the expression of CyclinD1, p27, BIM, and FASL, by targeting its 3' UTR.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our data demonstrated that elevated miR-150 targets FOXO4 expression and therefore regulates multiple genes expression, resulting in cervical cancer cell growth and survival.
Coomans de Brachène A, Demoulin JBFOXO transcription factors in cancer development and therapy.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(6):1159-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are considered as tumor suppressors that limit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. FOXO gene alterations have been described in a limited number of human cancers, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, leukemia and lymphoma. In addition, FOXO proteins are inactivated by major oncogenic signals such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway and MAP kinases. Their expression is also repressed by micro-RNAs in multiple cancer types. FOXOs are mediators of the tumor response to various therapies. However, paradoxical roles of FOXOs in cancer progression were recently described. FOXOs contribute to the maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia. These factors may also promote invasion and metastasis of subsets of colon and breast cancers. Resistance to treatment was also ascribed to FOXO activation in multiple cases, including targeted therapies. In this review, we discuss the complex role of FOXOs in cancer development and response to therapy.
Chen B, Bao Y, Chen X, et al.Mir-664 promotes osteosarcoma cells proliferation via downregulating of FOXO4.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 75:1-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uncontrol cell growth and proliferation is acknowledged to responsible for cancer-related deaths by disorganizing the balance of growth promotion and growth limitation. Aberrant expression of microRNA play essential roles in cancer development, leads to cell proliferation, growth and survival, and promotes the development of various human tumors, including osteosarcoma. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of this abnormality in osteosarcoma carcinogenesis may improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this malignancy.
METHODS: The expression of miR-664 in osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma tissues was examined using real-time PCR. The effects of miR-664 on osteosarcoma cell proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, colony formation and Anchorage-independent growth ability assay. The effect of miR-664 on FOXO4 was determine by luciferase assays and western blot assay.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-664 was markedly upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues, and upregulation of miR-664 enhanced, whereas downregulation of miR-664 inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells in vivo. Furthermore, using bioinformatics and biological approaches, we showed that miR-664 directly targeted and suppressed the expression of tumor suppressors FOXO4.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that miR-664 functions as an oncogene miRNA and has an important role in promoting human osteosarcoma cell proliferation by suppressing FOXO4 expression. These data suggests that miR-664 may represent a novel therapeutic target of microRNA-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in osteosarcoma.
Zhang T, Wan C, Shi W, et al.The RNA-binding protein Sam68 regulates tumor cell viability and hepatic carcinogenesis by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of FOXOs.
J Mol Histol. 2015; 46(6):485-97 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Src associated in mitosis (Sam68; 68 kDa) is a KH domain RNA-binding protein that belongs to the signal transduction and activation of RNA family, and has been implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of several human cancers. Our study aimed to investigated the clinicopathologic significance of Sam68 expression and its role in cell proliferation and the underlying molecular mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We demonstrated that Sam68 expression was significantly increased in HCC and high expression of Sam68 was significantly associated with Edmondson grade, tumor size, tumor nodule number, HBsAg status and Ki-67 expression. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that increased expression of Sam68 was correlated with poor prognosis in HCC patients and served as an independent prognostic marker of overall survival in a multivariable analysis. In addition, through serum starvation and refeeding assay, we demonstrated that Sam68 was lowly expressed in serum-starved HCC cells, and was progressively increased after serum-additioning. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of endogenous Sam68 inhibited cell proliferation and tumourigenicity of HCC cells in vitro, through blocking the G1 to S phase transition. Moreover, we reported that the anti-proliferative effect of silencing Sam68 was accompanied with up-regulated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), enhanced transactivation of FOXO factors (FOXO4), and dysreuglation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling. Taken together, these findings provide a rational framework for the progression of HCC and thereby indicated that Sam68 might be a novel and useful prognostic marker and a potential target for human HCC treatment.
Epigenetic changes play significant roles in cancer development. UHRF1, an epigenetic regulator, has been shown to be overexpressed and to coordinate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) silencing in several cancers. In a previous study, we found that UHRF1 promoted gastric cancer (GC) invasion and metastasis. However, the role and underlying mechanism of UHRF1 in GC carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated UHRF1 expression and function in GC proliferation and explored its downstream regulatory mechanism. The results demonstrated that UHRF1 overexpression was an independent and significant predictor of GC prognosis. Downregulation of UHRF1 suppressed GC proliferation and growth in vitro and in vivo, and UHRF1 upregulation showed opposite effects. Furthermore, downregulation of UHRF1 reactivated 7 TSGs, including CDX2, CDKN2A, RUNX3, FOXO4, PPARG, BRCA1 and PML, via promoter demethylation. These results provide insight into the GC proliferation process, and suggest that targeting UHRF1 represents a new therapeutic approach to block GC development.
The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors play important roles in various cancer development including Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). In this study we conducted a hospital-based case control study including 1049 cases (HCC patients) and 1052 controls (non-tumor patients) to examine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within microRNA (miRNA) target sites of FOXO genes confer HCC susceptibility. A total of three miRNA target site SNPs in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of FOXO1 (rs17592236), FOXO3 (rs4946936) and FOXO4 (rs4503258) were analyzed. No statistically significant differences were found in genotype distribution for rs17592236, rs4946936, and rs4503258 between the HCC patient group and the tumor-free control group using single factor chi-square analysis (P>0.05). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the CT/TT genotype in rs17592236 was significantly associated with decreased risk of HCC development (P = 0.010, OR = 0.699, 95% CI: 0.526-0.927) as compared to the CC genotype in rs17592236. Additionally, a genetic interaction was found between rs17592236 and rs4503258 (P = 0.003, OR = 0.755, 95% CI: 0.628-0.908). Functional dual luciferase reporter assays verified that the rs17592236 SNP was a target site of human miRNA miR-137. Together, these results indicate that the rs17592236 polymorphism is associated with decreasing of HCC hereditary susceptibility likely through modulating the binding affinity of miR-137 to the 3'UTR in FOXO1 messenger RNA (mRNA). Further knowledge obtained from this study may provide important evidence for the prevention and targeted therapy of HCC.
Xie G, Li J, Chen J, et al.Knockdown of flotillin-2 impairs the proliferation of breast cancer cells through modulation of Akt/FOXO signaling.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(5):2285-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lipid rafts, specialized domains in cell membranes, function as physical platforms for various molecules to coordinate a variety of signal transduction processes. Flotillin-2 (FLOT2), a marker of lipid rafts, is involved in the progression of cancer, yet the precise mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of FLOT2 on cell proliferation and found that silencing endogenous FLOT2 with shRNAs inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect of silencing FLOT2 on breast cancer cells was associated with upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Moreover, we further demonstrated that the silencing of FLOT2 enhanced the transcriptional activity of FOXO factors by decreasing its phosphorylation through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, our results provide the ﬁrst demonstration of a novel mechanism by which FLOT2 induces proliferation of breast cancer cells, and our ﬁndings suggest that FLOT2 plays an important role in oncogenesis of breast cancer and thereby may be a potential target for human breast cancer treatment.
Haidar A, Arekapudi S, DeMattia F, et al.High-grade undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with t(4;19)(q35;q13.1) CIC-DUX4 fusion: emerging entities of soft tissue tumors with unique histopathologic features--a case report and literature review.
Am J Case Rep. 2015; 16:87-94 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A subset of undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas (USRCSs) is currently being recognized as emerging entities with unique gene fusions: CIC-DUX4 (the area of focus in this article), BCOR-CCNB3, or CIC-FOXO4 gene fusions. CIC-DUX4 and CIC-FOXO4 fusions have been reported in soft tissue tumors, while BCOR-CCNB3 fusion with an X chromosomal inversion was described in both bone and soft tissue tumors. CIC-DUX4 fusion can either harbor t(4;19)(q35;q13.1) or t(10;19)(q26.3;q13), while t(4;19)(q35;q13.1) is reported more commonly.
CASE REPORT: The aim of this study is to share a new case report of a 36-year-old woman who had a rapidly growing mass in her right upper thigh, which was found to be an undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with t(4;19)(q35;q13.1) CIC-DUX4 fusion was confirmed by cytogenetic testing. Combined modality treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy was used and achieved a good response. A review of the literature of the reported cases with CIC-DUX4 fusions including both t(4;19) and t(10;19) translocations revealed a total of 44 cases reported. Out of these 44 cases, 33 showed t(4;19)(q35;q13.1) translocation compared to 11 cases with t(10;19)(q26.3;q13).
CONCLUSIONS: Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas are aggressive tumors. Their treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Resistance to chemotherapy is common. Lung and brain are common sites of metastasis, with associated poor prognosis. Generally, median survival is less than 2 years. Newer techniques have been developed recently which helped identify a subset of previously unclassifiable sarcomas, with promising prognostic value.
BACKGROUND: Evidence from cachectic cancer patients and animal models of cancer cachexia supports the involvement of Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors in driving cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting. However, the genome-wide gene networks and associated biological processes regulated by FoxO during cancer cachexia are unknown. We hypothesize that FoxO is a central upstream regulator of diverse gene networks in skeletal muscle during cancer that may act coordinately to promote the wasting phenotype.
METHODS: To inhibit endogenous FoxO DNA-binding, we transduced limb and diaphragm muscles of mice with AAV9 containing the cDNA for a dominant negative (d.n.) FoxO protein (or GFP control). The d.n.FoxO construct consists of only the FoxO3a DNA-binding domain that is highly homologous to that of FoxO1 and FoxO4, and which outcompetes and blocks endogenous FoxO DNA binding. Mice were subsequently inoculated with Colon-26 (C26) cells and muscles harvested 26 days later.
RESULTS: Blocking FoxO prevented C26-induced muscle fiber atrophy of both locomotor muscles and the diaphragm and significantly spared force deficits. This sparing of muscle size and function was associated with the differential regulation of 543 transcripts (out of 2,093) which changed in response to C26. Bioinformatics analysis of upregulated gene transcripts that required FoxO revealed enrichment of the proteasome, AP-1 and IL-6 pathways, and included several atrophy-related transcription factors, including Stat3, Fos, and Cebpb. FoxO was also necessary for the cancer-induced downregulation of several gene transcripts that were enriched for extracellular matrix and sarcomere protein-encoding genes. We validated these findings in limb muscles and the diaphragm through qRT-PCR, and further demonstrate that FoxO1 and/or FoxO3a are sufficient to increase Stat3, Fos, Cebpb, and the C/EBPβ target gene, Ubr2. Analysis of the Cebpb proximal promoter revealed two bona fide FoxO binding elements, which we further establish are necessary for Cebpb promoter activation in response to IL-6, a predominant cytokine in the C26 cancer model.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new evidence that FoxO-dependent transcription is a central node controlling diverse gene networks in skeletal muscle during cancer cachexia, and identifies novel candidate genes and networks for further investigation as causative factors in cancer-induced wasting.
Zhu HTargeting forkhead box transcription factors FOXM1 and FOXO in leukemia (Review).
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1327-34 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Deregulation of forkhead box (FOX) proteins has been found in many genetic diseases and malignancies including leukemia. Leukemia is a common neoplastic disease of the blood or bone marrow characterized by the presence of immature leukocytes and is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer. Forkhead transcription factors, FOXM1 and FOXO family members (FOXOs), are important mediators in leukemia development. Aberrant expression of FOXM1 and FOXOs results in leukemogenesis. Usually the expression of FOXM1 is upregulated, whereas the expression of FOXOs is downregulated due to phosphorylation, nuclear exclusion and degradation in leukemia. On the one hand, FOXOs are bona fide tumor suppressors, on the other hand, active FOXOs maintain leukemia stem cells and stimulate drug resistance genes, contributing to leukemogenesis. FOXM1 and FOXOs have been proven to be potential targets for the development of leukemia therapeutics. They are also valuable diagnostic and prognostic markers in leukemia for clinical applications. This review summarizes the present knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms by which FOXM1 and FOXOs modulate leukemogenesis and leukemia development, the clinical relevance of these FOX proteins in leukemia and related areas that warrant further investigation.
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) is a group of highly malignant small round blue cell tumors occurring in children and young adults. We report here the largest genomic survey to date of 101 EFT (65 tumors and 36 cell lines). Using a combination of whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing approaches, we discover that EFT has a very low mutational burden (0.15 mutations/Mb) but frequent deleterious mutations in the cohesin complex subunit STAG2 (21.5% tumors, 44.4% cell lines), homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (13.8% and 50%) and mutations of TP53 (6.2% and 71.9%). We additionally note an increased prevalence of the BRCA2 K3326X polymorphism in EFT patient samples (7.3%) compared to population data (OR 7.1, p = 0.006). Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we find that 11% of tumors pathologically diagnosed as EFT lack a typical EWSR1 fusion oncogene and that these tumors do not have a characteristic Ewing sarcoma gene expression signature. We identify samples harboring novel fusion genes including FUS-NCATc2 and CIC-FOXO4 that may represent distinct small round blue cell tumor variants. In an independent EFT tissue microarray cohort, we show that STAG2 loss as detected by immunohistochemistry may be associated with more advanced disease (p = 0.15) and a modest decrease in overall survival (p = 0.10). These results significantly advance our understanding of the genomic and molecular underpinnings of Ewing sarcoma and provide a foundation towards further efforts to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and precision therapeutics testing.
Sugita S, Arai Y, Tonooka A, et al.A novel CIC-FOXO4 gene fusion in undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma: a genetically distinct variant of Ewing-like sarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(11):1571-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas (SRCSs) grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) can be a challenging situation for pathologists. Recent studies have revealed that some groups of Ewing-like sarcoma show typical ESFT morphology but lack any EWSR1-ETS gene fusions. Here we identified a novel gene fusion, CIC-FOXO4, in a case of Ewing-like sarcoma with a t(X;19)(q13;q13.3) translocation. The patient was a 63-year-old man who had an asymptomatic, 30-mm, well-demarcated, intramuscular mass in his right posterior neck, and imaging findings suggested a diagnosis of high-grade sarcoma. He was treated with complete resection and subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. He was alive without local recurrence or distant metastasis 6 months after the operation. Histologic examination revealed SRCS with abundant desmoplastic fibrous stroma suggesting a desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed weak to moderate and partial staining for MIC2 (CD99) and WT1, respectively. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing revealed a gene fusion, and the genomic rearrangement between the CIC and FOXO4 genes was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Aside from the desmoplastic stroma, the CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma showed morphologic and immunohistochemical similarity to ESFT and Ewing-like sarcomas, including the recently described CIC-DUX4 fusion sarcoma. Although clinicopathologic analysis with additional cases is necessary, we conclude that CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma is a new type of Ewing-like sarcoma that has a specific genetic signature. These findings have important implications for the differential diagnosis of SRCS.
Activation of the PI3K/AKT signal pathway is a known driving force for the progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CR-CaP), which constitutes the major lethal phenotype of CaP. Here, we identify using a genomic shRNA screen the PI3K/AKT-inactivating downstream target, FOXO4, as a potential CaP metastasis suppressor. FOXO4 protein levels inversely correlate with the invasive potential of a panel of human CaP cell lines, with decreased mRNA levels correlating with increased incidence of clinical metastasis. Knockdown (KD) of FOXO4 in human LNCaP cells causes increased invasion in vitro and lymph node (LN) metastasis in vivo without affecting indices of proliferation or apoptosis. Increased Matrigel invasiveness was found by KD of FOXO1 but not FOXO3. Comparison of differentially expressed genes affected by FOXO4-KD in LNCaP cells in culture, in primary tumors and in LN metastases identified a panel of upregulated genes, including PIP, CAMK2N1, PLA2G16 and PGC, which, if knocked down by siRNA, could decrease the increased invasiveness associated with FOXO4 deficiency. Although only some of these genes encode FOXO promoter binding sites, they are all RUNX2-inducible, and RUNX2 binding to the PIP promoter is increased in FOXO4-KD cells. Indeed, the forced expression of FOXO4 reversed the increased invasiveness of LNCaP/shFOXO4 cells; the forced expression of FOXO4 did not alter RUNX2 protein levels, yet it decreased RUNX2 binding to the PIP promoter, resulting in PIP downregulation. Finally, there was a correlation between FOXO4, but not FOXO1 or FOXO3, downregulation and decreased metastasis-free survival in human CaP patients. Our data strongly suggest that increased PI3K/AKT-mediated metastatic invasiveness in CaP is associated with FOXO4 loss, and that mechanisms to induce FOXO4 re-expression might suppress CaP metastatic aggressiveness.
Xu MM, Mao GX, Liu J, et al.Low expression of the FoxO4 gene may contribute to the phenomenon of EMT in non-small cell lung cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(9):4013-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Because of its importance in tumor invasion and metastasis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has become a research focus in the field of cancer. Recently, evidence has been presented that FoxO4 might be involved in EMT. Our study aimed to detect the expression of FoxO4, E-cadherin and vimentin in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We also investigated clinical features and their correlations with the markers. In our study, FoxO4, E-cadherin and vimentin were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 150 cases of NSCLC. In addition, the expression level of FoxO4 protein was determined by Western blotting. The percentages of FoxO4, E-cadherin and vimentin positive expression in NSCLCs were 42.7%, 38.7% and 55.3%, respectively. Immunoreactivity of FoxO4 was low in NSCLC when compared with paired normal lung tissues. There were significant correlations between FoxO4 and TNM stage (P<0.001), histological differentiation (P=0.004) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), but no significant links with age (P=0.323), gender (P=0.410), tumor size (P=0.084), smoking status (P=0.721) and histological type (P=0.281). Our study showed that low expression of FoxO4 correlated with decreased expression of E-cadherin and elevated expression of vimentin. Cox regression analysis indicated FoxO4 to be an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC (P=0.046). These data suggested that FoxO4 might inhibit the process of EMT in NSCLC, and might therefore be a target for therapy.
BACKGROUND: FOXO4, a member of the FOXO family of transcription factors, is currently the focus of intense study. Its role and function in gastric cancer have not been fully elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate the expression profile of FOXO4 in gastric cancer and the effect of FOXO4 on cancer cell growth and metastasis.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to detect the FOXO4 expression in gastric cancer cells and tissues. Cell biological assays, subcutaneous tumorigenicity and tail vein metastatic assay in combination with lentivirus construction were performed to detect the impact of FOXO4 to gastric cancer in proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Confocal and qRT-PCR were performed to explore the mechanisms.
RESULTS: We found that the expression of FOXO4 was decreased significantly in most gastric cancer tissues and in various human gastric cancer cell lines. Up-regulating FOXO4 inhibited the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and led to dramatic attenuation of tumor growth, and liver and lung metastasis in vivo, whereas down-regulating FOXO4 with specific siRNAs promoted the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that up-regulating FOXO4 could induce significant G1 arrest and S phase reduction and down-regulation of the expression of vimentin.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that loss of FOXO4 expression contributes to gastric cancer growth and metastasis, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Lambrou GI, Spandidos DAGene set enrichment analysis of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in multiple myeloma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4987-5005 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The presence of a dysregulated NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP loop was recently established in metastatic prostate cancer cells and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, its involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) has yet to be investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry in MM and how each gene is correlated with the remaining genes of the loop. Using gene set enrichment analysis and gene neighbours analysis in data received from four datasets included in the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal of the Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium, we identified various enriched gene sets associated with each member of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry. In each dataset, the 20 most co-expressed genes with the circuitry genes were isolated subjected to Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment. Among many, we highlighted on FNDC3B, TPD52, BBX, MBNL1 and MFAP2. Many co-expressed genes participated in the regulation of metabolic processes and nucleic acid binding, or were transcription factor binding genes and genes with metallopeptidase activity. The transcription factors FOXO4, GATA binding factor, Sp1 and AP4 most likely affect the expression of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes. Computational analysis of various GEO datasets revealed elevated YY1 and RKIP levels in MM vs. the normal plasma cells, as well as elevated RKIP levels in MM vs. normal B lymphocytes. The present study highlights the relationships of the NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP circuitry genes with specific cancer-related gene sets in multiple myeloma.
A number of studies have shown that apoptosis resistance can be observed in multiple human tumors; however the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the abnormal overexpression of the C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) induced apoptosis resistance by regulating the AKT/FoxO/Bim signaling pathway in the breast cancer cell MCF7 and the human non-tumorigenic cell MCF10A. We found that CHIP overexpression in MCF7 and MCF10A cells activated AKT and inhibited the Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4, thereby inhibiting transcription of the target genes bim and pten. Inhibition of PI3K by a chemical reagent revealed that these events may be critical for CHIP-induced apoptosis resistance. We also determined that inhibition of FoxO3 by CHIP led to the decrease in PTEN and further activated the AKT survival pathway. We corroborated our findings in breast cancer tissues. In general, the CHIP-modulated AKT/FoxO/Bim signaling pathway was shown to induce apoptosis resistance by decreasing the protein level of the tumor suppressor PTEN in both transcriptional and post-translational regulations.
Lee SM, Zhang W, Fernandez MPAtypical fibroxanthoma arising in a young patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
J Cutan Pathol. 2014; 41(3):303-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) have a germ-line mutation of p53 (TP53) and are predisposed to develop a variety of malignancies at an early age. In this report, we describe an 18-year-old woman with LFS who developed an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) on her left arm. This tumor was based in the dermis, sparsely cellular and had ill-defined borders. It was composed predominantly of medium-sized spindled-shaped cells, but many large cells with pleomorphic nuclei were also present. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the tumor cells lacked expression of keratin, S-100 protein, desmin and CD34. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed marked genomic instability with multiple whole chromosome losses, including chromosomes 8, 10, 13 and 22, as well as a partial loss of 17p. This represents one of a few reports of a cutaneous tumor in a patient with LFS and a rare example of an AFX occurring at a young age.
AIMS: DDX3 is an RNA helicase that has antiapoptotic properties, and promotes proliferation and transformation. In addition, DDX3 was shown to be a direct downstream target of HIF-1α (the master regulatory of the hypoxia response) in breast cancer cell lines. However, the relation between DDX3 and hypoxia has not been addressed in human tumors. In this paper, we studied the relation between DDX3 and the hypoxic responsive proteins in human breast cancer.
METHODS AND RESULTS: DDX3 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer in comparison with hypoxia related proteins HIF-1α, GLUT1, CAIX, EGFR, HER2, Akt1, FOXO4, p53, ERα, COMMD1, FER kinase, PIN1, E-cadherin, p21, p27, Transferrin receptor, FOXO3A, c-Met and Notch1. DDX3 was overexpressed in 127 of 366 breast cancer patients, and was correlated with overexpression of HIF-1α and its downstream genes CAIX and GLUT1. Moreover, DDX3 expression correlated with hypoxia-related proteins EGFR, HER2, FOXO4, ERα and c-Met in a HIF-1α dependent fashion, and with COMMD1, FER kinase, Akt1, E-cadherin, TfR and FOXO3A independent of HIF-1α.
CONCLUSIONS: In invasive breast cancer, expression of DDX3 was correlated with overexpression of HIF-1α and many other hypoxia related proteins, pointing to a distinct role for DDX3 under hypoxic conditions and supporting the oncogenic role of DDX3 which could have clinical implication for current development of DDX3 inhibitors.
Depending on the circumstance, FOXO (Forkhead O) (FOXO1, FOXO3, and FOXO4) transcription factors activate the expression of markedly different sets of genes to produce different phenotypic effects. For example, distinct FOXO-regulated transcriptional programs stimulate cell death or enhance organism life span. To gain insight into how FOXOs select specific genes for regulation, we performed a screen for genes that modify FOXO activation of TRAIL, a death receptor ligand capable of inducing extrinsic apoptosis. We discovered that the bZIP transcriptional repressor NFIL3 (nuclear factor interleukin 3-regulated) hindered FOXO transcription factor access to chromatin at the TRAIL promoter by binding to nearby DNA and recruiting histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) to reduce histone acetylation. In the same manner, NFIL3 repressed expression of certain FOXO targets--e.g., FAS, GADD45α (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, α), and GADD45β--but not others. NFIL3, which we found to be overexpressed in different cancers, supported tumor cell survival largely through repression of TRAIL and antagonized hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Moreover, its expression in cancer was associated with lower patient survival. Therefore, NFIL3 alters cancer cell behavior and FOXO function by acting on chromatin to restrict the menu of FOXO target genes. Targeting of NFIL3 could be of therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.
Aberrant activation of β-catenin/Tcf-4 signaling has been implicated in human carcinogenesis, including colorectal cancer. In this study, we compared the effects of Tcf-4 knockdown with β-catenin knockdown on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and chemosensitivity in SW480 and HCT116 colon cancer cells using adenoviral vector-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Our results show that, compared to β-catenin knockdown, Tcf-4 knockdown more effectively inhibited colony formation, induced apoptosis, and increased 5-FU and oxaliplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. We further investigated the mechanisms involved in the different efficacies observed with β-catenin and Tcf-4 knockdown in colon cancer cells. FOXO4 is a member of the subfamily of mammalian FOXO forkhead transcription factors and plays a major role in controlling cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Our data showed that the protein level of FOXO4 did not change after treatment with both β-catenin and Tcf-4 shRNA. However, β-catenin shRNA was found to increase the accumulation of phosphorylated FOXO4 S193 and decrease the expression of FOXO target genes p27Kip1 and MnSOD, whereas Tcf-4 shRNA showed the opposite effect. Therefore, compared to β-catenin knockdown, Tcf-4 knockdown shows better efficacy for inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells, which may be related to increased FOXO4 transcriptional activity. These results suggest that Tcf-4 is an attractive potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer therapy.
Scola N, Wieland U, Silling S, et al.Prevalence of human polyomaviruses in common and rare types of non-Merkel cell carcinoma skin cancer.
Br J Dermatol. 2012; 167(6):1315-20 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) other than Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) with nonmelanoma skin cancer.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of HPyV6, HPyV7, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV), also called HPyV8, and the recently discovered HPyV9 in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCis), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), keratoacanthoma (KA), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) and atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
METHODS: Archival paraffin-embedded samples (n = 193: 41 BCC, 31 AK, 8 SCCis, 52 SCC, 42 KA, 5 MAC and 14 AFX) were analysed for the presence of the respective HPyV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HPyV DNA loads (HPyV DNA copies per β-globin gene copy) were determined in all HPyV-positive samples by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCPyV large T-antigen (LTA) expression was performed using the monoclonal antibody CM2B4.
RESULTS: MCPyV DNA was found in 29% of BCC, 19% of AK, 25% of SCCis, 27% of SCC, 29% of KA, 0% of MAC and 29% of AFX. MCPyV DNA loads never exceeded 0·3 MCPyV DNA copies per β-globin gene copy (median 0·004). In the immunohistochemical analysis of MCPyV LTA expression, all evaluated samples (32 MCPyV DNA-positive samples) were LTA negative. HPyV6 DNA was found in 7% of BCC, 3% of AK, 12% of SCCis, 4% of SCC, 5% of KA, and 0% of MAC and AFX. HPyV6 DNA loads never exceeded 0·7 HPyV6 DNA copies per β-globin gene copy (median 0·015). None of the 193 samples was positive for HPyV7, TSV or HPyV9 DNA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings argue against a pathogenic role for MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSV and HPyV9 in the analysed types of non-Merkel cell carcinoma skin cancer.
Mei Y, Wang Z, Zhang L, et al.Regulation of neuroblastoma differentiation by forkhead transcription factors FOXO1/3/4 through the receptor tyrosine kinase PDGFRA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(13):4898-903 [PubMed
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Neuroblastoma is a common childhood malignant tumor originated from the neural crest-derived sympathetic nervous system. A crucial early event in neuroblastoma pathogenesis is arrested differentiation of neuroblasts at various stages. Treatment of neuroblastoma with TPA and PDGF-BB leads to terminal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. However, the signaling pathways that are involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here, we report that inhibition of endogenous FOXO proteins attenuated TPA/PDGF-BB mediated differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Activated FOXO transcription factors acted on PDGFRA promoter to direct its basal mRNA expression as well as its induction upon serum deprivation. Depletion of endogenous PDGFRA in neuroblastoma cells significantly diminished neurite formation and extension under TPA/PDGF-BB treatment. Furthermore, ectopic expression of PDGFRA abolished the blockage of neuroblastoma differentiation by FOXOs inhibition. These findings define the FOXO-PDGFRA axis as crucial mechanistic components that govern TPA-induced neuroblastoma differentiation.
Thum C, Hollowood K, Birch J, et al.Aberrant Melan-A expression in atypical fibroxanthoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the skin.
J Cutan Pathol. 2011; 38(12):954-60 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a distinctive clinicopathologic entity presenting on sun-damaged skin of the elderly. Its behavior is benign if strict diagnostic criteria are applied. Tumors showing invasion of deeper structures or perineural/lymphovascular invasion are best regarded as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the skin. The diagnosis requires immunohistochemical studies to exclude melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, angiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
METHODS: Two AFX and one undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma showing aberrant expression of Melan-A were identified. Clinical data were obtained and histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile and electron microscopy were assessed.
RESULTS: All tumors arose on sun-damaged skin of elderly males. Two AFX showed pushing growth into superficial subcutis only. The undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma was characterized by infiltrative growth into galea as well as perineural invasion. Multifocal expression of Melan-A and MART-1 was largely limited to tumor giant cells in the absence of S100 or HMB-45 labeling. No melanosomes or premelanosomes were identified by electron microscopy.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant expression of Melan-A and MART-1 in AFX and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the skin represents an important diagnostic pitfall with potential for misdiagnosis as melanoma.
The oncoprotein BCR-ABL transforms myeloid progenitor cells and is responsible for the development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In transformed cells, BCR-ABL suppresses apoptosis as well as autophagy, a catabolic process in which cellular components are degraded by the lysosomal machinery. The mechanism by which BCR-ABL suppresses autophagy is not known. Here we report that in both mouse and human BCR-ABL-transformed cells, activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), a prosurvival factor, suppresses autophagy but does not affect apoptosis. We find that BCR-ABL, through PI3K/AKT/FOXO4 signaling, transcriptionally up-regulates ATF5 expression and that ATF5, in turn, stimulates transcription of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; also called mechanistic target of rapamycin), a well-established master negative-regulator of autophagy. Previous studies have shown that the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib mesylate induces both apoptosis and autophagy, and that the resultant autophagy modulates the efficiency by which imatinib kills BCR-ABL-transformed cells. We demonstrate that imatinib-induced autophagy is because of inhibition of the BCR-ABL/PI3K/AKT/FOXO4/ATF5/mTOR pathway that we have identified in this study.
Risueño RM, Campbell CJ, Dingwall S, et al.Identification of T-lymphocytic leukemia-initiating stem cells residing in a small subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemic disease.
Blood. 2011; 117(26):7112-20 [PubMed
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Xenotransplantation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) into immunodeficient mice has been critical for understanding leukemogenesis in vivo and defining self-renewing leukemia-initiating cell subfractions (LICs). Although AML-engraftment capacity is considered an inherent property of LICs, substrains of NOD/SCID mice that possess additional deletions such as the IL2Rγc(null) (NSG) have been described as a more sensitive recipient to assay human LIC function. Using 23 AML-patient samples, 39% demonstrated no detectable engraftment in NOD/SCID and were categorized as AMLs devoid of LICs. However, 33% of AML patients lacking AML-LICs were capable of engrafting NSG recipients, but produced a monoclonal T-cell proliferative disorder similar to T-ALL. These grafts demonstrated self-renewal capacity as measured by in vivo serial passage and were restricted to CD34-positive fraction, and were defined as LICs. Molecular analysis for translocations in MLL genes indicated that these AML patient-derived LICs all expressed the MLL-AFX1 fusion product. Our results reveal that the in vivo human versus xenograft host microenvironment dictates the developmental capacity of human LICs residing in a small subset of patients diagnosed with AML harboring MLL mutations. These findings have implications both for the basic biology of CSC function, and for the use of in vivo models of the leukemogenic process in preclinical or diagnostic studies.
FOXO transcription factors control proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and metabolic processes. Loss of FOXO function has been identified in several human cancers, and results in increased cellular survival and a predisposition to neoplasia, especially in epithelial cancer. FOXO factors are therefore bona fide tumor suppressors, and their potential use as therapeutic targets in cancer has been a matter of debate. Importantly, FOXO factors can also positively regulate cell survival through the activation of several detoxification genes, complicating its putative therapeutic potential. Targeting of FOXO factors has also been proposed for the treatment of metabolic dysfunctions such as diabetes mellitus, immunological disorders and neurodegeneration, as well as for the prevention of aging by maintaining the hematopoyetic stem cells niche. But again, data has accumulated that cautions against the potential use of the FOXO activators in these settings. Therefore, greater understanding of the regulation of FOXO target specificity is still needed to boost its use as a therapeutic target. The four members of the FOXO family (FOXO1, FOXO3A, FOXO4 and FOXO6) have distinct but overlapping cellular functions, although they seem to bind a common set of DNA sites. This fact together with the observation that FOXOs are only partially dependent on their DNA binding activity to regulate their target genes highlights the fact that the interaction of the FOXOs with other transcription factors is crucial for the FOXO-mediated transcriptional programs. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress in the understanding of the modulation of FOXO activity and target specificity by transcription factors and coactivators.