Gene Summary

Gene:MRE11; MRE11 homolog, double strand break repair nuclease
Aliases: ATLD, HNGS1, MRE11A, MRE11B
Summary:This gene encodes a nuclear protein involved in homologous recombination, telomere length maintenance, and DNA double-strand break repair. By itself, the protein has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and endonuclease activity. The protein forms a complex with the RAD50 homolog; this complex is required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends and possesses increased single-stranded DNA endonuclease and 3' to 5' exonuclease activities. In conjunction with a DNA ligase, this protein promotes the joining of noncomplementary ends in vitro using short homologies near the ends of the DNA fragments. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 3. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:double-strand break repair protein MRE11
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (41)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA Repair Enzymes
  • Radiation Tolerance
  • Structural Homology, Protein
  • Thiones
  • Small Molecule Libraries
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Taxoids
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Telomere
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Rectal Cancer
  • Oncogenes
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • DNA Repair
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • beta Catenin
  • RNA Interference
  • Transfection
  • Breast Cancer
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Chromosome 11
  • Up-Regulation
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • RB1
  • Transcription Factors
  • Mutation
  • MutS Homolog 3 Protein
  • Spinocerebellar Degenerations
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Sister Chromatid Exchange
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • MRE11 Homologue Protein
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • DNA Damage
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MRE11 (cancer-related)

Cowman S, Fan YN, Pizer B, Sée V
Decrease of Nibrin expression in chronic hypoxia is associated with hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in some brain tumour cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Solid tumours are less oxygenated than normal tissues. This is called tumour hypoxia and leads to resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance have been investigated in a range of tumour types, including the adult brain tumours glioblastoma, yet little is known for paediatric brain tumours. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children. We aimed to elucidate the impact of hypoxia on the sensitivity of MB cells to chemo- and radiotherapy.
METHODS: We used two MB cell line (D283-MED and MEB-Med8A) and a widely used glioblastoma cell line (U87MG) for comparison. We applied a range of molecular and cellular techniques to measure cell survival, cell cycle progression, protein expression and DNA damage combined with a transcriptomic micro-array approach in D283-MED cells, for global gene expression analysis in acute and chronic hypoxic conditions.
RESULTS: In D283-MED and U87MG, chronic hypoxia (5 days), but not acute hypoxia (24 h) induced resistance to chemotherapy and X-ray irradiation. This acquired resistance upon chronic hypoxia was present but less pronounced in MEB-Med8A cells. Using transcriptomic analysis in D283-MED cells, we found a large transcriptional remodelling upon long term hypoxia, in particular the expression of a number of genes involved in detection and repair of double strand breaks (DSB) was altered. The levels of Nibrin (NBN) and MRE11, members of the MRN complex (MRE11/Rad50/NBN) responsible for DSB recognition, were significantly down-regulated. This was associated with a reduction of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) activation by etoposide, indicating a profound dampening of the DNA damage signalling in hypoxic conditions. As a consequence, p53 activation by etoposide was reduced, and cell survival enhanced. Whilst U87MG shared the same dampened p53 activity, upon chemotherapeutic drug treatment in chronic hypoxic conditions, these cells used a different mechanism, independent of the DNA damage pathway.
CONCLUSION: Together our results demonstrate a new mechanism explaining hypoxia-induced resistance involving the alteration of the response to DSB in D283-MED cells, but also highlight the cell type to cell type diversity and the necessity to take into account the differing tumour genetic make-up when considering re-sensitisation therapeutic protocols.

Situ Y, Chung L, Lee CS, Ho V
MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) Complex in Human Cancer and Prognostic Implications in Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex has been studied in multiple cancers. The identification of MRN complex mutations in mismatch repair (MMR)-defective cancers has sparked interest in its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). To date, there is evidence indicating a relationship of MRN expression with reduced progression-free survival, although the significance of the MRN complex in the clinical setting remains controversial. In this review, we present an overview of the function of the MRN complex, its role in cancer progression, and current evidence in colorectal cancer. The evidence indicates that the MRN complex has potential utilisation as a biomarker and as a putative treatment target to improve outcomes of colorectal cancer.

Hong S, Xu J, Li Y, et al.
Topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon epithelial differentiation.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3274-3287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) constitutively activate ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia- and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways for viral genome amplification. HPVs activate these pathways through the immune regulator STAT-5. For the ATR pathway, STAT-5 increases expression of the topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 (TopBP1), a scaffold protein that binds ATR and recruits it to sites of DNA damage. TopBP1 also acts as a transcriptional regulator, and we investigated how this activity influenced the HPV life cycle. We determined that TopBP1 levels are increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias as well as cervical carcinomas, consistent with studies in HPV-positive cell lines. Suppression of TopBP1 by shRNAs impairs HPV genome amplification and activation of the ATR pathway but does not affect the total levels of ATR and CHK1. In contrast, knockdown reduces the expression of other DNA damage factors such as RAD51 and Mre11 but not BRCA2 or NBS1. Interestingly, TopBP1 positively regulates the expression of E2F1, a TopBP1-binding partner, and p73 in HPV-positive cells in contrast to its effects in other cell types. TopBP1 transcriptional activity is regulated by AKT, and treatment with AKT inhibitors suppresses expression of E2F1 and p73 without interfering with ATR signaling. Importantly, the levels of p73 are elevated in HPV-positive cells and its knockdown impairs HPV genome amplification. This demonstrates that p73, like p63 and p53, is an important regulator of the HPV life cycle that is controlled by the transcriptional activating properties of the multifunctional TopBP1 protein.

Jiang Z, Guo Y, Miao L, et al.
SMAD3 silencing enhances DNA damage in radiation therapy by interacting with MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex in glioma.
J Biochem. 2019; 165(4):317-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy is the major treatment modality for malignant glioma. However, the treatment response of radiotherapy is suboptimal due to resistance. Here we aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of Mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (SMAD3) silencing in sensitizing malignant glioma to radiotherapy. Clonogenic assay was used to evaluate the sensitivity of glioma cells to increasing doses of radiation. Glioma cells were transfected with small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific to SMAD3. Overexpression of SMAD3 was achieved by transfecting expression plasmid encoding SMAD3 cDNA. Changes in MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed through qPCR analysis and western blot analysis, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to confirm the interaction between SMAD3 and MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. Silencing of SMAD3 increased sensitivity of glioma cells to radiotherapy. MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 were overexpressed in response to radiotherapy, which was attenuated by SMAD3 silencing while boosted by SMAD3 overexpression. ChIP analysis confirmed the interaction of SMAD3 with MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 under radiotherapy, which was inhibited by SMAD3 silencing. SMAD3 silencing is an effective strategy for sensitizing glioma to radiotherapy, which is mediated by the interaction of SMAD3 with the MRN complex.

He YJ, Meghani K, Caron MC, et al.
DYNLL1 binds to MRE11 to limit DNA end resection in BRCA1-deficient cells.
Nature. 2018; 563(7732):522-526 [PubMed] Related Publications
Limited DNA end resection is the key to impaired homologous recombination in BRCA1-mutant cancer cells. Here, using a loss-of-function CRISPR screen, we identify DYNLL1 as an inhibitor of DNA end resection. The loss of DYNLL1 enables DNA end resection and restores homologous recombination in BRCA1-mutant cells, thereby inducing resistance to platinum drugs and inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Low BRCA1 expression correlates with increased chromosomal aberrations in primary ovarian carcinomas, and the junction sequences of somatic structural variants indicate diminished homologous recombination. Concurrent decreases in DYNLL1 expression in carcinomas with low BRCA1 expression reduced genomic alterations and increased homology at lesions. In cells, DYNLL1 limits nucleolytic degradation of DNA ends by associating with the DNA end-resection machinery (MRN complex, BLM helicase and DNA2 endonuclease). In vitro, DYNLL1 binds directly to MRE11 to limit its end-resection activity. Therefore, we infer that DYNLL1 is an important anti-resection factor that influences genomic stability and responses to DNA-damaging chemotherapy.

Sasanuma H, Tsuda M, Morimoto S, et al.
BRCA1 ensures genome integrity by eliminating estrogen-induced pathological topoisomerase II-DNA complexes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(45):E10642-E10651 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Women having BRCA1 germ-line mutations develop cancer in breast and ovary, estrogen-regulated tissues, with high penetrance. Binding of estrogens to the estrogen receptor (ER) transiently induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by topoisomerase II (TOP2) and controls gene transcription. TOP2 resolves catenated DNA by transiently generating DSBs, TOP2-cleavage complexes (TOP2ccs), where TOP2 covalently binds to 5' ends of DSBs. TOP2 frequently fails to complete its catalysis, leading to formation of pathological TOP2ccs. We have previously shown that the endonucleolytic activity of MRE11 plays a key role in removing 5' TOP2 adducts in G

Jividen K, Kedzierska KZ, Yang CS, et al.
Genomic analysis of DNA repair genes and androgen signaling in prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):960 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cellular effects of androgen are transduced through the androgen receptor, which controls the expression of genes that regulate biosynthetic processes, cell growth, and metabolism. Androgen signaling also impacts DNA damage signaling through mechanisms involving gene expression and transcription-associated DNA damaging events. Defining the contributions of androgen signaling to DNA repair is important for understanding androgen receptor function, and it also has translational implications.
METHODS: We generated RNA-seq data from multiple prostate cancer lines and used bioinformatic analyses to characterize androgen-regulated gene expression. We compared the results from cell lines with gene expression data from prostate cancer xenografts, and patient samples, to query how androgen signaling and prostate cancer progression influences the expression of DNA repair genes. We performed whole genome sequencing to help characterize the status of the DNA repair machinery in widely used prostate cancer lines. Finally, we tested a DNA repair enzyme inhibitor for effects on androgen-dependent transcription.
RESULTS: Our data indicates that androgen signaling regulates a subset of DNA repair genes that are largely specific to the respective model system and disease state. We identified deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes RAD50 and CHEK2. We found that inhibition of the DNA repair enzyme MRE11 with the small molecule mirin inhibits androgen-dependent transcription and growth of prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data supports the view that crosstalk between androgen signaling and DNA repair occurs at multiple levels, and that DNA repair enzymes in addition to PARPs, could be actionable targets in prostate cancer.

Gopalakrishnan V, Dahal S, Radha G, et al.
Characterization of DNA double-strand break repair pathways in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(2):219-233 [PubMed] Related Publications
Efficient DNA repair is indispensable for maintaining genomic integrity in humans. Cancer associated deletions and mutations are mainly due to misrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Classical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are two major DSB repair pathways in humans. An error prone, alternative NHEJ pathway that utilizes microhomology was also reported in cancer cells and to a lesser extent in normal cells. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of various DSB repair pathways in the most common lymphoma, the diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we show that DNA repair through c-NHEJ pathway is limited in SUDHL8, a cell line derived from a DLBCL patient. Unlike c-NHEJ, microhomology mediated end joining (MMEJ) was predominant at physiological temperature. Consistent with the observation, expression level of repair proteins such as LIGASE I, LIGASE III, PARP1, CtIP, and MRE11 was higher in DLBCL cells when compared to c-NHEJ proteins. Further, inhibition of LIGASE I or MRE11, led to reduction in the efficiency of MMEJ in DLBCL cells. Besides, HR-mediated DSB repair occurring through gene conversion was observed. Thus, our results reveal the predominance of MMEJ over c-NHEJ in repairing DSBs in DLBCL cells, while error-free repair through HR was also evident.

Ho V, Chung L, Singh A, et al.
Overexpression of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex in rectal cancer correlates with poor response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy and prognosis.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):869 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex plays an essential role in detecting and repairing double-stranded breaks, and thus the potential roles of MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 proteins in the pathogenesis of various cancers is the subject of investigation. This study was aimed at assessing the three-protein panel of MRN complex subunits as a potential radiosensitivity marker and evaluating the prognostic and clinicopathological implications of MRN expression in rectal cancer.
METHODS: Samples from 265 rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, including samples from 55 patients who were treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Expression of MRN complex proteins in tissue samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify clinicopathological characteristics that are associated with the MRN three-protein panel expression in rectal cancer samples.
RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, we found that high level expression of MRN complex proteins in postoperative samples was associated with poor disease-free (p = 0.021) and overall (P = 0.002) survival. Interestingly, high MRN expression also correlated with poor disease-free (P = 0.047) and overall (P = 0.024) survival in the neoadjuvant radiotherapy subgroup. In multivariate analysis, combined MRN expression (hazard ratio = 2.114, 95% confidence interval 1.096-4.078, P = 0.026) and perineural invasion (hazard ratio = 2.160, 95% confidence interval 1.209-3.859, P = 0.009) were significantly associated with a worse disease-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of MRN complex proteins significantly predict disease-free survival in rectal cancer patients, including those treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and may have value in the management of these patients.

Lezina L, Spriggs RV, Beck D, et al.
CD40L/IL-4-stimulated CLL demonstrates variation in translational regulation of DNA damage response genes including ATM.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(15):1869-1881 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD40L/interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulation occurs in vivo in the tumor microenvironment and induces global translation to varying degrees in individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in vitro. However, the implications of CD40L/IL-4 for the translation of specific genes is not known. To determine the most highly translationally regulated genes in response to CD40L/IL-4, we carried out ribosome profiling, a next-generation sequencing method. Significant differences in the translational efficiency of DNA damage response genes, specifically ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN (MRN) complex, were observed between patients, suggesting different patterns of translational regulation. We confirmed associations between CD40L/IL-4 response and baseline ATM levels, induction of ATM, and phosphorylation of the ATM targets, p53 and H2AX. X-irradiation was used to demonstrate that CD40L/IL-4 stimulation tended to improve DNA damage repair. Baseline ATM levels, independent of the presence of 11q deletion, correlated with overall survival (OS). Overall, we suggest that there are individual differences in translation of specific genes, including ATM, in response to CD40L/IL-4 and that these interpatient differences might be clinically important.

Carta CFL, Oliveira Alves MG, de Barros PP, et al.
Screening methylation of DNA repair genes in the oral mucosa of chronic smokers.
Arch Oral Biol. 2018; 92:83-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epigenetic changes in the process of oral carcinogenesis by screening the methylation of repair genes in chronic smokers.
DESIGN: Two groups were formed: Group 1: 16 smokers with consumption of 20 cigarettes/day for at least 10 years; and Group 2: 10 non-smoking. Exfoliative cytology of the tongue was performed, and the extracted DNA was treated by enzymes. The PCR Array System performed methylation screening to evaluate 22 DNA repair genes, and the results were validated by RT-qPCR for each gene with methylation levels ≥10%.
RESULTS: Highest percentages of methylation were observed for MLH3 and XRCC1 genes (11-20% methylation) and in one case for MRE11A and PMS2 (>50% methylation). Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the expression of the genes MRE11A (p = 0.0002), PMS2(p = 0.0068), XRCC1 (p = 0.0080) and MLH3 (0.0057) between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: The effects of chronic smoking on oral mucosa led to the methylation of genes MRE11A PMS2, XRCC1 and MLH3, but resulted in a reduction of gene expression of MRE11A and PMS2, which showed ≥50% methylation. These results provide evidence that smoking cause methylation and reduced expression of repair genes.

Podralska M, Ziółkowska-Suchanek I, Żurawek M, et al.
Genetic variants in ATM, H2AFX and MRE11 genes and susceptibility to breast cancer in the polish population.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):452 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA damage repair is a complex process, which can trigger the development of cancer if disturbed. In this study, we hypothesize a role of variants in the ATM, H2AFX and MRE11 genes in determining breast cancer (BC) susceptibility.
METHODS: We examined the whole sequence of the ATM kinase domain and estimated the frequency of founder mutations in the ATM gene (c.5932G > T, c.6095G > A, and c.7630-2A > C) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in H2AFX (rs643788, rs8551, rs7759, and rs2509049) and MRE11 (rs1061956 and rs2155209) among 315 breast cancer patients and 515 controls. The analysis was performed using high-resolution melting for new variants and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for recurrent ATM mutations. H2AFX and MRE11 polymorphisms were analyzed using TaqMan assays. The cumulative genetic risk scores (CGRS) were calculated using unweighted and weighted approaches.
RESULTS: We identified four mutations (c.6067G > A, c.8314G > A, c.8187A > T, and c.6095G > A) in the ATM gene in three BC cases and two control subjects. We observed a statistically significant association of H2AFX variants with BC. Risk alleles (the G of rs7759 and the T of rs8551 and rs2509049) were observed more frequently in BC cases compared to the control group, with P values, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.0018, 1.47 (1.19 to 1.82); 0.018, 1.33 (1.09 to 1.64); and 0.024, 1.3 (1.06 to 1.59), respectively. Haplotype-based tests identified a significant association of the H2AFX CACT haplotype with BC (P <  0.0001, OR = 27.29, 95% CI 3.56 to 209.5). The risk of BC increased with the growing number of risk alleles. The OR (95% CI) for carriers of ≥ four risk alleles was 1.71 (1.11 to 2.62) for the CGRS.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that H2AFX variants are associated with an increased risk of BC. The above-reported sequence variants of MRE11 genes may not constitute a risk factor of breast cancer in the Polish population. The contribution of mutations detected in the ATM gene to the development of breast cancer needs further detailed study.

Leon-Galicia I, Diaz-Chavez J, Albino-Sanchez ME, et al.
Resveratrol decreases Rad51 expression and sensitizes cisplatin‑resistant MCF‑7 breast cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(6):3025-3033 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol (RES), a polyphenol compound with anti‑proliferative properties, has been previously evaluated for its beneficial effects against a variety of tumour cells. The current study elucidated the means by which RES enhances the anti‑proliferative effects of cisplatin (CIS) on MCF‑7 cells, focusing on the inhibitory effects on DNA repair of double‑strand breaks (DSBs). Chemoresistant MCF‑7 cells (MCF‑7R) were generated by continuous exposure to low concentrations of CIS (10 µM CIS‑IC40) during 5 passages, with the IC50 value increasing ~3‑fold. Using an MTT assay, we estimated the changes in IC50 for CIS in MCF‑7, T47‑D, MDA‑MB‑231 and MCF‑7R cells in the presence of RES. The relative transcript level of Nbs‑1, Mre‑11 and Rad‑50 genes was assessed using RT‑qPCR analysis. Rad51 and H2AX [pSer139] protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. RES at 50 and 100 µM significantly enhanced the anti‑proliferative effects of CIS in both MCF‑7 and MCF‑7R cells, decreasing the IC50 values for CIS to one‑tenth and one‑sixth, respectively. A total of 100 µM RES decreased the relative transcript levels of homologous recombination (HR) initiation complex components and the Rad51 protein level in MCF‑7 and MCF‑7R cells. After 48 h of CIS DNA damage, the levels of Rad51 protein increased, but this effect was inhibited by 100 µM RES. RES also maintained serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX, suggesting that RES prevents the repair of DSBs. It was observed that RES exerts an antagonistic effect over CIS on the activation of Rad51 and sustained phosphorylation of H2AX. The results suggest that RES in combination with DNA damage‑based therapy has potential as a strategy to overcome resistance and provide much safer and more effective treatment for breast cancer.

Shailani A, Kaur RP, Munshi A
A comprehensive analysis of BRCA2 gene: focus on mechanistic aspects of its functions, spectrum of deleterious mutations, and therapeutic strategies targeting BRCA2-deficient tumors.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(3):18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRCA2is the main susceptibility gene known to be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. It plays an important role in maintaining the genome stability by homologous recombination through DNA double-strand breaks repairing, by interacting with various other proteins including RAD51, DSS1, RPA, MRE11, PALB2, and p53. BRCA2-deficient cells show the abnormalities of chromosome number. BRCA2 is also found to be involved in centrosome duplication specifically in the metaphase to anaphase transition. Inactivation or depletion of BRCA2 leads to centrosome amplification that results in unequal separation of chromosomes. BRCA2 localizes with central spindle and midbody during telophase and cytokinesis. Inactivation or depletion of BRCA2 leads to multinucleation of cell. Around 2000 mutations have been reported in BRCA2 gene. BRCA2-deficient tumors are being taking into consideration for targeted cancer therapy by using different inhibitors like poly ADP-ribose polymerase and thymidylate synthase. The present review focusses on the role of BRCA2 in various critical cellular processes based on the mechanistic approaches. Mutations reported in the BRCA2 gene in various ethnic groups till date have also been compiled with an insight into the functional aspects of these alterations. The therapeutic strategies for targeting BRCA2-deficient tumors have also been targeted.

Khan RT, Siddique A, Shahid N, et al.
Breast cancer risk associated with genes encoding DNA repair MRN complex: a study from Punjab, Pakistan.
Breast Cancer. 2018; 25(3):350-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Variants of DNA repair genes are extensively reported to cause genetic instability and increase the risk of breast cancer. In combination with NBS1, MRE11 and RAD50 constitute an MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex that repairs DNA damage. However, certain genetic alterations in MRE11 and RAD50 produce abnormal protein that affects the repairing process and may result in malignancy. We aimed to investigate the association of MRE11 and RAD50 polymorphisms with breast risk in the female population of Punjab, Pakistan.
METHODS: We collected blood samples of 100 breast cancer patients and 100 tumor-free females selected as controls. Extracted DNA was genotyped by tetra ARMS-PCR followed by gel electrophoresis. Results were analyzed by SPSS and SNPstats to analyze the association of different clinical factors and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) with the risk of breast cancer.
RESULTS: We found that the increased risk of breast cancer is associated with MRE11 variant rs684507 (odds ratio-OR 3.71, 95% confidence interval-CI 1.68-8.18, p value < 0.0001), whereas, RAD50 variant rs28903089 appeared to have protective effect (OR 0.55, CI 0.29-1.02, p value = 0.003). Additionally, clinical factors such as positive family history, life style, and marital status also play significant roles in breast cancer development.
CONCLUSION: In the present study, strong risk of breast cancer was associated with MRE11 gene. However, RAD50 showed protective effect. Additionally, clinical factors are also pivotal in risk assessment. We anticipate that targeting specific genetic variations confined to ethnic groups would be more effective in future therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

Park JS, Lee ST, Nam EJ, et al.
Variants of cancer susceptibility genes in Korean BRCA1/2 mutation-negative patients with high risk for hereditary breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the incidence and spectrum of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants of cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2 mutation-negative Korean patients with a high risk for hereditary breast cancer using a comprehensive multigene panel that included 35 cancer susceptibility genes.
METHODS: Samples from 120 patients who were negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, but had been diagnosed with breast cancer that was likely hereditary, were prospectively evaluated for the prevalence of high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance germline mutations.
RESULTS: Nine patients (7.5%) had at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Ten variants were identified in these patients: TP53 in two patients, PALB2 in three patients, BARD1 in two patients, BRIP1 in two patients, and MRE11A in one patient. We also identified 30 types of 139 variants of unknown significance (VUS). High-penetrance germline mutations, including TP53 and PALB2, tended to occur with high frequency in young (< 35 years) breast cancer patients (4/19, 21.1%) than in those diagnosed with breast cancer at ≥35 years of age (1/101, 1.0%; p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: These combined results demonstrate that multigene panels offer an alternative strategy for identifying veiled pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes.

Chen C, Wang Y, Mei JF, et al.
Targeting RAD50 increases sensitivity to radiotherapy in colorectal cancer cells.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):75-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiotherapy resistance remains the major factor limiting the radiotherapy efficacy in colorectal cancer. The Mre11-RAD50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is known to play a critical role in the DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways and thus facilitates radioresistance. Targeting MRN function can sensitize cancer cells to irradiation in some malignancies. In this study, we stably knocked down RAD50 protein in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, and evaluated their response to irradiation as well as the DSB repair dynamics. We observed that downregulation of RAD50 sensitized CRC cells to irradiation with reduction in DSB repair efficiency after exposure to irradiation. In addition, RAD50 was found to be upregulated in CRC cancerous tissue samples compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues (NATs) and in patients who were resistant to RT. Elevated RAD50 expression was associated with poor patient survival in CRC. In conclusion, targeting RAD50 can serve as an efficient strategy to sensitize CRC cells to irradiation. RAD50 protein may be used as a biomarker for patient survival in CRC.

Bhattacharjee S, Nandi S
Synthetic lethality in DNA repair network: A novel avenue in targeted cancer therapy and combination therapeutics.
IUBMB Life. 2017; 69(12):929-937 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synthetic lethality refers to a lethal phenotype that results from the simultaneous disruptions of two genes, while the disruption of either gene alone is viable. Many DNA double strand break repair (DSBR) genes have synthetic lethal relationships with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which can be exploited for targeted cancer therapy, an approach referred to as combination therapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most toxic lesions to a cell and can be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). HR and NHEJ genes are particularly attractive targets for cancer therapy because these genes have altered expression patterns in cancer cells when compared with normal cells and these genetic abnormalities can be targeted for selectively killing cancer cells. Here, we review recent advances in the development of small molecule inhibitors against HR and NHEJ genes to induce synthetic lethality and address the future directions and clinical relevance of this approach. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(12):929-937, 2017.

Takagi M, Yoshida M, Nemoto Y, et al.
Loss of DNA Damage Response in Neuroblastoma and Utility of a PARP Inhibitor.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(11) [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common solid tumor found in children, and deletions within the 11q region are observed in 11% to 48% of these tumors. Notably, such tumors are associated with poor prognosis; however, little is known regarding the molecular targets located in 11q.
Methods: Genomic alterations of ATM , DNA damage response (DDR)-associated genes located in 11q ( MRE11A, H2AFX , and CHEK1 ), and BRCA1, BARD1, CHEK2, MDM2 , and TP53 were investigated in 45 NB-derived cell lines and 237 fresh tumor samples. PARP (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase) inhibitor sensitivity of NB was investigated in in vitro and invivo xenograft models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: Among 237 fresh tumor samples, ATM, MRE11A, H2AFX , and/or CHEK1 loss or imbalance in 11q was detected in 20.7% of NBs, 89.8% of which were stage III or IV. An additional 7.2% contained ATM rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Rare SNVs in DDR-associated genes other than ATM were detected in 26.4% and were mutually exclusive. Overall, samples with SNVs and/or copy number alterations in these genes accounted for 48.4%. ATM-defective cells are known to exhibit dysfunctions in homologous recombination repair, suggesting a potential for synthetic lethality by PARP inhibition. Indeed, 83.3% NB-derived cell lines exhibited sensitivity to PARP inhibition. In addition, NB growth was markedly attenuated in the xenograft group receiving PARP inhibitors (sham-treated vs olaprib-treated group; mean [SD] tumor volume of sham-treated vs olaprib-treated groups = 7377 [1451] m 3 vs 298 [312] m 3 , P = .001, n = 4).
Conclusions: Genomic alterations of DDR-associated genes including ATM, which regulates homologous recombination repair, were observed in almost half of NBs, suggesting that synthetic lethality could be induced by treatment with a PARP inhibitor. Indeed, DDR-defective NB cell lines were sensitive to PARP inhibitors. Thus, PARP inhibitors represent candidate NB therapeutics.

Piscitello D, Varshney D, Lilla S, et al.
AKT overactivation can suppress DNA repair via p70S6 kinase-dependent downregulation of MRE11.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(4):427-438 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deregulated AKT kinase activity due to PTEN deficiency in cancer cells contributes to oncogenesis by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we show that PTEN deletion in HCT116 and DLD1 colon carcinoma cells leads to suppression of CHK1 and CHK2 activation in response to irradiation, impaired G2 checkpoint proficiency and radiosensitization. These defects are associated with reduced expression of MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1, components of the apical MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA damage response complex. Consistent with reduced MRN complex function, PTEN-deficient cells fail to resect DNA double-strand breaks efficiently after irradiation and show greatly diminished proficiency for DNA repair via the error-free homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway. MRE11 is highly unstable in PTEN-deficient cells but stability can be significantly restored by inhibiting mTORC1 or p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), downstream kinases whose activities are stimulated by AKT, or by mutating a residue in MRE11 that we show is phosphorylated by p70S6K in vitro. In primary human fibroblasts, activated AKT suppresses MRN complex expression to escalate RAS-induced DNA damage and thereby reinforce oncogene-induced senescence. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulation of the PI3K-AKT/ mTORC1/ p70S6K pathways, an event frequently observed in cancer, exert profound effects on genome stability via MRE11 with potential implications for tumour initiation and therapy.

Wang X, Teer JK, Tousignant RN, et al.
Breast cancer risk and germline genomic profiling of women with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(1):19-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
NF1 mutations predispose to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and women with NF1 have a moderately elevated risk for breast cancer, especially under age 50. Germline genomic analysis may better define the risk so screening and prevention can be applied to the individuals who benefit the most. Survey conducted in several neurofibromatosis clinics in the United States has demonstrated a 17.2% lifetime risk of breast cancer in women affected with NF1. Cumulated risk to age 50 is estimated to be 9.27%. For genomic profiling, fourteen women with NF1 and a history of breast cancer were recruited and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), targeted genomic DNA based and RNA-based analysis of the NF1 gene. Deleterious NF1 pathogenic variants were identified in each woman. Frameshift mutations because of deletion/duplication/complex rearrangement were found in 50% (7/14) of the cases, nonsense mutations in 21% (3/14), in-frame splice mutations in 21% (3/14), and one case of missense mutation (7%, 1/14). No deleterious mutation was found in the following high/moderate-penetrance breast cancer genes: ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCC, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, TP53, and STK11. Twenty-five rare or common variants in cancer related genes were discovered and may have contributed to the breast cancers in these individuals. Breast cancer predisposition modifiers in women with NF1 may involve a great variety of molecular and cellular functions.

Meena R, Kumar S, Kumar R, et al.
PLGA-CTAB curcumin nanoparticles: Fabrication, characterization and molecular basis of anticancer activity in triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells).
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 94:944-954 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are aggressive cancers, which do not control by hormonal therapy or therapies that target HER-2 receptors. Curcumin (Cur) has shown cytotoxic effects in multiple cancer cell lines. However, its medical uses remain limited due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Therefore, present study was aimed to fabricate the small positive charge curcumin nanoparticles (CN) by nanoprecipitation methods using PLGA and CTAB, and to evaluate its anticancer efficacy and underlying the mechanism in triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells). In in-vitro drug release assay, Cur was released from CN by flicking diffusion and anomalous transport process. CN showed a higher cellular incorporation than free Cur resulted in higher cytotoxicity. Checking the anticancer activity at the molecular level, Cur has shown to induce the reactive oxygen species production that subsequently causes the DNA damage and resulting in p38-MAPK activation. The p38-MAPK induce the expression of p16

Ayoubian H, Fröhlich T, Pogodski D, et al.
Antibodies against the mono-methylated arginine-glycine repeat (MMA-RG) of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) identify potential cellular proteins targeted in viral transformation.
J Gen Virol. 2017; 98(8):2128-2142 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Epstein-Barr virus is a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is a key mediator of viral tumorigenesis. EBNA2 features an arginine-glycine (RG) repeat at amino acids (aa)339-354 that is essential for the transformation of lymphocytes and contains symmetrically (SDMA) and asymmetrically (ADMA) di-methylated arginine residues. The SDMA-modified EBNA2 binds the survival motor neuron protein (SMN), thus mimicking SMD3, a cellular SDMA-containing protein that interacts with SMN. Accordingly, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the SDMA-modified RG repeat of EBNA2 also binds to SMD3. With the novel mAb 19D4 we now show that EBNA2 contains mono-methylated arginine (MMA) residues within the RG repeat. Using 19D4, we immune-precipitated and analysed by mass spectrometry cellular proteins in EBV-transformed B-cells that feature MMA motifs that are similar to the one in EBNA2. Among the cellular proteins identified, we confirmed by immunoprecipitation and/or Western blot analyses Aly/REF, Coilin, DDX5, FXR1, HNRNPK, LSM4, MRE11, NRIP, nucleolin, PRPF8, RBM26, SMD1 (SNRDP1) and THRAP3 proteins that are either known to contain MMA residues or feature RG repeat sequences that probably serve as methylation substrates. The identified proteins are involved in splicing, tumorigenesis, transcriptional activation, DNA stability and RNA processing or export. Furthermore, we found that several proteins involved in energy metabolism are associated with MMA-modified proteins. Interestingly, the viral EBNA1 protein that features methylated RG repeat motifs also reacted with the antibodies. Our results indicate that the region between aa 34-52 of EBNA1 contains ADMA or SDMA residues, while the region between aa 328-377 mainly contains MMA residues.

Palomera-Sanchez Z, Watson GW, Wong CP, et al.
The phytochemical 3,3'-diindolylmethane decreases expression of AR-controlled DNA damage repair genes through repressive chromatin modifications and is associated with DNA damage in prostate cancer cells.
J Nutr Biochem. 2017; 47:113-119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor involved in normal prostate physiology and prostate cancer (PCa) development. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a promising phytochemical agent against PCa that affects AR activity and epigenetic regulators in PCa cells. However, whether DIM suppresses PCa via epigenetic regulation of AR target genes is unknown. We assessed epigenetic regulation of AR target genes in LNCaP PCa cells and showed that DIM treatment led to epigenetic suppression of AR target genes involved in DNA repair (PARP1, MRE11, DNA-PK). Decreased expression of these genes was accompanied by an increase in repressive chromatin marks, loss of AR occupancy and EZH2 recruitment to their regulatory regions. Decreased DNA repair gene expression was associated with an increase in DNA damage (γH2Ax) and up-regulation of genomic repeat elements LINE1 and α-satellite. Our results suggest that DIM suppresses AR-dependent gene transcription through epigenetic modulation, leading to DNA damage and genome instability in PCa cells.

Li Z, Li J, Kong Y, et al.
Plk1 Phosphorylation of Mre11 Antagonizes the DNA Damage Response.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(12):3169-3180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mitotic kinase Plk1 contributes to the DNA damage response (DDR) by targeting multiple factors downstream of the core responder kinase ATM/ATR. In this study, we show that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) also phosphorylates key factors upstream of ATM/ATR and regulates their DDR-related functions. Plk1 phosphorylated Mre11, a component of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex, at serine 649 (S649) during DDR. Phosphorylation of Mre11-S649 by Plk1 primed subsequent CK2-mediated phosphorylation at Mre11-serine 688 (S688). Phosphorylation of Mre11 at S649/S688 inhibited loading of the MRN complex to damaged DNA, leading to both premature DNA damage checkpoint termination and inhibition of DNA repair. Tumors expressing phosphomimetic Mre11 were more sensitive to the PARP inhibitor olaparib, compared with those expressing unphosphorylatable Mre11, suggesting that patients with elevated Plk1 expression might benefit from olaparib treatment.

Lolas Hamameh S, Renbaum P, Kamal L, et al.
Genomic analysis of inherited breast cancer among Palestinian women: Genetic heterogeneity and a founder mutation in TP53.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):750-756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer among Palestinian women has lower incidence than in Europe or North America, yet is very frequently familial. We studied genetic causes of this familial clustering in a consecutive hospital-based series of 875 Palestinian patients with invasive breast cancer, including 453 women with diagnosis by age 40, or with breast or ovarian cancer in a mother, sister, grandmother or aunt ("discovery series"); and 422 women diagnosed after age 40 and with negative family history ("older-onset sporadic patient series"). Genomic DNA from women in the discovery series was sequenced for all known breast cancer genes, revealing a pathogenic mutation in 13% (61/453) of patients. These mutations were screened in all patients and in 300 Palestinian female controls, revealing 1.0% (4/422) carriers among older, nonfamilial patients and two carriers among controls. The mutational spectrum was highly heterogeneous, including pathogenic mutations in 11 different genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, CHEK2, BARD1, BRIP1, PALB2, MRE11A, PTEN and XRCC2. BRCA1 carriers were significantly more likely than other patients to have triple negative tumors (p = 0.03). The single most frequent mutation was TP53 p.R181C, which was significantly enriched in the discovery series compared to controls (p = 0.01) and was responsible for 15% of breast cancers among young onset or familial patients. TP53 p.R181C predisposed specifically to breast cancer with incomplete penetrance, and not to other Li-Fraumeni cancers. Palestinian women with young onset or familial breast cancer and their families would benefit from genetic analysis and counseling.

Chuang CL, Wang CH, Hsu CH, et al.
Contribution of Double-strand Break Repair Gene Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome 1 Genotypes, Gender Difference and Smoking Status to Taiwanese Lung Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(5):2417-2423 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) is a component of MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex (MRN) that plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage and maintenance of chromosomal integrity. Failure in DNA damage response affects the level of cell survival, increases the frequency of gene mutation or chromosomal instability and other cellular phenotypic abnormalities, which are the important mechanisms of carcinogenesis. However, the contribution of variant NBS1 genotypes to lung cancer is not known. The current study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the common variant NBS1 Glu185Gln (rs1805794, E185Q) genotypes to the risk of lung cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contributions of the NBS1 Glu185Gln genotypes to lung cancer risk were investigated among 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 age- and gender-matched healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: GG, CG and CC NBS1 Glu185Gln genotype percentages were 45.2%, 43.9% and 10.9% in the patient group and 46.1%, 45.1% and 8.8% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=0.5423). Analysis of allelic frequency distributions showed that the C allele of NBS1 Glu185Gln did not increase lung cancer susceptibility (p=0.4916). Interestingly, the CC genotypes at NBS1 Glu185Gln enhanced the risk of lung cancer among the males adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.12-2.83 and among the smokers (aOR=1.76, 95% CI=1.09-2.64) but not among the females and non-smokers.
CONCLUSION: The CC genotype of NBS1 Glu185Gln may increase lung cancer risk only for males and smokers and may serve as a practical marker for early detective and predictive purposes of lung cancer.

Couch FJ, Shimelis H, Hu C, et al.
Associations Between Cancer Predisposition Testing Panel Genes and Breast Cancer.
JAMA Oncol. 2017; 3(9):1190-1196 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Importance: Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to an increased lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, the relevance of germline variants in other genes from multigene hereditary cancer testing panels is not well defined.
Objective: To determine the risks of breast cancer associated with germline variants in cancer predisposition genes.
Design, Setting, and Participants: A study population of 65 057 patients with breast cancer receiving germline genetic testing of cancer predisposition genes with hereditary cancer multigene panels. Associations between pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes and breast cancer risk were estimated in a case-control analysis of patients with breast cancer and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference controls. The women underwent testing between March 15, 2012, and June 30, 2016.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Breast cancer risk conferred by pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes.
Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis for the 65 057 women included in the analysis was 48.5 (11.1) years. The frequency of pathogenic variants in 21 panel genes identified in 41 611 consecutively tested white women with breast cancer was estimated at 10.2%. After exclusion of BRCA1, BRCA2, and syndromic breast cancer genes (CDH1, PTEN, and TP53), observed pathogenic variants in 5 of 16 genes were associated with high or moderately increased risks of breast cancer: ATM (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.22-3.62), BARD1 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.31-3.63), CHEK2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67), PALB2 (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 5.12-11.19), and RAD51D (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.21-7.88). Conversely, variants in the BRIP1 and RAD51C ovarian cancer risk genes; the MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN MRN complex genes; the MLH1 and PMS2 mismatch repair genes; and NF1 were not associated with increased risks of breast cancer.
Conclusions and Relevance: This study establishes several panel genes as high- and moderate-risk breast cancer genes and provides estimates of breast cancer risk associated with pathogenic variants in these genes among individuals qualifying for clinical genetic testing.

Jue TR, Nozue K, Lester AJ, et al.
Veliparib in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of MGMT unmethylated glioblastoma.
J Transl Med. 2017; 15(1):61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: The inhibition of PARP with veliparib (ABT-888), a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor in combination with RT was tested on a panel of patient derived cell lines (PDCLs) and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) models generated from GBM patients with MGMT unmethylated tumors.
RESULTS: The combination of veliparib and RT inhibited colony formation in the majority of PDCLs tested. The PDCL, RN1 showed significantly reduced levels of the homologous repair protein, Mre11 and a heightened response to PARP inhibition measured by increased apoptosis and decreased colony formation. The oral administration of veliparib (12.5 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days in a 28-day treatment cycle) in combination with whole brain RT (4 Gy) induced apoptosis (Tunel staining) and decreased cell proliferation (Ki67 staining) in a PDX of MGMT unmethylated GBM. Significantly longer survival times of the PDX treated with the combination treatment were recorded compared to RT only or veliparib only.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate preclinical efficacy of targeting PARP at multiple levels and provide a new approach for the treatment of MGMT unmethylated GBM.

Tsukagoshi M, Araki K, Yokobori T, et al.
Overexpression of karyopherin-α2 in cholangiocarcinoma correlates with poor prognosis and gemcitabine sensitivity via nuclear translocation of DNA repair proteins.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42159-42172 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor, and the development of new therapeutic strategies is critical. Karyopherin-α2 (KPNA2) functions as an adaptor that mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport. Specifically, KPNA2 transports one of the important DNA repair machineries, the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, to the nucleus. In this study, we clarified the significance of KPNA2 in cholangiocarcinoma. KPNA2 expression evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis was common in malignant tissue but rare in adjacent noncancerous tissues. KPNA2 overexpression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis and was an independent prognostic factor after surgery. In patients with cholangiocarcinoma who received gemcitabine after surgery, KPNA2 overexpression tended to be a prognostic indicator of poor overall survival. In KPNA2-depleted cholangiocarcinoma cells, proliferation was significantly decreased and gemcitabine sensitivity was enhanced in vitro and in vivo. Expression of KPNA2 and the MRN complex displayed colocalization in the nucleus. In addition, nuclear localization of the MRN complex was regulated by KPNA2 in vitro. These results suggest that KPNA2 expression may be a useful prognostic and predictive marker of gemcitabine sensitivity and survival. The regulation of KPNA2 expression may be a new therapeutic strategy for cholangiocarcinoma.

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