Gene Summary

Gene:MVP; major vault protein
Aliases: LRP, VAULT1
Summary:This gene encodes the major component of the vault complex. Vaults are multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein structures that may be involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. The encoded protein may play a role in multiple cellular processes by regulating the MAP kinase, JAK/STAT and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. The encoded protein also plays a role in multidrug resistance, and expression of this gene may be a prognostic marker for several types of cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:major vault protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MVP (cancer-related)

Liu F, Yin R, Chen X, et al.
Over-expression of miR-206 decreases the Euthyrox-resistance by targeting MAP4K3 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 114:108605 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in drug resistance of multiple cancers including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), indicating the potential of miRNAs as chemoresistance regulators in cancer treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between miR-206 and chemoresistance of PTC.
METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to examine the expression of miR-206 in PTC tissues, parental and TPC-1/euthyrox. The CCK-8 assay, EdU assay and flow cytometry were performed to test cells viability, proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the potential target of miR-206. Western blotting analysis was performed to evaluate the expressions of related-proteins.
RESULTS: miR-206 was significantly down-regulated in PTC tissues, parental and TPC-1/euthyrox. Moreover, the expression of miR-206 was exceptionally lower in TPC-1/euthyrox cells than that in TPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we found that over-expression of miR-206 could notably decrease the IC
CONCLUSION: miR-206 contributed to euthyrox resistance in PTC cells through blockage p38 and JNK signaling pathway by targeting MAP4K3, providing a potential therapeutic application for the treatment of patients with euthyrox-resistant PTC in the further.

Kuwano M, Shibata T, Watari K, Ono M
Oncogenic Y-box binding protein-1 as an effective therapeutic target in drug-resistant cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(5):1536-1543 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Y-box binding protein-1 (YBX1), a multifunctional oncoprotein containing an evolutionarily conserved cold shock domain, dysregulates a wide range of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival, drug resistance, and chromatin destabilization by cancer. Expression of a multidrug resistance-associated ATP binding cassette transporter gene, ABCB1, as well as growth factor receptor genes, EGFR and HER2/ErbB2, was initially discovered to be transcriptionally activated by YBX1 in cancer cells. Expression of other drug resistance-related genes, MVP/LRP, TOP2A, CD44, CD49f, BCL2, MYC, and androgen receptor (AR), is also transcriptionally activated by YBX1, consistently indicating that YBX1 is involved in tumor drug resistance. Furthermore, there is strong evidence to support that nuclear localization and/or overexpression of YBX1 can predict poor outcomes in patients with more than 20 different tumor types. YBX1 is phosphorylated by kinases, including AKT, p70S6K, and p90RSK, and translocated into the nucleus to promote the transcription of resistance- and malignancy-related genes. Phosphorylated YBX1, therefore, plays a crucial role as a potent transcription factor in cancer. Herein, a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy is presented by targeting activated YBX1 to overcome drug resistance and malignant progression.

Vasmatzis G, Kosari F, Murphy SJ, et al.
Large Chromosomal Rearrangements Yield Biomarkers to Distinguish Low-Risk From Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2019; 94(1):27-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) can distinguish low risk of progression (LRP) from intermediate and high risk of progression (IHRP) to prostate cancer (PCa) and if these CRs have the potential to identify men with LRP on needle biopsy that harbor IHRP PCa in the prostate gland.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mate pair sequencing of amplified DNA from pure populations of Gleason patterns in 154 frozen specimens from 126 patients obtained between August 14, 2001, and July 15, 2011, was used to detect CRs including abnormal junctions and copy number variations. Potential CR biomarkers with higher incidence in IHRP than in LRP to cancer and having significance in PCa biology were identified. Independent validation was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 152 specimens from 124 patients obtained between February 12, 2002, and July 12, 2008.
RESULTS: The number of abnormal junctions did not distinguish LRP from IHRP. Loci corresponding to genes implicated in PCa were more frequently altered in IHRP. Integrated analysis of copy number variations and microarray data yielded 6 potential markers that were more frequently detected in Gleason pattern 3 of a Gleason score 7 of PCa than in Gleason pattern 3 of a Gleason score 6 PCa. Five of those were cross-validated in an independent sample set with statistically significant areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) (P≤.01). Probes detecting deletions in PTEN and CHD1 had AUCs of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.97) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.86), respectively, and probes detecting gains in ASAP1, MYC, and HDAC9 had AUCs of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.59-0.84), 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.93), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66-0.89), respectively (for expansion of gene symbols, use search tool at
CONCLUSION: Copy number variations in regions encompassing important PCa genes were predictive of cancer significance and have the potential to identify men with LRP PCa by needle biopsy who have IHRP PCa in their prostate gland.

Huang H, Li T, Chen M, et al.
Identification and validation of NOLC1 as a potential target for enhancing sensitivity in multidrug resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adjuvant chemotherapy has become the frequently adopted standard therapeutic approach for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle contributing to the failure of chemotherapy. This study aimed to identify genes associated with MDR development that predict tumor response to chemotherapy in NSCLC. In the present study, a multidrug-resistant NSCLC cell sub-line, A549/MDR, was established from the A549/DDP cell line and characterized. The resistance index (RI) of this subline was calculated according to the IC50 of A549/MDR relative to the parental A549/DDP cells. The gene expression profiles of A549/DDP and A549/MDR were obtained using an oligonucleotide microarray (Agilent SureHyb microarray chip). The microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR and selected genes were analyzed by in vitro loss-of-function experiments. Gene expression profiling identified 921 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) according to the selection criteria, in which 541 genes were upregulated and 380 genes were downregulated in A549/MDR compared with A549/DDP cells. We found that these DEGs are involved in diverse biological processes, including ribonucleoprotein complex, drug metabolism, the Hippo signaling pathway and transcriptional misregulation. NOLC1, as one of the identified DEGs, was confirmed to be overexpressed in A549/MDR cells and its knockdown significantly enhanced the drug sensitivity of A549/MDR cells in response to multidrug treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of NOLC1 downregulated the expression levels of drug resistance-associated molecules (LRP and MDR1) in A549/MDR cells. These findings provide a new and comprehensive expression profile of MDR in NSCLC cells. Identification and validation of NOLC1 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of MDR of NSCLC patients.

Taheri M, Motalebzadeh J, Mahjoubi F
Expression of LRP Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Correlated with MRP1 as Two Independent Predictive Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(11):3111-3115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is still a great obstacle of breast cancer chemotherapy. We have previously shown that multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The lung resistance-related protein (LRP) is identified as a prognostic marker and response to treatment factor which has been studied mainly in hematological malignancy and leukemia. In this study, we aimed to analyze LRP expression and possible correlation between the expression level of this gene with MRP1 as a candidate marker for chemotherapy resistance. Materials and Methods: We collected 54 breast tumors and adjacent normal tissues from Iranian breast cancer patients and Real time RT-PCR was employed to measure the gene expression level in our samples. Results: MRP1 and LRP expression level were significantly lower in tumor tissues of the patients responding to chemotherapy compared to non-responding patients. No relation between the expression level of either of these genes and clinicopathology markers was found. Conclusion: Our results suggest that LRP gene expression is correlated to MRP1 in human breast cancer cells and may affect the clinical response to treatment.

Liu J, Hu G, Gong Y, et al.
Silencing of TRPM8 inhibits aggressive tumor phenotypes and enhances gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatology. 2018; 18(8):935-944 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transient receptor potential TRPM8 ion channel is required for cellular proliferation in pancreatic epithelia and adenocarcinoma. To elucidate the mechanism that mediates the function of TRPM8, we examined its role in the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. TRPM8 expression increased in both the PC tissues and cell lines; a high TRPM8 expression was correlated with poorer prognosis in patients with PC. In PC cell lines, PACN-1 and BxPC-3, Ca

Yang F, Gao B, Chen W, et al.
Expression of resistance gene and prognosis of chemotherapy in primary epithelial ovarian cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(41):e12364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs may become attenuated accounts for various reasons. Reduced drug sensitivity may cause the failure of chemotherapy and affect the prognosis of patients with cancer. This study investigates the relationship between the expression levels of lung resistance protein (LRP) and placental glutathione S-transferase-P1 (GSTP1), the resistance of primary epithelial ovarian cancer (PEOC) to chemotherapy, and the prognosis of patients with platinum drug-resistant PEOC.Quantitative PCR (QT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA level of the resistance genes LRP, GSTP1 in all tissue and cell lines.The expression levels of resistance gene (LRP, GSTP1) in PEOC were the highest, followed by borderline adenoma tissues, and the lowest levels found in benign tumor tissues, the difference of genes expression between different tissues was statistically significant; the difference between the expression rates and relative expression level of drug resistance genes was statistically significant in platinum sensitive group compare with the platinum resistant group. The difference between resistant gene negative-expression and positive-expression of chemotherapy efficiency, disease free survival time, and recurrence time were statistically significant. The resistant genes expression in the PEOC patients of the negative-group survival curves was higher than that in the positive group. With ascites non-cellular component (ANCC) stimulated SKOV3 cells, the cell proliferation inhibition rate (CPIR) increased, and with ANCC stimulated SKOV3/DDP, the expression of LRP and GSTP1 also increased.ANCC may promote the expression of drug resistance genes, and the expression of genes may predict the poorly prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Wang L, Zhang X, Sheng L, et al.
LINC00473 promotes the Taxol resistance via miR-15a in colorectal cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) participated into the initiation and progression of different diseases via direct regulation of proteins or indirect regulation of microRNA (miRNA)-target genes. LINC00473 is a novel carcinoma-related LncRNA and up-regulated in many cancers for tumor growth and metastasis, but its role in chemotherapy resistance is unclear. We here investigated the function of LINC00473 in colorectal cancer (CRC)

Vania L, Rebelo TM, Ferreira E, Weiss SFT
Knock-down of LRP/LR promotes apoptosis in early and late stage colorectal carcinoma cells via caspase activation.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):602 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death around the world, where incidence and mortality rates are at a constant increase. Tumourigenic cells are characteristically seen to over-express the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) compared to their normal cell counterparts. This receptor has numerous roles in tumourigenesis including metastasis, angiogenic enhancement, telomerase activation, cell viability and apoptotic evasion. This study aimed to expose the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (SW-480) and late (DLD-1) stage colorectal cancer cells.
METHODS: siRNA were used to down-regulate the expression of LRP/LR in SW-480 and DLD-1 cells which was assessed using western blotting. Subsequently, cell survival was evaluated using the MTT cell survival assay and confocal microscopy. Thereafter, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and caspase activity assays were used to investigate the mechanism underlying the cell death observed upon LRP/LR knockdown. The data was analysed using Student's t-test with a confidence interval of 95%, with p-values of less than 0.05 seen as significant.
RESULTS: Here we reveal that siRNA-mediated knock-down of LRP led to notable decreases in cell viability through increased levels of apoptosis, apparent by compromised membrane integrity and significantly high caspase-3 activity. Down-regulated LRP resulted in a significant increase in caspase-8 and -9 activity in both cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the receptor is critically implicated in apoptosis and that LRP/LR down-regulation induces apoptosis in early and late stage colorectal cancer cells through both apoptotic pathways. Thus, this study suggests that siRNA-mediated knock-down of LRP could be a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of early and late stage colorectal carcinoma.

Jiang X, Lei T, Zhang M
Expression and Functions of Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 in Drug-Resistant Bladder Cancer.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533034618769413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation of formyl peptide receptor 1 expression with drug resistance and the functions of formyl peptide receptor 1 in drug-resistant bladder cancer.
METHODS: Expression of formyl peptide receptor 1 in T24 and T24/DDP cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cell lines was tested by quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western blotting. After incubation of T24/DDP with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, the phosphor proteins were tested by Western blot analysis. We characterized the functions of formyl peptide receptor 1 in T24/DDP cells by assessing proliferation, migration, and changes of cell cycles.
RESULTS: Formyl peptide receptor 1 was expressed in both T24 and T24/DDP, and it was overexpressed in T24/DDP compared with T24. Formyl peptide receptor 1 activation promoted the expression of the messenger RNA of resistance-related proteins, such as multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and lung resistance-related protein (LRP). The expression of 4 signal pathway proteins were upregulated: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Janus kinase 2, extracellular regulated protein kinases, and protein kinase B, while the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was observed to be downregulated in drug-resistant bladder cancer cells. Formyl peptide receptor 1 activation also improved the expression of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 and promoted the proliferation and migration of T24/DDP cells. In addition, formyl peptide receptor 1 inhibition led to the change in the cell cycle in T24/DDP.
CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of formyl peptide receptor 1 may be related to drug-resistant bladder cancer and promotes the deterioration of drug-resistant bladder cancer.

Rebelo TM, Vania L, Ferreira E, Weiss SFT
siRNA - Mediated LRP/LR knock-down reduces cellular viability of malignant melanoma cells through the activation of apoptotic caspases.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 368(1):1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively. In order to determine the effect of LRP/LR on cell viability and apoptosis, LRP was down-regulated via siRNA technology. MTT assays revealed that LRP knock-down led to significant reductions in the viability of A375 and A375SM cells. Confocal microscopy indicated nuclear morphological changes suggestive of apoptotic induction in both cell lines and Annexin-V FITC/PI assays confirmed this observation. Additionally, caspase-3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was induced in both cell lines after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of LRP. Caspase-8 and -9 activity assays suggested that post LRP knock-down; A375 cells undergo apoptosis solely via the extrinsic pathway, while A375SM cells undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway.
IMPLICATIONS: siRNAs mediated LRP knock-down might represent a powerful alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma through the induction of apoptosis.

Liu GW, Liu YH, Jiang GS, Ren WD
The reversal effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cells and its mechanism.
Hum Cell. 2018; 31(3):189-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies hint that Ginsenoside is involved in cancer prevention and treatment. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells and its mechanism. The resistance reversion effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 in CRC cells was analyzed using CCK-8 assay. After treating with Ginsenoside Rh2, the cell cycle distribution and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, cell migration was determined by transwell migration assay, the expression of drug-resistance genes and proteins were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Ginsenoside Rh2 could enhance the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in drug-resistant CRC cells (LoVo/5-FU and HCT-8/5-FU). Treatment with Ginsenoside Rh2 could result in an increase of cell numbers in G0/G1 phase accompanied with a decrease in S-phase, and induced cellular apoptosis in drug-resistant CRC cells. In addition, the migration process and EMT process of drug-resistant CRC cells were suppressed by treatment of Ginsenoside Rh2. Compared to control group, expression of drug-resistance genes, such as MRP1, MDR1, LRP and GST, were negatively correlated to Ginsenoside Rh2. All these results indicated that Ginsenoside Rh2 could effectively reverse drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma cell and its mechanism involved the prevention of cellular proliferation and migration, the promotion of cellular apoptosis and the alteration of drug-resistance genes, which suggested that Ginsenoside Rh2 may act as a promising candidate for drug resistance in human colorectal carcinoma chemotherapy.

Kubrak T, Bogucka-Kocka A, Komsta Ł, et al.
Modulation of Multidrug Resistance Gene Expression by Coumarin Derivatives in Human Leukemic Cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017:5647281 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The presence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is considered as the major cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism responsible for the phenomenon of multidrug resistance is explained, among others, as overexpression of membrane transporters primarily from the ABC family which actively remove cytostatics from the tumor cell. The effect of 20 coumarin derivatives on the cytotoxicity and expression of

Liu Y, Zhang X, Yang B, et al.
Demethylation-Induced Overexpression of Shc3 Drives c-Raf-Independent Activation of MEK/ERK in HCC.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(9):2219-2232 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasion and intrahepatic metastasis are major factors of poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that increased Src homolog and collagen homolog 3 (Shc3) expression in malignant HCC cell lines associate with HCC invasion and metastasis. Shc3 (N-Shc) was significantly upregulated in tumors of 33 HCC patient samples as compared with adjacent normal tissues. Further analysis of 52 HCC patient samples showed that Shc3 expression correlated with microvascular invasion, cancer staging, and poor prognosis. Shc3 interacted with major vault protein, resulting in activation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 independently of Shc1 and c-Raf; this interaction consequently induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promoted HCC cell proliferation and metastasis. The observed increase in Shc3 levels was due to demethylation of its upstream promoter, which allowed c-Jun binding. In turn, Shc3 expression promoted c-Jun phosphorylation in a positive feedback loop. Analysis of metastasis using a tumor xenograft mouse model further confirmed the role of Shc3

Zhan D, Zhang Y, Xiao P, et al.
Whole exome sequencing identifies novel mutations of epigenetic regulators in chemorefractory pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 65:20-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic alterations underlying chemotherapy resistance remains poorly characterized in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify gene mutations associated with chemo-resistance in 44 pediatric AML patients. We identified previously unreported mutations involving epigenetic regulators such as KDM5C, SRIT6, CHD4, and PRPF6 in pediatric AML patients. Despite low prevalence in general pediatric AML, mutations involving epigenetic regulators including splicing factors, were collectively enriched as a group in primary chemo-resistance AML patients. In addition, clonal evolution analysis of secondary chemo-resistance AML patients reveals dominant clone at diagnosis could survive several course of intensified chemotherapy. And gain of new mutations in genes such as MVP, TCF3, SS18, and BCL10, may contribute to chemo-resistance at relapse. These results provide novel insights into the genetic basis of treatment failure in pediatric AML.

Pan LN, Zhang Y, Zhu CJ, Dong ZX
Kinesin KIF4A is associated with chemotherapeutic drug resistance by regulating intracellular trafficking of lung resistance-related protein.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2017 Dec.; 18(12):1046-1054 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major impediment to cancer chemotherapy. The expression of lung resistance-related protein (LRP), a non-ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is high in tumor cells, resulting in their resistance to a variety of cytotoxic drugs. However, the function of LRP in tumor drug resistance is not yet explicit. Our previous studies had shown that Kinesin KIF4A was overexpressed in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549/DDP cells) compared with A549 cells. The expression of KIF4A in A549 or A549/DDP cells significantly affects cisplatin resistance but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments to show that the tail domain of KIF4A interacted with the N-terminal of LRP. Immunofluorescence images showed that both the ability of binding to LRP and the motility of KIF4A were essential for the dispersed cytoplasm distribution of LRP. Altogether, our results shed light on a potential mechanism in that motor protein KIF4A promotes drug resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells through transporting LRP-based vaults along microtubules towards the cell membrane. Thus KIF4A might be a cisplatin resistance-associated protein and serves as a potential target for chemotherapeutic drug resistance in lung cancer.

Gonias SL, Karimi-Mostowfi N, Murray SS, et al.
Expression of LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs) in common solid malignancies correlates with patient survival.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186649 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs) are transmembrane receptors involved in endocytosis, cell-signaling, and trafficking of other cellular proteins. Considerable work has focused on LRPs in the fields of vascular biology and neurobiology. How these receptors affect cancer progression in humans remains largely unknown. Herein, we mined provisional databases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to compare expression of thirteen LRPs in ten common solid malignancies in patients. Our first goal was to determine the abundance of LRP mRNAs in each type of cancer. Our second goal was to determine whether expression of LRPs is associated with improved or worsened patient survival. In total, data from 4,629 patients were mined. In nine of ten cancers studied, the most abundantly expressed LRP was LRP1; however, a correlation between LRP1 mRNA expression and patient survival was observed only in bladder urothelial carcinoma. In this malignancy, high levels of LRP1 mRNA were associated with worsened patient survival. High levels of LDL receptor (LDLR) mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. High levels of LRP10 mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. LRP2 was the only LRP for which high levels of mRNA expression correlated with improved patient survival. This correlation was observed in renal clear cell carcinoma. Insights into LRP gene expression in human cancers and their effects on patient survival should guide future research.

Lee HM, Joh JW, Seo SR, et al.
Cell-surface major vault protein promotes cancer progression through harboring mesenchymal and intermediate circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinomas.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a major role in the metastasis and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we found that major vault protein (MVP) is expressed on the surface of HCC cells and further induced under stressful environments. MVP knockdown reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HCC cells. Treatment of HCC cells with anti-MVP antibody (α-MVP) recognizing cell-surface MVP (csMVP) inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. csMVP-positive HCC cells have a higher clonogenic survival than csMVP-negative HCC cells, and treatment of HCC cells with α-MVP inhibits clonogenic survival, suggesting that csMVP contributes to HCC cell survival, migration, and invasion. The function of csMVP is mediated through mTOR, FAK, ERK and Akt signaling pathways. csMVP-positive CTCs are detected in HCC patients (89.7%) but not in healthy donors, and the number of csMVP-positive CTCs is further increased in patients with metastatic cancers. csMVP is exclusively detectable in CTCs with mesenchymal phenotype or intermediate phenotype with neither epithelial nor mesenchymal markers, suggesting that csMVP-associated survival and metastatic potential harbor CTCs with nonepithelial phenotypes. The results suggest that csMVP promotes cancer progression and serves as a surface marker for mesenchymal and intermediate CTCs in patients with HCC and metastatic cancers.

Zhang Y, Yang SH, Guo XL
New insights into Vinca alkaloids resistance mechanism and circumvention in lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 96:659-666 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nowadays, lung cancer, as a health problem in worldwide, has high mortality both in men and women. Despite advances in diagnosis and surgical techniques of lung cancer in recent decades, chemotherapy is still a fundamentally and extensively useful strategy. Vinca alkaloids are a class of important and widely used drugs in the treatment of lung cancer, targeting on the Vinca binding site at the exterior of microtubule plus ends. Either intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy of Vinca alkaloids has been a major obstacle to the treatment of lung cancer, which arose great interests in studies of understanding and overcoming resistance. In this review, we focused on the application and resistance mechanisms of the Vinca alkaloids such as vinblastine, vincristine, vinorelbine and vinflunine in lung cancer. We reviewed characteristic resistance mechanisms in lung cancer including over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein and structural, functional or expression alterations of β-tubulin (βII, βIII, βIV) which may devote to the development of acquired resistance to the Vinca alkaloids; multidrug-resistance proteins (MRP1, MRP2, MRP3) and RLIP76 protein have also been identified that probably play a significant role in intrinsic resistance. Lung resistance-related protein (LRP) is contributed to lung cancer therapy resistance, but is not deal with the Vinca alkaloids resistance in lung cancer. Understanding the principle of the Vinca alkaloids in clinical application and mechanisms of drug resistance will support individualized lung cancer therapy and improve future therapies.

Chetty CJ, Ferreira E, Jovanovic K, Weiss SFT
Knockdown of LRP/LR induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer and neuroblastoma cells through activation of caspases.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 360(2):264-272 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) serves various physiological and pathological roles such as enhancing tumour-related processes including metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular viability and telomerase activation in cancerous cell lines. The present study investigates the effect of siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR on pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) and neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. MTT and BrdU assays revealed that siRNA mediated downregulation of LRP resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability and cell proliferation. In addition, knock-down of LRP resulted in phosphatidylserine externalization, diminished nuclear integrity and significantly enhanced caspase-3 activity, which is indicative of apoptosis. LRP downregulation resulted in a significant increase in caspase-8 activity in IMR-32 cells and enhanced caspase-8 and 9 activity in AsPC-1 cells. These data recommend siRNA mediated knock-down of LRP as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and neuroblastoma.

Zheng J, Asakawa T, Chen Y, et al.
Synergistic Effect of Baicalin and Adriamycin in Resistant HL-60/ADM Leukaemia Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 43(1):419-430 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study was designed to investigate the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes, verify the synergistic effects of baicalin and Adriamycin (ADM) and investigate the related mechanisms in ADM-resistant leukaemic HL-60/ADM cells.
METHODS: We used a HL-60/ADM cell line. Cytotoxicity and flow cytometry assays were employed to verify the cytotoxic effects of baicalin. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting assays were used to assess the expression of MDR-related genes and the changes in gene expression (both MDR-related and PI3K/Akt pathway-related) induced by administration of baicalin.
RESULTS: We found that only multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), lung resistance-related protein (LRP) and Bcl-2 genes were expressed in both HL-60 and HL-60/ADM cells. HL-60/ADM cells exhibited significantly higher expression (p < 0.05). We also observed that low-dose baicalin (5 and 10 µmol/L) can induce growth inhibition and apoptotic effects on HL-60/ADM cells by increasing the intracellular accumulation of ADM. The synergistic effect of baicalin and ADM was verified. Concerning the potential mechanisms involved in this process, we showed that baicalin down-regulated the expression of several MDR-related and PI3K/Akt pathway-related genes.
CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the increased expression of MRP1, LRP and Bcl-2 genes in HL-60/ADM cells compared to regular HL-60 cells, which are recommended for future investigation on MDR. The present study provided evidence of the synergistic effect of baicalin and ADM in HL-60/ADM cells. Therefore, baicalin may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against resistant leukaemia. Suppression of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, followed by inhibition of the expression of MDR-related genes may be a common mechanism in combination treatments with ADM for the reduction of resistance to ADM.

Paprocka M, Bielawska-Pohl A, Rossowska J, et al.
MRP1 protein expression in leukemic stem cells as a negative prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Eur J Haematol. 2017; 99(5):415-422 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well established that expression of multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins (MDR1, BCRP, MDR3, MRP1, and LRP) in leukemic blasts correlates with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients' clinical response. Assuming that leukemic stem cells (LSC) are resistant to chemotherapy and responsible for relapse, it might be clinically relevant to evaluate the expression level of MDR proteins in LSC and relate it to the clinical outcome.
METHODS: Bone marrow samples from 26 patients with de novo AML were labeled with antibodies to distinguish CD34+CD38-CD123+ LSC population and with antibodies against MDR1, BCRP, MDR3, MRP1, or LRP proteins. Multicolor flow cytometry was applied to evaluate the expression of MDR proteins in blasts and LSC.
RESULTS: Nine of 26 patients with AML attained CR (30%). High negative correlation was found between MDR1 and LRP expression in blasts and the patient's remission. MDR proteins were expressed more frequently in LSC than in leukemic blasts. High negative correlation was also observed between remission achievement and MRP1 expression in LSC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data present for the very first time the high negative correlation between MRP1 protein expression in LSC and AML patients' remission. It does strongly suggest that MRP1 expression in LSC is an adverse prognostic marker in patients with de novo AML.

Margiotta AL, Bain LJ, Rice CD
Expression of the Major Vault Protein (MVP) and Cellular Vault Particles in Fish.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2017; 300(11):1981-1992 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cellular vaults are ubiquitous 13 mega Da multi-subunit ribonuceloprotein particles that may have a role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Seventy percent of the vault's mass consists of a ≈100 kDa protein, the major vault protein (MVP). In humans, a drug resistance-associated protein, originally identified as lung resistance protein in metastatic lung cancer, was ultimately shown to be the previously described MVP. In this study, a partial MVP sequence was cloned from channel catfish. Recombinant MVP (rMVP) was used to generate a monoclonal antibody that recognizes full length protein in distantly related fish species, as well as mice. MVP is expressed in fish spleen, liver, anterior kidney, renal kidney, and gills, with a consistent expression in epithelial cells, macrophages, or endothelium at the interface of the tissue and environment or vasculature. We show that vaults are distributed throughout cells of fish lymphoid cells, with nuclear and plasma membrane aggregations in some cells. Protein expression studies were extended to liver neoplastic lesions in Atlantic killifish collected in situ at the Atlantic Wood USA-EPA superfund site on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA. MVP is highly expressed in these lesions, with intense staining at the nuclear membrane, similar to what is known about MVP expression in human liver neoplasia. Additionally, MVP mRNA expression was quantified in channel catfish ovarian cell line following treatment with different classes of pharmacological agents. Notably, mRNA expression is induced by ethidium bromide, which damages DNA. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1981-1992, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Xu L, Fu Y, Li Y, Han X
Cisplatin induces expression of drug resistance-related genes through c-jun N-terminal kinase pathway in human lung cancer cells.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 80(2):235-242 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Change of multidrug resistance-related genes (e.g., lung resistance protein, LRP) and overexpression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl, XIAP, Survivin) are responsible for cisplatin resistance. In our study, we investigated the mechanism by which cisplatin induces LRP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP, and Survivin expression in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and human H446 small cell lung cancer cells at mRNA and protein levels.
METHODS: In our study, cell proliferation was assessed with CCK-8 assays, and cell apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometric analysis and Annexin-V/PI staining. qPCR was used to complete RNA experiments. Protein expression was assessed with Western blotting.
RESULTS: Cisplatin increased Bcl-2, LRP, and Survivin expression, but decreased Bcl-xL and XIAP expression in a dose-dependent manner. Preincubation with JNK-specific inhibitor, SP600125, significantly inhibited these genes' expression at mRNA and protein levels, enhanced chemosensitivity of lung cancer cells to cisplatin, and promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the JNK signaling pathway plays an important role in cisplatin resistance. Lung resistance protein (LRP) and anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl, XIAP, Survivin) are involved in the process. The results reminded us of a novel therapy target for lung cancer treatment.

Yang F, Gao B, Li R, et al.
Expression levels of resistant genes affect cervical cancer prognosis.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(5):2802-2806 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance (MDR) to various chemotherapy regimens. Such resistance reduces the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy drugs, leading to the failure of cervical cancer (CC) treatment and disease progression. The present study aimed to investigate the role of MDR1, lung resistance protein (LRP) and placental glutathione S‑transferase π 1 (GSTP1) in CC and MDR, and the prognostic value of these genes. The mRNA expression levels of these resistance‑associated genes were determined in 47 CC and 20 healthy cervical tissue samples. Subsequently, the data was analyzed alongside clinicopathological parameters. The mRNA expression levels of MDR1, LRP and GSTP1 in CC were 0.57±0.32, 0.58±0.29 and 0.44±0.24, respectively, whereas those in healthy cervical tissues were 0.19±0.10, 0.17±0.14 and 0.18±0.10, respectively. Therefore, the expression levels of these genes were significantly greater in CC compared with healthy cervical tissue (P<0.05). mRNA expression levels of MRD1 were increased in the well differentiated group (0.68±0.27) compared with the poorly differentiated group (0.38±0.33; P<0.05). No significant differences were observed between LRP and GSTP1 mRNA expression levels and tumor differentiation or clinical stage of the patients (P>0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the degree of differentiation and the MDR1 gene expression levels were predictors of CC prognosis (P<0.05). The survival rate of patients in the MDR1‑negative group was significantly greater compared with the MDR1‑positive group (P<0.05). The results of the present study therefore suggested that MDR1 gene expression is a predictor of poor survival in CC.

Zhang J, Luo N, Tian Y, et al.
USP22 knockdown enhanced chemosensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to 5-Fu by up-regulation of Smad4 and suppression of Akt.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(15):24728-24740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
USP22, a member of the deubiquitinases (DUBs) family, is known to be a key subunit of the human Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (hSAGA) transcriptional cofactor complex. Within hSAGA, USP22 removes ubiquitin from histone proteins, thus regulating the transcription and expression of downstream genes. USP22 plays important roles in many cancers; however, its effect and the mechanism underlying HCC chemoresistance remain unclear. In the present study, we found that USP22 was highly expressed in chemoresistant HCC tissues and cells and was correlated with the prognosis of HCC patients who received chemotherapy. Silencing USP22 in chemoresistant HCC Bel/Fu cells dramatically inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro; suppressed tumorigenic and metastatic capacities in vivo; and inhibited drug resistance-related proteins (MDR1, LRP, MRP1). Mechanistically, we found that USP22 knockdown exerts its function through down-regulating PI3K and activating Smad4, which inhibited phosphorylation of Akt. Silencing Smad4 blocked USP22 knockdown-induced Akt inhibition in Bel/Fu cells. Our results, for the first time, provide evidence that USP22 plays a critical role in the development of chemoresistant HCC cells and that high USP22 expression serves as a molecular marker for the prognosis of HCC patients who undergo chemotherapy.

Banerjee Dixit A, Sharma D, Srivastava A, et al.
Upregulation of breast cancer resistance protein and major vault protein in drug resistant epilepsy.
Seizure. 2017; 47:9-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Identifying factors involved in the development of drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) remains a challenge. Candidate gene studies have shown modulation of resistance to drugs by various multidrug resistance proteins in DRE. However the resistance to drugs in DRE could be more complex and multifactorial involving molecules in different pharmacokinetic processes. In this study for the first time we have analyzed the relative expression of four molecules with different drug resistance mechanisms in two most common DRE pathologies, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with respect to each other and also with different non-epileptic controls.
METHODS: Brain tissues resected from MTLE (n=16) and FCD type I and II (n=12) patients who had undergone surgery were analysed for mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1(MRP1), major vault protein (MVP), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and one drug metabolising enzyme (UGT1A4) as compared to non-epileptic controls which were tissues resected from tumor periphery (n=6) and autopsy tissues (n=4) by quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: We found significant upregulation of MVP and BCRP whereas MRP1 and UGT1A4 were unaltered in both pathologies. While upregulation of BCRP was significantly higher in MTLE (9.34±0.45; p<0.05), upregulation of MVP was significantly higher in FCD (2.94±0.65; p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: We propose that upregulation of BCRP and MVP is associated with MTLE and FCD and these molecules not only may have the potential to predict pathology specific phenotypes but may also have therapeutic potential as adjunct treatment in these pathologies.

Munien C, Rebelo TM, Ferreira E, Weiss SF
IgG1-iS18 impedes the adhesive and invasive potential of early and late stage malignant melanoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 351(2):135-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a non-integrin laminin receptor which is overexpressed in tumorigenic cells and supports progression of cancer via promoting metastasis, angiogenesis and telomerase activity and impediment of apoptosis. The present study investigates the role of LRP/LR on the metastatic potential of early (A375) and late (A375SM) stage malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry revealed that both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells display high levels of LRP/LR on their cell surface. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that late stage malignant melanoma cells display significantly higher total and cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to early stage malignant melanoma cells and the poorly invasive breast cancer (MCF-7) control cell line. Targeting LRP/LR using the LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 resulted in a significant reduction of the adhesive potential to laminin-1 and the invasive potential through the 'ECM-simulating' Matrigel™ of both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient confirmed that increased LRP levels correlate with the increased invasive and adhesive potential in early and late stage melanoma cells. Thus, blocking LRP/LR using the IgG1-iS18 antibody may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for early and late stage malignant melanoma treatment.

Wang S, Meng Q, Xie Q, Zhang M
Effect and mechanism of resveratrol on drug resistance in human bladder cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(3):1179-1187 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a significant barrier to the effective treatment of bladder cancer. In order to improve the management of bladder cancer, it is crucial to identify strategies that may reverse MDR. The effects of three herbal medicines, ginsenoside Rh2, (‑)‑epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol (RES) on bladder cancer were determined. The effect of these three herbal medicines against the drug resistance in adriamycin (ADM)‑resistant pumc‑91 cells (pumc‑91/ADM) was assessed using the Cell Counting Kit‑8 cell proliferation assay system. Cell cycle distribution analysis was performed using flow cytometry following treatment with RES. The mRNA and protein expression levels of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), lung resistance protein (LRP), glutathione S‑transferase (GST), B cell leukemia/lymphoma‑2 (BCL‑2) and topoisomerase‑II (Topo‑II) were evaluated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence, respectively. RES enhanced the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents on pumc‑91/ADM cells; however, Rh2 and EGCG were unable to induce a similar effect. Additionally, RES treatment led to S phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by a decrease in the number of cells in the G1 phase. A significant decrease of MRP1, LRP, GST, BCL‑2 levels and an increase of Topo‑II levels were observed in RES groups compared with the control group. RES effectively reversed ADM resistance in pumc‑91/ADM cells and the underlying molecular mechanism may be associated with the alteration of MRP1, LRP, GST, BCL‑2 and Topo‑II expression levels. Therefore, RES may be a potential candidate for reversing drug resistance in bladder cancer chemotherapy.

Li S, Li B, Wang J, et al.
Identification of Sensitivity Predictors of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Adenocarcinoma of Gastroesophageal Junction.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(1):93-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
The identification of reliable predictors of chemotherapy sensitivity and early screening of adenocarcinoma of gastroesophageal junction (AGEJ) patients who are resistant to chemotherapy has become an important area of clinical and translational research. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of seven cancer-associated cellular proteins for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in AGEJ patients. Clinical data of 93 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced AGEJ between June 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed. All patients were administered the combination regimen of S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX). Expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), glutathione S-transferase-π (GST-π), topoisomerase II (topo II), multidrug resistance gene-associated protein (MRP), lung resistance-related protein (LRP), Ki-67, and p53 was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in AGEJ tissues before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated according to RECIST 1.0 standards and histopathological results, and the relationship between the expression of the cellular proteins and chemotherapy efficacy was analyzed. The SOX regimen was associated with an overall response rate of 46.2%. The frequency of expression of the seven cancer-associated factors in the AGEJ tissues was as follows: P-gp, 64.5%; GST-π, 39.8%; topo II, 72.0%; MRP, 33.3%; LRP, 68.8%; Ki-67, 62.4%; and p53, 40.9%. Expression of Ki-67 (p = 0.003) and p53 (p = 0.009) was significantly correlated with chemotherapy sensitivity. Elevated Ki-67 expression and decreased p53 expression predict for SOX insensitivity in AGEJ, and the cellular expression of these respective proteins may provide a useful reference for designing individualized chemotherapy regimens for AGEJ patients in the future.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. MVP, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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