Gene Summary

Gene:POSTN; periostin
Aliases: PN, OSF2, OSF-2, PDLPOSTN
Summary:This gene encodes a secreted extracellular matrix protein that functions in tissue development and regeneration, including wound healing, and ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction. The encoded protein binds to integrins to support adhesion and migration of epithelial cells. This protein plays a role in cancer stem cell maintenance and metastasis. Mice lacking this gene exhibit cardiac valve disease, and skeletal and dental defects. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POSTN (cancer-related)

Cini G, Quaia M, Canzonieri V, et al.
Toward a better definition of EPCAM deletions in Lynch Syndrome: Report of new variants in Italy and the associated molecular phenotype.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(5):e587 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited epimutations of Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes are responsible for Lynch Syndrome (LS) in a small, but well defined, subset of patients. Methylation of the MSH2 promoter consequent to the deletion of the upstream EPCAM gene is found in about 1%-3% of the LS patients and represents a classical secondary, constitutional and tissue-specific epimutation. Several different EPCAM deletions have been reported worldwide, for the most part representing private variants caused by an Alu-mediated recombination.
METHODS: 712 patients with suspected LS were tested for MMR mutation in our Institute. EPCAM deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and then defined by Long-Range polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/Sanger sequencing. A comprehensive molecular characterization of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues was carried out by immunohistochemistry of MMR proteins, Microsatellite Instability (MSI) assay, methylation specific MLPA and transcript analyses. In addition, somatic deletions and/or variants were investigated by MLPA and next generation sequencing (NGS).
RESULTS: An EPCAM deletion was found in five unrelated probands in Italy: variants c.556-490_*8438del and c.858+1193_*5826del are novel; c.859-1430_*2033del and c.859-670_*530del were previously reported. All probands were affected by CRC at young age; tumors showed MSI and abnormal MSH2/MSH6 proteins expression. MSH2 promoter methylation, as well as aberrant in-frame or out-of-frame EPCAM/MSH2 fusion transcripts, were detected in CRCs and normal mucosae.
CONCLUSION: An EPCAM deletion was the causative variant in about 2% of our institutional series of 224 LS patients, consistent with previously estimated frequencies. Early age and multiple CRCs was the main clinical feature of this subset of patients.

Pawelczyk K, Piotrowska A, Ciesielska U, et al.
Role of PD-L1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Prognostic Significance according to Clinicopathological Factors and Diagnostic Markers.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The latest immunotherapy, used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), uses monoclonal antibodies directed against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to inhibit its interaction with the PD-1 receptor. Elevated levels of PD-L1 expression were observed on NSCLC cells. The association between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features is still unclear. Therefore, we examined this relationship and also compare PD-L1 expression levels with Ki-67, p63 and TTF-1.
METHODS: 866 samples of NSCLCs were used to prepare tissue microarrays (TMAs) on which immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions were performed. Changes in the level of
RESULTS: PD-L1 expression was observed in 32.6% of NSCLCs. PD-L1 expression was increased in higher malignancy grades (G) (
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 expression seems to be associated with increased tumor proliferation and aggressiveness as well as shorter patient survival in NSCLC, predominantly in the AC group.

Plum PS, Gebauer F, Krämer M, et al.
HER2/neu (ERBB2) expression and gene amplification correlates with better survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HER2 (ERBB2 or HER2/neu) is a tyrosine-kinase increasing cell proliferation. Overexpression/amplification of HER2 is correlated with worse prognosis in solid malignancies. Consequently, HER2 targeting is established in breast and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. There are conflicting data concerning the impact of HER2 overexpression on esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), as most studies do not differ between cancers of the esophagus/gastroesophageal junction and the stomach. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression/amplification of HER2 in EAC in correlation to clinicopathological data to verify its prognostic impact.
METHODS: We analyzed 428 EAC patients that underwent transthoracic thoraco-abdominal esophagectomy between 1997 and 2014. We performed HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) according to the guidelines and fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) for IHC score2+, using tissue micro arrays (TMA) with up to eight biopsies from the surface and infiltration area of a single tumor for evaluating HER2-heterogeneity and single-spot TMA. The HER2-status was correlated with clinicopathological data.
RESULTS: HER2-positivity was found in up to 14.9% in our cohort (IHC score 3+ or IHC score 2+ with gene amplification) and demonstrated a significantly better overall survival (OS) in correlation to HER2-negative tumors (median OS 70.1 vs. 24.6 months, p = 0.006). HER2-overexpression was more frequently seen in lower tumor stages (pT1/pT2, p = 0.038), in the absence of lymphatic metastases (pN0/pN+, p = 0.020), and was significantly associated with better histological grading (G1/G2) (p = 0.041).
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a positive prognostic impact of HER2 overexpression in a large cohort of EAC, contrary to other solid malignancies including gastric cancer and breast cancer, but consistent to the results of a large study on EAC from 2012.

MacLeod RAF, Schneider B, Sivakova I, et al.
High level EGFR amplification in a newly established glioblastoma cell line 170-MG-BA.
Neoplasma. 2019; 66(1):109-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and incurable primary brain tumor. The most frequent genetic alteration therein is amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, the target of current clinical trials. However, EGFR amplification is poorly represented in glioblastoma cell lines. From the 30 cultures attempted herein, we were able to establish two glioblastoma permanent cell lines. The remaining cultures showed limited life span and underwent senescence between passage numbers (PN) 8 to 15. Our newly established glioblastoma cell lines, designated 170-MG-BA and 538-MG-BA, both originated between PN 3 and 5 when areas of smaller, more rapidly proliferating cells appeared. Both cell lines showed similar rates of growth, moderate morphological differences, cytoskeletal heterogeneity and multiple chromosome rearrangements. Analysis by molecular cytogenetics and comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed two copies of a stable marker chromosome in 170-MG-BA cells effecting focal amplification at 7q11 of the EGFR locus. Comparative RqPCR analysis confirmed that EGFR was uniquely highly expressed in 170-MG-BA cells. Combined targeted expression analysis and aCGH data excluded the recurrent EGFRvIII activating mutation. In contrast, EGFR expression in 538-MG-BA cells which lacked genomic EGFR amplification was not raised. Immunofluorescent staining showed high EGFR protein expression only in the 170-MG-BA cells. Cytogenetic, genomic and transcriptional analyses then confirmed high-level genomic amplification and transcriptional upregulation of wild type EGFR in 170-MG-BA; the first conventional cell line model for investigating the biology and targeted therapy of this key alteration in glioblastoma. Both cell lines are freely available from the DSMZ cell repository.

Zhang Q, Wang C, Cliby WA
Cancer-associated stroma significantly contributes to the mesenchymal subtype signature of serous ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(2):368-374 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal (MES) subtype of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is associated with worse outcomes including survival and resectability compared with other molecular subtypes. Molecular subtypes have historically been derived from 'tumor', consisting of both cancer and stromal cells. We sought to determine the origins of multiple MES subtype gene signatures in HGSOC.
METHODS: Fifteen patients with MES subtype of HGSOC diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 were identified. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks from primary surgery were sectioned for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of relevant proteins. Eight genes (ACTA2, COL5A1, COL11A1, FAP, POSTN, VCAN, ZEB1 and p-SMAD2) were selected for IHC staining based on their differential expression in MES vs. non-MES subtypes of HGSOC. Slides were scored for intensity and localization and simple statistics were used to compare expression results in cancer vs. stroma and between primary and metastatic sites.
RESULTS: COL5A1, VCAN, FAP, and ZEB1 proteins were almost exclusively expressed by stroma as opposed to cancer cells. In addition, stromal expression was dominant for ACTA2, COL11A1, POSTN and p-SMAD2. In general there were minimal differences in expression of proteins between primary and metastatic sites, exceptions being COL5A1 (reduced in metastases) and COL11A1 (increased in metastases). Nuclear p-SMAD2 expression was more common in metastatic stroma.
CONCLUSIONS: The existing molecular classification of HGSOC MES subtype reflects a significant stromal contribution, suggesting an important role in HGSOC behavior and thus stroma may be a relevant therapeutic target. Specific patterns of expression indicate that collagens and TGF-β signaling are involved in the metastatic process.

Martini T, Heinkele J, Mayr R, et al.
Predictive value of lymphangiogenesis and proliferation markers on mRNA level in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder after radical cystectomy.
Urol Oncol. 2018; 36(12):530.e19-530.e27 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mRNA expression of lymphangiogenesis and proliferation markers and to examine its association with histopathological characteristics and clinical outcome in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) after radical cystectomy (RC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gene expression analysis of the vascular endothelial growth -C and -D (VEGF-C/-D), its receptor VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), MKI67, and RACGAP1 was performed in 108 patients after radical cystectomy and their correlation with clinical-pathological parameters was investigated. Uni- and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictors for cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after RC.
RESULTS: The expression of RACGAP1 and VEGFR-3 showed an association with a higher pT stage (P = 0.049; P = 0.009). MKI67 showed an association with a high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (P = 0.021). VEGFR-3 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P = 0.016) and lymph node metastases (pN+) (P = 0.028). With the univariate analysis, overexpression of VEGFR-3 (P = 0.029) and the clinical-pathological parameters pT stage (P < 0.0001), pN+ (P = 0.0004), LVI (P < 0.0001) and female gender (P = 0.021) were significantly associated with a reduced CSS. Multivariate analysis identified a higher pT stage (P = 0.017) and LVI (P = 0.008) as independent predictors for reduced CSS. Independent predictors for reduced OS were a higher pT stage (P = 0.0007) and LVI (P = 0.0021), while overexpression of VEGF-D was associated with better OS (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA expression of the investigated markers showed associations with common histopathological parameters. Increased expression of VEGF-D is independently associated with better overall survival.

Kongkavitoon P, Butta P, Sanpavat A, et al.
Regulation of periostin expression by Notch signaling in hepatocytes and liver cancer cell lines.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 506(3):739-745 [PubMed] Related Publications
Notch signaling is involved in both differentiation of hepatocyte progenitors and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism whereby Notch signaling regulates cellular transformation in hepatocytes is still controversial. This study investigated the impact of overexpressing truncated intracellular Notch1 (NICD1) on transcriptomic profiles of immortalized human hepatocytes. RNA sequencing and gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that extracellular matrix organization and hyaluronan biosynthesis process gene sets are among those affected by Notch hyperactivation. The relationship between Notch signaling and periostin, an extracellular matrix protein highly expressed in HCC, were further studied. Modulating Notch signaling through NICD1 overexpression or treatment with a gamma secretase inhibitor resulted in increased or decreased periostin expression, respectively, in HCC and liver bile duct carcinoma cell lines. Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas database, mRNA levels of NOTCH1 and POSTN are positively correlated in tumor tissues but not in nontumor tissues. Two consensus RBPJ binding motifs were identified in the -3932/-3921 and + 2522/+2533 bp of POSTN regulatory regions, and NOTCH1 is associated with these binding sites in a liver bile duct carcinoma cell line. Taken together, these results indicate that Notch signaling directly regulates transcription of POSTN in hepatocytes and liver cancer cell lines and may be a candidate for drug targeting in liver cancer.

Wu Y, Tan L, Chen J, et al.
MAD2 Combined with Mitotic Spindle Apparatus (MSA) and Anticentromere Antibody (ACA) for Diagnosis of Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC).
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:7541-7547 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND MAD2 is the gene controlling mitosis. Many studies have assessed MAD2 in various types of carcinoma. Antinuclear mitotic spindle apparatus antibody (MSA) and anticentromere antibody (ACA) are related mitotic antibodies, playing roles in autoimmune diseases and carcinomas, but the expression of MAD2, MSA, and ACA in SCLC is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 70 SCLC patients, 72 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and 65 pulmonary nodule (PN) patients. MAD2 expression was measured through agarose electrophoresis and qt-PCR. Antinuclear mitotic spindle apparatus antibody (MSA) and anticentromere antibody (ACA) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). RESULTS MAD2 was found both in SCLC and NSCLC. Interestingly, there was a significant difference found between SCLC and NSCLC using qt-PCR (P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve of MAD2 expression was 0.799, with medium diagnostic value. MAD2 expression was related to age, lymphatic metastasis, and survival time, but not with sex. The positivity for MSA and ACA by IIF assay were 37.20% and 34.00%, respectively, in the SCLC group, which were higher than in the NSCLC and pulmonary nodule groups (P<0.05). The kappa values of MSA and ACA with MAD2 expression were 0.73 and 0.65, respectively, with moderate consistency. Combining MAD2 with MSA and ACA enhanced the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing SCLC. CONCLUSIONS MAD2 expression was found to be involved in carcinogenesis and prognosis of SCLC. The combination of MAD2 with MSA and ACA is useful for early diagnosis and shows promise in treatment of SCLC.

Yang GS, Kumar S, Dorsey SG, et al.
Systematic review of genetic polymorphisms associated with psychoneurological symptoms in breast cancer survivors.
Support Care Cancer. 2019; 27(2):351-371 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Psychoneurological (PN) symptoms, such as anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and pain, are highly prevalent in breast cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to differential symptom susceptibility. We aimed to systematically review associations between genetic polymorphisms and PN symptoms during or after cancer treatment for early-stage breast cancer.
METHODS: Twenty-six eligible articles published until October 2017 were identified in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and additional records. Information on study characteristics, genetic polymorphisms, and PN symptoms was extracted. Study quality was evaluated by the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association (STREGA) guideline. Genes included in the analysis were categorized by biological pathways based on the Reactome database.
RESULTS: A total of 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes that are significantly associated with PN symptoms were identified; half of them were associated with increased severity of PN symptoms, while the other half contributed to the decrease of PN symptoms. Pain has the known highest number of associated genetic polymorphisms reported, followed by fatigue, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbances, and anxiety. The majority of genetic polymorphisms were involved in immune system and neuronal system pathways. Most studies were unsuccessful in meeting the STREGA guideline, which requires transparent reporting of methods and results.
CONCLUSIONS: This review provides comprehensive evidence of genetic polymorphisms underlying PN symptoms, which may pave the way for the development of personalized therapeutics targeting these symptoms. More well-designed genome-wide association studies are required to validate and replicate these findings.

Hua W, Zhao Y, Jin X, et al.
METTL3 promotes ovarian carcinoma growth and invasion through the regulation of AXL translation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 151(2):356-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: As the most prevalent internal modification in mammalian messenger RNA, N
METHODS: METTL3 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 162 ovarian carcinoma patients. Stable cell lines with METTL3 gene overexpression or knockdown were established to investigate the function of METTL3 in ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: METTL3 was frequently upregulated in ovarian carcinoma and that a high level of METTL3 was significantly associated with tumor grade (P = 0.001), pT status (P = 0.002), pN/pM status (P < 0.001), FIGO stage (P < 0.001), and overall survival rate (P < 0.001). Stable overexpression of METTL3 in the OVCAR3 and COV504 cell lines significantly increased cellular proliferation, focus formation, motility, invasion, and tumor formation in nude mice. Silencing METTL3 expression in the SKOV3 and HO-8910 cell lines with short hairpin RNA effectively inhibited its oncogenic function. Further study found that METTL3 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by upregulating the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that METTL3 plays very important oncogenic roles in ovarian carcinoma development and/or aggressiveness by stimulating AXL translation and EMT and that METTL3 may serve as a novel prognostic and/or therapeutic target of interest in ovarian cancer.

Kurihara J, Yokoo S, Ichikawa M, et al.
Intraosseous intraneural perineurioma derived from the inferior alveolar nerve with an abnormality of chromosome 22 and expression of the BCR-ABL fusion gene: report of a case and review of recent literature.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):189 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Perineurioma (PN) is a peripheral nerve disease that primarily develops in the limbs and trunk and very rarely occurs in the oral cavity. PN is classified into two types: intraneural perineurioma (INPN) and soft tissue perineurioma (extraneural perineurioma, ENPN). In this article, we report a patient with mandibular body INPN derived from the perineurium of the inferior alveolar nerve.
CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 43-year-old male. He consulted our department for a detailed examination of the right mandibular body. A biopsy was performed at another hospital and he was diagnosed with a schwannoma. At his first visit, hypesthesia extending from the right lower lip to the mental region was recognized and enlargement of the right mandibular canal was confirmed with X-ray CT and MRI. Considering the possibility of future tumor growth, we extirpated the tumor under general anesthesia. Cystic tumor was seen continuously in the inferior alveolar nerve. Immunohistologically, the tumor cells were positive for Glut-1, weakly positive for EMA, and weakly positive for Claudin-1, and the histopathological diagnosis was INPN. In addition, absence of the BCR region of chromosome 22 and expression of the BCR-ABL fusion gene were observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and a chromosome 22 abnormality was confirmed. These findings indicated that the disease was a neoplastic lesion.
CONCLUSION: Expression of the BCR-ABL fusion gene in INPN that develops in the oral cavity is thought to be very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first case to be reported in the literature. About three postoperative years have passed, but findings suggestive of recurrence have not been observed.

Kang Y, Liu J, Zhang Y, et al.
Upregulation of Periostin expression in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(12):1959-1965 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ameloblastoma(AB) is an aggressive and slow-growing tumor with high recurrence rate, which arises from odontogenic epithelium. AB mostly shows osteolytic growth, but the specific pathogenesis is not yet clear. Periostin is a considered a prominent oncogene, which was mainly produced by osteoblasts and their precursors cells, it have been proved that Periostin play an important role in bone lysis. However, the precise role of Periostin in AB progression remains unknown. In this article, the surgical specimens from cases of AB were collected, and the Periostin expression was tested and the results were analyzed for possible correlations with clinical characteristics. In addition, the proliferation、cell cycle and migration of AM-1 cells were evaluated after transfection of siPeriostin. The results showed that Periostin levels were significantly higher in patients with AB than in controls. Moreover, Periostin levels in patients with AB were significantly associated with the number of disease. Furthermore, the results suggested that Periostin expression significantly promoted the proliferation and migration, in addition to cell cycle progression of AM-1 cells. The present study demonstrated that Periostin may be important in the pathogenesis and progression of AB and indicated its potential therapeutic value.

Sinha P, Haughey BH, Kallogjeri D, Jackson RS
Long-term analysis of transorally resected p16 + Oropharynx cancer: Outcomes and prognostic factors.
Laryngoscope. 2019; 129(5):1141-1149 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We observed high survival in a previous report of a p16-positive, oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) cohort treated primarily with transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) ± adjuvant therapy and followed for ≥ 12 months. To address long-term outcomes of primary transoral surgery for this unique disease, we present an updated analysis of our cohort with extended follow-up.
METHODS: A prospectively assembled TLM cohort of 171 OPC patients was analyzed for disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival (disease-free survival [DFS], disease-specific survival [DSS], overall survival [OS]) and functional outcomes, with a minimum follow-up of 60 months or to death.
RESULTS: Median follow-up was 103 (60-201) months. Five-year DFS, DSS, and OS estimates were 85% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-91%), 93% (95% CI: 89%-97%), and 90% (95% CI: 86%-95%). Recurrence occurred in 20 (12%; 7 locoregional, 13 distant); median time to recurrence was 18.8 months; and 90% occurred within 48 months. Age, smoking, American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition clinical tumor-category, pathologic tumor (pT)-category, pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM), and any adjuvant were significantly associated with disease-free survival in multivariable analyses, whereas pT-category, pN-category, TNM grouping, and angioinvasion were associated with DSS. A second primary developed in six (3.5%) patients. Indications for gastrostomy were recurrence/second primary (11), postadjuvant esophageal stenosis (6), comorbidities (3), and osteo/chondroradionecrosis (3); only seven (4%) had a gastrostomy tube in the absence of these factors, all of whom received adjuvant therapy. Two had a tracheostomy tube [chondoradionecrosis (1), recurrence (1)].
CONCLUSION: High 5-year survival and locoregional control were observed, with recurrence occurring more commonly as distant metastasis. The observed time to recurrence suggests posttreatment oncologic surveillance for at least 48 months. Identified prognosticators will inform adjuvant treatment considerations, trial planning, and patient counseling for long-term outcomes. Laryngoscope, 2018 LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 129:1141-1149, 2019.

Coan M, Rampioni Vinciguerra GL, Cesaratto L, et al.
Exploring the Role of Fallopian Ciliated Cells in the Pathogenesis of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
High-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women and the first among gynecological malignancies. Despite an initial response to standard chemotherapy, most HGSOC patients relapse. To improve treatment options, we must continue investigating tumor biology. Tumor characteristics (e.g., risk factors and epidemiology) are valuable clues to accomplish this task. The two most frequent risk factors for HGSOC are the lifetime number of ovulations, which is associated with increased oxidative stress in the pelvic area caused by ovulation fluid, and a positive family history due to genetic factors. In the attempt to identify novel genetic factors (i.e., genes) associated with HGSOC, we observed that several genes in linkage with HGSOC are expressed in the ciliated cells of the fallopian tube. This finding made us hypothesize that ciliated cells, despite not being the cell of origin for HGSOC, may take part in HGSOC tumor initiation. Specifically, malfunction of the ciliary beat impairs the laminar fluid flow above the fallopian tube epithelia, thus likely reducing the clearance of oxidative stress caused by follicular fluid. Herein, we review the up-to-date findings dealing with HGSOC predisposition with the hypothesis that fallopian ciliated cells take part in HGSOC onset. Finally, we review the up-to-date literature concerning genes that are located in genomic loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) predisposition that are expressed by the fallopian ciliated cells.

De Carlo E, Gerratana L, De Maglio G, et al.
Defining a prognostic score based on O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase cut-off methylation level determined by pyrosequencing in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 140(3):559-568 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Epigenetic variations in the O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase gene had been widely associated with a favorable impact on survival in patients affected by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Aim of this study is to explore a scoring system based on the gene promoter methylation in order to predict patients' prognosis.
METHODS: A series of 128 patients with GBM was retrospectively analyzed. A training set and a validations set were then generated. The methylation level of CpGi from 74 to 83 was determined by pyrosequencing. In accordance to previous literature, each island was assigned with 1 point if the corresponding methylation level was higher than 9%. The sum consisted in a score that went from 0 (all CpGi < 9%) to 10 (all CpGi ≥ 9%). A threshold capable to detect a favorable outcome (overall survival, OS > 24 months) was identified by ROC analysis.
RESULTS: Median OS and follow-up were 14 and 32.6 months respectively. Among the total population, 35% of the pts had a score of 0, while 29% had a score of 10. A score ≥ 6 was associated with a favorable prognosis also when corrected for age (> 70 vs. ≤ 70 years) and ECOG performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3). Similar results were observed also in terms of PFS. Results were consistent in the training and in the validation set.
CONCLUSIONS: The present manuscript explored a novel scoring system capable to take into consideration the methylation status of each single CpGi, capable to better predict prognosis in GBM patients.

Wehrhan F, Büttner-Herold M, Distel L, et al.
Galectin 3 expression in regional lymph nodes and lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinomas.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):823 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neck dissection is standard in surgical management of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc). However, the immunologic link between primary tumor and lymph nodes is insufficiently understood. Galectin 3 (Gal3) promotes M2 polarization of macrophages and contributes to immunosuppression. The current study analyzes the association between Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes of oscc with histomorphologic parameters (T-, N-, L- Pn-stage, grading) of the primary tumor. Additionally, Gal3 expression is correlated with markers of macrophage polarization (M1 vs. M2).
METHODS: Preoperative diagnostic biopsies (n = 26), tumor resection specimens (n = 34), tumor-free lymph nodes (n = 28) and lymph node metastases (n = 10) of T1/T2 oscc patients were immunohistochemically analyzed for Gal3 and macrophage marker (CD68, CD11c, CD163 and MRC1) expression. The number of positive cells and the expression ratios were quantitatively assessed.
RESULTS: High Gal3 expression in tumor-free regional lymph nodes was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with increased tumor size. The epithelial compartment of lymph node metastases showed a significantly (p < 0.05) increased Gal3 expression compared to biopsies and tumor resection specimens. Cell density of M2 macrophages was significantly (p < 0.05) and positively correlated with the number of Gal3 expressing cells in lymph nodes and tumor specimens.
CONCLUSION: Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes might be associated with oscc progression. The increased Gal3 expression in regional lymph nodes of larger tumors underlines the need of immunomodulatory treatment concepts in early-stage oscc. Blocking of Gal3 might be a therapeutic option in oral cancer.

Tsai KW, Kuo WT, Jeng SY
Tight Junction Protein 1 Dysfunction Contributes to Cell Motility in Bladder Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(8):4607-4615 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy involving the urinary system. The mortality rate in late stages remains high, thus the development of effective biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis is required in order to improve patient survival rates. Tight junction protein 1 (TJP1) is a membrane-associated protein that helps modulate cell-cell contact. However, the role of TJP1 in bladder cancer progression remains unclear.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of TJP1 and miR-455-5p were examined by analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The biological role of TJP1 and miR-455-5p were assessed in T24 cells with siTJP1 or miR-455-5p mimics transfection, respectively.
RESULTS: High levels of expression of TJP1 were significantly correlated with poor lymph node metastasis (pN stage; p=0.004). Knockdown of the TJP1 gene expression led to significant decrease of the growth and invasion of T24 cells. Using a bioinformatics approach, miR-455-5p was shown to suppress TJP1 expression by directly targeting its 3' prime untranslated region in bladder cancer cells. The ectopic expression of miR-455-5p revealed that bladder cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were significantly suppressed.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our results indicate that dysfunction of the miR-455-TJP1 axis is involved in bladder cancer cell growth and metastasis. These findings highlight potential therapeutic targets or putative biomarkers for bladder cancer.

Ye D, Zhou C, Wang S, et al.
Tumor suppression effect of targeting periostin with siRNA in a nude mouse model of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Clin Lab Anal. 2019; 33(1):e22622 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of laryngeal carcinoma is increasing, however, the mechanism is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of periostin gene silencing by siRNA on tumor inhibition, in a novel nude mouse model of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and to explore possible inhibitory mechanisms.
METHODS: Tumors were established in nude mice by transplantation of LSCC AMC-HN-8 cell line. Forty-eight nude mice were randomly divided into groups of eight each, and treated with high (1.0 OD) or low (0.5 OD) doses of periostin-siRNA or appropriate control solutions. Tumor growth was observed and used to calculate an inhibition rate (%). Routine pathological and electron microscopic examination were used to determine tumor apoptosis and proliferation. Changes in periostin mRNA and protein levels were analyzed.
RESULTS: Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in mice treated by high dose periostin-siRNA compared to untreated and those treated with low dose periostin-siRNA (P < 0.05). Pathological examination showed increased tumor necrosis and apoptotic changes in treated mice, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. Periostin mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in tumors from mice treated with high dose periostin-siRNA, compared to controls and low-dose periostin-siRNA treatment groups (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Periostin silencing was associated with growth inhibition of tumor cells in a nude mouse model of LSCC. The underlying mechanism may be due to receptor-mediated induction of relevant signal transduction pathways that modulate the microenvironment needed for cancer cell survival. Periostin is expected to become a new target for cancer therapy.

Pichler R, Fritz J, Lackner F, et al.
Prognostic Value of Testing PD-L1 Expression After Radical Cystectomy in High-risk Patients.
Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018; 16(5):e1015-e1024 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The use of cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after radical cystectomy (RC) is a highly controversial issue and has been infrequently used owing to the high rates of postoperative complications, cisplatin ineligibility, and lack of randomized trials. Checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab are currently being tested in phase III studies in the adjuvant setting owing to their more favorable safety profile compared with chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether compartmentalization of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in different locations of RC specimens influences recurrence-free survival (RFS) after RC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PD-L1 expression was quantified on tumor cells and immune cells by immunohistochemistry in 83 "high-risk" patients (stage ≥ pT3a and/or pN+ disease) who had undergone RC without cisplatin-based AC.
RESULTS: PD-L1 (≥ 1%) was expressed on tumor cells in 33 patients (39.8%) and immune cells in 51 patients (61.4%), respectively. PD-L1 positivity on tumor cells was not associated with RFS (P = .455). In contrast, PD-L1
CONCLUSIONS: We have confirmed the high heterogeneity of PD-L1 cell type-dependent expression, with the resulting divergent outcomes. Ultimately, no clear statement about PD-L1 expression as a prognostic biomarker for further AC after RC could be made, although PD-L1 expression on immune cells seemed to have the greatest effect in predicting the outcome.

Liu X, Qiao B, Zhao T, et al.
Sox2 promotes tumor aggressiveness and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(3):1418-1426 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is highly malignant and poorly differentiated, resulting in a high frequency of local recurrence and distant metastases. Sox2 (Sry‑box2), an important factor in embryonic development and cell differentiation, has been shown to associate with malignant phenotypes and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression in numerous types of human tumors. However, the clinical relevance and molecular mechanisms of Sox2 in TSCC remain unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of Sox2 were assessed in 61 pairs of TSCC samples and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemical methods. Associations between Sox2 expression and clinicopathological features were evaluated. Furthermore, Sox2 was overexpressed and inhibited using full-length Sox2 cDNA and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection in UM2 and Cal27 cell lines, respectively. The malignant phenotypes were assessed by plate clone formation assays, wound-healing assays and Transwell assays. EMT markers (E‑cadherin, vimentin, Twist, Slug and Snail) and β‑catenin were detected by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis following the alterations of Sox2 expression. The results indicated that Sox2 expression was markedly upregulated in TSCC samples and was significantly associated with tumor growth (pT stage), cell differentiation, lymphatic metastasis (pN stage) and clinical stage (pTNM stage). Cal27‑shRNA‑Sox2 cells not only exhibited a decreased capacity for cell proliferation, but also suppressed cell migration and invasion, and an attenuated colony formation capacity. By contrast, UM2‑Sox2 cells exhibited accelerated cell malignant phenotypes and EMT progression. Moreover, when the expression of Sox2 was decreased by shRNA transduction, β‑catenin expression was attenuated. An opposing phenomenon was observed in UM2‑Sox2 cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that Sox2 expression serves a role in TSCC malignant phenotypes and EMT progression, and that β‑catenin may act as a modulated factor in this progression.

Ishqi HM, Husain MA, Rehman SU, et al.
Identification and expression of alternatively spliced novel isoforms of cancer associated MYD88 lacking death domain in mouse.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(5):699-711 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYD88 is an adaptor protein known to involve in activation of NF-κB through IL-1 receptor and TLR stimulation. It consists of N-terminal death domain and C-terminal Toll/IL-R homology domain that mediates its interaction with IL-1R associated kinase and IL-1R/TLR, respectively. MYD88 contributes to various types of carcinogenesis due to its involvement in oncogene induced inflammation. In the present study, we have recognized two new alternatively spliced variants of MyD88 gene in mouse using bioinformatics tools and molecular biology techniques in combination. The newly identified non-coding exon (NE-1) from 5' upstream region alternatively splices with either exon E-2 or exon E-5 to produce two novel transcript variants MyD88N1 and MyD88N2 respectively. The transcript variant MyD88N1 was expressed in several tissues studied while the variant MyD88N2 was found to be expressed only in the brain. The analysis of the upstream region of novel exon by in silico approach revealed new promoter region PN, which possess potential signature sequences for diverse transcription factors, suggesting complex gene regulation. Studies of post translational modifications of conceptualized amino acid sequences of these isoforms revealed diversity in properties. Western blot analysis further confirmed the expression of protein isoform MYD88N1.

Agizamhan S, Qu F, Liu N, et al.
Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts the surgical outcome of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 renal cell carcinoma patients.
BMC Urol. 2018; 18(1):60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CRP/Alb ratio) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been demonstrated to predict the clinical outcome of various human cancer, including renal cell carcinoma(RCC). The aim of our study was to explore the prognostic values of these ratios in patients with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusions renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 tRCC).
METHODS: A retrospective multicentre study was performed in 82 Xp11.2 tRCC patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy. The optimal cutoff values of the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR were determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The impact of the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR, as well as other clinicopathological characteristics, on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: The optimal cutoff values of the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR were set at 2.45, 140 and 0.08, respectively, according to the ROC analysis. Univariate analyses showed that the NLR, CRP/Alb ratio and PLR all were associated with DFS of Xp11.2 tRCC patients (P < 0.001, P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively) and OS of Xp11.2 tRCC patients (P = 0.016, P = 0.003 and P = 0.014, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that the NLR was independently associated with DFS of Xp11.2 tRCC patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.19-15.18; P = 0.026) along with age (P = 0.004), the pT status (P < 0.001) and the pN status (P < 0.019), and the NLR (HR: 26.26; 95% CI: 1.44-480.3; P = 0.028) also was independently associated with OS in patients with Xp11.2 tRCC, along with age (P = 0.016) and a tumour thrombus (P = 0.007).
CONCLUSION: Overall, relatively high NLRs, CRP/Alb ratios and PLRs were associated with a poor prognosis of Xp11.2 tRCC patients; among of them, only the NLR independently predicted the progression of Xp11.2 tRCC, and the NLR may help to identify patients with high metastasis or relapse risk.

Sun ZG, Yu L, Gao W, et al.
Clinical and prognostic significance of MUC1 expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after radical resection.
Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2018 May-Jun; 24(3):165-170 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Background/Aim: To investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of MUC1 expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after radical resection.
Materials and Methods: A total of 108 ESCC specimens were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect MUC1 at the mRNA level and were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect MUC1 at the protein level.
Results: MUC1 mRNA was found in 74 cases by RT-PCR and MUC1 protein expression was found by IHC in 70 cases. Both MUC1 mRNA and protein expression correlated with pT (<0.05), pN (P < 0.01), and pTNM (<0.01). The 5-year survival rates of the patients were 39.8%. In univariate analysis, the 5-year survival rate in the ESCC patients was significantly associated with pT (P < 0.01), pN (P < 0.01), pTNM stage (P < 0.01), and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, pN and MUC1 expression were the independent relevant factors.
Conclusion: MUC1 expression can become a useful marker to predict poor prognostic factors for 5-year survival rate in patients with ESCC after radical resection.

Qiu GZ, Mao XY, Ma Y, et al.
Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 acts as an oncoprotein to maintain glioma malignancy through deubiquitinating B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 for stabilization.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(7):2199-2210 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) is a member of the "death-from-cancer" signature, which plays a key role in cancer progression. Previous evidence has shown that USP22 is overexpressed and correlates with poor prognosis in glioma. The effect and mechanism of USP22 in glioma malignancy, especially cancer stemness, remain elusive. Herein, we find USP22 is more enriched in stem-like tumorspheres than differentiated glioma cells. USP22 knockdown inhibits cancer stemness in glioma cell lines. With a cell-penetrating TAT-tag protein, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1), a robust glioma stem-cell marker, is found to mediate the effect of USP22 on glioma stemness. By immunofluorescence, USP22 and BMI1 are found to share similar intranuclear expression in glioma cells. By analysis with immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics, USP22 is found to positively correlate with BMI1 at the post-translational level only rather than at the transcriptional level. By immunoprecipitation and in vivo deubiquitination assay, USP22 is found to interact with and deubiquitinate BMI1 for protein stabilization. Microarray analysis shows that USP22 and BMI1 mutually regulate a series of genes involved in glioma stemness such as POSTN, HEY2, PDGFRA and ATF3. In vivo study with nude mice confirms the role of USP22 in promoting glioma tumorigenesis by regulating BMI1. All these findings indicate USP22 as a novel deubiquitinase of BMI1 in glioma. We propose a working model of the USP22-BMI1 axis, which promotes glioma stemness and tumorigenesis through oncogenic activation. Thus, targeting USP22 might be an effective strategy to treat glioma especially in those with elevated BMI1 expression.

Garziera M, Cecchin E, Canzonieri V, et al.
Identification of Novel Somatic
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Somatic mutations in

Mikheev AM, Mikheeva SA, Severs LJ, et al.
Targeting TWIST1 through loss of function inhibits tumorigenicity of human glioblastoma.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(7):1188-1202 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
TWIST1 (TW) is a bHLH transcription factor (TF) and master regulator of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vitro, TW promotes mesenchymal change, invasion, and self-renewal in glioblastoma (GBM) cells. However, the potential therapeutic relevance of TW has not been established through loss-of-function studies in human GBM cell xenograft models. The effects of TW loss of function (gene editing and knockdown) on inhibition of tumorigenicity of U87MG and GBM4 glioma stem cells were tested in orthotopic xenograft models and conditional knockdown in established flank xenograft tumors. RNAseq and the analysis of tumors investigated putative TW-associated mechanisms. Multiple bioinformatic tools revealed significant alteration of ECM, membrane receptors, signaling transduction kinases, and cytoskeleton dynamics leading to identification of PI3K/AKT signaling. We experimentally show alteration of AKT activity and periostin (POSTN) expression in vivo and/or in vitro. For the first time, we show that effect of TW knockout inhibits AKT activity in U87MG cells in vivo independent of PTEN mutation. The clinical relevance of TW and candidate mechanisms was established by analysis of the TCGA and ENCODE databases. TW expression was associated with decreased patient survival and LASSO regression analysis identified POSTN as one of top targets of TW in human GBM. While we previously demonstrated the role of TW in promoting EMT and invasion of glioma cells, these studies provide direct experimental evidence supporting protumorigenic role of TW independent of invasion in vivo and the therapeutic relevance of targeting TW in human GBM. Further, the role of TW driving POSTN expression and AKT signaling suggests actionable targets, which could be leveraged to mitigate the oncogenic effects of TW in GBM.

Zanna I, Silvestri V, Palli D, et al.
Smoking and FGFR2 rs2981582 variant independently modulate male breast cancer survival: A population-based study in Tuscany, Italy.
Breast. 2018; 40:85-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease and recommendations for its clinical management are often extrapolated from those for female breast cancer, even if breast cancer (BC) has different characteristics in the two sexes. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of several individual characteristics including clinico-pathological, lifestyle and genetic factors on overall survival (OS) of a relatively large and well characterized population-based series of 166 MBCs enrolled in Tuscany.
METHODS: We genotyped MBC cases at BRCA1/2 genes and at 9 candidate BC susceptibility SNPs. Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression, adjusted for several individual characteristics were used. To reduce a possible selection bias related to the interval between diagnosis and enrolment of MBC cases into the study, we used the date of blood donation as the date of the start of observation for survival analysis.
RESULTS: Only smoking habits had a significant effect on OS at 10 years (for current smokers, HR: 3.34; 95% CI 1.45-7.68; p = 0.004), while lymph node status fell short of reaching statistical significance (for pN positive, HR: 2.07; 95% CI 0.93-4.55; p = 0.07). In the same multivariate analysis we found a significantly higher OS in cases with FGFR2 rs2981582 variant in the dominant transmission model (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.62; p = 0.028). A sensitivity analysis with left truncation showed similar results.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results may contribute to shed light on factors influencing MBC survival suggesting an important role for cigarette smoking and FGFR2 rs2981582 variant, and provide clues for better patient management.

Link H, Angele M, Schüller M, et al.
Extra-capsular growth of lymph node metastasis correlates with poor prognosis and high SOX9 expression in gastric cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):483 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extra-capsular growth (ECG) describes the extension of neoplastic cells beyond the lymph node capsule. Aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of ECG and its association with a stem cell like phenotype indicated by expression of the transcription factor SOX9 in gastric cancer.
METHODS: By histological evaluation, 199 patients with nodal positive gastric cancer or adeoncarcinoma of the esophageal-gastric junction (AEG) were divided into two groups according to the presence (ECG) or absence (ICG) of extracapsular growth in at least one nodal metastasis. Of these, 194 patients were stained for SOX9 and SOX2 using immunohistochemistry. Seventeen nodal negative patients (pT3/4, pN0, pM0) served as controls.
RESULTS: Seventy-three patients (36.7%) showed ECG. ECG was associated with lower overall survival (p < 0.0001), advanced pT- (p = 0.03) and pN- category (p < 0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, ECG was found to be an independent prognostic factor (HR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.7-3.4; p = 0.001). SOX9 expression correlated significantly with ECG (96% SOX9 high in ECG patients vs. 79% SOX9 high in patients with ICG; p = 0.002). Controls showed significantly reduced SOX9 expression compared to nodal positive carcinomas (59% vs. 85% high SOX9 expression; p = 0.006). No significant correlation of ECG and SOX2 (59% SOX2 negative in ECG patients vs. 64% in patients with ICG, p = 0.48) could be obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ECG exhibit poorer prognosis and ECG was found to be an independent prognostic factor. Thus, ECG turns out to be a morphological biomarker for a more aggressive phenotype in gastric cancer. This is supported by the fact that ECG correlates with the expression of SOX9, which has been described in the context of pro-oncogenic properties of tumours. However, the fact that SOX2 failed to show significant results indicate that ECG is not associated with a distinct cancer stem cell phenotype in gastric cancer.

Wang H, Li L, Yin L
Silencing LncRNA LOXL1-AS1 attenuates mesenchymal characteristics of glioblastoma via NF-κB pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 500(2):518-524 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mesenchymal (MES) subtype of glioblastoma (GBM) suggested worse prognosis and a more malignant phenotype in comparison with their proneural (PN) counterpart. The plasticity between PN and MES transcriptome signatures provided clinical intervention with an manner. Few LncRNA, however, have been discovered to take part in the shift between subtypes. Here, we used transcriptomic data and experimental evidences to demonstrate that silencing LncRNA LOXL1-AS1 was a new regulator of NF-κB signaling pathway through repressing RELB directly, resulting in increased marker genes of PN subtype and decreased those of MES.GBM cell proliferation was functionally suppressed by LOXL1-AS1's knockdown expression,. Furthermore, RELB's rescue could reverse LOXL1-AS1's effects partially in GBM malignant behaviors. LOXL1-AS1 could clinically serve as a poor prognostic indicator for GBM patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOXL1-AS1 contributes to aggressive biological processes that are related with MES phenotype via NF-κB signaling, which expand our perceptions into the underlying mechanisms in LOXL1-AS1-based and subtype transition adapted medicine for GBM management.

Ong HS, Gokavarapu S, Tian Z, et al.
PDGFRA mRNA overexpression is associated with regional metastasis and reduced survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2018; 47(7):652-659 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) is a gene encoding tyrosine kinase receptor and both EGFR and PDGFRA activate tyrosine kinases. The implication of PGFRA in many cancers and its prognostic significance irrespective to EGFR status in spinal chordoma, gliomas, and uterine cancers have shown a need for its investigation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the prognostic value of PDGFRA mRNA expression in OSCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the department of oral maxillofacial surgery-head and neck oncology, at a tertiary hospital. The data on PDGFRA mRNA expression and immunohistochemical staining status in primary OSCC patients treated for curative surgery from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with other cofactors for survival.
RESULTS: A total of 114 consecutive patients with primary OSCC who received treatment were studied. Thirty-one patients died of the disease. Strong PDGFRA immunohistochemical staining and high expression of PDGFRA mRNA were associated with positive pN status (P < .001), disease-free survival (P < .001), and overall survival (P < .001) in multivariate cox regression when all other factors such as pN status and histological grading were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the 2-year survival and 3-year survival of patients with PDGFRA mRNA low expression were 96.83%. However, 2-year survival for PDGFRA mRNA high expression level was 59.64%, which decreased to 45.57% by 3-years.
CONCLUSION: PDGFRA overexpression in oral SCC, in respect to strong PDGFRA immunohistochemical staining and high PDGFRA mRNA expression, was positively associated with regional metastasis and reduced patient survival.

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