Gene Summary

Gene:PPP2R1B; protein phosphatase 2 scaffold subunit Abeta
Aliases: PR65B, PP2A-Abeta
Summary:This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Mutations in this gene have been associated with some lung and colon cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 65 kDa regulatory subunit A beta isoform
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cervical Cancer
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Checkpoint Kinase 1
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Signal Transduction
  • MicroRNAs
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Protein Kinases
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Polymorphism
  • Lung Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • p53 Protein
  • Breast Cancer
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Point Mutation
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Protein Phosphatase 2
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
  • Transcription
  • Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Chromosome 11
  • Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PPP2R1B (cancer-related)

Kirchmeyer M, Servais FA, Hamdorf M, et al.
Cytokine-mediated modulation of the hepatic miRNome: miR-146b-5p is an IL-6-inducible miRNA with multiple targets.
J Leukoc Biol. 2018; 104(5):987-1002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-type cytokines play important roles in liver (patho-)biology. For instance, they regulate the acute phase response to inflammatory signals and are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Much is known about the regulation of protein-coding genes by cytokines whereas their effects on the miRNome is less well understood. We performed a microarray screen to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) in human hepatocytes which are modulated by IL-6-type cytokines. Using samples of 2 donors, 27 and 68 miRNAs (out of 1,733) were found to be differentially expressed upon stimulation with hyper-IL-6 (HIL-6) for up to 72 h, with an overlap of 15 commonly regulated miRNAs. qPCR validation revealed that miR-146b-5p was also consistently up-regulated in hepatocytes derived from 2 other donors. Interestingly, miR-146b-5p (but not miR-146a-5p) was induced by IL-6-type cytokines (HIL-6 and OSM) in non-transformed liver-derived PH5CH8 and THLE2 cells and in Huh-7 hepatoma cells, but not in HepG2 or Hep3B hepatoma cells. We did not find evidence for a differential regulation of miR-146b-5p expression by promoter methylation, also when analyzing the TCGA data set on liver cancer samples. Inducible overexpression of miR-146b-5p in PH5CH8 cells followed by RNA-Seq analysis revealed effects on multiple mRNAs, including those encoding IRAK1 and TRAF6 crucial for Toll-like receptor signaling. Indeed, LPS-mediated signaling was attenuated upon overexpression of miR-146b-5p, suggesting a regulatory loop to modulate inflammatory signaling in hepatocytes. Further validation experiments suggest DNAJC6, MAGEE1, MPHOSPH6, PPP2R1B, SLC10A3, SNRNP27, and TIMM17B to be novel targets for miR-146b-5p (and miR-146a-5p).

Routila J, Mäkelä JA, Luukkaa H, et al.
Potential role for inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor in salivary gland malignancies.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(1):69-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aetiology and pathogenesis of salivary gland malignancies remain unknown. To reveal novel molecular factors behind the development of salivary gland cancer, we performed gene expression analyses from Smgb-Tag mouse salivary gland samples. The overall purpose was to apply these results for clinical use to find new approaches for both possible therapeutic targets and more accurate diagnostic tools. Smgb-Tag mouse strain, in which salivary neoplasms arise through a dysplastic phase in submandibular glands, was investigated using genome-wide microarray expression analysis, ingenuity pathway analysis, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma samples were investigated using immunohistochemistry for validation purposes. Our genome-wide study showed that Ppp2r1b, a PP2A subunit encoding tumor suppressor gene, is underexpressed in submandibular gland tumors of Smgb-Tag mice. mTOR signaling pathway was significantly enriched and mTOR linked PP2A subunit gene B55 gamma was significantly underexpressed in the analyses. Furthermore, parallel immunohistochemical analysis of three PP2A inhibitors demonstrated that two PP2A inhibitors, CIP2A and SET, are highly expressed in both dysplastic and adenocarcinomatous tumors of the Smgb-Tag mice. In addition, all 38 investigated human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma samples stained positively for CIP2A and most for SET. Finally, p-S6 staining showed activation of mTOR pathway in human adenoid cystic carcinoma samples. Our results suggest that PP2A inhibition either via PP2A subunit underexpression or PP2A inhibitor overexpression play an important role in the formation of salivary gland malignancy, potentially due to mTOR signaling activation.

Zhang Y, Talmon G, Wang J
MicroRNA-587 antagonizes 5-FU-induced apoptosis and confers drug resistance by regulating PPP2R1B expression in colorectal cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1845 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug resistance is one of the major hurdles for cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown and therapeutic options remain limited. In this study, we show that microRNA (miR)-587 confers resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced apoptosis in vitro and reduces the potency of 5-FU in the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Further studies indicate that miR-587 modulates drug resistance through downregulation of expression of PPP2R1B, a regulatory subunit of the PP2A complex, which negatively regulates AKT activation. Knockdown of PPP2R1B expression increases AKT phosphorylation, which leads to elevated XIAP expression and enhanced 5-FU resistance; whereas rescue of PPP2R1B expression in miR-587-expressing cells decreases AKT phosphorylation/XIAP expression, re-sensitizing colon cancer cells to 5-FU-induced apoptosis. Moreover, a specific and potent AKT inhibitor, MK2206, reverses miR-587-conferred 5-FU resistance. Importantly, studies of colorectal cancer specimens indicate that the expression of miR-587 and PPP2R1B positively and inversely correlates with chemoresistance, respectively, in colorectal cancer. These findings indicate that the miR-587/PPP2R1B/pAKT/XIAP signaling axis has an important role in mediating response to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. A major implication of our study is that inhibition of miR-587 or restoration of PPP2R1B expression may have significant therapeutic potential to overcome drug resistance in colorectal cancer patients and that the combined use of an AKT inhibitor with 5-FU may increase efficacy in colorectal cancer treatment.

Yang R, Yang L, Qiu F, et al.
Functional genetic polymorphisms in PP2A subunit genes confer increased risks of lung cancer in southern and eastern Chinese.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77285 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases and functions as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the activity of some oncogenic kinases. Recent studies have reported that PP2A expression was suppressed during lung carcinogenesis, we there hypothesized that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PP2A subunit genes may affect PP2A function and thus contribute to lung cancer susceptibility. In a two-stage case-control study with a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 controls, we genotyped eight putative functional SNPs and one identified functional SNP (i.e., rs11453459) in seven major PP2A subunits (i.e., PPP2R1A, PPP2R1B, PPP2CA, PPP2R2A, PPP2R2B, PPP2R5C, PPP2R5E) in southern and eastern Chinese. We found that rs11453459G (-G/GG) variant genotypes of PPP2R1A and the rs1255722AA variant genotype of PPP2R5E conferred increased risks of lung cancer (rs11453459, -G/GG vs. -: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.13-1.51; rs1255722, AA vs.
AG/GG: OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07-1.51). After combined the two variants, the number of the adverse genotypes was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response manner (P trend = 5.63 × 10(-6)). Further functional assay showed that lung cancer tissues carrying rs1255722AA variant genotype had a significantly lower mRNA level of PPP2R5E compared with tissues carrying GG/GA genotypes. However, such effect was not observed for the other SNPs and other combinations. Our findings suggested that the two functional variants in PPP2R1A and PPP2R5E and their combination are associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese, which may be valuable biomarkers to predict risk of lung cancer.

Hwang JH, Jiang T, Kulkarni S, et al.
Protein phosphatase 2A isoforms utilizing Aβ scaffolds regulate differentiation through control of Akt protein.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(44):32064-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates almost all cell signaling pathways. It consists of a scaffolding A subunit to which a catalytic C subunit and one of many regulatory B subunits bind. Of the more than 80 PP2A isoforms, 10% use Aβ as a scaffold. This study demonstrates the isoform-specific function of the A scaffold subunits. Polyomaviruses have shown the importance of phosphotyrosine, PI3K, and p53 in transformation. Comparisons of polyoma and SV40 small T antigens implicate Aβ in the control of differentiation. Knockdown of Aβ enhanced differentiation. Akt signaling regulated differentiation; its activation or inhibition promoted or blocked it, respectively. Aβ bound Akt. Enhancement of PP2A Aβ/Akt interaction by polyoma small T antigen increased turnover of Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. Conversely, knockdown of Aβ promoted Akt activity and reduced turnover of phosphate at Ser-473 of Akt. These data provide new insight into the regulation of Akt, a protein of extreme importance in cancer. Furthermore, our results suggest that the role for Aβ in differentiation and perhaps tumor suppression may lie partly in its ability to negatively regulate Akt.

Sakai NS, Samia-Aly E, Barbera M, Fitzgerald RC
A review of the current understanding and clinical utility of miRNAs in esophageal cancer.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2013; 23(6 Pt B):512-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, well-conserved, non-coding RNAs that regulate the translation of RNAs. They have a role in biological and pathological process including cell differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation and metabolism. Since their discovery, they have been shown to have a potential role in cancer pathogenesis through their function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. A substantial number of miRNAs show differential expression in esophageal cancer tissues, and so have been investigated for possible use in diagnosis. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in their use as prognostic markers and determining treatment response, as well as identifying their downstream targets and understanding their mode of action.
METHODS: We analyzed the most recent studies on miRNAs in esophageal cancer and/or Barrett's esophagus (BE). The publications were identified by searching in PuBMed for the following terms: Barrett's esophagus and microRNA; esophageal cancer and microRNA.
RESULTS: Four miRNAs (mi-R-25, -99a, -133a and -133b) showed good potential as diagnostic markers and interestingly five (mi-R-21, -27b, -126, - 143 and -145) appeared to be useful both as diagnostic and prognostic/predictive markers.
CONCLUSION: The data so far on miRNAs in esophageal carcinogenesis is promising but further work is required to determine whether miRNAs can be used as biomarkers, not only in the clinical setting or added to individualized treatment regimes but also in non-invasive test by making use of miRNAs identified in blood.

Wang F, Zou Y, Liu FY, et al.
Infrequent mutations of the PPP2R1A and PPP2R1B genes in patients with ovarian cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(6):1826-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α (PPP2R1A) and β (PPP2R1B) are paralogous subunits of the heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) holoenzyme that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of target substrate proteins. Subtype‑specific PPP2R1A mutations have been frequently observed in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Mutations in the paralogous genes were frequently observed in human malignancies. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the mutation frequencies of the paralogous PPP2R1A and PPP2R1B genes in patients with primary and secondary ovarian cancer. A total of 251 patients with primary (n=234) and secondary (n=17) ovarian cancer were analyzed for the presence of PPP2R1A and PPP2R1B mutations by direct sequencing. For PPP2R1A, a heterozygous, somatic mutation (c.771G>T, p.W257C) was identified in 1 out of 37 patients (2.7%) with primary ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. The mutant sample was that of a 46‑year‑old female, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. No PPP2R1A mutations were detected in the remaining 250 patients with ovarian cancer. For PPP2R1B, no mutations were detected in our samples. The results of this study suggested that PPP2R1A mutations are less common in Chinese patients with ovarian cancer when compared with European and American patients. Furthermore, our study also supported previous observations that PPP2R1B mutations were absent in ovarian cancer, suggesting that PPP2R1B mutations are not actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.

Mazumder Indra D, Mitra S, Roy A, et al.
Alterations of ATM and CADM1 in chromosomal 11q22.3-23.2 region are associated with the development of invasive cervical carcinoma.
Hum Genet. 2011; 130(6):735-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand the importance of chr11q22.3-23.2 region in the development of cervical cancer, we have studied the genetic and epigenetic alterations of the candidate genes ATM, PPP2R1B, SDHD and CADM1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. Our study revealed low expression and high alterations (methylation/deletion) (55-59%) of ATM and CADM1 genes along with poor patient outcome. The alterations of ATM and CADM1 are associated with the progression of tumor from CIN to Stage I/II, thus implying their role in early invasiveness. The two genes, PPP2R1B and SDHD, lying in between ATM and CADM1, have low frequency of alterations, and majority of the alterations are in CACX samples, indicating that their alterations might be associated with disease progression. Expressions (mRNA/protein) of the genes showed concordance with their molecular alterations. Significant co-alteration of ATM and CADM1 points to their synergic action for the development of CACX. Mutation is, however, a rare phenomenon for inactivation of ATM. Association between the alteration of ATM and CHEK1 and poor survival of the patients having co-alterations of ATM and CHEK1 points to the DNA damage response pathway disruption in development of CACX. Thus, our data suggest that inactivation of ATM-CHEK1-associated DNA damage response pathway and CADM1-associated signaling network might have an important role in the development of CACX.

Mongin C, Coulet F, Lefevre JH, et al.
Unexplained polyposis: a challenge for geneticists, pathologists and gastroenterologists.
Clin Genet. 2012; 81(1):38-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two main colorectal polyposis syndromes have been described, familial adenomatous polyposis and MUTYH-associated polyposis syndromes. Some polyposis remains unexplained: 20% of adenomatous polyposis and serrated polyposis. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a cohort of patients with unexplained polyposis whether a genetic defect could be detected. Individuals presenting polyposis with more than 40 adenomas or more than 20 serrated polyps (hyperplastic, sessile serrated and mixed), without causative mutation identified, were included. Complementary explorations on APC or MUTYH were performed: search for APC mosaicism, splicing-affecting mutations, large genomic rearrangement of MUTYH. Four genes of Wnt pathway (AXIN2, PPP2R1B, WIF1, SFRP1) and two genes of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway (SMAD4, BMPR1A) were screened for germline mutation. Twenty-five patients had an unexplained adenomatous polyposis (familial or sporadic). Five pathogenic mutations were found: four in APC gene (with one case of mosaicism) and one in BMPR1A gene. The exploration of APC mosaicism was better performed from adenoma DNA with high-resolution melting. The screening of the candidate genes did not find any causative mutation. Thirteen individuals had an unexplained serrated polyposis and a frameshift on SMAD4 gene was identified. All mutations were identified in familial cases of polyposis. After new pathological examination, both BMPR1A and SMAD4 cases were found to be associated with a juvenile polyposis while the polyposis was initially described as adenomatous or undetermined. In 17% (6/38) of the patients the causative mutation of the polyposis was identified. Genetic causes were heterogeneous. Sporadic polyposis patients must be considered as potential APC mosaicism. The histological classification of polyposis is strongly important in direct genetic exploration.

Poretti G, Kwee I, Bernasconi B, et al.
Chromosome 11q23.1 is an unstable region in B-cell tumor cell lines.
Leuk Res. 2011; 35(6):808-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome 11q23 region is a frequent target of chromosome aberrations in B-cell lymphoid tumors. Here, we present the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of an amplification affecting 11q23.1 in four cell lines derived from B-cell lymphoid tumors. A minimal common region of amplification of 330 kb was identified in three cell lines using Affymetrix Human Mapping 250K arrays. When analyzed with three BAC clones, the amplifications appeared different at cytogenetic level in each cell line. Possibly affected transcripts were evaluated using tiling arrays, and validated by real time PCR. Since no effect of the amplification at the local transcription level was observed, it is possible that 11q23 amplification might mainly represent the effect of unstable chromosomal region.

Hamano R, Miyata H, Yamasaki M, et al.
Overexpression of miR-200c induces chemoresistance in esophageal cancers mediated through activation of the Akt signaling pathway.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(9):3029-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between resistance to chemotherapy and microRNA (miRNA) expression in esophageal cancer, we focused on miRNAs known to be associated with maintenance of stem cell function.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using 98 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples obtained from patients with esophageal cancer who had received preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery, we measured expression levels of several miRNAs that are considered to be involved in the regulation of stem cell function (e.g., let-7a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-134, miR-145, miR-155, miR-200c, miR-203, and miR-296) by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Then, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and prognosis or response to chemotherapy. To investigate the mechanism of miRNA-induced chemoresistance, in vitro assays were carried out using esophageal cancer cells.
RESULTS: Analyses of the 9 miRNAs expression showed that overexpression of miR-200c (P = 0.037), underexpression of miR-145 (P = 0.023), and overexpression of miR-21 (P = 0.048) correlated significantly with shortened overall duration of survival. In particular, miR-200c expression correlated significantly with response to chemotherapy (P = 0.009 for clinical response; P = 0.007 for pathologic response). In vitro assay showed significantly increased miR-200c expression in cisplatin-resistant cells compared with their parent cells (∼1.7-fold). In anti-miR-200c-transfected cells, chemosensitivity to cisplatin and apoptosis after exposure to cisplatin was found to increase as compared with the negative control. Western blotting showed that knockdown of miR-200c expression was associated with increased expression of PPP2R1B, a subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, which resulted in reduced expression of phospho-Akt.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study emphasized the involvement of miR-200c in resistance to chemotherapy among esophageal cancers and that this effect was mediated through the Akt pathway.

Li M, Zhao ZW, Zhang Y, Xin Y
Over-expression of Ephb4 is associated with carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2011; 56(3):698-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in the world. The gene expression profile and molecular grouping of gastric cancer has been a challenging task due to its inherent complexity and variation among individuals.
AIMS: To determine the molecular mechanism associated with gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: We analyzed the gene expression profiles of 20 cancerous tissues and their tumor-adjacent tissue from patients with gastric cancer by using a 14 K cDNA microarray. The differentially expressed genes and their products were verified by semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemistry of gastric cancer and normal tissue samples.
RESULTS: A total of 69 genes were found to be differentially regulated in the cancerous tissue. Among them, genes such as CDH17, ETV4, S100A6, S100A11, Ephb4, and KLK10 were confirmed by RT-PCR to be up-regulated, while genes such as NK4 and PPP2R1B were down-regulated. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry indicated that Ephb4 was over-expressed and localized to the cytoplasm of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, Ephb4 protein was observed as being significantly related to tumor size and pN category (p = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: These newly identified genes might provide a valuable resource for understanding the molecular mechanism associated with the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer and for finding potential diagnostic markers of gastric cancer.

Su DM, Zhang Q, Wang X, et al.
Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(5):1292-304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human malignant melanoma has poor prognosis because of resistance to apoptosis and therapy. We describe identification of the expression profile of 1,037 mitochondria-focused genes and 84 survival-apoptosis genes in 21 malignant melanoma cell lines and 3 normal melanocyte controls using recently developed hMitChip3 cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of 1,037 informative genes, and 84 survival-apoptosis genes, classified these malignant melanoma cell lines into type A (n = 12) and type B (n = 9). Three hundred fifty-five of 1,037 (34.2%) genes displayed significant (P ≤ 0.030; false discovery rate ≤ 3.68%) differences (± ≥ 2.0-fold) in average expression, with 197 genes higher and 158 genes lower in type A than in type B. Of 84 genes with known survival-apoptosis functions, 38 (45.2%) displayed the significant (P < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.15%) difference. Antiapoptotic (BCL2, BCL2A1, PPARD, and RAF1), antioxidant (MT3, PRDX5, PRDX3, GPX4, GLRX2, and GSR), and proapoptotic (BAD, BNIP1, APAF1, BNIP3L, CASP7, CYCS, CASP1, and VDAC1) genes expressed at higher levels in type A than in type B, whereas the different set of antiapoptotic (PSEN1, PPP2CA, API5, PPP2R1B, PPP2R1A, and FIS1), antioxidant (HSPD1, GSS, SOD1, ATOX1, and CAT), and proapoptotic (ENDOG, BAK1, CASP2, CASP4, PDCD5, HTRA2, SEPT4, TNFSF10, and PRODH) genes expressed at lower levels in type A than in type B. Microarray data were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results showed the presence of two types of malignant melanoma, each with a specific set of dysregulated survival-apoptosis genes, which may prove useful for development of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention and novel diagnostic biomarkers for treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma.

Sablina AA, Chen W, Arroyo JD, et al.
The tumor suppressor PP2A Abeta regulates the RalA GTPase.
Cell. 2007; 129(5):969-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Abeta subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Abeta mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Abeta expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Abeta mutants fail to reverse tumorigenic phenotype induced by PP2A Abeta suppression, indicating that these mutants function as null alleles. Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. PP2A Abeta-containing complexes dephosphorylate RalA at Ser183 and Ser194, inactivating RalA and abolishing its transforming function. These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA.

Kalla C, Scheuermann MO, Kube I, et al.
Analysis of 11q22-q23 deletion target genes in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: evidence for a pathogenic role of NPAT, CUL5, and PPP2R1B.
Eur J Cancer. 2007; 43(8):1328-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletion of 11q22-q23 is associated with an aggressive course of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Since only in a subset of these cases biallelic inactivation of ATM was observed, we sought to identify other disease-associated genes within 11q22-q23 by analysing NPAT (cell-cycle regulation), CUL5 (ubiquitin-dependent apoptosis regulation) and PPP2R1B (component of the cell-cycle and apoptosis regulating PP2A) for point mutations and their expression in B-CLL by single-strand conformation polymorphism/sequence analysis of the transcripts and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Though none of the genes were affected by deleterious mutations, we observed a significant down-regulation of NPAT in B-CLL versus CD19+ B cells and of CUL5 in 11q deletion versus non-deletion B-CLL samples and measured reduced PPP2R1B transcript levels in a subset of B-CLL cases. Alternative splicing of PPP2R1B transcripts (skipping of exons 2/3, 3, 9) was associated with a reduced activity of protein phosphatase 2A. Together, these results implicate deregulation of the cell-cycle and apoptosis regulators NPAT, CUL5 and PPP2R1B and a role for these genes in the pathogenesis of B-CLL.

Yeh LS, Hsieh YY, Chang JG, et al.
Mutation analysis of the tumor suppressor gene PPP2R1B in human cervical cancer.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 Jul-Aug; 17(4):868-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme plays a critical role in cell cycle control and growth factor signaling. The PPP2R1B gene encodes the beta isoforms of the subunit A of the PP2A. We aimed to evaluate the role of the PPP2R1B gene in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Twenty-four women with primary cervical cancer were included. All resected specimens were divided into two groups: (1) cervical cancers (n = 24), (2) nearby noncancerous tissues (n = 24). We performed nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and complementary DNA sequencing on the genomic DNA samples of all specimens. The aberrant transcripts and gene mutation as well as the genotype and allele frequencies of codon 66 CTA/CTG of PPP2R1B genes in both groups were compared. The percentages of aberrant transcripts between both groups were nonsignificantly different (20.8% vs 33.3%). There was no mutation in all specimens. The genotype and allele frequencies between both groups were non-different. Proportions of CTA homozygote/heterozygote/CTG homozygote were (1) 66.7/8.3/25% and (2) 58.3/12.5/29.2%. Proportions of CTA/CTG alleles in both groups were (1) 70.8/29.2% and (2) 64.6/35.4%. We conclude that PPP2R1B genes may not play a role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Mutations of PPP2R1B gene are not frequent in cervical cancer.

Chou HC, Chen CH, Lee HS, et al.
Alterations of tumour suppressor gene PPP2R1B in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2007; 253(1):138-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
To evaluate whether the tumour suppressor gene, PPP2R1B, is involved in pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cDNA sequencing were performed. Eleven of 38 (29%) tumours and 1 of 34 (3%) corresponding non-tumour tissues showed coexpression of wild-type and aberrant mRNA. Various deletions were found in aberrant transcripts. Southern blot analysis did not show gene deletion in tumours, suggesting abnormal RNA splicing may be involved. These data suggest the possibility that aberrant transcripts of PPP2R1B might be associated with the development of HCC.

Marsh A, Healey S, Lewis A, et al.
Mutation analysis of five candidate genes in familial breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007; 105(3):377-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most of the known breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 and ATM) are involved in the damage response pathway. Other members of this pathway are therefore good candidates for additional breast cancer susceptibility genes. ATR, along with ATM, plays a central role in DNA damage recognition and Chk1 relays checkpoint signals from both ATR and ATM. PPP2R1B and PPP2R5B code for subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which regulates autophosphorylation of ATM. In addition, EIF2S6/Int-6, which was originally identified as a common integration site for the mouse mammary tumour virus in virally induced mouse mammary tumours, is a candidate breast cancer susceptibility gene because of its putative role in maintaining chromosome stability. To investigate the role of ATR, CHK1, PPP2R1B, PPP2R5B and EIF2S6/Int-6, we carried out mutation analysis of these genes in the index cases from non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer families. We also screened sporadic breast tumours for somatic mutations in PPP2R1B and PPP2R5B. Although we identified many novel variants, we found no evidence that highly penetrant germline mutations in these five genes contribute to familial breast cancer susceptibility.

Yang X, Chen MW, Terry S, et al.
Complex regulation of human androgen receptor expression by Wnt signaling in prostate cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(24):3436-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
beta-Catenin, a component of the Wnt signaling pathway, is a coactivator of human androgen receptor (hAR) transcriptional activity. Here, we show that Wnt signaling also influences androgen-mediated signaling through its ability to regulate hAR mRNA and protein in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Three functional LEF-1/TCF binding sites lie within the promoter of the hAR gene as shown by CHIP assays that captured beta-catenin-bound chromatin from Wnt-activated LNCaP cells. Chimeric reporter vectors that use the hAR gene promoter to drive luciferase expression confirmed that these LEF-1/TCF binding elements are able to confer robust upregulation of luciferase expression when stimulated by Wnt-1 or by transfection with beta-catenin and that dominant-negative TCF or mutations within the dominant TCF-binding element abrogated the response. Semi-quantitative and real time RT-PCR assays confirmed that Wnt activation upregulates hAR mRNA in PCa cells. In contrast, hAR protein expression was strongly suppressed by Wnt activation. The reduction of hAR protein is consistent with evidence that Wnt signaling increased phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream target, MDM2 that promotes degradation of hAR protein through a proteasomal pathway. These data indicate that the hAR gene is a direct target of LEF-1/TCF transcriptional regulation in PCa cells but also show that the expression of the hAR protein is suppressed by a degradation pathway regulated by cross-talk of Wnt to Akt that is likely mediated by Wnt-directed degradation of the B regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase, PP2A.

Esplin ED, Ramos P, Martinez B, et al.
The glycine 90 to aspartate alteration in the Abeta subunit of PP2A (PPP2R1B) associates with breast cancer and causes a deficit in protein function.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006; 45(2):182-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations of the PPP2R1B gene, which encodes the Abeta scaffolding subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), have been identified in several types of cancer including lung and breast carcinoma. One of these mutations results in an alteration of glycine 90 to aspartic acid (G90D), which has been found in both tumor and genomic DNA, raising the possibility that it is associated with an increased risk for cancer. A novel microarray-based technology was used to screen for this single-nucleotide polymorphism in 387 cancer patients and 329 control individuals. These data were used for case-control and family-based comparisons in order to study the association of this polymorphism with susceptibility to lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The frequency of the G90D polymorphism in breast cancer patients was significantly higher in cases (3%) than in controls (0.3%). The wild-type Abeta subunit interacted with the B56gamma (PPP2R5C), PR72 (PPP2R3A), and PR48 subunits of PP2A but did not interact with the B55alpha (PPP2R2A), B56alpha (PPP2R5A), or B56beta (PPP2R5B) regulatory subunits in an in vitro binding assay. The G90D alteration inhibited the interaction of Abeta with the B56gamma subunit but had no effect on binding to the PR72 subunit. These results provide evidence that the G90D alteration of the Abeta subunit of PP2A is associated with a low frequency of breast carcinoma and that the role of this alteration in transformation is likely to involve decreased interaction with the B56gamma regulatory subunit.

Chen WW, Chan DC, Donald C, et al.
Pim family kinases enhance tumor growth of prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2005; 3(8):443-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent analyses indicate that the expression of the Pim-1 protein kinase is elevated in biopsies of prostate tumors. To identify the mechanism by which the Pim kinases may affect the growth of prostate tumors, we expressed Pim-1, Pim-2, or a kinase-dead Pim-2 protein in human PC3 prostate cancer cells. On implantation of the transfectants in nude mice, the growth of the cells expressing Pim-1 or Pim-2 was significantly faster than the growth of the control cells transfected with the neomycin-resistant gene or the kinase-dead Pim-2 protein. When grown in medium, the doubling time of the Pim-1 and Pim-2 transfectants was faster (0.75 days) than that of the control cells (1.28 days). We, therefore, examined the ability of Pim to control the phosphorylation of proteins that regulate protein synthesis. On growth factor starvation or rapamycin treatment, the Pim-1 and Pim-2 transfectants maintained their ability to phosphorylate 4E-BP1 and S6 kinase, although this phosphorylation did not occur in the control-transfected PC3 cells. We have found that the cellular levels of c-Myc were elevated in the Pim-1 and Pim-2 transfectants under these conditions. The Pim-1 and Pim-2 transfectants have lower levels of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity and the alpha- and beta-subunit B56gamma of the PP2A phosphatase do not coimmunoprecipitate in these cells. Thus, the effects of Pim on PP2A activity may mediate the levels of c-Myc and the phosphorylation of proteins needed for increased protein synthesis. Both of these changes could have a significant impact on tumor growth.

Zhang Z, Gerhard DS, Nguyen L, et al.
Fine mapping and evaluation of candidate genes for cervical cancer on 11q23.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005; 43(1):95-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously showed that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 11q23 is a common genetic alteration in cervical cancer (CC) and that it correlates with extensive invasion of lymph-vascular spaces. In the current study, we looked for allelic loss in paired normal/tumor genomic DNA from 121 cervical tumors by using 20 well-mapped microsatellite markers on 11q. LOH at one or more loci was observed in 81 (66.9%) tumors. The deletion patterns in tumors are complex. However, at least three LOH islands could be defined between D11S614 and D11S4167. We also genotyped 11 CC cell lines and analyzed the results using the homozygosity mapping-of-deletions method. Five of the 11 cell lines showed continuous homozygosity that extended through 11q23.3-11q24.1. We used a candidate-gene approach to screen candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) that were localized in that region. Intragenic changes in the entire coding sequence of four candidate genes (RNF26, USP2, POU2F3, and TRIM29) in the region and a proposed TSG (PPP2R1B) centromeric to the region were evaluated. The expression status of USP2, POU2F3, TRIM29, and another proposed TSG that is telomeric to the region (BCSC1) also was examined. We identified previously described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), several novel variants, and three rare SNPs in the five candidate genes. Decreased expression of POU2F3 and TRIM29 was found in some cervical tumors and CC cell lines. Our results indicate that a major region of LOH in cervical cancer exists within a 3.6-Mb stretch of DNA on 11q23.3-q24.1 and that somatic mutations in RNF26, USP2, TRIM29, POU2F3, or PPP2R1B probably are not important for cervical carcinogenesis.

Sieger KA, Mhashilkar AM, Stewart A, et al.
The tumor suppressor activity of MDA-7/IL-24 is mediated by intracellular protein expression in NSCLC cells.
Mol Ther. 2004; 9(3):355-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
mda-7/IL-24 (HGMW-approved symbol IL24) is a tumor suppressor gene whose expression is lost during tumor progression. Gene transfer using adenoviral mda-7/IL-24 (Ad-mda7) exhibits minimal toxicity on normal cells while inducing potent apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines. Ad-mda7-transduced cells express high levels of MDA-7 protein intracellularly and also secrete a soluble form of MDA-7 protein. In this study, we sought to determine whether the intracellular or secreted MDA-7 protein was responsible for anti-tumor activity in H1299 lung tumor cells. Ad-mda7 transduction of lung tumor cells increased expression of stress-related proteins, including BiP, GADD34, PP2A, caspases 7 and 12, and XBP-1, consistent with activation of the UPR pathway, a key sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated stress. Blocking secretion of MDA-7 did not inhibit apoptosis, demonstrating that intracellular MDA-7 was responsible for cytotoxicity. Consistent with this result, when applied directly to lung cancer cells, soluble MDA-7 protein exhibited minimal cytotoxic effect. We then generated mda-7 expression constructs using vectors that target the expressed protein to various subcellular compartments, including cytoplasm, nucleus, and ER. Only full-length and ER-targeted MDA-7 elicited cell death in tumor cells. Thus in lung cancer cells, Ad-mda7 activates the UPR stress pathway and induces apoptosis via intracellular MDA-7 expression in the secretory pathway.

Tamaki M, Goi T, Hirono Y, et al.
PPP2R1B gene alterations inhibit interaction of PP2A-Abeta and PP2A-C proteins in colorectal cancers.
Oncol Rep. 2004; 11(3):655-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromosome region 11q is frequently deleted in colorectal cancers. The PPP2R1B tumor suppressor gene, encoding the beta isoform of the A subunit of serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Abeta), located at 11q22-23, is inactivated in patients with cancer. The present study investigated whether or not PP2A-Abeta is altered in colorectal cancers. We searched for alterations of the PPP2R1B gene and interactions between PP2A-Abeta and PP2A-C proteins in 50 surgically resected colorectal cancer tissues. Missense mutations and homozygous deletions of the PPP2R1B gene were found in 4 of 50 patients (8%) and in 1 of 50 patients, respectively, with colorectal cancers. Deletions and/or point mutations within 412-601 amino acid sequences (binding regions of PP2A-C protein) of the PPP2R1B gene derived from colorectal cancer tissues inhibited co-immunoprecipitation of PP2A-Abeta and PP2A-C proteins. These finding suggested that the PPP2R1B gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene and acts as a molecular switch that becomes active in response to specific up-stream signals. Upon activation, the gene alters the activities of specific downstream target proteins for the cell cycle regulations and/or metabolism in some colorectal cancers.

Allinen M, Peri L, Kujala S, et al.
Analysis of 11q21-24 loss of heterozygosity candidate target genes in breast cancer: indications of TSLC1 promoter hypermethylation.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 34(4):384-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the distal half of chromosome arm 11q is frequent in a variety of human tumors, including breast cancer, and is often associated with poor prognosis. In an ongoing attempt to locate and characterize the main target genes within this chromosome region, we first looked for aberrations in known genes either suggested to be involved in tumorigenesis or shown to suppress tumor formation. We examined 31 primary breast tumors showing LOH in 11q21-24 for mutations in the MRE11A, CHK1, PPP2R1B, and TSLC1 genes. The absence of intragenic alterations related to cancer led us next to evaluate possible gene silencing resulting from promoter region CpG hypermethylation, using the bisulfite sequencing technique. In addition to the four genes mentioned above, we also analyzed the ATM gene, which had been investigated for certain germline mutations in an earlier study. Only the TSLC1 promoter region exhibited aberrant methylation patterns, and altogether 33% (10/30) of the successfully analyzed tumors showed evidence of elevated levels of TSLC1 CpG methylation. Ten percent (3/30) of the tumors showed significantly increased methylation. Thus, as has been shown in lung and some other forms of cancer, hypermethylation of the TSLC1 promoter region is also frequently a second hit along with LOH in breast cancer.

Hemmer S, Wasenius VM, Haglund C, et al.
Alterations in the suppressor gene PPP2R1B in parathyroid hyperplasias and adenomas.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2002; 134(1):13-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletion of chromosome 11q23 is a common alteration in parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. A new potential suppressor gene PPP2R1B encoding the beta isoform of the A subunit of the serine/threorine protein phosphatase 2A was recently identified and localized to chromosome 11q23. We performed polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing on six parathyroid hyperplasias and 12 adenomas to evaluate the role of PPP2R1B in the pathogenesis of parathyroid lesions. A previously identified germline G-A transition (GGC-GAC) in codon 90, changing glycine (Gly) to aspartic acid (Asp), was detected in one adenoma. Both the common Gly allele and the variant Asp allele were detected by direct sequencing in the patient's somatic cells. We conclude mutations of PPP2R1B are not frequent in parathyroid lesions, and that other genes located at 11q23 may be more closely associated with pathogenesis of parathyroid hyperplasia and adenoma.

Gentile M, Ahnström M, Schön F, Wingren S
Candidate tumour suppressor genes at 11q23-q24 in breast cancer: evidence of alterations in PIG8, a gene involved in p53-induced apoptosis.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(53):7753-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the most consistently deleted chromosomal regions in solid tumours is 11q23-q25, which consequently has been postulated to harbour one or more tumour suppressor loci. Despite large efforts to identify the responsible genes, the goal remains elusive, but as knowledge accumulates new candidates are emerging. The present study was undertaken in an attempt to assess the possible implication of four genes residing at 11q23-q24, in a population of early onset breast cancer (n=41). The coding sequence of PIG8, CHK1, LOH11CR2A and PPP2R1B were screened for mutations using the protein truncation test or single-strand conformational polymorphism, in combination with direct DNA sequencing. Varying proportions of alterations were detected, ranging from 6% in PPP2R1B to 39% in PIG8. Many of these changes were deletions, in some cases corresponding to complete exons, thus likely to represent splice variants, while others were presumed to arise from aberrant splicing, since they occurred at sites with resemblance to exon/intron borders. Considering only bona fide mutations, the highest alteration frequency (17%) was again found in PIG8. Most of these alterations were likely to have an adverse impact on the translated protein as they either altered the reading frame or affected phylogenetically conserved residues. Our data represent the first evidence of alterations in the PIG8 gene in human malignancies, a finding that substantiates its role as a potential tumour suppressor gene as suggested by its involvement in p53-induced apoptosis.

Ruteshouser EC, Ashworth LK, Huff V
Absence of PPP2R1A mutations in Wilms tumor.
Oncogene. 2001; 20(16):2050-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Evidence from genetic linkage analysis indicates that a gene located at 19q13.4, FWT2, is responsible for predisposition to Wilms tumor in many Wilms tumor families. This region has also been implicated in the etiology of sporadic Wilms tumor through loss of heterozygosity analyses. The PPP2R1A gene, encoding the alpha isoform of the heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is located within the FWT2 candidate region and is altered in breast and lung carcinomas. PPP2R1B, encoding the beta isoform, is mutated in lung, colon, and breast cancers. These findings suggested that both PPP2R1A and PPP2R1B may be tumor suppressor genes. Additionally, PP2A is important in fetal kidney growth and differentiation and has an expression pattern similar to that of the Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1. Since PPP2R1A was therefore a compelling candidate for the FWT2 gene, we analysed the coding region of PPP2R1A in DNA and RNA samples from affected members of four Wilms tumor families and 30 sporadic tumors and identified no mutations in PPP2R1A in any of these 34 samples. We conclude that PPP2R1A is not the 19q familial Wilms tumor gene and that mutation of PPP2R1A is not a common event in the etiology of sporadic Wilms tumor.

Zhu Y, Loukola A, Monni O, et al.
PPP2R1B gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemias and mantle cell lymphomas.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2001; 41(1-2):177-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletion of chromosome bands 11q22-q23 is one of the most common structural chromosome alterations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The PPP2R1B gene is located very close to the minimal common deletion region of 11q22-q23 in CLL and MCL. Recently, the PPP2R1B gene was found to be mutated in human lung and colon cancers. To evaluate the role of the PPP2R1B gene in the pathogenesis of CLL and MCL, we performed RT-PCR analysis and cDNA sequencing on 10 CLL RNA samples and SSCP analysis on 26 CLL and 37 MCL genomic DNA samples. A deletion of exon 3 was found in one CLL sample. No mutation was detected in the SSCP analysis. To exclude the possibility of large genomic deletions we performed Southern blotting analysis. One MCL sample showed abnormal bands. Our results do not suggest that the PPP2R1B gene has a major pathogenic role in CLL and MCL.

Baysal BE, Willett-Brozick JE, Taschner PE, et al.
A high-resolution integrated map spanning the SDHD gene at 11q23: a 1.1-Mb BAC contig, a partial transcript map and 15 new repeat polymorphisms in a tumour-suppressor region.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2001; 9(2):121-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal region 11q22-q23 is a frequent target for deletion during the development of many solid tumour types, including breast, ovary, cervix, stomach, bladder carcinomas and melanoma. One of the most commonly deleted subregions contains the SDHD gene, which encodes the small subunit of cytochrome b (cybS) in mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Germline mutations in SDHD cause hereditary paraganglioma type 1 (PGL1), and suggest a tumour suppressor role for cybS. We present a high-resolution physical map spanning SDHD, covered by 19 YACs and 20 BACs. An approximate 1.1-Mb gene-rich region around SDHD is spanned by a complete BAC contig. Twenty-six new STSs are developed from the BAC clone ends. In addition to the discovery and characterisation of 15 new simple tandem repeat polymorphisms, we provide integrated positional information for 33 ESTs and known genes, including KIAA1391, POU2AF1 (OBF1), PPP2R1B, CRYAB, HSPB2, DLAT, IL-18, PTPS, KIAA0781 and KAIA4591, which is mapped by NotI site cloning. We describe full-length transcript sequence for PPP2R1B, encoding the protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A beta isoform. We also discover a processed pseudogene for USA-CYP, a cyclophilin associated with U4/U6 snRPNs, and a novel gene, DDP2, encoding a mitochondrial protein similar to the X-linked deafness-dystonia protein, which is juxtaposed 5'-to-5' to SDHD. This map will help assess this gene-rich region in PGL and in other common tumours.

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