Gene Summary

Gene:TNFSF13; TNF superfamily member 13
Aliases: APRIL, CD256, TALL2, ZTNF2, TALL-2, TNLG7B, TRDL-1, UNQ383/PRO715
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein is a ligand for TNFRSF17/BCMA, a member of the TNF receptor family. This protein and its receptor are both found to be important for B cell development. In vitro experiments suggested that this protein may be able to induce apoptosis through its interaction with other TNF receptor family proteins such as TNFRSF6/FAS and TNFRSF14/HVEM. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Some transcripts that skip the last exon of the upstream gene (TNFSF12) and continue into the second exon of this gene have been identified; such read-through transcripts are contained in GeneID 407977, TNFSF12-TNFSF13. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFSF13 (cancer-related)

Liu JB, Yan YJ, Shi J, et al.
Upregulation of microRNA-191 can serve as an independent prognostic marker for poor survival in prostate cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16193 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-191 (miR-191) has been identified as being upregulated in several types of cancers, and plays the role of oncogene. The expression of miR-191 has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer tissues as well as cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of miR-191 expression with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis in prostate cancer.Prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal prostate tissue samples were collected from 146 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between April 2013 and March 2018. Student two-tailed t-test was used for comparisons of 2 independent groups. The relationships between miR-191 expression and different clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated using the Chi-squared test. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in overall survival of the different subgroups of prostate cancer patients.miR-191 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues compared with normal adjacent prostate tissues (P < .001). miR-191 expression was observed to be significantly correlated with Gleason score (P < .001), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = .006), bone metastases (P < .001), and T stage (P = .005). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with higher levels of miR-191 had significantly poorer survival than those with lower expression of this miRNA in prostate cancer patients (log rank test, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-191 expression (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.311, 95% confidence interval, [CI]: 1.666-9.006; P = .027) was independently associated with the overall survival of prostate cancer patients.Our results demonstrated that miR-191 might serve as an independent prognostic indicator for prostate cancer patients.

Lv P, Yang S, Wu F, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs342275, rs342293, rs7694379, rs11789898, and rs17824620) showed significant association with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Gene. 2019; 713:143964 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients with advanced lung cancer in China. Thirty-nine patients who received lobaplatin-based chemotherapy in the 307 Hospitals of Chinese People's Liberation Army from April 2017 to March 2018 were enrolled as study subjects. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted, and 79 candidate SNP positions were selected. A Sanger sequencing platform was employed to measure genotypes for locating the SNP positions associated with lobaplatin-induced thrombocytopenia. Of the 79 candidate genes, SNPs rs342275 and rs7694379 were significantly associated with lobaplatin-induced decrease in platelet (PLT) count (P < 0.05). SNPs rs342275, rs342293, rs11789898, and rs17824620 showed significant association with lobaplatin-induced lowest PLT counts (P < 0.05). SNPs rs342275, rs342293, rs11789898, rs17824620, and rs7694379 can be used as predictors of thrombocytopenia induced by lobaplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced lung cancer in China.

Kage H, Kohsaka S, Shinozaki-Ushiku A, et al.
Small lung tumor biopsy samples are feasible for high quality targeted next generation sequencing.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2652-2657 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been implemented in clinical oncology to analyze multiple genes and to guide therapy. In patients with advanced lung cancer, small biopsies such as computed tomography-guided needle biopsy (CTNB), endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and transbronchial biopsy (TBB) are less invasive and are preferable to resection to make a pathological diagnosis. However, the quality of DNA/RNA and NGS from small lung tumor biopsy samples is unknown. Between April 2017 and March 2018, 107 consecutive samples were obtained from thoracic tumors or metastatic sites for targeted NGS analysis. Fifteen samples were obtained through CTNB, 11 through EBUS-TBNA, 11 through TBB and 70 through surgical resection. All samples were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. DNA and RNA quality was measured using the ddCq method and the percentage of RNA fragments above 200 nucleotides (DV200), respectively. Our custommade probes were designed to capture exon sequences of 464 cancer-related genes and transcripts of 463 genes. DNA and RNA yield from the 3 biopsy methods were similar, and less than the yield obtained from resected samples. The quality of DNA and RNA was similar across all methods. Overall, 12 of 15 CTNB samples (80%), all 11 EBUS-TBNA samples, and 9 of 11 TBB samples (82%) underwent successful NGS assays from DNA. NGS analysis from RNA was successful in all 12 CTNB samples, 9 of 11 EBUS-TBNA samples (82%), and 8 of 11 TBB samples (73%). CTNB, EBUS-TBNA and TBB mostly resulted in adequate DNA and RNA quality and enabled high-quality targeted NGS analysis.

Abdulkhaleq MM, Al-Ghafari AB, Yezerski A, et al.
Novel association between heterozygous genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism C218T in drug transporter ABCC1 gene and increased risk of colon cancer.
Saudi Med J. 2019; 40(3):224-229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of G128C and C218T variants in ABCC1 gene with the risk of developing colon cancer in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 51 colon cancer patients and 65 controls from King Abdulaziz University Hospital and King Abdullah Medical City in the period from January 2015 to April 2017, and was approved by the Unit of Biomedical Ethics (no: 261-15). Experiments were performed in the experimental biochemistry unit at King Fahd Medical Research Center. The genotype distributions and allele frequencies were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing. A Chi-square test was used to determine allele and genotype distributions, odds ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a novel association between heterozygous (CT) genotype for variant C218T and increased risk of colon cancer [OR=3.4, 95% CI (1.56-7.48), and RR=1.92, 95% CI (1.26-2.93), p=0.002]. These ratios were correlated with high-grade stages (III and IV). In contrast, for variant G128C, there was no significant association with the risk of developing colon cancer. Conclusion: The novel findings of the study revealed that the CT genotype of variant C218T in ABCC1 gene may increase the risk of developing colon cancer.

Cai F, Xiao H, Sun Y, et al.
Expression of Snail and E-cadherin in Drug-resistant MCF-7/ADM Breast Cancer Cell Strains.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2019; 29(3):240-244 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of zinc finger transcription factors-Snail and E-cadherin in adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells and non-resistant MCF-7 cells.
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study.
PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University and Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, and Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, China, from April 2017 to March 2018.
METHODOLOGY: Real-time quantitative PCR technology was used to detect the expression levels of Snail mRNA and E-cadherin mRNA in normal breast cells, adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells and non-resistant MCF-7 cells. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of proteins of Snail and E-cadherin in normal breast cells, adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells and non-resistant MCF-7 cells.
RESULTS: The expression of Snail mRNA and protein in adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells was significantly higher than that in normal breast cells (p<0.001) and non-resistant MCF-7 cells (p<0.001). The expression of E-cadherin mRNA and protein in adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells was significantly lower than that in normal breast cells (p<0.001) and non-resistant MCF-7 cells (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cell strains had high expression of Snail and low expression of E-cadherin. This points out to a new research direction for the targeted therapy of drug-resistant breast cancer cells, and provides clinical guidance for breast cancer therapy and prognosis evaluation.

Wang F, Diao XY, Zhang X, et al.
Identification of genetic alterations associated with primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR sensitive mutations.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2019; 39(1):7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and application of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have greatly changed the therapeutic strategies of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the long-term efficacy of EGFR-TKI therapy is limited due to the development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the aberrant alterations of 8 driver genes and the primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs in advanced NSCLC patients with activated EGFR mutations.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data from 416 patients with stage III/IV or recurrent NSCLC who received an initial EGFR-TKI treatment, from April 2004 and March 2011, at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Several genetic alterations associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs, including the alterations in BIM, ALK, KRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, MET, IGF1R, and ROS1, were detected by the routine clinical technologies. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between different groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log-rank test. A Cox regression model was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associated with the PFS and OS.
RESULTS: Among the investigated patients, 169 NSCLC patients harbored EGFR-sensitive mutations. EGFR-mutant patients having PTEN deletion had a shorter PFS and OS than those with intact PTEN (P = 0.003 for PFS, and P = 0.034 for OS). In the combined molecular analysis of EGFR signaling pathway and resistance genes, we found that EGFR-mutant patients coexisted with aberrant alterations in EGFR signaling pathway and those having resistant genes had a statistically poorer PFS than those without such alterations (P < 0.001). A Cox proportional regression model determined that PTEN deletion (HR = 4.29,95% CI = 1.72-10.70) and low PTEN expression (HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.22-3.13), MET FISH + (HR = 2.83,95% CI = 1.37-5.86) were independent predictors for PFS in patients with EGFR-TKI treatment after adjustment for multiple factor.
CONCLUSIONS: We determined that the coexistence of genetic alterations in cancer genes may explain primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

Akamine T, Toyokawa G, Tagawa T, et al.
Lorlatinib for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2019; 55(2):107-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lorlatinib is a novel third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) which targets anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as well as receptor tyrosine kinase c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1). A critical limitation of conventional ALK/ROS TKIs is their association with acquired resistance mutations (particularly ALK G1202R and ROS1 G2032R) in the ALK or ROS1 gene, although these are not the only resistance mechanisms. Another limitation of this class of drugs is their inadequate efficacy against central nervous system metastasis, likely attributable to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, lorlatinib was developed to overcome these limitations by being more potent, selective and permeable to the BBB than previous-generation ALK/ROS1 TKIs and subsequently received breakthrough therapy designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in April 2017. In September 2018, Japan became the first country where lorlatinib received approval for treating patients with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Eventually, the FDA approved lorlatinib (Lorbrena; Pfizer) in November 2018. Lorlatinib use is expected to increase in importance, owing to its promising efficacy in clinical trials.

Wu YS, Lin H, Chen D, et al.
A four-miRNA signature as a novel biomarker for predicting survival in endometrial cancer.
Gene. 2019; 697:86-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The microRNAs (miRNAs) have been validated as prognostic markers in many cancers. The aim of this study was to identify new miRNA prognostic biomarkers in endometrial cancer (EC) and to develop an expression-based miRNA signature to provide survival risk prediction for EC patients.
METHODS: From TCGA database, the miRNA datasets of EC and clinical information were downloaded in April 2018. Using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses identify prognostic factors. Using area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assess the sensitivity and specificity of prognostic model.
RESULTS: 530 patients were randomly divided into training set and testing set. Among 561 differentially expressed miRNAs, 4 miRNAs (miR-4758, miR-876, miR-142, miR-190b) were demonstrated to be predictive biomarkers of overall survival (OS) for EC patients in training set. Based on the risk score of 4-miRNA model, patients in the training set were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different OS. This 4-miRNA model was validated in testing and entire set. The AUC for the ROC curves in the entire set was 0.704. Meanwhile, multivariate Cox regression combined with other traditional clinical parameters indicated that the 4-miRNA model can be used as an independent OS prognostic factor. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in biological processes and pathways that are closely related to cancer.
CONCLUSION: A robust 4-miRNA signature as an independent prognostic factor for OS in EC patients was established.

Xiong Y, Liu L, Xia Y, et al.
Tumor infiltrating mast cells determine oncogenic HIF-2α-conferred immune evasion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(5):731-741 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) overexpression leads to activation of angiogenic pathways. However, little is known about the association between HIF-2α expression and anti-tumor immunity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We aimed to explore how HIF-2α influenced the microenvironment and the underlying mechanisms.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We immunohistochemically evaluated immune cells infiltrations and prognostic value of HIF-2α expression in a retrospective Zhongshan Hospital cohort of 280 ccRCC patients. Fresh tumor samples, non-tumor tissues and autologous peripheral blood for RT-PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were collected from patients who underwent nephrectomy in Zhongshan Hospital from September 2017 to April 2018. The TCGA KIRC cohort and SATO cohort were assessed to support our findings.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that ccRCC patients with HIF-2α
CONCLUSIONS: HIF-2α contributed to evasion of anti-tumor immunity via SCF secretion and subsequent recruitment of mast cells in ccRCC patients.

Li H, Pan X, Gui Y, et al.
Upregulation of miR-183-5p predicts worse survival in patients with renal cell cancer after surgery.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(2):153-158 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common genitourinary cancers, and advanced RCC usually leads to poor prognosis. Therefore, identifying novel biomarkers for predicting the progression and prognosis of RCC is essential. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical value of miR-183-5p in RCC development and prognosis after surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled a total of 284 patients who received partial or radical nephrectomy from April 2003 to May 2013 at a single institution. The clinical and pathological characteristics of the patients were collected, including age, gender, tumor size, tumor stage, as well as follow-up information. The expression levels of miR-183-5p of all the patients were calculated from FFPE specimens. Cox regression analyses were performed to approve the effect of miR-183-5p expression on patient survival. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the patient survival curves.
RESULTS: After controlling for gender, age, tumor size and tumor stage in the multivariate analysis, we found that high expression of miR-183-5p was independently associated lower overall survival (HR = 0.550, 95% CI = 0.364-0.832, p= 0.005). The Kaplan-Meier analysis also showed that patients with high expression of miR-183-5p had a significantly poor prognosis (p= 0.006). These results was verified by analyzing the data of 506 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the high miR-183-5p expression is an independent factor for predicting RCC's worse prognosis.

Xu GP, Chen WX, Zhao Q, et al.
Association between the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs2195239 and rs2162679 polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
BMC Med Genet. 2019; 20(1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have suggested that insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with cancer risk. Among several commonly studied polymorphisms in IGF1 gene, rs2195239 and rs2162679 attracted many attentions. So we perform a meta-analysis to determine potential associations between IGF1 rs2195239 and rs2162679 polymorphisms and cancer risk.
METHODS: We retrieved relevant articles from the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases up to April 30, 2018. Ultimately, thirteen studies were included in the present meta-analysis, which involved 12,515 cases and 19,651 controls. The odd ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the strength of the associations.
RESULTS: rs2195239 reduces the overall cancer risk in homozygote model, as well as reducing cancer risk in Asian populations in allele, homozygote, and recessive models. No significant relationship was found between rs2195239 and breast or pancreatic cancer risk. rs2162679 reduces the overall cancer risk in allele, homozygote, dominant, and recessive models, as well as reducing cancer risk in Asian populations in allele, homozygote, and recessive models.
CONCLUSIONS: IGF1 rs2195239 and rs2162679 were associated with overall cancer risk based on present studies.

Borowczyk M, Szczepanek-Parulska E, Olejarz M, et al.
Evaluation of 167 Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and ThyroSeq v2 Diagnostic Accuracy in the Preoperative Assessment of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Bivariate/HROC Meta-analysis.
Endocr Pathol. 2019; 30(1):8-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of the Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) and ThyroSeq v2 (ThyroSeq) in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine-needle aspiration biopsy results. We searched literature databases from January 2001 to April 2018. The bivariate model analysis was performed to estimate pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Pooled data from 1086 nodules with histopathologic confirmation from 16 GEC studies enabled calculation of diagnostic parameters (95% confidence interval): sensitivity 98% (96-99%), specificity 12% (8-20%), PPV 45% (37-53%), and NPV 91% (85-96%). Pooled data from five ThyroSeq studies assessing 459 nodules showed sensitivity of 84% (74-91%), specificity 78% (50-92%), PPV 58% (31-81%), and NPV 93% (89-97%). When both tools were compared, GEC had a significantly higher sensitivity (p = 0.003), while ThyroSeq had a significantly higher specificity (p < 0.001) and accuracy (p = 0.015). Pooled LR+ was higher for ThyroSeq: 3.79 (1.40-10.27) vs. 1.12 (1.05-1.20). Pooled LR- was higher for GEC, 0.20 (0.10-0.39) vs. 0.13 (0.05-0.31). The bivariate summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity for GEC and ThyroSeq and their pooled accuracy showed a superiority of the ThyroSeq test. The GEC with a high sensitivity and NPV may be helpful in ruling out malignancy in cases of indeterminate thyroid nodule cytology. ThyroSeq has a significantly higher specificity and accuracy with an acceptable sensitivity so that it has the potential for use as an all-round test of malignancy of thyroid nodules.

Xu GP, Chen WX, Xie WY, Wu LF
The association between IGF1 Gene 3'-UTR polymorphisms and cancer risk: A Meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(51):e13829 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with cancer risk. However, the conclusions of the relevant studies are not consistent. The present meta-analysis evaluates the relationship between IGF1 gene 3'-UTR polymorphisms (rs5742714, rs6214, and rs6220) and cancer risk.
METHODS: Articles regarding the relationship between IGF1 rs5742714, rs6214, and rs6220 polymorphisms and cancer risk were selected by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases before April 30, 2018. Altogether, we obtained 34 case-controlled studies from 20 articles, including 21,568 cases and 31,199 controls. The strength of associations was quantified using odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: In the present meta-analysis, no significant associations were detected between rs5742714, rs6214, and rs6220 and overall cancer risk. Thus, in stratified analyses, we found that rs6214 was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer under the allele, heterozygote, and dominant models (A vs G: OR, 0.94, 95% CI,0.88-1.00, P = .044; GA vs GG: OR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.80-0.97, P = .012; AA + GA vs GG: OR, 0.89, 95% CI, 0.81-0.97, P = .011), as well as pancreatic cancer under the recessive model (AA vs GA + GG: OR, 0.68, 95% CI,0.53-0.87, P = .003). Also, rs6220 was associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer under the homozygote model (GG vs AA: OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.02-1.48, P = .031). In addition, rs6220 was found to increase overall cancer risk among Caucasians under the allele model (G vs A: OR, 1.06, 95% CI, 1.00-1.13, P = .043).
CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we investigated and reviewed the relationship between IGF1 gene 3'-UTR polymorphisms (rs5742714, rs6214, and rs6220) and cancer risk based on present epidemiological studies. Further studies are needed to draw more precise conclusions in the future.

Liang F, Ren N, Zhang H, et al.
A meta-analysis of the relationship between vitamin D receptor gene ApaI polymorphisms and polycystic ovary syndrome.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019; 28(2):255-262 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies has shown that vitamin D (VD) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Potentially functional ApaI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been implicated in PCOS risk, but individually published studies have yielded inconclusive results.
OBJECTIVES: Studies on the associations of VDR gene polymorphisms with PCOS susceptibility reported conflicting results. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic meta-analysis to clarify this issue.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched for all publications regarding the associations mentioned above in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases updated up to April 2017. A meta-analysis of the overall odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated with the fixed or random effect model.
RESULTS: A total of 7 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis (1,350 cases and 960 controls). Pooled ORs showed a significant association between ApaI polymorphism and PCOS risk in all 4 genetic models. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that ApaI polymorphism was associated with the risk of PCOS in Asians (aa vs AA: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.04-2.28, p = 0.03). However, ApaI polymorphism (a vs A: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.00-1.79, p = 0.02; aa+Aa vs AA: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.04-1.79, p = 0.03) was associated with the risk of PCOS in Caucasians.
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that PCOS risk was significantly associated with VDR gene ApaI polymorphism. However, due to the relatively small sample size in this meta-analysis, further studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the findings.

Li VD, Li KH, Li JT
TP53 mutations as potential prognostic markers for specific cancers: analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 Database.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(3):625-636 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are associated with a variety of cancers. Therefore, it is important to know the occurrence and prognostic effects of TP53 mutations in certain cancers.
METHODS: Over 29,000 cases from the April 2016 release of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 Database were analyzed to determine the distribution of germline and somatic mutations in the TP53 gene. Subsequently, 7,893 cancer cases were compiled in cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics from the 33 most recent The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) studies to determine the prevalence of TP53 mutations in cancers and their effects on survival and disease-free survival times.
RESULTS: The data were analyzed, and it was found that the majority of TP53 mutations were missense and the major mutational hotspots were located at codons 248, 273, 175, and 245 in exons 4-8 for somatic mutations with the addition of codon 337 and other mutations in exons 9-10 for germline mutations. Out of 33 TGCA studies, the effects of TP53 mutations were statistically significant in nine cancers (lung adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, uterine endometrial carcinoma, and thymoma) for survival time and in five cancers (pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, chromophobe RCC, acute myeloid leukemia, and thymoma) for disease-free survival time. It was also found that the most common p53 mutation in hepatocellular carcinomas (R249S) was a much better indicator for poor prognosis than TP53 mutations as a whole. In addition, in cases of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, the co-occurrence of TP53 and BRCA mutations resulted in longer survival and disease-free survival times than the presence of neither TP53 nor BRCA mutations.
CONCLUSION: TP53 mutations are potential prognostic markers that can be used to further improve the accuracy of predicting survival and disease-free survival times of cancer patients.

Pusina S
Correlation of Serum Levels of Urokinase Activation Plasminogen (uPA) and Its Inhibitor (PAI-1) with Hormonal and HER-2 Status in the Early Invasive Breast Cancer.
Med Arch. 2018; 72(5):335-340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women. On the list of causes of death immediately after lung cancer. It is a heterogeneous disease, considering the differences in morphological, cytogenetic, molecular, clinical and therapeutic aspects, so that the prognosis in a patient with the same histological grade and pathological status may vary.
Aim: In this paper we wanted to identify the correlation between the assay of the serum values of uPA-PAI-1 complexes and individual prognostic-predictive parameters, primarily with the status of estrogenic (Er), progesterogenic (PgR) and Her-2 receptors ("human epidermal growth factor).
Material and methods: The study was conducted at the Clinic for General and Abdominal Surgery, University Clinical Center of Sarajevo (CCUS), from September 2016 to April 2017. The study included 66 patients, ages 18 to 75, in whom by the needle biopsy preoperatively was pathohistologically verified primary invasive breast cancer.
Results: Two thirds of the sample were classified as invasive ductal carcinoma, similar to the percentage (68.2%) of pT2 size, and almost half in the grade G3. Lymph node status was negative in 54.5% of respondents, and positive in 31.8% of respondents. Most patients had positive estrogenic (83.3%) and progesterone receptors (62.1%). Almost 80% was Her-2 negative. The blood vessel invasion was present in 56.1%, while the neural invasion was present in less than a third of the sample (30.3%). Median values of uPA-PAI-1 complexes were 1.4 (interquartile range 0.9); almost 70% of the sample was negative for the status analysis of uPA-PAI-1 complex (<1).
Discussion: A statistically significant difference was determined in the mean values of uPA-PAI-1 complexes in subgroups according to menopausal status, tumor size, histological grade, histological type (invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular cancer versus invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular cancer), status axillary lymph nodes, Ki67 status (as binary variables), invasion of the blood vessels and neural invasion, as well as subgroups according to the status of expression of hormonal (estrogen and progesterone) receptors.
Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the mean values of the uPA-PAI-1 complex and Her-2 receptor expression. Generally, in perspective, this would be the role played by the uPA/PAI-1 complex in breast cancer, which is that the elevated complex values have a negative prognosis and effect on survival, similar to the negative Her-2 receptor status. Complex uPA/PAI-1 is not a specific serum protein in breast cancer patients and cannot be taken as an individual prognostic-predictive marker for mass pre- or post treatment screening and prediction. Unfortunately, none of the biomarkers are able to independently and fully identify patients of the unknown stage of the disease with better or worse prognosis or to identify cases of more aggressive tumor behavior of the same stage for timely inclusion of adjuvant therapy and reduction of the risk of metastatic disease. The decision on treatment and prognosis should be the result of a combination of all diagnostic, therapeutic, pathohistological and molecular-genetic variables.

Yi F, Shi X, Pei X, Wu X
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308 gene promoter polymorphism associates with survival of cancer patients: A meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(45):e13160 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is involved in cancer pathogenesis, and TNF-α-308G>A, a single-nucleotide polymorphism, is associated with cancer prognosis; however, different studies have reported inconsistent results. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the correlation between TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism and the survival of cancer patients.
METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang database, VIP database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database were used to obtain articles on association between TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism and cancer survival, published until April 2018. A meta-analysis was carried out using Stata 12.0 software to determine the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Furthermore, publication bias was assessed, and sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the analysis.
RESULTS: In total, 13 retrospective cohort studies including 2559 cancer patients were reviewed to estimate the association between TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. The pooled results suggested that within TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism, genotypes GA+AA/GG (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.90-2.14, P < .001, I = 78.1%), GA/GG (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.83-1.36, P = .072, I = 53.5%), and AA/AG+GG (HR = 3.28, 95% CI: 0.92-11.72, P = .001, I = 85.9%) were not associated with the OS of cancer patients. However, interestingly, the HR was greater for patients with the AA genotype than for those with the GG genotype, suggesting an association between TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism and OS among cancer patients (AA/GG, HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.36-3.43, P = .281, I = 21.5%).
CONCLUSION: TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism affects the OS of cancer patients and is a potential therapeutic target for cancer.

Ouyang W, Zhao X, Lu S, Wang Z
Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance in chronic myeloid leukemia: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(44):e13103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: The abnormal cell types in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain (MGUS) are quite different, being myeloid and plasma cells, respectively. The coexistence of CML and MGUS is an uncommon event, which is seldom reported in literature.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CML in April 2001. From November 2006, the patient started on imatinib mesylate and kept a complete hematologic and cytogenetic response for nearly 11 years. During her follow-up on July 7, 2017, thrombocytopenia (35*109/L) was found. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 6% plasma cell infiltration. Serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed 1.24 g/dL of serum monoclonal (M) protein of IgG-κ type.
DIAGNOSIS: MGUS was diagnosed because of absence of anemia, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, or renal failure. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was also diagnosed in this patient following the detection of antiplatelet autoantibodies. Complex karyotype and missense mutation in PRDM1 were identified.
INTERVENTIONS: Because of her obvious decrease of platelets, she started treatment with thalidomide and prednisone.
OUTCOMES: Three months later, bone marrow aspirate showed disappearance of plasma cells. There developed an abrupt decrease in IgG and the absence of M-spike in serum immunoelectrophoresis. The platelet count kept normal during 1 year follow-up.
LESSONS: Karyotypic event and gene mutation found in this case may be the initiation of disease transformation. Administration of thalidomide and prednisone proved effective in this patient.

Liu X, Cai H, Sheng W, et al.
microRNAs expression profile related with response to preoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1048 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is urgent to find some biochemical markers for predicting the radiochemotherapy sensitivity. microRNAs have a huge potential as a predictive biomarker in gastric cancer. The current study aims to identify the microRNAs related to the radiochemotherapy sensitivity in gastric cancer.
METHODS: From April 2012 to August 2014, 40 patients with locally advanced gastric cancer were included into the clinical trial in the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The lesion specimens of 15 patients were obtained by gastroendoscopy before treatment, and the RNA was extracted. microRNAs array was used to identify the microRNAs with different expression level between sensitive group and non-sensitive group. The microRNAs identified in the array were further confirmed by TaqMan Real-time PCR.
RESULTS: 2006 microRNAs were identified by microRNA array, including 302 highly expressed microRNAs and 1704 lowly expressed microRNAs between non-sensitive group and sensitive group. According to the statistical significance (p < 0.05) and expression level (more than twofold or less than 0.5 times), 9 microRNAs were identified. Finally, we chose 6 microRNAs like miR-16-2-3p, miR-340-5p, miR-338-3p, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p and miR-582-5p to determine the sensitive group and non-sensitive group. TaqMan Real-time PCR confirmed the results of microRNA array.
CONCLUSIONS: microRNA array can be used to select the microRNAs associated with radiochemotherapy sensitivity in gastric cancer. miR-338-3p and miR-142-3p may be promising predictive biomarkers for such patients.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration number: NCT03013010 . Name of registry: Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Wtih S1 + Oxaliplatin (SOX) Regimen Followed by Chemoradiation Concurrent With S-1 in Patients With Potentially Resectable Gastric Carcinoma. Date registered: December 31, 2013. The trial was prospectively registered.

Hashemi M, Bahari G, Tabasi F, et al.
Association between rs1862513 and rs3745367 Genetic Polymorphisms of Resistin and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(10):2709-2716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to assess any associations between resistin gene (RETN) polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility by conducting a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was performed with PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar for relevant studies published before April 2018. For the rs1862513 polymorphism, data from 9 studies covering 1,951 cancer patients and 2,295 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Our meta-analysis revealed that this RETN polymorphism significantly increased the risk of cancer in codominant (OR=1.23, 95% CI= 1.01-1.50, p=0.04, CG vs CC; and OR=1.25, 95% CI= 1.03-1.53, p=0.03, GG vs CC), dominant (OR=1.19, 95% CI= 1.05-1.35, p=0.006, CG+GG vs CC), and allele (OR=1.14, 95% CI= 1.00-1.30, p=0.04, G vs C) inheritance genetic models. Stratification analysis by cancer type revealed that the rs1862513 variant significantly increased the risk of colorectal and breast cancer, and that cancer overall in Caucasians (OR=1.22, 95% CI= 1.04-1.43, p=0.02, CG+GG vs CC; OR=1.18, 95% CI= 1.04-1.34, p=0.01, G vs C). The data revealed no correlation between the rs3745367 polymorphism and cancer risk. Further well-designed studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are warranted to validate the present findings.

Kim I, Choi HJ, Ryu JM, et al.
A predictive model for high/low risk group according to oncotype DX recurrence score using machine learning.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2019; 45(2):134-140 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oncotype DX(ODX) is a 21-gene breast cancer recurrence score(RS) assay that aids in decision-making for chemotherapy in early-stage hormone receptor-positive(HR+)breast cancer. We developed a prediction tool using machine learning for high- or low-risk ODX criteria (i.e., RS < 11 for low-risk; RS > 25 for high-risk).
METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 301 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery between April 2011 and July 2017 and then an ODX test at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. Among them, 208 cases were defined as the modeling group and 76 cases were defined as the validation group. We built a supervised machine learning classification model using the Azure ML platform.
RESULTS: For the high RS group, accuracy was 0.903 through Two-class Decision Jungle method in test set. For the low RS group, the accuracy was 0.726 when the Two-class Neural Network method was applied. The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.917 in the high RS group and 0.744 in the low RS group in test set. In addition, we conducted an internal validation using 76 patients who underwent ODX testing between January 2017 and July 2017. The accuracy of validation was 0.880 in the high RS group and 0.790 in the low RS group.
CONCLUSION: We developed a predictive model using machine learning that could represent a useful and easy-to-access tool for the selection of high ODX RS patients. After additional evaluation with large data and external validation, worldwide use of our model could be expected.

Henricks LM, Lunenburg CATC, de Man FM, et al.
DPYD genotype-guided dose individualisation of fluoropyrimidine therapy in patients with cancer: a prospective safety analysis.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(11):1459-1467 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fluoropyrimidine treatment can result in severe toxicity in up to 30% of patients and is often the result of reduced activity of the key metabolic enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), mostly caused by genetic variants in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD). We assessed the effect of prospective screening for the four most relevant DPYD variants (DPYD*2A [rs3918290, c.1905+1G>A, IVS14+1G>A], c.2846A>T [rs67376798, D949V], c.1679T>G [rs55886062, DPYD*13, I560S], and c.1236G>A [rs56038477, E412E, in haplotype B3]) on patient safety and subsequent DPYD genotype-guided dose individualisation in daily clinical care.
METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, safety analysis in 17 hospitals in the Netherlands, the study population consisted of adult patients (≥18 years) with cancer who were intended to start on a fluoropyrimidine-based anticancer therapy (capecitabine or fluorouracil as single agent or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy). Patients with all tumour types for which fluoropyrimidine-based therapy was considered in their best interest were eligible. We did prospective genotyping for DPYD*2A, c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, and c.1236G>A. Heterozygous DPYD variant allele carriers received an initial dose reduction of 25% (c.2846A>T and c.1236G>A) or 50% (DPYD*2A and c.1679T>G), and DPYD wild-type patients were treated according to the current standard of care. The primary endpoint of the study was the frequency of severe (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03 grade ≥3) overall fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity across the entire treatment duration. We compared toxicity incidence between DPYD variant allele carriers and DPYD wild-type patients on an intention-to-treat basis, and relative risks (RRs) for severe toxicity were compared between the current study and a historical cohort of DPYD variant allele carriers treated with full dose fluoropyrimidine-based therapy (derived from a previously published meta-analysis). This trial is registered with, number NCT02324452, and is complete.
FINDINGS: Between April 30, 2015, and Dec 21, 2017, we enrolled 1181 patients. 78 patients were considered non-evaluable, because they were retrospectively identified as not meeting inclusion criteria, did not start fluoropyrimidine-based treatment, or were homozygous or compound heterozygous DPYD variant allele carriers. Of 1103 evaluable patients, 85 (8%) were heterozygous DPYD variant allele carriers, and 1018 (92%) were DPYD wild-type patients. Overall, fluoropyrimidine-related severe toxicity was higher in DPYD variant carriers (33 [39%] of 85 patients) than in wild-type patients (231 [23%] of 1018 patients; p=0·0013). The RR for severe fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity was 1·31 (95% CI 0·63-2·73) for genotype-guided dosing compared with 2·87 (2·14-3·86) in the historical cohort for DPYD*2A carriers, no toxicity compared with 4·30 (2·10-8·80) in c.1679T>G carriers, 2·00 (1·19-3·34) compared with 3·11 (2·25-4·28) for c.2846A>T carriers, and 1·69 (1·18-2·42) compared with 1·72 (1·22-2·42) for c.1236G>A carriers.
INTERPRETATION: Prospective DPYD genotyping was feasible in routine clinical practice, and DPYD genotype-based dose reductions improved patient safety of fluoropyrimidine treatment. For DPYD*2A and c.1679T>G carriers, a 50% initial dose reduction was adequate. For c.1236G>A and c.2846A>T carriers, a larger dose reduction of 50% (instead of 25%) requires investigation. Since fluoropyrimidines are among the most commonly used anticancer agents, these findings suggest that implementation of DPYD genotype-guided individualised dosing should be a new standard of care.
FUNDING: Dutch Cancer Society.

Wang RC, Sakata S, Chen BJ, et al.
Mycosis fungoides in Taiwan shows a relatively high frequency of large cell transformation and CD56 expression.
Pathology. 2018; 50(7):718-724 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an indolent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and may transform into large cell lymphoma in the disease course. The incidence of MF in Taiwan is lower as compared to that in the West. In this study we aimed to characterise the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of transformed MF (t-MF) in Taiwan. We retrospectively collected MF cases from April 2004 to April 2015 from four medical centres in Taiwan, reviewed the clinical history and histopathology, and performed immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation for EBV (EBER), and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for DUSP22/MUM1 gene translocation. Fifty-one specimens from 32 patients with MF were identified with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and a median age of 50.5 (range 16-82). Tumours from 11 patients (34%) underwent large cell transformation, with the median age at 61 (range 26-82). The tumour cells of t-MF expressed CD30 and MUM1 in 82% and 100% cases, respectively. CD56 was expressed in two (10%) of 21 MF cases and two (18%) of 11 t-MF cases, respectively; and all four CD56-positive cases were of a helper T-cell phenotype. All CD56 expressing MF and t-MF tumours tested for EBER were negative. FISH study showed rearranged DUSP22/IRF4 in one (9%) of 11 t-MF cases, but not in any of the 19 non-transformed MF specimens. Four patients with t-MF died of disease and six were alive with disease in a median follow-up time of 25 months (mean 44.7 months). Large cell transformation and aberrant CD56 expression were more frequent in patients with MF in Taiwan compared to those in the West. Larger case series and/or national studies are needed to clarify the significance and impact of large cell transformation on the prognosis of patients with MF.

Negoro Y, Yano R, Yoshimura M, et al.
Influence of UGT1A1 polymorphism on etoposide plus platinum-induced neutropenia in Japanese patients with small-cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2019; 24(3):256-261 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The association between UGT1A1 polymorphism and etoposide-induced toxicities is still not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene polymorphism and severe hematologic toxicities in Japanese patients receiving etoposide plus platinum chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer.
METHODS: This retrospective analysis included patients with small-cell lung cancer who had received their first-line chemotherapy with etoposide plus cisplatin or carboplatin, between October 2008 and April 2018, at the University of Fukui Hospital. The relationship between UGT1A1 polymorphisms and first-cycle neutropenia as well as thrombocytopenia was evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were enrolled. The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia during the first cycle of etoposide-based chemotherapy was higher in patients with homozygous (hmz) polymorphisms for UGT1A1*28 and *6 (*28/*28, *6/*6, and *6/*28) than in patients with wild-type (wt) (*1/*1) and heterozygous (htz) (*1/*28 and *1/*6) polymorphisms (88% vs 43% P = 0.03). The incidence of febrile neutropenia and grade 4 thrombocytopenia, however, was not significantly different. Multivariate analysis suggested that grade 4 neutropenia associated significantly with an hmz UGT1A1 genotype [odds ratio (OR) 11.3; P = 0.04] and administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) before the neutrophil counts dropped to < 500 cells/µL (OR; P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*6 mutations might be regarded as predictors for etoposide-induced grade 4 neutropenia.

Cumberbatch MGK, Jubber I, Black PC, et al.
Epidemiology of Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Contemporary Update of Risk Factors in 2018.
Eur Urol. 2018; 74(6):784-795 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Bladder cancer (BC) is a significant health problem, and understanding the risk factors for this disease could improve prevention and early detection.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review and summary of novel developments in epidemiology and risk factors for BC.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of original articles was performed by two pairs of reviewers (M.G.C., I.J., F.E., and K.P.) using PubMed/Medline in December 2017, updated in April 2018. To address our primary objective of reporting contemporary studies, we restricted our search to include studies from the last 5yr. We subdivided our review according to specific risk factors (PICO [Population Intervention Comparator Outcome]).
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Our search found 2191 articles, of which 279 full-text manuscripts were included. We separated our manuscripts by the specific risk factor they addressed (PICO). According to GLOBOCAN estimates, there were 430000 new BC cases and 165000 deaths worldwide in 2012. Tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to carcinogens remain the factors with the highest attributable risk. The literature was limited by heterogeneity of data.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is emerging regarding gene-environment interactions, particularly for tobacco and occupational exposures. In some populations, incidence rates are declining, which may reflect a decrease in smoking. Standardisation of reporting may help improve epidemiologic evaluation of risk.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Bladder cancer is common worldwide, and the main risk factors are tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in the working and general environments. There is ongoing research to identify and reduce risk factors, as well as to understand the impact of genetics on bladder cancer risk.

Kim DH, Cho CH, Kwon SY, et al.
J Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 29(6):e90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We performed small-scale mutation and large genomic rearrangement (LGR) analysis of
METHODS: All ovarian cancer patients who visited a single institution between September 2015 and April 2017 were included. Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to comprehensively study
RESULTS: In total, 131 patients were enrolled. Of the 131 patients, Sanger sequencing identified 16 different
CONCLUSION: Twenty-two (16.8%) of the unselected ovarian cancer patients had

Kim HD, Song GW, Park S, et al.
Association Between Expression Level of PD1 by Tumor-Infiltrating CD8
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(6):1936-1950.e17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: T-cell exhaustion, or an impaired capacity to secrete cytokines and proliferate with overexpression of immune checkpoint receptors, occurs during chronic viral infections but has also been observed in tumors, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). We investigated features of exhaustion in CD8
METHODS: We obtained HCC specimens, along with adjacent nontumor tissues and blood samples, from 90 patients who underwent surgical resection at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) from April 2016 through April 2018. Intrahepatic lymphocytes and tumor-infiltrating T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Tumor-infiltrating CD8
RESULTS: PD1-high, PD1-intermediate, and PD1-negative CD8
CONCLUSIONS: We found HCC specimens to contain CD8

Tai YT, Lin L, Xing L, et al.
APRIL signaling via TACI mediates immunosuppression by T regulatory cells in multiple myeloma: therapeutic implications.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(2):426-438 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigate here how APRIL impacts immune regulatory T cells and directly contributes to the immunosuppressive multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. First, APRIL receptor TACI expression is significantly higher in regulatory T cells (Tregs) than conventional T cells (Tcons) from the same patient, confirmed by upregulated Treg markers, i.e., Foxp3, CTLA-4. APRIL significantly stimulates proliferation and survival of Tregs, whereas neutralizing anti-APRIL monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit these effects. Besides TACI-dependent induction of cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis genes, APRIL specifically augments Foxp3, IL-10, TGFβ1, and PD-L1 in Tregs to further enhance Treg-inhibited Tcon proliferation. APRIL further increases MM cell-driven Treg (iTreg) via TACI-dependent proliferation associated with upregulated IL-10, TGFβ1, and CD15s in iTreg, which further inhibits Tcons. Osteoclasts producing APRIL and PD-L1 significantly block Tcon expansion by iTreg generation, which is overcome by combined treatment with anti-APRIL and anti-PD1/PD-L1 mAbs. Finally, APRIL increases IL-10-producing B regulatory cells (Bregs) via TACI on BM Bregs of MM patients. Taken together, these results define novel APRIL actions via TACI on Tregs and Bregs to promote MM cell survival, providing the rationale for targeting APRIL/TACI system to alleviate the immunosuppressive BM milieu and improve patient outcome in MM.

Alameddine M, Kineish O, Ritch C
Predicting Response to Intravesical Therapy in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.
Eur Urol Focus. 2018; 4(4):494-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The ability to predict response to intravesical therapy (IVT) following transurethral resection in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer holds important prognostic information. However, few predictive tools are available to guide urologists.
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the most recent studies investigating the predictors of response to IVT.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted using PubMed database from January 1, 2013 to April 1, 2018 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. For our search strategy, we used the combination of the MeSH terms of "Administration, Intravesical" and "Urinary Bladder Neoplasms" with any of the following words: "Biomarkers," "Predictive Value of Tests," "response," "recurrence," and "progression." We limited our search to the English language.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Risk stratification models utilizing clinicopathological features are the most cost-effective and widely used tools currently available to predict response to IVT. Additionally, urinary fluorescence in situ hybridization testing and urinary cytokine-based nomograms (Cytokine Panel for Response to Intravesical Therapy) may enhance predictive ability. Protein-based biomarkers have been associated with predicting recurrence. Several gene-based biomarkers quantifying mutations in DNA damage repair genes may have predictive ability. However, genomic data are relatively new and lack validation.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathological criteria remain the most widely utilized tool for predicting IVT response. Further research to validate protein- and genomic-based biomarkers are needed before adoption in clinical practice.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We reviewed contemporary studies that investigated how to predict response to medication instilled in the bladder (intravesical therapy) for bladder cancer. We found that most predictive tools use clinical data, such as tumor stage and grade, to determine the outcome. Newer biological (gene, protein, cytokines) marker tests are being studied. We concluded that the combination of clinical data with levels of certain experimental markers (fluorescence in situ hybridization test or urinary cytokines) may improve predictive ability. Genetic testing methods may also yield additional predictive markers in the future, but this needs more validation.

Thompson AM, Clements K, Cheung S, et al.
Management and 5-year outcomes in 9938 women with screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ: the UK Sloane Project.
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 101:210-219 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Management of screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains controversial.
METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with DCIS diagnosed through the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (1st April 2003 to 31st March 2012) was linked to national databases and case note review to analyse patterns of care, recurrence and mortality.
RESULTS: Screen-detected DCIS in 9938 women, with mean age of 60 years (range 46-87), was treated by mastectomy (2931) or breast conserving surgery (BCS) (7007; 70%). At 64 months median follow-up, 697 (6.8%) had further DCIS or invasive breast cancer after BCS (7.8%) or mastectomy (4.5%) (p < 0.001). Breast radiotherapy (RT) after BCS (4363/7007; 62.3%) was associated with a 3.1% absolute reduction in ipsilateral recurrent DCIS or invasive breast cancer (no RT: 7.2% versus RT: 4.1% [p < 0.001]) and a 1.9% absolute reduction for ipsilateral invasive breast recurrence (no RT: 3.8% versus RT: 1.9% [p < 0.001]), independent of the excision margin width or size of DCIS. Women without RT after BCS had more ipsilateral breast recurrences (p < 0.001) when the radial excision margin was <2 mm. Adjuvant endocrine therapy (1208/9938; 12%) was associated with a reduction in any ipsilateral recurrence, whether RT was received (hazard ratio [HR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.80) or not (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51-0.91) after BCS. Women who developed invasive breast recurrence had a worse survival than those with recurrent DCIS (p < 0.001). Among 321 (3.2%) who died, only 46 deaths were attributed to invasive breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Recurrent DCIS or invasive cancer is uncommon after screen-detected DCIS. Both RT and endocrine therapy were associated with a reduction in further events but not with breast cancer mortality within 5 years of diagnosis. Further research to identify biomarkers of recurrence risk, particularly as invasive disease, is indicated.

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