Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ANGPT1 (cancer-related)
Emerging evidence suggests that gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), a vitamin E isomer, has potent anti-cancer properties against a wide-range of cancers. γ-T3 not only inhibited the growth and survival of cancer cells in vitro, but also suppressed angiogenesis and tumour metastasis under in vivo conditions. Recently, γ-T3 was found to target cancer stem cells (CSCs), leading to suppression of tumour formation and chemosensitisation. Despite its promising anti-cancer potential, the exact mechanisms responsible for the effects of γ-T3 are still largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of Ang-1 (Angiopoietin-1)/Tie-2 as a novel γ-T3 downstream target. In prostate cancer cells, γ-T3 treatment leads to the suppression of Ang-1 at both the mRNA transcript and protein levels. Supplementing the cells with Ang-1 was found to protect them against the anti-CSC effect of γ-T3. Intriguingly, inactivation of Tie-2, a member receptor that mediates the effect of Ang-1, was found to significantly enhance the cytotoxic effect of γ-T3 through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequent interruption of autophagy. Our results highlighted the therapeutic potential of using γ-T3 in combination with a Tie-2 inhibitor to treat advanced prostate cancer.
Teufel M, Seidel H, Köchert K, et al.Biomarkers Associated With Response to Regorafenib in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(6):1731-1741 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In a phase 3 trial (RESORCE), regorafenib increased overall survival compared with placebo in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. In an exploratory study, we analyzed plasma and tumor samples from study participants to identify genetic, microRNA (miRNA), and protein biomarkers associated with response to regorafenib.
METHODS: We obtained archived tumor tissues and baseline plasma samples from patients with HCC given regorafenib in the RESORCE trial. Baseline plasma samples from 499 patients were analyzed for expression of 294 proteins (DiscoveryMAP) and plasma samples from 349 patients were analyzed for levels of 750 miRNAs (miRCURY miRNA PCR). Tumor tissues from 7 responders and 10 patients who did not respond (progressors) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (FoundationOne). Forty-six tumor tissues were analyzed for expression patterns of 770 genes involved in oncogenic and inflammatory pathways (PanCancer Immune Profiling). Associations between plasma levels of proteins and miRNAs and response to treatment (overall survival and time to progression) were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: Decreased baseline plasma concentrations of 5 of 266 evaluable proteins (angiopoietin 1, cystatin B, the latency-associated peptide of transforming growth factor beta 1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 3; adjusted P ≤ .05) were significantly associated with increased overall survival time after regorafenib treatment. Levels of these 5 proteins, which have roles in inflammation and/or HCC pathogenesis, were not associated with survival independently of treatment. Only 20 of 499 patients had high levels and a reduced survival time. Plasma levels of α-fetoprotein and c-MET were associated with poor outcome (overall survival) independently of regorafenib treatment only. We identified 9 plasma miRNAs (MIR30A, MIR122, MIR125B, MIR200A, MIR374B, MIR15B, MIR107, MIR320, and MIR645) whose levels significantly associated with overall survival time with regorafenib (adjusted P ≤ .05). Functional analyses of these miRNAs indicated that their expression level associated with increased overall survival of patients with tumors of the Hoshida S3 subtype. Next-generation sequencing analyses of tumor tissues revealed 49 variants in 27 oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Mutations in CTNNB1 were detected in 3 of 10 progressors and VEGFA amplification in 1 of 7 responders.
CONCLUSION: We identified expression patterns of plasma proteins and miRNAs that associated with increased overall survival times of patients with HCC following treatment with regorafenib in the RESORCE trial. Levels of these circulating biomarkers and genetic features of tumors might be used to identify patients with HCC most likely to respond to regorafenib. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01774344. NCBI GEO accession numbers: mRNA data (NanoString): GSE119220; miRNA data (Exiqon): GSE119221.
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) gene expression and gene silencing in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and on angiogenesis in tumor xenografts in vivo in nude mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human H460 and H1299 NSCLC cell lines underwent transfection with lentiviral transfer plasmids (lenti) and short-interfering RNA (si-RNA) and included a control group, a lenti-MTA1 group, a lenti-si-MTA1 group, a lenti control group, and a si-RNA control group. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect MTA1 gene expression after cell transfection. MTA1 transfection was more effective in H460 cells, which were selected for further in vivo studies. Sixty Balb/c nude mice, containing human H460 cell tumor xenografts, included a control group (N=20), a lenti-MTA1 group (N=20), and a lenti-si-MTA1 group (N=20). Tumor tissue immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MTA1 protein and microvessel density (MVD) using CD31. Western blot was used to quantify the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), angiopoietin 1/2 (Ang1/2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-a (HIF-1a), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). RESULTS MTA1 silencing with si-RNA significantly reduced the tumor growth rate in nude mice (p<0.01), reduced tumor MVD, and 70% of mice survived for more than 30 days. MTA1 overexpression resulted in the death of all mice at 30 days after tumor inoculation and upregulated the expression of COX-2, Ang1/2, HIF-1a and VEGF, which were down-regulated by MTA1 silencing. CONCLUSIONS MTA1 gene expression promoted angiogenesis in mouse xenografts from human NSCLC cells.
Mendiola M, Redondo A, Heredia-Soto V, et al.Predicting Response to Standard First-line Treatment in High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma by Angiogenesis-related Genes.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5393-5400 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Predicting response to treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) still remains a clinical challenge. The standard-of-care for first-line chemotherapy, based on a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel, achieves a high response rate. However, the development of drug resistance is one of the major limitations to efficacy. Therefore, identification of biomarkers able to predict response to chemotherapy in patients with HGSOC is a critical step for prognosis and treatment of the disease. Several studies suggest that angiogenesis is an important process in the development of ovarian carcinoma and chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify a profile of angiogenesis-related genes as a biomarker for response to first-line chemotherapy in HGSOC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from 39 patients with HGSOC who underwent surgical cytoreduction and received a first-line chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel were included in this study. Expression levels of 82 angiogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan low-density arrays.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis identified five genes [angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), CD34, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP3)] as being statistically associated with response to treatment. Multivariable analysis by Lasso-penalized Cox regression generated a model with the combined expression of seven genes [angiotensinogen (AGT), CD34, EGF, erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), interleukin 8 (IL8), MMP3 and MMP7)]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.679) and cross-validated Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate the accuracy of these predictors.
CONCLUSION: An angiogenesis-related gene expression profile useful for response prediction in HGSOC was identified, supporting the important role of angiogenesis in HGSOC.
BACKGROUND: Considerable efforts have been devoted toward the uncovering of the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by the normal bone marrow (BM) niche. Previously, we demonstrated that a chemotherapy-induced niche, which is mainly composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), protects the residual B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cells from the insult of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the roles of chemotherapy-induced niche on HSCs functions in B-ALL remain unclear.
METHODS: We established an oncogenic N-MYC-driven B-ALL mouse model, which were subsequently treated with common chemotherapy drug cytarabine (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (DNR). After treatment, the structures of the BM niche were imaged by immunofluorescence staining. Then, the self-renewal and differentiation capability of the MSCs in the BM after Ara-C and DNR treatment were studied by ex vivo culture and gene expression analysis with RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. The effects of chemotherapy-induced niche on the hematopoietic reconstitution of HSCs were determined with series transplantation assay. Furthermore, the cell cycle, ROS level, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell apoptosis of HSCs were detected by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The MSCs, which is the main component of chemotherapy-induced BM niche, have decreased self-renewal capability and are prone to differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes. The results of gene expression analysis with RNA-seq showed that the MSCs have reduced levels of cytokines, including SCF, CXCL12, ANGPT1, VCAM1, and IL7. Furthermore, the chemotherapy-induced niche perturbed the hematopoietic reconstitution of HSCs in our N-MYC-driven B-ALL mouse model by promoting HSCs to enter cell cycle and increasing intracellular ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential of HSCs, which lead to the cell apoptosis of HSCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy-induced BM niche perturbs the hematopoietic reconstitution of HSCs by increasing intracellular ROS level and inducing cell apoptosis.
Piao J, Sun J, Yang Y, et al.Target gene screening and evaluation of prognostic values in non-small cell lung cancers by bioinformatics analysis.
Gene. 2018; 647:306-311 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This study aims to explore molecular mechanism of NSCLC.
METHODS: Microarray dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and analyzed by using GEO2R. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Then, STRING, Cytoscape and MCODE were applied to construct the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and screen hub genes. Following, overall survival (OS) analysis of hub genes was performed by using the Kaplan-Meier plotter online tool. Moreover, miRecords was also applied to predict the targets of the differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs).
RESULTS: A total of 228 DEGs were identified, and they were mainly enriched in the terms of cell adhesion molecules, leukocyte transendothelial migration and ECM-receptor interaction. A PPI network was constructed, and 16 hub genes were identified, including TEK, ANGPT1, MMP9, VWF, CDH5, EDN1, ESAM, CCNE1, CDC45, PRC1, CCNB2, AURKA, MELK, CDC20, TOP2A and PTTG1. Among the genes, expressions of 14 hub genes were associated with prognosis of NSCLC patients. Additionally, a total of 11 DEMs were also identified.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide some potential underlying biomarkers for NSCLC. Further studies are required to elucidate the pathogenesis of NSCLC.
Handschuh L, Kaźmierczak M, Milewski MC, et al.Gene expression profiling of acute myeloid leukemia samples from adult patients with AML-M1 and -M2 through boutique microarrays, real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):656-678 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common and severe form of acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Owing to its heterogeneity, AML is divided into classes associated with different treatment outcomes and specific gene expression profiles. Based on previous studies on AML, in this study, we designed and generated an AML-array containing 900 oligonucleotide probes complementary to human genes implicated in hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation, proliferation, apoptosis and leukemic transformation. The AML-array was used to hybridize 118 samples from 33 patients with AML of the M1 and M2 subtypes of the French-American‑British (FAB) classification and 15 healthy volunteers (HV). Rigorous analysis of the microarray data revealed that 83 genes were differentially expressed between the patients with AML and the HV, including genes not yet discussed in the context of AML pathogenesis. The most overexpressed genes in AML were STMN1, KITLG, CDK6, MCM5, KRAS, CEBPA, MYC, ANGPT1, SRGN, RPLP0, ENO1 and SET, whereas the most underexpressed genes were IFITM1, LTB, FCN1, BIRC3, LYZ, ADD3, S100A9, FCER1G, PTRPE, CD74 and TMSB4X. The overexpression of the CPA3 gene was specific for AML with mutated NPM1 and FLT3. Although the microarray-based method was insufficient to differentiate between any other AML subgroups, quantitative PCR approaches enabled us to identify 3 genes (ANXA3, S100A9 and WT1) whose expression can be used to discriminate between the 2 studied AML FAB subtypes. The expression levels of the ANXA3 and S100A9 genes were increased, whereas those of WT1 were decreased in the AML-M2 compared to the AML-M1 group. We also examined the association between the STMN1, CAT and ABL1 genes, and the FLT3 and NPM1 mutation status. FLT3+/NPM1- AML was associated with the highest expression of STMN1, and ABL1 was upregulated in FLT3+ AML and CAT in FLT3- AML, irrespectively of the NPM1 mutation status. Moreover, our results indicated that CAT and WT1 gene expression levels correlated with the response to therapy. CAT expression was highest in patients who remained longer under complete remission, whereas WT1 expression increased with treatment resistance. On the whole, this study demonstrates that the AML-array can potentially serve as a first-line screening tool, and may be helpful for the diagnosis of AML, whereas the differentiation between AML subgroups can be more successfully performed with PCR-based analysis of a few marker genes.
González-González A, González A, Alonso-González C, et al.Complementary actions of melatonin on angiogenic factors, the angiopoietin/Tie2 axis and VEGF, in co‑cultures of human endothelial and breast cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(1):433-441 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Melatonin exerts oncostatic activity in breast cancer through antiangiogenic actions. There, the aim of the present study was to ascertain whether melatonin modulates, in a coordinated action, angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), ANG-2, their cognate Tie2 receptor and VEGF in co-cultures of human endothelial cells (HUVECs) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. To accomplish this we used co-cultures of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) or non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF‑10A) with endothelial cells (HUVECs). The presence of breast cancer cells increased HUVEC proliferation and 1 mM melatonin prevented this effect. ANG-1, ANG-2 and VEGF levels in co-culture media and mRNA expression were upregulated and Tie2 mRNA expression was downregulated in the HUVECs and MCF-7. Melatonin (1 mM) downregulated ANG-1, ANG-2 and VEGF levels in the co-culture media and mRNA expression in both types of cells and upregulated Tie2 mRNA expression in HUVECs. ANG-1, ANG-2, Tie2 and VEGF mRNA expression were not modified during HUVEC/MCF-10A co-culture. Estradiol (10 nM) increased ANG-1, ANG-2 and VEGF mRNA expression in HUVECs and melatonin (1 mM) counteracted this effect. We conclude that melatonin simultaneously coordinates downregulation of angiopoietins with a reduction in VEGF, which could be an effective therapeutic strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis.
Nowicki M, Wierzbowska A, Małachowski R, et al.VEGF, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, and MMP-9 expression in the autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and its impact on the time to engraftment.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(12):2103-2112 [PubMed
] Related Publications
As a site of complicated interactions among cytokines, bone marrow niche has been the subject of many scientific studies, mainly in the context of the proteins influencing damage or recovery of endothelium after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, we aimed at exploring mutual correlations of bone marrow niche cytokines involved in the homing and mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, as well as in angiogenesis. The aim of our study was to evaluate levels of cytokines: VEGF, angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) during autologous HSCT and to examine their influence on hematological recovery. Forty-three patients with hematological malignancies (33 multiple myeloma, 10 lymphoma) were enrolled in the study. Plasma samples were taken at five time points: before conditioning treatment (BC), on transplantation day (0) and 7 (+7), 14 (+14), and 21 (+21) days after HSCT. The cytokine levels were evaluated by ELISA method. Our study revealed decreased levels of VEGF, ANGPT1, and MMP-9 in the early post-transplant period as compared to the baseline (BC). ANGPT2 was decreased after conditioning treatment, but tended to increase from day +7. On day +7, positive correlations between ANGPT1 level as well as MMP-9 and the time to engraftment were observed. As opposite to ANGPT1, negative correlation between ANGPT2 level on day +7 after HSCT and the time to hematological recovery was noticed. Our study suggests that investigated cytokines are an important part of bone marrow environment and significantly influence the time to engraftment after HSCT.
Ramos TL, Sánchez-Abarca LI, Rosón-Burgo B, et al.Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from JAK2+ myeloproliferative neoplasms differ from normal MSC and contribute to the maintenance of neoplastic hematopoiesis.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0182470 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is evidence of continuous bidirectional cross-talk between malignant cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC), which favors the emergence and progression of myeloproliferative neoplastic (MPN) diseases. In the current work we have compared the function and gene expression profile of BM-MSC from healthy donors (HD-MSC) and patients with MPN (JAK2V617F), showing no differences in the morphology, proliferation and differentiation capacity between both groups. However, BM-MSC from MPN expressed higher mean fluorescence intensity (MIF) of CD73, CD44 and CD90, whereas CD105 was lower when compared to controls. Gene expression profile of BM-MSC showed a total of 169 genes that were differentially expressed in BM-MSC from MPN patients compared to HD-MSC. In addition, we studied the ability of BM-MSC to support the growth and survival of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC), showing a significant increase in the number of CFU-GM colonies when MPN-HSPC were co-cultured with MPN-MSC. Furthermore, MPN-MSC showed alteration in the expression of genes associated to the maintenance of hematopoiesis, with an overexpression of SPP1 and NF-kB, and a downregulation of ANGPT1 and THPO. Our results suggest that BM-MSC from JAK2+ patients differ from their normal counterparts and favor the maintenance of malignant clonal hematopoietic cells.
Yang P, Chen N, Yang D, et al.Cervical cancer cell-derived angiopoietins promote tumor progression.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317711658 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer has limited treatment options and a high rate of mortality. Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs have shown great promise as a therapeutic target for treatment of advanced cervical cancer, drug resistance and class-specific side effects negate long-term benefits. The identification of alternative anti-angiogenic factors will be critical for future drug development for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this study, we found that angiopoietins and Tie receptors were highly expressed in cervical cancer cells. Tie-2 expression in tumor cells predicted poorer prognosis. Wound closure assay and Transwell assay showed that upregulated or downregulated Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression promoted or reduced cervical cancer cell lines migration and invasion, respectively. In subcutaneous xenograft models of cervical cancer, downregulation of Ang-1 and Ang-2 attenuated tumor growth. The expression of vimentin and endomucin and microvessel density were all significantly decreased in the siAng-1 group and siAng-2 group relative to the infection control group. Our data support that dual inhibition of Ang-1 and Ang-2 may be an alternative target for anti-angiogenic adjuvant therapy in advanced or recurrent cervical squamous cell cancer.
Desbourdes L, Javary J, Charbonnier T, et al.Alteration Analysis of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients at Diagnosis.
Stem Cells Dev. 2017; 26(10):709-722 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) frequently display alterations in several hematologic disorders, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and myelodysplastic syndromes. In acute leukemias, it is not clear whether MSC alterations contribute to the development of the malignant clone or whether they are simply the effect of tumor expansion on the microenvironment. We extensively investigated the characteristics of MSCs isolated from the BM of patients with de novo AML at diagnosis (L-MSCs) in terms of phenotype (gene and protein expression, apoptosis and senescence levels, DNA double-strand break formation) and functions (proliferation and clonogenic potentials, normal and leukemic hematopoiesis-supporting activity). We found that L-MSCs show reduced proliferation capacity and increased apoptosis levels compared with MSCs from healthy controls. Longer population doubling time in L-MSCs was not related to the AML characteristics at diagnosis (French-American-British type, cytogenetics, or tumor burden), but was related to patient age and independently associated with poorer patient outcome, as was cytogenetic prognostic feature. Analyzing, among others, the expression of 93 genes, we found that proliferative deficiency of L-MSCs was associated with a perivascular feature at the expense of the osteo-chondroblastic lineage with lower expression of several niche factors, such as KITLG, THPO, and ANGPT1 genes, the cell adhesion molecule VCAM1, and the developmental/embryonic genes, BMI1 and DICER1. L-MSC proliferative capacity was correlated positively with CXCL12, THPO, and ANGPT1 expression and negatively with JAG1 expression. Anyway, these changes did not affect their in vitro capacity to support normal hematopoiesis and to modify leukemic cell behavior (protection from apoptosis and quiescence induction). Our findings indicate that BM-derived MSCs from patients with newly diagnosed AML display phenotypic and functional alterations such as proliferative deficiency that could be attributed to tumor progression, but does not seem to play a special role in the leukemic process.
Makhoul I, Todorova VK, Siegel ER, et al.Germline Genetic Variants in TEK, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, MMP9, FGF2 and VEGFA Are Associated with Pathologic Complete Response to Bevacizumab in Breast Cancer Patients.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0168550 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously reported improved pathologic complete response (pCR) in a prospective phase II study using neoadjuvant bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone in breast cancer patients (41% vs. 25%, p = 0.0291). In this study, we queried germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in angiogenesis-related genes for their impact on pCR and overall survival (OS).
METHODS: DNA for genotyping was available from 34 subjects who received bevacizumab in addition to chemotherapy and 29 subjects who did not. Using Illumina® technology, we queried 504 SNPs with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of at least 5%, located in 10 angiogenesis-related genes, for their effect on pCR via logistic regression with an additive-inheritance model while adjusting for race and bevacizumab treatment. SNPs that showed significant associations with pCR were selected for additional characterization.
RESULTS: After adjusting for race and tumor type, patients who had bevacizumab added to their neoadjuvant therapy were found to experience a significantly improved rate of pCR compared to patients who did not (adjusted OR 8.40, 95% CI 1.90-37.1). When patients were analyzed for SNP effects via logistic regression with race and bevacizumab treatment included as covariates, two SNPs in angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), six in ANGPT2, three in fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), four in matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), three in tyrosine kinase, endothelial (TEK) and two in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were associated with pCR (P<0.05). However, when overall survival was considered, there was no difference between treatment groups or between genotypes.
CONCLUSION: Genetic variability in TEK, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, FGF2, MMP9 and VEGFA is associated with pCR in bevacizumab-treated patients. Consistent with other studies, adding bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy did not impact OS, likely due to other factors and thus, while SNPs in TEK, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, FGF2, MMP9 and VEGFA were associated with pCR, they were not predictive of OS in this patient population.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00203502.
Li X, Sun R, Geng X, et al.A comprehensive analysis of candidate gene signatures in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Neoplasma. 2017; 64(2):167-174 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study aimed to unravel the molecular mechanism of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). With microarray dataset GSE30784, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between OSCC and control samples. The DEGs overlapped with genes obtained from online database MalaCards were determined as OSCCDEG, followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. A total of 5177 up-regulated and 6081 down-regulated DEGs were identified between OSCC and control. Out of the DEGs, 451 genes were overlapped with the 704 genes gained from MalaCards and regarded as "OSCCDEG". Up-regulated OSCCDEG were associated with cell cycle pathway, while down-regulated OSCCDEG were linked to ErbB pathway. ANGPT1, ANGPT2 and 3 hub proteins (EGFR, HSP90AA1, RB1) in the PPI network were associated with the survival rates of several tumors. The largest network module with the hub protein EGFR was associated with positive regulation of cell communication. The second largest module with the hub node FN1 was related to angiogenesis. For the third network module in connection with DNA metabolism, the hub protein was PCNA. ErbB and cell cycle pathways were crucial for OSCC. EGFR, FN1, PCNA, ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 might be potential biomarkers for OSCC. These findings help provide guidelines for treating OSCC.
Zhao M, Yu Z, Li Z, et al.Expression of angiogenic growth factors VEGF, bFGF and ANG1 in colon cancer after bevacizumab treatment in vitro: A potential self-regulating mechanism.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(1):601-607 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The present study aimed to examine changes in the expression of angiogenic growth factors in vascular endothelial cells isolated from colon cancer after bevacizumab treatment in vitro, and to explore a potential mechanism of their self-regulation as a possible mechanism for antiangiogenic therapy failure in clinics. Vascular endothelial cells were isolated from tumors of colon cancer patients and transfected with recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or pGIPZ-VEGF RNA interference in order to upregulate or downregulate VEGF expression. Changes in VEGF expression and its correlation with the expression of angiogenesis-related factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and angiopoietin 1 (ANG1), after treatment with bevacizumab in vitro, were investigated. The results showed that in cells with VEGF overexpression, bFGF and ANG1 were downregulated, whereas in cells in which VEGF was knocked down, upregulation of bFGF and ANG1 was detected. In cells treated with bevacizumab, a significant upregulation of VEGF and downregulation of bFGF and ANG1 were observed. Our data indicate that after bevacizumab treatment, a potential self-regulating mechanism of angiogenic growth factors in colon cancer-derived endothelial cells is activated, which may explain why current antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab has limited effects in prolonging the survival of colon cancer patients.
Deregulated expression of microRNAs has been associated with angiogenesis. Studying the miRNome of locally advanced breast tumors we unsuspectedly found a dramatically repression of miR-204, a small non-coding RNA with no previous involvement in tumor angiogenesis. Downregulation of miR-204 was confirmed in an independent cohort of patients and breast cancer cell lines. Gain-of-function analysis indicates that ectopic expression of miR-204 impairs cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion, and the formation of 3D capillary networks in vitro. Likewise, in vivo vascularization and angiogenesis were suppressed by miR-204 in a nu/nu mice model. Genome-wide profiling of MDA-MB-231 cells expressing miR-204 revealed changes in the expression of hundred cancer-related genes. Of these, we focused on the study of pro-angiogenic ANGPT1 and TGFβR2. Functional analysis using luciferase reporter and rescue assays confirmed that ANGPT1 and TGFβR2 are novel effectors downstream of miR-204. Accordingly, an inverse correlation between miR-204 and ANGPT1/TGFβR2 expression was found in breast tumors. Knockdown of TGFβR2, but not ANGPT1, impairs cell proliferation and migration whereas inhibition of both genes inhibits angiogenesis. Taken altogether, our findings reveal a novel role for miR-204/ANGPT1/TGFβR2 axis in tumor angiogenesis. We propose that therapeutic manipulation of miR-204 levels may represent a promising approach in breast cancer.
Lin JZ, Meng LL, Li YZ, et al.Importance of activated hepatic stellate cells and angiopoietin-1 in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(2):1721-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Previous studies have determined that activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) promote the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by increasing angiogenesis in cancerous tissues. In addition, angiopoietin 1 (Ang‑1) has been reported to be involved in tumor growth and metastasis via the promotion of angiogenesis. It remains unclear whether aHSCs and Ang‑1 are involved in the angiogenesis in HCC. A total of 25 HCC and tumor‑adjacent tissues, and 21 normal liver tissues were used in the present study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of Ang‑1 and α smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA). The expression of CD34 was also analyzed using IHC to evaluate the microvessel density (MVD). The protein expression levels of Ang‑1 were evaluated using western blot analysis. The association between aHSC, Ang‑1 and angiogenesis was determined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The present study determined that the expression of α‑SMA, Ang‑1 and MVD (CD34) was significantly higher in the HCC tissues when compared with tumor‑adjacent tissues and normal liver tissues. Spearman's rank analysis identified a positive correlation between the expression of α‑SMA, Ang‑1 and CD34. This suggests that α‑SMA‑positive aHSCs promoted angiogenesis by expressing Ang‑1, resulting in the proliferation and metastasis of HCC.
Bachegowda L, Morrone K, Winski SL, et al.Pexmetinib: A Novel Dual Inhibitor of Tie2 and p38 MAPK with Efficacy in Preclinical Models of Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(16):4841-4849 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) suppress normal hematopoietic activity in part by enabling a pathogenic inflammatory milieu in the bone marrow. In this report, we show that elevation of angiopoietin-1 in myelodysplastic CD34(+) stem-like cells is associated with higher risk disease and reduced overall survival in MDS and AML patients. Increased angiopoietin-1 expression was associated with a transcriptomic signature similar to known MDS/AML stem-like cell profiles. In seeking a small-molecule inhibitor of this pathway, we discovered and validated pexmetinib (ARRY-614), an inhibitor of the angiopoietin-1 receptor Tie-2, which was also found to inhibit the proinflammatory kinase p38 MAPK (which is overactivated in MDS). Pexmetinib inhibited leukemic proliferation, prevented activation of downstream effector kinases, and abrogated the effects of TNFα on healthy hematopoietic stem cells. Notably, treatment of primary MDS specimens with this compound stimulated hematopoiesis. Our results provide preclinical proof of concept for pexmetinib as a Tie-2/p38 MAPK dual inhibitor applicable to the treatment of MDS/AML. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4841-9. ©2016 AACR.
Deletion of the short-arm of chromosome 17 (17p-) is one of the most critical genetic alterations used in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) risk stratification. The tumor suppressor TP53 maps to this region, and its loss or mutation accelerates CLL progression, hampers response to chemotherapy and shortens survival. Although florescent in situ hybridization analyses for 17p deletions are routinely performed during clinical diagnoses, p53 mutational status is often unexamined. Given the limited clinical data that exists for frontline treatment of patients with CLL harboring TP53 mutations, there is a need to understand the biology of CLL with TP53 mutations and identify treatment strategies for this subset of patients. Herein, we used a CLL mouse model (Eμ-TCL1) harboring one of the most common TP53 hot-spot mutations observed in CLL (p53(R172H), corresponding to p53(R175H) in humans) to evaluate its impact on disease progression, survival, response to therapy and loss of the remaining wild-type Trp53 allele following ibrutinib treatment. We show that ibrutinib was effective in increasing survival, activating cellular programs outside the p53 pathway and did not place selective pressure on the remaining wild-type Trp53 allele. These data provide evidence that ibrutinib acts as an effective treatment for aggressive forms of CLL with TP53 mutations.
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. During the development and progression of cancer, tumor angiogenesis plays a crucial role. A great deal of evidence has revealed that human mast cells (MCs) contributed to tumor angiogenesis through releasing several pro-angiogenetic factors, among which tryptase is one of the most active. However, the role of mast cell tryptase (MCT) in human pancreatic cancer angiogenesis is still not well documented. In this study, we examined the MCT levels in serum from pancreatic cancer patients and evaluated the correlationship of the MCT level and tumor angiogenesis. In addition, the effect of MCT on endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation was investigated both in vitro and in nude mice bearing pancreatic tumor. It was found that MCT contributes to endothelial cell growth and tube formation via up-regulation of angiopoietin-1 expression. Moreover, using the MCT inhibitor nafamostat, tryptase-induced angiogenesis was obviously suppressed both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that MCT plays an important role in pancreatic cancer angiogenesis and tumor growth via activating the angiopoietin-1 pathway, and tryptase inhibitors may be evaluated as an effective anti-angiogenetic approach in pancreatic cancer therapy.
Fidalgo F, Rodrigues TC, Silva AG, et al.Role of rare germline copy number variation in melanoma-prone patients.
Future Oncol. 2016; 12(11):1345-57 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: This work evaluates a possible causative role for germline copy number variants (CNVs) in melanoma predisposition.
PATIENTS & METHODS: A total of 41 melanoma-prone Brazilian patients were investigated for CNVs using 850K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
RESULTS: Ten rare CNVs were identified in nine patients, comprising 54 known genes, mostly related to cancer. In silico analyses revealed gene enrichment for cellular development and growth, and proliferation, highlighting five genes directly associated with the melanoma phenotype (ANGPT1, IDH1, PDE5A, HIST1H1B and GCNT2).
CONCLUSION: Patients harboring rare CNVs exhibited a decreased age of disease onset, in addition to an overall higher skin cancer predisposition. Our findings suggest that rare CNVs contribute to melanoma susceptibility, and should be taken into account when investigating cancer risk factors.
Horiguchi H, Kobune M, Kikuchi S, et al.Extracellular vesicle miR-7977 is involved in hematopoietic dysfunction of mesenchymal stromal cells via poly(rC) binding protein 1 reduction in myeloid neoplasms.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(4):437-47 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The failure of normal hematopoiesis is observed in myeloid neoplasms. However, the precise mechanisms governing the replacement of normal hematopoietic stem cells in their niche by myeloid neoplasm stem cells have not yet been clarified. Primary acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome cells induced aberrant expression of multiple hematopoietic factors including Jagged-1, stem cell factor and angiopoietin-1 in mesenchymal stem cells even in non-contact conditions, and this abnormality was reverted by extracellular vesicle inhibition. Importantly, the transfer of myeloid neoplasm-derived extracellular vesicles reduced the hematopoietic supportive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells. Analysis of extracellular vesicle microRNA indicated that several species, including miR-7977 from acute myeloid leukemia cells, were higher than those from normal CD34(+)cells. Remarkably, the copy number of miR-7977 in bone marrow interstitial fluid was elevated not only in acute myeloid leukemia, but also in myelodysplastic syndrome, as compared with lymphoma without bone marrow localization. The transfection of the miR-7977 mimic reduced the expression of the posttranscriptional regulator, poly(rC) binding protein 1, in mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, the miR-7977 mimic induced aberrant reduction of hematopoietic growth factors in mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in decreased hematopoietic-supporting capacity of bone marrow CD34(+)cells. Furthermore, the reduction of hematopoietic growth factors including Jagged-1, stem cell factor and angiopoietin-1 were reverted by target protection of poly(rC) binding protein 1, suggesting that poly(rC) binding protein 1 could be involved in the stabilization of several growth factors. Thus, miR-7977 in extracellular vesicles may be a critical factor that induces failure of normal hematopoiesis via poly(rC) binding protein 1 suppression.
OBJECTIVE: to observe relationship between chromosome imbalance and taxol resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
METHODS: three taxol-resistant sub-lines were established through repeated exposure of escalating doses of paclitaxel to NPC cell lines (CNE-1, HNE-2 and 5-8F). The change of copy number of chromosomes was investigated by the genome-wide analyses of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Gene profiles of both parental and resistant cell lines were determined by cDNA microarray. Cell viability was assayed by colony formation assay.
RESULTS: The taxol resistant sub-lines (CNE1/Taxol, HNE2/Taxol and 5-8F/Taxol) developed displayed an average 5~8-fold higher IC50 value than their parental cells. The common losses of chromosome 18, 10q11-qter and gains of chromosome 12, 3q21-qter, 5p13-pter and 20q11-qter were observed by CGH in all of 6 NPC cell lines. A common gain region of chromosome 8q21-qter was identified in taxol resistant sub-lines. 15 genes of 762 transcripts on this chromosome region were consistently up-regulated detected by cDNA microarray in three taxol resistant sub-lines, and functionally clustered into various groups, including genes related to vascular formation vascular formation (ANGPT1), apoptosis (MYC, TOP1MT), cell adhesion and cell cycle (PPP1R16A, SDC2, CA2, ANKRD46), gene regulation (HRSP12, ZNF696, SLC39A4, POP1), metabolism (PYCRL). Inhibition of ANGPT1 expression significantly increased the sensitivity of CNE-1/taxol to paclitaxol.
CONCLUSION: The common gain of chromosome 8q21-qter in taxol resistant sublines predicates that potential candidate genes on this region may contribute to taxol resistant phenotype. ANGPT1 may be associated with taxol resistance of NPC cells.
Nie DM, Wu QL, Zhu XX, et al.Angiogenic factors are associated with development of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2015; 35(5):694-699 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the mechanisms of aGVHD are not well understood. We aim to investigate the roles of the three angiogenic factors: angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the development of aGVHD. Twenty-one patients who underwent allo-HSCT were included in our study. The dynamic changes of Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF were monitored in patients before and after allo-HSCT. In vitro, endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with TNF-β in the presence or absence of Ang-1, and then the Ang-2 level in the cell culture medium and the tubule formation by ECs were evaluated. After allo-HSCT, Ang-1, Ang-2 and VEGF all exhibited significant variation, suggesting these factors might be involved in the endothelial damage in transplantation. Patients with aGVHD had lower Ang-1 level at day 7 but higher Ang-2 level at day 21 than those without aGVHD, implying that Ang-1 may play a protective role in early phase yet Ang-2 is a promotion factor to aGVHD. In vitro, TNF-β promoted the release of Ang-2 by ECs and impaired tubule formation of ECs, which were both weakened by Ang-1, suggesting that Ang-1 may play a protective role in aGVHD by influencing the secretion of Ang-2, consistent with our in vivo tests. It is concluded that monitoring changes of these factors following allo-HSCT might help to identify patients at a high risk for aGVHD.
Expression of the Bcr-Abl fusion gene in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) results in the development of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), for which hematopoietic microenvironment plays an important role. We investigated the specific effects of an HPC line transduced with Bcr-Abl, KOBA, on BM-derived OP9 stroma cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that OP9 cells co-cultured with KOBA cells (OP9/L) show diverse changes in the gene expression. OP9/L cells showed significant down-regulation of Cdkn genes and up-regulation of Icam1, leading to the increased proliferation capacity of OP9 cells and enhanced transmigration of leukemia cells through them. The effects were attributed to direct Notch activation of OP9 cells by KOBA cells. OP9/L cells also showed a markedly altered cytokine gene expression pattern, including a robust increase in a variety of proinflammatory genes and a decrease in hematopoietic cytokines such as Cxcl12, Scf, and Angpt1. Consequently, OP9/L cells promoted the proliferation of KOBA cells more efficiently than parental OP9 cells, whereas the activity supporting normal myelopoiesis was attenuated. In mice bearing KOBA leukemia, the characteristic genetic changes observed in OP9/L cells were reflected differentially in the endothelial cells (ECs) and mesenchymal stroma cells (MCs) of the BM. The ECs were markedly increased with Notch-target gene activation and decreased Cdkn expression, whereas the MCs showed a marked increase in proinflammatory gene expression and a profound decrease in hematopoietic genes. Human CML cell lines also induced essentially similar genetic changes in OP9 cells. Our results suggest that CML cells remodel the hematopoietic microenvironment by changing the gene expression patterns differentially in ECs and MCs of BM.
PURPOSE: Therapeutic strategies attacking oral squamous cell carcinoma have not essentially succeeded to improve long-term prognosis and overall survival over the last decades. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to illuminate the molecular regulation of angiogenesis in this tumour entity in order to demask novel markers of prognosis or therapeutic approach.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of significant transcriptional alterations in angiogenic genes of 83 cancer samples was established by comparison to 30 samples of healthy oral mucosa with microarray technique. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to trace the signalling cascade from gene to protein level.
RESULTS: A distinctive expression profile of VEGFA, EFNB2, PECAM1/CD31, ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 was revealed: VEGFA, EFNB2, and ANGPT2 were found overexpressed in 84 % to 95 % of tumour samples. In contrast, the expression of CD31 and ANGPT1 was downregulated in 80 % to 95 % of tumour samples. IHC confirmed results of the microarray analysis. Tumours with lymphatic spread showed higher gene expression rates of VEGFA, EFNB2 and ANGPT2 in moderately differentiated tumours and of VEGFA and EFNB2 in small tumours, respectively. The ANGPT1/ ANGPT2 transcription ratio was found decreased in larger tumours and especially in tumours without lymphatic spread.
CONCLUSIONS: A characteristic expression profile of angiogenic markers was established. The specific overexpression of EFNB2 in small tumours with lymphatic spread and the typical decrease of the ANGPT1/ ANGPT2 ratio in larger tumours give weight to EFNB2 and angiopoietins as prognostic factors and potential therapeutic targets.
BACKGROUND: The tumour microenvironment comprises a network of immune response and vascularization factors. From this network, we identified immunological and vascularization gene expression clusters and the correlations between the clusters. We subsequently determined which factors were correlated with patient survival in cervical carcinoma.
METHODS: The expression of 42 genes was investigated in 52 fresh frozen squamous cervical cancer samples by qRT-PCR. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis and mixed-model analyses were performed to identify gene expression clusters. Correlations and survival analyses were further studied at expression cluster and single gene level.
RESULTS: We identified four immune response clusters: 'T cells' (CD3E/CD8A/TBX21/IFNG/FOXP3/IDO1), 'Macrophages' (CD4/CD14/CD163), 'Th2' (IL4/IL5/IL13/IL12) and 'Inflammation' (IL6/IL1B/IL8/IL23/IL10/ARG1) and two vascularization clusters: 'Angiogenesis' (VEGFA/FLT1/ANGPT2/ PGF/ICAM1) and 'Vessel maturation' (PECAM1/VCAM1/ANGPT1/SELE/KDR/LGALS9). The 'T cells' module was correlated with all modules except for 'Inflammation', while 'Inflammation' was most significantly correlated with 'Angiogenesis' (p < 0.001). High expression of the 'T cells' cluster was correlated with earlier TNM stage (p = 0.007). High CD3E expression was correlated with improved disease-specific survival (p = 0.022), while high VEGFA expression was correlated with poor disease-specific survival (p = 0.032). Independent predictors of poor disease-specific survival were IL6 (hazard ratio = 2.3, p = 0.011) and a high IL6/IL17 ratio combined with low IL5 expression (hazard ratio = 4.2, p = 0.010).
CONCLUSIONS: 'Inflammation' marker IL6, especially in combination with low levels of IL5 and IL17, was correlated with poor survival. This suggests that IL6 promotes tumour growth, which may be suppressed by a Th17 and Th2 response. Measuring IL6, IL5 and IL17 expression may improve the accuracy of predicting prognosis in cervical cancer.
BACKGROUND: Genes involved in the angiopoietin and pericyte pathways may become escape mechanisms under antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy. The authors investigated whether variations within genes in these pathways are associated with clinical outcome in patients with colorectal liver metastases who undergo liver resection and receive perioperative, bevacizumab-based chemotherapy.
METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes (angiopoietin-1 [ANGPT1]; ANGPT2; TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial [TEK]; platelet-derived growth factor β [PDGFB]; β-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFRB]; insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF1]; transforming growth factor β1 [TGFB1]; RalA binding protein 1 [RALBP1]; and regulator of G-protein signaling 5 [RGS5]) were analyzed in samples of genomic DNA from 149 patients and were evaluated for associations with clinical outcome.
RESULTS: RALBP1 reference SNP 329007 (rs329007) A>G resulted in a significant difference in recurrence-free survival (A/A genotype, 14.0 months; A/G or G/G genotype, 9.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; P = .024). PDGFB rs1800818 A>G was associated with 3-year overall survival rates (A/A genotype, 78%; A/G genotype, 69%; [HR 1.37]; G/G genotype, 53%; [HR 2.12]; P = .048). In multivariate analysis, RALBP1 rs329007 A>G remained significant (HR, 1.99; P = .002). PDGFB rs1800818 A>G and RALBP1 rs329007 A>G were correlated with radiologic response (A/A or A/G genotype, 86%; G/G genotype, 71% [P = .042]; A/A genotype, 78%; A/G or G/G genotype, 94% [P = .018], respectively). RALBP1 rs329007 A>G demonstrated significantly different rates of histologic response (A/A genotype: major histologic response, 35%; partial histologic response, 34%; no histologic response, 30%; A/G or G/G genotype: 46%, 13%, and 41%, respectively; P = .029). Recursive partitioning analysis revealed that ANGPT2 rs2442599 T>C and RALBP1 rs329007 A>G were the main SNPs that predicted histologic response and recurrence-free survival, whereas PDGFB rs1800818 A>G was the leading SNP that predicted overall survival. ANGPT2 rs2916702 C>T and rs2442631 G>A were significantly associated with the probability of achieving a cure.
CONCLUSIONS: The current data suggest that variations in genes involved in the angiopoietin and pericyte pathways may be predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers in patients with resected colorectal liver metastases who receive bevacizumab-based chemotherapy.
Aguirre Palma LM, Gehrke I, Kreuzer KAAngiogenic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): Where do we stand?
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2015; 93(3):225-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The role of angiogenesis in haematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is difficult to envision, because leukaemia cells are not dependent on a network of blood vessels to support basic physiological requirements. Regardless, CLL cells secrete high levels of major angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Nonetheless, it remains unclear how most angiogenic factors regulate accumulation and delayed apoptosis of CLL cells. Angiogenic factors such as leptin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), follistatin, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), angiogenin (ANG), midkine (MK), pleiotrophin (PTN), progranulin (PGRN), proliferin (PLF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), represent novel therapeutic targets of future CLL research but have remained widely overlooked. This review aims to outline our current understanding of angiogenic growth factors and their relationship with CLL, a still uncured haematopoietic malignancy.